# PRACTICAL GUIDE

CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Volumetric analysis 1.1 Important formulae 1.2 Acid-base titration Colour change of acid-base indicators at end point Chemical equations for acid-base titrations 1.3 Potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4, titration Balancing half-equations Balancing ionic equations for redox reactions Important half-equations for KMnO4 titrations Important ionic equations for KMnO4 titrations Precautions in KMnO4 titration 1.4 Iodine-sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) titration Important equations for iodine-sodium thiosulphate titrations Precautions in iodine-sodium thiosulphate titrations

SECTION 2 Physical chemistry Thermochemistry

SECTION 3 Qualitative analysis Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Reactions with dilute hydrochloric acid Reactions with aqueous sodium hydroxide Reactions with aqueous ammonia Reactions with aqueous iron(III) chloride Reactions with silver nitrate solution Reactions with potassium chromate(VI) solution Reactions with potassium iodide solution Reactions of sodium ethanoate solution Reactions of sodium carbonate solution Identification of functional groups in organic compounds

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1

1) Relative molecular mass Concentration (in dm–3) = Concentration (in mol dm–3) Relative molecular mass … (1.0196 mol dm–3 2 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.9 2. 16. O.913 Concentration = — — = 0.3) — – — (M2V2)Y b Example Calculate the concentration in mol dm–3 of the following solutions: (a) F1 is hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.0 3.38 g MnO4– per dm3.0.SECTION 1 Volumetric analysis 1.38 Concentration = — — = 0.0049 4 = 0.9 (d) Relative molecular mass of KMnO4 = 158 0.1.5 0. 54.5. K. (d) F4 is a solution containing 0. Bhd.2) If the reaction between X and Y to form P and Q is represented by the chemical equation: aX + bY → cP + dQ Then.4 g of OH– per dm3.0049 mol per 250 cm3 —– 158 = 0.775 Concentration = — — = 0. 39. (008974-T) 2011 . (c) F3 is a solution containing 2.0 (c) Relative formula mass of MnO4– = 118. Cl. (b) F2 is a solution containing 3.020 mol dm–3 —– 118.913 g dm–3.20 mol dm–3 —– 17. (M V1)X a — 1 — = — … (1.5 (b) Relative formula mass of OH– = 17.9) Solution (a) Relative molecular mass of HCl = 36. 1. Mn.025 mol dm–3 —– 36.4 Concentration = — — = 0.775 g KMnO4 per 250 cm3. (Relative atomic mass: H. 35.1 Important formulae Concentration (in g dm–3) ——————— Concentration (in mol dm–3) = — — — — — — — — … (1.

1. Solution (a) X(OH)2 + 2HCl → XCl2 + 2H2O (M1V )X(OH) 1 (b) — — 1— —2 = — ———— ——— 2 (M2V2)acid 1 Concentration of X(OH)2 = — 2 0. F2 is a solution containing 6.85 g dm–3 of X(OH)2.85 Relative molecular mass = — — — = 172.1 mol dm–3. 25.85 — — — — = 0. Bhd.1 19.0397 (ii) 172.5 (d) X is barium.85 cm3 of F1 for complete neutralisation. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (b) Calculate the concentration of X(OH)2 in solution F2.0 cm3 of F2 required 19. (008974-T) 2011 3 .5 —— —— 0. (d) Suggest an identity for X.2 Acid-base titration Colour change of acid-base indicators at end point Solution in the burette Acid Base Acid Base Solution in the conical flask Base Acid Base Acid Indicator in the conical flask Phenolphthalein Phenolphthalein Methyl orange Methyl orange Colour change Pink to colourless Colourless to pink Yellow to orange Red to orange Chemical equations for acid-base titration a The ratio of — in the second column is obtained by considering b a = number of moles of the first reactant b = number of moles of the second reactant Equation H+ + OH– → H2O NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O HClO4 + NaOH → NaClO4 + H2O Ba(OH)2 + 2HCl → BaCl2 + 2H2O H2SO4 + 2NaOH + → Na2SO4 + 2H2O H2C2O4 + 2NaOH + → Na2C2O4 + 2H2O a Ratio of — b 1 — 1 1 — 1 1 — 1 1 — 2 1 — 2 1 — 2 Example 1 To determine the identity of X in X(OH)2 F1 is hydrochloric acid of concentration 0.5 = X + (2 17) X = 138. (a) Write the equation for the reaction between X(OH)2 and hydrochloric acid. (c) Hence calculate (i) the relative molecular mass of X(OH)2 and (ii) the relative atomic mass of X.0397 mol dm–3 ———— ——— 25 Relative molecular mass (c) (i) Concentration (in g dm–3) = Concentration (in mol dm–3) 6.

00 cm3 of F3 for complete neutralisation. Thus.084 (ii) 100.239 mol dm–3 —————— 20. Solution (a) Relative molecular mass of Na2CO3 = 106 2. (b) Calculate the concentration of HXO4 in solution F4. The solution is labelled as F6 solution. (a) Calculate the concentration of sodium carbonate in F7 solution.0 cm3 of F7 required 20. 25.10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution.44 Relative molecular mass = — — = 100. it is difficult to find the By means of a pipette. Bhd.00 ———— ——— Concentration of HXO4 = — — — — = 0.20 mol dm–3 — — 50 4 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.65 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate in 250 cm3 solution.5 —— —— 0. during weighing. F7 is prepared by dissolving 2. Solution (a) HXO4 + NaOH → NaXO4 + H2O (M1V1)HXO 1 (b) — — — — = — ———— — — —4 1 (M2V2)NaOH 0.1 21. (d) Hence.1 mol dm–3 106 (b) 2HX + Na2CO3 → 2NaX + CO2 + H2O (M1V1) 2 (c) — — — HX = — ———— ——— — 1 (M2V2)Na CO 2 3 Take Note 2 0.1 25.95 cm3 of F6 for complete neutralisation using methyl orange as indicator. (c) Calculate the concentration of F6.239 — = 1. (c) Hence calculate (i) the relative molecular mass of X(OH)2 and (ii) the relative atomic mass of X.65 4 ——— —— Concentration of Na2CO3 = — — — = 0. F4 is an acid with molecular formula. 25. concentration of HX is about 1. Distilled water is then added and make up to the mark from the air (deliquescent) on the volumetric flask.5 Relative molecular mass (c) (d) X is chlorine.Example 2 To determine the identity of X in HXO4 F3 is 0. Example 3 NaOH solution is not used to standardise You are asked to determine the accurate concentration of a monoprotic acid because it is a acid. calculate the accurate concentration of HX in F5.5 = 1 + X + (4 16) X = 35.0 mol dm–3. (a) Write the equation for the reaction between HXO4 and NaOH. (b) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between sodium carbonate and HX. The rough deliquescent solid.0 cm3 of F4 required 21. (008974-T) 2011 . HXO4.95 250 (d) Concentration of HX in F5 = 0.44 g dm–3) (d) Suggest an identity for X.084 mol dm–3 25 (i) Concentration (in g dm–3) = Concentration (in mol dm–3) 8. 50. (The concentration of HXO4 is 8.0 Concentration of HX in F6 = —————— = 0.0 cm3 of F5 is transferred into a 250 cm3 accurate mass of NaOH as it absorbs the moisture volumetric flask. HX in F5 solution from the following experiment.

3 Potassium manganate(VII). A half-equation is a chemical equation containing electrons. titration Balancing half-equations 1. the half-equation is a balanced equation. Step 3 : Calculate the number of oxygen atoms on both sides of the equation and add water (if necessary) on the side of equation that has insufficient number of oxygen atoms. Example 2 Balance the equation : XO2– → XO3– Step 1 The oxidation number of X increases from +3 to +5. The following steps are used to balance half-equations for redox reactions. MnO4– + H+ + 5e– → Mn2+ … not balanced Step 2 Balance the total charge and number of atoms on both sides of the equation MnO4– + 8H+ + 5e– → Mn2+ + 4H2O … balanced Total charge on LHS of equation = –1 + 8 (+1) + 5 (–1) = +2 Total charge on RHS of equation = +2 Total number of atoms on LHS of equation = 1Mn + 4O + 8H Total number of atoms on RHS of equation = 1Mn + 4O + 8H Hence. … not balanced Balancing ionic equations for redox reactions Step 1 : Write the half-equations for the oxidation and reduction reactions. Step 1 Write the half-equations for HCOO– and MnO4– HCOO– → H+ + CO2 + 2e– … oxidation (1) MnO4– + 8H+ + 5e– → Mn2+ + 4H2O … reduction (2) © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (008974-T) 2011 5 . Step 2 : Balance the half-equation in terms of the total charge and the number of atoms on both sides of the equation.1. Fe2+ → Fe3+ + e– Cl2 + 2e– → 2Cl– … oxidation reaction … reduction reaction 2. Step 2 : Combine the half-equations to get an ionic equation that does not contain electrons. Example 1 Balance the equation : MnO4– + H+ → Mn2+ Step 1 The oxidation number of Mn decreases from +7 to +2. KMnO4. 2e– must be added to the right-hand side of the equation. 5e– must be added to the left-hand side of the equation. Hence. Step 1 : Determine the oxidation number of the atom that undergoes oxidation or reduction. XO2– → XO3– + 2e– Steps 2 and 3 XO2– + H2O → XO3– + 2e– + 2H+ … balanced Total charge on LHS of equation = –1 Total charge on RHS of equation = (–1) + 2 (–1) + 2 (+1) = –1 Total number of atoms on LHS of equation = 1X + 2H + 3O Total number of atoms on RHS of equation = 1X + 3O + 2H Hence. Hence. Example 3 Balance the equation for the reaction between HCOO– and MnO4–. the half-equation is a balanced equation. Bhd.

Step 2 Combine the half-equations into the ionic equation 5 equation (1) gives 5HCOO– → 5H+ + 5CO2 + 10e– … (3) 2 equation (2) gives 2MnO4– + 16H+ + 10e– → 2Mn2+ + 8H2O … (4) Adding equations (3) and (4) gives 5HCOO– + 2MnO4– + 11H+ → 5CO2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O Important half-equations for KMnO4 titrations MnO4– + 8H+ + 5e– → Mn2+ + 4H2O Fe2+ → Fe3+ + e– C2O42– → 2CO2 + 2e– H2O2 → O2 + 2H+ + 2e– NO2– + H2O → NO3– + 2H+ + 2e– Important ionic equations for KMnO4 titrations Note: a = number of moles for the first reactant. In neutral or alkaline solution. KMnO4 titration involving C2O42– should be carried out at temperatures above 70 °C. a brown suspension of MnO2 is formed. The end point is reached when one drop of KMnO4 solution produces a light pink colour in the reaction mixture which should last for more than 35 seconds. the redox reaction is incomplete. KMnO4 titrations involving Fe2+. H2O2 and NO2– should be carried out at room temperature. hydrogen peroxide and nitrites. 4. C2O42–). 6 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. If the titration is carried out at lower temperatures. KMnO4 solution should be added from the burette slowly. Sulphuric acid is always used for acidification. MnO4– + 2H2O + 3e– → MnO2 + 4OH– 3. ethanedioate (also called oxalate. Solutions used for KMnO4 titrations must be acidified. (008974-T) 2011 . Bhd. If it is added quickly. precipitation of MnO2 may occur and the result obtained is inaccurate. brown MnO2 is precipitated and detection of end point is difficult. b = number of moles for the second reactant Ionic equation 5Fe2+ + MnO4– + 8H+ → 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O 5C2O42– + 2MnO4– + 16H+ → 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O 5H2O2 + 2MnO4– + 6H+ → 5O2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O 5NO2– + 2MnO4– + 6H+ → 5NO3– + 2Mn2+ + 3H2O 5FeC2O4 + 3MnO4– + 24H+ → 5Fe3+ + 3Mn2+ + 12H2O + 10CO2 a Ratio of — b 5 — 1 5 — 2 5 — 2 5 — 2 5 — 3 Precautions in KMnO4 titration 1. 7. 2. KMnO4 titration is used to determine the concentration of iron(II) salt. 5. 6. Hydrochloric acid and nitric acid must not be used for acidification. No external indicator is required for KMnO4 titration because KMnO4 can act as it own indicator.

Example 4 To find the mass of FeSO4.020 mol dm–3 158 Step 2 Calculate the concentration of Fe2+ (M1V1)Fe2+ 5 ————— = — ————— (M2V2)KMnO 1 4 0.0 cm3 of F1 required 33.024 mol dm–3 KMnO4 solution. (c) What was the mass of FeSO4. F3 is 0. Solution (a) H2C2O4 + 2NaOH → Na2C2O4 + 2H2O (M1V1)H C O 1 — — —2— 4 = — ———— — — —2 — 2 (M2V2)NaOH 1 Concentration of H2C2O4 = — 2 0. H2C2O4 and sodium oxalate.020——— —————— = 0.0 cm3 of this solution needed 25. FeSO4.16 — Concentration of KMnO4 = — — = 0.103 mol dm–3 ————25.8 ————— —— ——— —— — 25 Relative molecular mass of FeSO4 = 152 Concentration of FeSO4 = 0. Bhd.16 g dm–3. (b) If the concentration of KMnO4 solution is 3.037 mol dm–3 ——— ——— 25 Relative molecular mass of H2C2O4 = 90 Concentration of H2C2O4 = 0.7H2O in 250 cm3 solution A sample of iron(II) sulphate crystals.7H2O. 25.037 90 = 3.1 18.33 g dm–3 (b) 5C2O42– + 2MnO4– + 16H+ → 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O (M1V1)C O 2– 5 — — —2— = — ———— — — —4— 2 (M2V2)KMnO 4 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Na2C2O4. (ii) FeSO4. F2 is 0.0 cm3 of F1 required 18.50 cm3 of F2 for complete neutralisation.10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide solution. 25.60 cm3 of F3 for complete redox reaction.7H2O = 278 Concentration of FeSO4.7H2O dissolved in 250 cm3 solution? Solution (a) 5Fe2+ + MnO4– + 8H+ → 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O (b) (i) Step 1 Calculate the concentration of KMnO4 in mol dm–3 Relative molecular mass of KMnO4 = 158 3.6 g dm–3 (c) Mass of FeSO4. (a) Calculate the concentration (in g dm–3) of H2C2O4 in F1 solution (b) Calculate the concentration (in mol dm–3) of C2O42– ions in F1 solution.15 g —— — 4 Concentration of Fe2+ = 5 Example 5 To find the concentration of Na2C2O4 F1 is a solution containing oxalic acid. 25. calculate the concentration (in g dm–3) of Na2C2O4 in F1 solution.7H2O dissolved in 250 cm3 solution 28.7H2O. (a) Write the ionic equation for the reaction between iron(II) sulphate and KMnO4.5 — — — — = 0.7 g dm–3 (ii) Relative molecular mass of FeSO4.80 cm3 of KMnO4 for complete reaction.103 152 = 15.6 = —— = 7. calculate the concentration (in g dm–3) of (i) FeSO4. (008974-T) 2011 7 . (c) Hence. was dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid and made up to 250 cm3 with distilled water in a standard flask.7H2O = 0.103 278 = 28.

Fe2+. (a) Calculate the concentration of (i) NH3OH+HSO4–.0 cm3 of F4 required 24. Fe3+. (ii) KMnO4 in mol dm–3.0976 mol dm–3 25 (c) Fe3+ + e– → Fe2+ 1 mol of Fe2+ is produced from 1 mol of Fe3+.6 — — — — — = 0.037 = 0. write a balanced redox equation between NH3OH+ ions and Fe3+ ions.58 2 Concentration = — — — = 0.0976 NH3OH+ : Fe3+ = 0.4 cm3 of F5 for complete reaction. calculate the number of moles of Fe3+ that react with 1 mol of NH3OH+.037 mol dm–3 Concentration of Na2C2O4 = 0.02 24. Solution (a) (i) Relative molecular mass of NH3OH+HSO4– = 131 1. F4 is a solution prepared by boiling 1. (b) Calculate the concentration (in mol dm-3) of Fe2+ ions produced in F4. NH3OH+HSO4– . you are asked to determine the chemical equation for the reaction between hydroxyammonium ion and iron(III) ion. (d) The half-equation for the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrogen is: 2NH2OH → N2O + H2O + 4H+ + 4e– Hence.0806 mol dm–3 Concentration of H2C2O4 = 0.56 4 Concentration = — — — = 0. Number of moles of Fe3+ that have reacted with NH3OH+ = 0.84 g dm–3 Example 6 Acidified hydroxyammonium ion. F5 is potassium manganate(VII) solution containing 1. (008974-T) 2011 .with excess iron(III) ammonium sulphate and dilute sulphuric acid.56 g of hydroxyammonium sulphate. to iron(II) ion. reduces iron(III) ion.0976 = 1 : 2 (d) 2NH2OH → N2O + H2O + 4H+ + 4e– Fe3+ + e– → Fe2+ 2NH2OH + 4Fe3+ → 4Fe2+ + N2O + H2O + 4H+ 8 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.020 mol dm–3 ——— —— 158 (b) 5Fe2+ + MnO4– + 8H+ → 5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O (M1V1)Fe2+ 5 ———— = — ———— ———— 1 (M2V2)MnO – 4 5 0.0476 mol dm–3 ——— —— 131 (ii) Relative molecular mass of KMnO4 = 158 1. NH3OH+.0476 : 0.4 ————— ————— Concentration of Fe2+ = — — — — — — = 0. In a titration experiment.0436 mol dm–3 Relative molecular mass of Na2C2O4 = 134 Concentration of Na2C2O4 = 0. (c) Hence. In the following experiment. The reaction mixture is then made up to 250 cm3 with distilled water. Bhd.0806 – 0.58 g of KMnO4 per 500 cm3.0806 mol dm–3 ———— ———— 25 (c) Total concentration of C2O42– = 0.5 Concentration of C2O42– = — 2 0.0436 134 = 5. 25.024 33.

(008974-T) 2011 9 . 3. the concentration of the oxidising agent can be deduced indirectly. 4. The half-equations for the redox reaction between iodine and thiosulphate are 2S2O32– → S4O62– + 2e– … (1) I2 + 2e– → 2I– … (2) 2. The starch solution will produce a dark blue colour with iodine and when the end point is reached. H2O2 + 2H+ + 2I– → 2H2O + I2 (H2O2 ≡ I2 ≡ 2S2O32–) IO3– + 6H+ + 5I– → 3H2O + 3I2 (IO3– ≡ 3I2 ≡ 6S2O32–) 2Cu2+ + 4I– → Cu2I2 + I2 (2Cu2+ ≡ I2 ≡ 2S2O32–) 1 — 2 1 — 6 1 — 1 Precautions in iodine-sodium thiosulphate titrations 1. iodine produced by the reaction is titrated against sodium thiosulphate solution. In some cases.1. Hence the iodine solution prepared should be titrated immediately and quickly to avoid loss of iodine due to evaporation. In I2 – S2O32– titration. For example. This is because iodine is adsorbed onto the starch molecule and may remain adsorbed even at the end point. For simplicity. The ionic equation for the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and iodine is 2S2O32– + I2 → S4O62– + 2I– … (3) This reaction is used to determine the concentration of iodine by titration against sodium thiosulphate. Iodine is a volatile substance. From this. the solution turns colourless abruptly. The reaction mixture in the conical flask should be shaken vigorously but carefully as the titration proceeds. The starch solution should not be added at the beginning of the titration where there is a high concentration of iodine. The starch solution should be added towards the end of the titration when the reaction mixture turns pale yellow. 2. a solution of iodine in potassium iodide is used. Iodine has a low solubility in water but dissolves readily in potassium iodide solution. 6. because iodine is formed due to the atmospheric oxidation of excess potassium iodide in the reaction mixture. Starch solution is unstable and should be prepared fresh for each titration. The iodine liberated is titrated against sodium thiosulphate. I2(s) + KI(aq) I3–(aq) + K+(aq) In most direct titrations with iodine. 5. the oxidising agent is added to potassium iodide solution. equation (3) is commonly used for calculation.4 Iodine-sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) titration 1. the solution becomes blue again. the reaction is used to determine the concentration of an oxidising agent. Important equations for iodine-sodium thiosulphate titration Note: a = number of moles of the first reactant. starch is used as an indicator. 3. When the solution in the conical flask is left aside after titration. Ignore this. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. b = number of moles for thiosulphate Ionic equation 2S2O32– + I2 → S4O62– + 2I– a Ratio of — b 1 — 2 In the following reactions. Bhd.

025 18.0 g of Na2S2O3.0 cm3 of F2 required 22.0 cm3 of F4 is mixed with 25.90 cm3 of F5 for complete reaction. The resulting solution required 18.84 g —— 1000 Example 2 To determine the percentage purity of hydrated sodium sulphite. F5 is 0.25 10–3 – 2.014 10–3 10–4 Step 3 Calculate mass of pure Na2SO3.0363 254) 200 —— = 1.725 10–4 = 2.90 Number of moles of S2O32– that reacted with excess I2 = — — — — — = 4.25 1000 Number of moles of I2 reacted = 1.0806 22.0806 mol dm–3 — — 248 2S2O32– + I2 → S4O62– + 2I– (M1V1)I 1 ———— = — ———— — — —2— 2 (M2V2)S O 2– 2 3 1 Concentration of I2 = — 2 0. Bhd.7H2O SO32– + I2 + H2O SO42– + 2HI Number of moles of pure Na2SO3.7H2O = 1. 25. F4 is 0.Example 1 To determine the concentration of iodine solution F1 contains 20. Solution (a) Relative molecular mass of Na2S2O3.0 (b) Relative molecular mass of I2 = 254 Mass of iodine = (0. Na2SO3.24 g —— — 25 .050 25 ———— ——— Number of moles of I2 added = — — — — = 1.5 — — — — — = 0. (b) the mass of iodine required to prepare 200 cm3 of F2.5 cm3 of F1 for complete reaction.7H2O F3 is a solution containing 11.0 cm3 solution = (1.0 cm3 of F3.014 10–3) Mass of Na2SO3.5H2O = —— = 0.0 Concentration of Na2S2O3.5H2O = 248 20.36 10–4 2 Step 2 Calculate amount of iodine reacted with SO32– 0.050 mol dm–3 iodine. F2 is an iodine solution.7H2O = 252 Mass of Na2SO3.7H2O in 1000 cm3 solution = 0.014 10–3 Relative molecular mass of Na2SO3.7H2O per dm3.025 mol dm–3 sodium thiosulphate solution.7H2O in 25. (008974-T) 2011 252 = 0. Sulphite ion reacts with iodine as represented by the equation Solution Step 1 Calculate excess iodine SO32– + I2 + H2O SO42– + 2HI 0.5H2O per dm3.256 g 1000 — — = 10. 25. Na2SO3.725 ————— ———— 1000 2S2O32– + I2 → S4O62– + 2I– 1 Number of moles of excess I2 = — 4.0363 mol dm–3 ———— 25.1 g of hydrated sodium sulphite.36 10–3 10–4 = 1. Calculate (a) the concentration (in mol dm–3) of iodine in solution F2.256 10 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.

Step 4 Calculate percentage purity of Na2SO3.7H2O 10. Bhd.7H2O SO32– + I2 + H2O (M1V1)SO 2– 1 3 —————— = — ————— ————— (M2V2)I 1 2 SO42– + 2HI 0.050 20.3 cm3 Step 3 Calculate the concentration of Na2SO3.7H2O = 0.73 = 20.23 g dm–3 Step 4 Calculate the percentage purity of hydrated sodium sulphite 10.1 100 = 92.3 ———— ———— Concentration of SO32– = — — — — — = 0.025 18.0406 252 = 10. (008974-T) 2011 11 .3 Alternative method Step 1 Calculate the volume of iodine that did not react with the sulphite ion 2S2O32– + I2 → S4O62– + 2I– (M1V1)I 1 2 —————— = — —————— ————— 2 (M2V2)S O 2– 2 3 1 Volume of I2 = — 2 0.05 = 4.24 % purity = —— —— —— 11.73 cm3 Step 2 Calculate the volume of iodine that reacted with the sulphite ion 25.9 ————— ———— ———— 0.1 100 = 92.2 % © Oxford Fajar Sdn.0406 25 Relative molecular mass of Na2SO3.7H2O = 252 Concentration of Na2SO3.0 – 4.23 % purity = ——— —— —— 11.

2. F2 is a metal hydrogen carbonate (MHCO3).0 g cm–3. (The relative molecular mass of the metal hydrogen carbonate = 100) (e) Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction. F5 is 0. c = specific heat capacity (4.0 cm3 of aqueous layer is pipetted out and titrated with F4. 10.047 (d) MHCO3(aq) + HCl(aq) → MCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g). The mass of solution does not include the mass of solid added to water. HOOC(CH2)nCOOH. F1 is 1. (008974-T) 2011 . Calculate the amount of heat absorbed in the experiment. the mass of solution = volume of solution used.1 mol dm–3 NaOH solution.05 kJ 1.0 (b) Number of moles of HCl used = — — — — ——— ——— 1000 = 0.0 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid. Then. HOOC(CH2)nCOOH between water and ether.0 = 1050 J = 1.0 °C Take Note 1.2 J g–1 K–1) ∆T = maximum rise or fall in temperature Example 1 To determine the heat of reaction between a metal hydrogen carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. Hence. Temperature of F1 before mixing Lowest temperature reached after mixing Temperature change 30. the mass of solution is 100 g and not 101 g.3 kJ mol–1 —— — 0. when 1. 50.7 g of F2 is added to F1. ∆H (+)ve HCl is in excess.0 cm3 of ether.047 1.0 °C 25. Calculate the number of moles of HCl used. 40. F3 is a solution of an organic acid. F4 is 0. 12 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Calculate the number of moles of MHCO3 used.SECTION 2 Physical chemistry Thermochemistry Important formula ∆H = mc∆T where m = mass of solution.7 (c) Number of moles of MHCO3 used = — — — 100 = 0. The bottle is tightly closed and shaken vigorously.05 4.01 mol dm–3 NaOH solution.2 (a) (b) (c) (d) 5. Calculate the number of moles of MHCO3 reacted. The density of solution is usually assumed to be 1.0 cm3 of F1 is placed in a polystyrene cup. Number of moles of MHCO3 reacted = 0. Bhd.05 (e) ∆H = — — = 22.0 g of NaOH is added to 100 cm3 of water.0 cm3 of the ether layer is pipetted out and titrated with F5.0 °C 5. Solution (a) ∆H = mc∆T = 50. 4. For example.0 cm3 of F3 is added to a bottle.0 4.0 50.047 Example 2 To determine the partition of an organic acid. followed by 60. After 30 minutes. 10. The mixture is constantly stirred and the temperature recorded.

Results Titration results Experiment Volume of solution used 40 cm3 F3 + 60 cm3 ether 50 cm3 F3 + 50 cm3 ether 60 cm3 F3 + 40 cm3 ether Volume of F4 (V1) 12. (008974-T) 2011 13 .1 ∴ K = ———— ———— V2 0.0 cm3 of F3. Bhd.5 cm3 23.0 cm3 of ether and 50.0 cm3 of F3. Solution Solution 20 V1 (cm3) 10 10 15 0 10 V2 (cm3) 20 30 Concentration of acid in aqueous layer (b) K = ———————————————— ——————————————— Concentration of acid in ether layer Concentration of acid is proportional to the number of moles of alkali used.67 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.8 cm3 28. determine the partition coefficient for the organic acid between water and ether.4 cm3 3 18.67 — ——— (30 – 15) V2 V1 0.5 cm3 Volume of F5 (V2) 18.25 cm3 1 2 15. (b) Based on the graph.67 0.1 = ———— ———— 0. (b) 40. V (20 – 10) —1 = ———— = 0.01 = 6.01 0.1 cm3 (a) Plot a graph of V1 (on the y-axis) against V2 (on the x-axis).0 cm3 of ether and 60.The experiment is repeated using (a) 50.

insoluble in excess NaOH Fe3+ present Dirty green precipitate. PbCl2 is insoluble in water but dissolves readily in hot water Ag+ present S2O32– present Pb2+ present Table 2 Reactions with aqueous sodium hydroxide (I) Gas liberated Observation Red litmus → blue White fumes with concentrated HCl vapour Inference NH4+ present Explanation NH3 liberated NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl (II) Precipitate formed Observation Inference 2+ 2+ 2+ Explanation The basic hydroxides. M(OH)2 are formed The amphoteric hydroxides are formed Mn(OH)2 is formed. oxidised by air to Mn(OH)3 The basic hydroxide. (008974-T) 2011 . insoluble in excess NaOH Mn2+ present Brown precipitate. Fe(OH)3 is formed The basic hydroxide. turns grey on exposure to sunlight Yellow precipitate White precipitate. Cu(OH)2 is formed The amphoteric hydroxide.SECTION 3 Qualitative analysis Table 1 Reactions with dilute hydrochloric acid (I) Gas released Observation Gas CO2 SO2 Colour Odour Action on blue litmus paper Little effect Blue → red Specific test Limewater turns milky • Acidified K2Cr2O7 Orange → Green • Acidified KMnO4 Decolorisation – – Inference CO32– or HCO3– present SO32– or S2O32– present Colourless Odourless Colourless Pungent NO2 Brown Pungent Blue → red Blue → red NO2– present CH3COO– present CH3COOH Colourless Vinegar (II) Precipitate formed Observation White precipitate. Solubility in concentrated HCl due to formation of H2PbCl4 AgCl formed. Fe(OH)2 is formed. Some Fe(OH)2 is oxidised to brown Fe(OH)3 The basic hydroxide. soluble in excess NaOH to form a green solution Cr3+ present 14 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. On cooling. Zn2+ or Al3+ present White precipitate turns rapidly to brown. dissolves when solution is heated. Ni(OH)2 is formed The basic hydroxide. Ca or Ba NaOH present 2+ White precipitate soluble in excess NaOH Pb . soluble in concentrated HCl White precipitate. yellow crystals formed Inference Pb present 2+ Explanation PbCl2 formed. insoluble in excess NaOH Cu2+ present Bluish-green precipitate. insoluble in excess Ni2+ present NaOH Blue precipitate. Ag deposited Sulphur formed PbCl2 formed. insoluble in Fe2+ present excess NaOH Green precipitate. Cr(OH)3 is formed White precipitate insoluble in excess Mg . On exposure to sunlight.

(008974-T) 2011 15 . it undergoes partial dissociation to form NH4+ and OH– ions. This is because the concentration of OH– ions in aqueous ammonia is very low. Observation White precipitate. soluble in excess NH3(aq) White precipitate. precipitation of Ca(OH)2 cannot occur. insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Inference Pb2+. CO2 liberated because FeCl3(aq) undergoes hydrolysis to produce H+ ions (II) Colour change without precipitation Observation Solution turns red. FeCl3(aq) (I) Formation of precipitate Observation Buff-coloured (yellowish-brown) precipitate Brown precipitate. e. On heating. NH4+. dissolve in NH4Cl. *Mn2+ present *Fe2+ present Fe(OH)2 formed and oxidised by air to brown Fe(OH)3 Fe(OH)3 formed Fe3+ present Cr3+ present Cr(OH)3 formed Green precipitate. In the presence of NH4Cl. CO2 liberated Inference C6H5COO (benzoate) present CO32– present – Explanation Formation of iron(III) benzoate. turns rapidly to brown colour. Ammonia is a weak base. *Mg2+. Brown precipitate formed on heating – Inference CH3COO or HCOO present – Explanation (CH3COO)3Fe or (HCOO)3Fe formed. (CH3COO)3Fe or (HCOO)3Fe undergoes hydrolysis to form the basic salt.Table 3 Reactions with aqueous ammonia Note: The asterisk (*) shows the cation that will form a precipitate with NH3(aq) but the precipitate will dissolve when NH4Cl is added. Hence. insoluble in excess NH3(aq) White precipitate.g. Ca2+(aq) forms a precipitate with NaOH(aq) but it does not form a precipitate with NH3(aq). soluble *Ni2+ present in excess NH3(aq) to form light blue solution Blue precipitate. Al3+ present *Zn2+ present Explanation The metal hydroxides are formed Zn(OH)2 is soluble in NH3 due to the formation of [Zn(NH3)4]2+ Mn(OH)2 is oxidised easily to Mn(OH)3 Take Note 1. because of the common ion effect. soluble *Cu2+ present in excess NH3(aq) to form dark blue solution Ni(OH)2 formed which dissolves in NH3(aq) to form the complex ion [Ni(NH3)6]2+ Cu(OH)2 formed which dissolves in NH3(aq) to form the complex ion. insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Brown precipitate. The metal hydroxide dissolves because the ionic product is less than the solubility product. (C6H5COO)3Fe Formation of iron(III) carbonate. Bhd. insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Bluish-green precipitate. insoluble in excess NH3(aq) Dirty green precipitate. NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) 2. such as Mg(OH)2. the concentration of OH– is decreased due to the common ion. (CH3COO)Fe(OH)2 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. The ionic product of Ca(OH)2 for ammonia is lower than the solubility product (Ksp) of Ca(OH)2. [Cu(NH3)4]2+ Table 4 Reactions with aqueous iron(III) chloride. Some metal hydroxides. In aqueous solution. 3.

soluble in HNO3 Yellow precipitate. soluble in HCl Solution turns green 2+ Inference Ba or Pb present Ba2+ present Reducing agent. CrO42–. (008974-T) 2011 . insoluble in HNO3. insoluble in dilute ammonia solution White precipitate. HOC6H4COOH present Table 5 Reactions with silver nitrate solution Observation White precipitate. soluble in NH3 and hot water C6H5COO– present Table 6 Reactions with potassium chromate(VI) solution Observation Yellow precipitate. Bhd. insoluble in HNO3 but soluble in dilute ammonia solution Cream-coloured precipitate. Take Note NO2– (nitrite) can act as an oxidising agent or a reducing agent depending on the reagent added to it. Yellow crystals formed on cooling Solution turns brown. insoluble in HNO3. CH3COO– or HCOO– present Ag+ ions react with these anions to form insoluble salts. black deposit may also formed Solution turns deep purple/ violet I present – Inference Explanation FeCl3 reduces I– to I2 Formation of complex ion Phenol. such as SO32– or NO2– present 2+ Explanation BaCrO4 or PbCrO4 precipitated BaCrO4 precipitated Reducing agent reduces CrO42– to Cr3+ (green) Table 7 Reactions with potassium iodide solution Observation Pale yellow precipitate in brown solution Yellow precipitate. PbI2 is soluble in hot water but insoluble in cold water Oxidising agents such as Fe3+. e. C6H5OH. Oxidising agent present 16 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Insoluble salts of weak acids are soluble in HNO3 C6H5COOAg is insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water White precipitate. black deposit formed Inference Cu2+ present Pb2+ present Explanation 2Cu2+ + 4KI → 2CuI(s) + I2 + 4K+ PbI2 formed. NO2– . soluble in HNO3 Cl present – Inference Explanation AgCl formed. C2O42–. Dissolves in NH3(aq) because of complex ion formation.g. Cr2O72– or NO2– oxidises KI to I2. soluble in hot water.Observation Solution turns brownish-red. insoluble in dilute ammonia solution Yellow precipitate. [Ag(NH3)2]+(aq) AgBr formed Br – present I– present AgI formed SO32–. or derivatives of phenol.

Fe3+(aq) is acidic and reacts with CO32– to give CO2 These cations react with CO32–(aq) to form insoluble metal carbonates White precipitate.6–trichlorophenol or 2.6–trichlorophenylamine Formation of organic complex C = C + Br2 → –C – C– Br Br colourless (b) Decolourisation and white precipitate formed NaNO2 in HCl at 5 °C followed by phenol Alcohol + a few drops of concentrated H2SO4.6–trichlorophenol or 2.6–trichlorophenylamine Diazotisation followed by coupling reaction to form coloured dye Sodium chlorate(I). NH4+ present Ba2+. Cr3+ or Ni2+ present Table 10 Identification of functional groups in organic compounds Reagent Cl2 water Observation White precipitate Inference C6H5OH or C6H5NH2 present C6H5NH2 present Unsaturated organic compound present Explanation Precipitation of 2. Pb2+ or Zn2+ present Fe present 3+ Explanation 2H + CO + 2– 3 → H2O + CO2 Na2CO3 is a base. such as HSO4– present NH3 given off. such as C6H5COOH or H2C2O4 or acid salt. Bhd. Fe2(CO3)3 is unstable and undergoes rapid hydrolysis to form Fe(OH)3. NaClO Br2 water Solution turns purple (a) Decolourisation Sweet-smelling odour RCOOH present © Oxford Fajar Sdn.4.4. Mg2+. (CH3COO)3Fe + 2H2O → (CH3COO)Fe(OH)2 + 2CH3COOH brown precipitate 3CH3COO–(aq) + Al3+(aq) → (CH3COO)3Al colourless (CH3COO)3Al + 2H2O → (CH3COO)Al(OH)2 + 2CH3COOH white precipitate No visible change. Gas turns red litmus blue White precipitate formed Inference Acid.4.Table 8 Reactions of sodium ethanoate. CH3COONa Observation Solution turns red. A base will react with NH4+ to give NH3(g) These cations react with CO32–(aq) to form insoluble metal carbonates MnCO3 precipitate is oxidised to Mn(III) salt Brown precipitate is Fe(OH)3. gas liberated turns limewater milky Green precipitate Fe2+. then heat Red dye C6H5OH or C6H5NH2 present C6H5NH2 present Precipitation of 2.4. turns brown Mn2+ present Brown precipitate. On heating. Gas turns limewater milky Pungent gas liberated. (008974-T) 2011 17 . On heating. white precipitate formed Al3+ present Table 9 Reactions of sodium carbonate solution Observation Effervescence. Ca2+. a brown precipitate formed Inference Fe present 3+ – 3+ Explanation 3CH3COO (aq) + Fe (aq) → (CH3COO)3Fe red solution On heating.