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Dr. Kanak Saxena* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.

7, Issue No. 2, 234 - 238

Human Gait Recognition using Local Binary Pattern Variance


Dr. Kanak Saxena
1

Professor in Computer Application Department. R.G.P.V., S.A.T.I, Vidisha, M.P., India Kanak.saxena@gmail.com

Ms. Pratibha Misha

M-Tech (Software System) Student, R.G.P.V., S.A.T.I Vidisha, M.P., India Mpratibha9@gmail.com

IJ
ISSN: 2230-7818

Abstract Gait Recognition is a new technique for biometric identification based on the walking style of individuals. it is based on the style of walking. It is a new biometrics recognition technology. Gait recognition aimed essentially to recognize person by automatically extracting movement characteristic of walking person in the video. It has accomplished a series of achievements in scientific research in recent years. This paper proposed a new algorithm which is based on Local Binary Pattern Variance. The Local Binary Pattern variance was chosen because of its popularity, optimality and simplicity. Local Binary Pattern variance is generated according to persons walk and recognition is achieved by matching those Matching Methods by calculating the distance, and used for recognition. All-view of the person is considered, since this viewing angle provide the richest information of the gait of the waking person. The experimental result shows that the proposed approach has a good recognition performance.

In this paper, a novel Method for human gait recognition is presented, which is based on Local Binary Pattern Variance. Features are selected by choosing definite number of coordinate points on the grayscale image at some specific locations i.e. ankle, toe, knee, palm and shoulder. These coordinate points will be the control points of Local Binary Pattern Variance. Through these selected Keywords-Biometrics ,Control point, Database, coordinate points, original coordinates of Euclidean Euclidean Distance, Gait Recognition, Local Binary Distance are calculated and are used to calculate the Pattern Variance,. distance of both gray scale images is zero. Recognition is achieved by matching the Extract I- INTRODUCTION Gait recognition is a kind of biometrics using the point or templates of images using Euclidean manner of walking to recognize an individual. More Distance. formal definition of biometrics is given by [1], Gait 2. RELATED WORKS recognition refers to automatic identification of an Yanmei Chai Jinchang Ren, Rongchun Zhao individual based on the style of walking. Many and Jingping Jia [5] proposed a statistical approach studies have now shown that it is possible to recognize people by the way they walk. It is well- for dynamic gait signature extraction. The DVS on known that biometrics is a powerful tool for reliable each of the pixel position for a full gait sequence is automated person identification, but at present, none extracted firstly, and then compute their variance of the conventional biometrics like fingerprints features respectively to construct a dynamic recognition, iris recognition can work well from a variance matrix as gait signature for identification. large distance [7]. In visual surveillance, the Alam and Hama [9] presented an approach to distances between the cameras and the people under typify object contours in a database by a reduced

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surveillance are often large. In these situations, it is almost impossible to acquire the detailed conventional biometric information. Unlike other biometrics, gait can be captured from a distant camera, without drawing the attention of the observed subject [1].While gait is a novel biometrics, the performance of image-based gait recognition is not very good because features extracted from image sequences have a little difference with the original information included in the gait. There is no efficient algorithm proposed yet to minimize the difference between the three dimensional information and features extracted from projected images [3].

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Dr. Kanak Saxena* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 234 - 238

number of data points and to match object shapes in occluded conditions. For simplicity, contours are approximated by a set of quadratic Bezier curves and all control points are stored in the database. Distance matrix is introduced, which is constructed from curve to curve distance measurement between the test and database contours. Ong, Lee, Oh, Park, and Kim [4] have proposed a new feature vector, sampled point vector, for gait recognition based on model-free method. The mean and variance of value of pixels are chosen which are sampled along to central axis of silhouette image for several frames. Wang and Liu [2] presented a simple and efficient gait recognition method based on positioning body joints. The coordinates of joints are computed according to the geometrical characteristics shown while walking. The limbs angles are computed based on the coordinates of joints and then made discrete Fourier transform. The amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency of angles are chosen as gait feature. At last the nearest neighbor classifier is used to classify subjects.
3. PROPOSED ALGORITHM

Capture video

Image Processing extract frame and convert into gray scale image

And apply LBPV

Store input

3.1 Image Preprocessing In our experiments, there are two assumptions for the human walking sequences: (1) the camera is static and the body in the field of view is not occluded. 2) the image sequence of side-view is used The gait of a person is best brought out in the sideview [5]. Video of a walking individual is captured by camera and sequence frames are extracted from that video. Each frame is converted into grayscale if it is a color image. Grayscale images are used in this work because these images are entirely sufficient for our tasks and so there is no need to use more complicated and harder to obtain color images. 3.2 Gait Feature Selection An important issue in gait is the extraction of appropriate salient features that will effectively capture

IJ
ISSN: 2230-7818

In this paper, we have proposed a new method for recognizing gait system. This method is based on Local Binary Pattern variance. The proposed gait recognition system consists of three units: image preprocessing, feature extraction, and gait recognition.

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Data and match It into store Curve database

Figure 1. Proposed Algorithm

Figure-2.(a)Original image (b) Corresponding grayscale image.

the gait characteristics. The features must be reasonably robust to operating conditions and should yield good discriminability across individuals. A fast and efficient method is adopted to select only most discriminative features. 3.2.1 Key Frames Generation We determine the key frames of a walking gait by observing the different phases of a human walk cycle as shown in Figure-3. The first key is defined at the pose where front leg is standing straight while the back leg is bend and slight above the ground. The second key is at the location where the front legs foot is flat on the ground and back legs toe touches the ground. The third key is defined as the pose where the back legs foot if flat on

T
Classifier Results

Extract feature point

Feature Extraction

Display output Gait Recognized

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Dr. Kanak Saxena* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 234 - 238

the ground and front legs ankle touches the ground.4The fourth key will return back to the first key and complete the cycle [8].

Gait Recognition:Our proposed approach also applies a joint histogram .but addresses the quantization problem by proposing a new operator called the Local Binary Pattern Variance (LBPV). Instead of computing the joint histogram of LBP and VAR globally, the LBPV computes the VAR from a local region and accumulates it into the LBP bin.

Figure 3:-key Frames

3.2.2 Computation of Local Binary Pattern Variance This paper focuses on the use of video based pattern matching techniques. In particular, we present some variants of local binary patterns variance (LBPV), which are widely considered the state of the art among texture descriptors. LBP variance (LBPV) is proposed to characterize the local contrast information into the one-dimensional LBP histogram.The experimental results on representative databases show that the proposed LBPV operator and global matching scheme can achieve significant improvement.

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N M LBPV p,r(k)= i=1 j=0
W(LBPp,r(I,j),K)=

The LPBV descript or proposed in this section offers as solution to the above problems of LBPP;R=VARP;R descriptor. The LBPV is a simplified but efficient join t LBP and contrast distribution method. As can be seen in Eq.(1),calculation of the LBP histogram H does not involve the information of variance VARP;R. That is to say, no matter what the LBP variance of the local region, histogram calculation assigns the same weight 1 to each LBP pattern. Actually, the variance is related to the texture feature. Usually the high frequency texture regions will have higher variances and they contribute more to the discrimination of texture images [8]. Therefore, the variance VARP; R can be used as an adaptive weight to adjust the contribution of the LBP code in histogram calculation. The LBPV histogram is computed as

A
W(LBP,p,r(I,j),K),K0 (1)
VAR,P,R(I,J),k=0

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(a)
(2)

Figure 4: - color image converted into binary images

. This can be regarded as the integral projection

[30] along the VAR coordinate.

VARP,R(I,J)

OTHERWISE

Figure5:- silhouette (Binary) image perform LBPV Method.

ISSN: 2230-7818

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(b)

Figure4.1:-Binary image

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Dr. Kanak Saxena* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 234 - 238

x 10

2.5

1.5

(a)
1 0.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

Figure 6(a) Left View Gait Recognition output


(b)
3.5 3 x 10
6

2.5

1.5

Figure 5.1:- binary images (a) left (b) right(c) back view

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0.5 0 0 10 20

(c)

T
30 40 50 60

Figure6(b) Right View Gait Recognition output


3.5 x 10
6

2.5

Figure5. 2. Circular symmetric neighbor sets for different (P, R).

1.5

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Fig.5.3 Uniform LBP patterns when P=8.The black and white dots represent the bit values of 1 and 0 in the 8-bit output of the LBPV operator.
ISSN: 2230-7818

0.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

6(c) Back view of Gait Recognition output Figure6:- graphical representation of gait recognized

4.1. Experimental results To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we carried out a series of experiments on databases. Frequency versus angle for image. For the evaluation of our proposed method using the mean and variance method for people identification, a gallery dataset of 80 video sequences is taken from the CASIA gait database [10].

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Dr. Kanak Saxena* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 234 - 238

Table1:-Matching Result of 20 inputs


Sr. no1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sr.no.2 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Input image1 A B C D F G H I J M Image input2 N O P Q R S T U V Y output yes NO YES no yes no yes no Yes yes output yes yes YES yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

set histograms were in turn used to measure the dissimilarity between images .. Finally, a feature size reduction method was proposed to speed up the matching scheme.

[1] Xiaxi Huang and Nikolaos V. Boulgouris, "G

Sr.No 1.

Our method

24 subject 96 sequence 6 subject 80 sequence

88%

2.

78%

3.

4.2 Advantages of Proposed Method: 1. Recognition is much higher than other methods. 2. It does not require silhouette images and GEI images. 3. LBP variance (LBPV), is proposed to characterize the local contrast information into the one-dimensional LBP histogram Computational speed becomes high due to use of simple mathematical calculations. 4. It requires less memory space because of comparison of Numeric value.

IJ
5. Conclusion
ISSN: 2230-7818

A
40 sequence

Positioning human body joints

10 subjects

76%

To better exploit the local and global information in texture images, this paper proposed a novel hybrid LBPV.Based on LBP distribution, the principal orientations of the texture image were first estimated ,and then the LBP histogram scan be aligned. The

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96% -

Name of Method

database

CCR Rank 1

CCR Rank5

Recognition Using Multiple Views ",IEEE 2008. [2] Ai-HuaWang,JiI-WeiLiu, "A gait recognition Method based on positioning human body joints", IEEE 2007. [3]Seungdo Jeong, Su-Sun Kim, Byung -Uk Choi, "Canonical View Synthesis for Gait Recognition", IEEE 2007. [4]Sungjun Hong, Heesung Lee, Kyongsae Oh,Mignon Park, and Euntail Kim, "Gait Recognition using Sampled Point Vectors", IEEE 2006. [5]Yanmei Chai Jinchang Ren, Rongchun Zhao and Jingping Jia, "Automatic Gait Recognition using Dynamic Variance Features", IEEE 2006. [6]John h. Mathews and Kurtis K.Fink, "Numerical Methods Using Matlab",4th Edition, 2004. [7]Weiinin, Ying, Hongzhe, Lun', Zluliang, Fengjun, "New Approach of Gait Recognition For Human ID", IEEE 2004. [8]Pei- Feng Chen and Tsai-Yen Li, "Planning Efficient Walking Gaits in Real-Time for Human Characters", Proceeding of 2003 Computer Graphics Workshop (CG2003), Taiwan, 2003 [9] Md. Jahangir Alam and Hiromitsu Hama,"Occluded Shape Matching for Image Database of Reduced Data Points", IEEE. [10]CASIAGait casiatabase,http://www.sinobiometrics.com, 2006. [11] T, Ojala ,M. Pietik ainen ,T. T. M aenpa a, Multi resolution gray-scale and rotation varianttextureclassificationwithlocalbinarypattern,I EEETransactionson tern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 24(7)(2002)971987. [12] Nixon, M.S., Tan, T., Chellappa, R.: Human Identification Based on Gait. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). [13] Pratibha mishra,shweta EzraHuman Gait Recognition using Bezier CurveIJAEST 2011 [14] Dynamic Texture Based Gait RecognitionVili Kellokumpu1, Guoying Zhao1, Stan Z. Li2, and Matti Pietikinen1. [15] Facial expression recognition based on Local Binary Patterns:A comprehensive study Caifeng han a,*, Shaogang Gong b, Peter W. McOwan u.k

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