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The ISO (International Standards Organization) has created a layered model called the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model to describe defined layers in a network operating system. The purpose of the layers is to provide clearly defined functions to improve internetwork connectivity between “computer” manufacturing companies. Each layer has a standard defined input and a standard defined output. Understanding the function of each layer is instrumental in understanding data communication within networks whether Local, Metropolitan or Wide. There are 7 Layers of the OSI model: • 7. Application Layer (Top Layer) • 6. Presentation Layer • 5. Session Layer • 4. Transport Layer • 3. Network Layer • 2. Data Link Layer • 1. Physical Layer (Bottom Layer 1.1 Application layer: This layer provides a means for the user to access information on the network through an application. Many user applications that need to communicate over the network interact with the Application layer protocol directly. The user applications are not part of OSI Application layer, use the networking services offered by the networking protocol suite. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, and determining availability of required resources. Some examples of application layer implementations include Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). 2 Presentation layer: Presentation layer converts local host computer data representations into a standard network format for transmission on the network. On the receiving side, it changes the network format into the appropriate host computer’s format so that data can be utilized independent of the host computer. ASCII and EBCDIC
conversions, cryptography, and the like are handled here. Examples of Presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include common data representation formats, conversion of character representation formats, common data compression schemes, and common data encryption schemes. Presentation layer implementations are not typically associated with a particular protocol stack. Some wellknown standards for video include QuickTime and Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG). QuickTime is an Apple Computer specification for video and audio, and MPEG is a standard for video compression and coding. 3. Session layer: The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication sessions. Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in different network devices. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer. Some examples of session-layer implementations include AppleTalk’s Zone Information Protocol (ZIP), and Decent Phase Session Control Protocol (SCP). 4.Transport layer: Transport layer is responsible for providing reliable service between the hosts. Upper layer datagrams are broken down into manageable datagrams and then appropriate header information (such as sequence number, port number, etc.) is added to the datagram before passing it on to the Network layer. Two frequently used transport protocols are the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and the UDP (User Datagram Protocol). Important features of Transport layer: • Transport layer ensures reliable service. • Breaks the message (from sessions layer) into smaller datagrams, and appends appropriate unit header information. • Responsible for communicating with the Session layer Important features of TCP/UDP: TCP/IP widely used protocol for Transport/Network layers • TCP: (Transport Control Protocol) TCP ensures that a packet has reached its intended destination by
using an acknowledgement. If not, it retransmits the lost messages. Hence, TCP is called a connection oriented protocol. • UDP (Universal Data gram Protocol): UDP simply transmits packets over the internet. It does not wait for an acknowledgement. It is the responsibility of upper layer protocols to ensure that the information had reached the intended partner(s). Hence, UDP is often called connectionless protocol. • Application programs that do not need connectionoriented protocol generally use UDP. 5. Network layer: Network layer is responsible for the routing of packets through the entire network. The layer uses logical addressing for this purpose. Note that the physical address (like MAC address) keeps changing from hop to hop when a packet travels from source to destination. As a result, an address that doesn’t change is required to ensure continuity between hops. This is nothing but logical address. For IP networks, IP address is the logical address; and for Novell network, IPX address is the logical address, and so on. This layer also provides for congestion control, and accounting information for the network. IP (Internet Protocol) is an example of a network layer protocol. 6.Data link layer: //////////////////////////////////////////////////////// For full Version visit http://smudeassignments.blogspot.com/
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