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Starting Performance Investigation of Self

Commutating PWM Current Source Inverter Fed


Induction Motor Drive with Volts / Hz Control
Strategy under MATLAB Environment
S. M. Tripathi
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology
Sultanpur 228118 (U.P.) India
mani_excel@yahoo.co.in
A. K. Pandey
Associate Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
M.M.M. Engineering College
Gorakhpur 273010 (U.P.) India
akp1234@gmail.com
A. K. Srivastava
M.Tech. Student
Department of Electrical Engineering
Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology
Sultanpur 228118 (U.P.) India
aankit.srivastava32@gmail.com


AbstractIn this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate
analytically the starting performance of volts / Hz controlled,
self-commutating current source inverter-fed induction motor
drive. The closed-loop mathematical model of the complete drive
system is developed in the synchronously rotating d
e
-q
e
reference
frame. The starting performance of the drive is observed
analytically through MATLAB simulation.
Keywords-Current source inverter, induction motor drive, pulse
width modulation, starting performance, V / f control.
NOMENCLATURE
d, q Direct and quadrature axes
vas, vbs, vcs Phase voltages of the PWM inverter
e
ds
v

d-axis stator voltage in synchronously rotating
reference frame
e
ds
i
d-axis stator current in synchronous rotating
reference frame
e
qs
v
q-axis stator voltage in synchronously rotating
reference frame
e
qs
i
q-axis stator current in synchronously rotating
reference frame
e
dr
i
d-axis rotor current in synchronously rotating
reference frame
e
qr
i
q-axis rotor current in synchronously rotating
reference frame
ias, ibs, ics Line currents of PWM inverter
IDC DC link current
Iact Active component of stator current
*
act
I Reference active component of stator current
Ireact Reactive component of stator current
*
react
I

Reference reactive component of stator current
ee Switching frequency of the inverter
er
Rotor speed of the induction motor
ref
e
Reference speed
esl
Slip speed of the induction motor
*
sl
e

Reference slip speed
Iref Reference DC link current
Vinv Input voltage of the inverter
Vr Rectifier output voltage
Rf Resistance of DC link inductor
Lf Inductance of DC link inductor
R
s
Resistance of stator winding per phase
Ls Self-inductance of stator winding per phase
Rr Resistance of rotor winding per phase
Lr Self inductance of rotor winding per phase
Lm Mutual inductance per phase
L1 Ls Lr - Lm
2

C Capacitance per phase
J Moment of inertia in kg-m
2

B Viscous friction coefficient
| Pulse width of PWM rectifier
VLL Line-to-line input voltage of the rectifier
P Number of poles
Ic Instantaneous phase current of capacitor
Vs Instantaneous stator phase voltage
e
dc
i
d-axis capacitor current in synchronously rotating
reference frame
e
qc
i
q-axis capacitor current in synchronously rotating
reference frame
i
p
k

Proportional gain of current regulator
i
i
k
Integral gain of current regulator
s
p
k

Proportional gain of speed regulator
s
i
k

Integral gain of speed regulator
p Differential operator (d/dt) or complex frequency
k
current link DC
current line inverter l fundamenta of value Maximum

k1 Slope of stator active current (Iact) vs. slip speed (esl)
k2 Slope of stator reactive current vs. slip speed (esl)
k11
2
e
)] ( [ frequency angular Rated
phase per current capacitor of value Rated

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S. M. Tripathi* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 337 - 342
ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 237

Figure 1. Variable speed self-commutating PWM current source inverter fed induction motor drive
I. INTRODUCTION
The speed control of induction motors is possible over a
wide range by feeding the motor through variable frequency
VSI or CSI. Due to the controlled current operation of the
inverter, slip-regulated CSI is preferred over VSI. The current
source at the front end makes the system naturally capable of
power regeneration [1][4]. In this paper, the closed loop
scheme of self-commutating current source inverter-fed
induction motor drive employing two PI regulators is
discussed.
II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The CSI-fed induction motor drive consists of a three-phase
AC source, a PWM rectifier, a DC link smoothening reactor, a
current-controlled inverter, a three-phase squirrel cage
induction motor, and a three-phase capacitor bank as shown in
Figure 1. A fast-response speed-regulating drive can be
realized by incorporating PI regulators in the feedback loops
[5][8]. Two PI regulators are used one in the speed feedback
loop and the other in the current feedback loop.
The outer speed regulator compares the reference speed and
the actual rotor speed and processes the speed error to obtain
the reference slip speed (
*
sl
e ) which is required to estimate the
reference stator active current (
*
act
I ) and reference stator
reactive current (
*
react
I ) of the induction motor and hence,
reference DC link current (
ref
I ). It is also used in the
calculation of switching frequency (
e
e ) of the inverter. The
following mathematical equations are used:
) (
*
r ref
i
p sl
p
k
k
s
s
e e e
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = (1)
t constan
*
1
*
+ =
sl act
k I e (2)
t constan
*
2
*
+ =
sl react
k I e (3)
*
sl r e
e e e + = (4)
The current PI regulator is used to regulate the error
between the reference DC link current and the actual DC link
current. The output of current PI regulator decides the pulse
widths of the PWM rectifier pulses and hence, controls the
output voltage of the pulse width modulated rectifier, which in
turn controls the DC link current.
The output voltage of the rectifier in terms of current
regulator parameters is given by the following expression:
) (
DC ref
i
p r
I I
p
k
k V
i
i

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = (5)
The reference DC link current is determined using the
equation:
( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
k
I I I I
c react act ref
2
.
2
'
*
2
*
(6)
For the f V / control operation of the drive
c
I may be
expressed as
2
11 e c
k I e = (7)
where,
2
) (
) (
11
) (
rated e
rated c
I
k
e
=

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S. M. Tripathi* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 337 - 342
ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 238
III. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DRIVE
The modeling of the modified CSI-fed induction motor
drive is carried out in synchronously rotating reference frame
for the following:
A. Three-phase PWM rectifier
B. Three-phase PWM inverter
C. DC link
D. Three-phase induction motor with load
E. Three-phase capacitor bank
A. Three-phase PWM Rectifier
The PWM rectifier output voltage depends on the number
of pulses per cycle and their widths. The converter is modeled
for twelve numbers of equal pulses per cycle. It leads to two
pulses per 60 each of | width. The average output voltage of
the PWM rectifier can be expressed as follows:
2
sin )
12
5
sin 4 (
2 3 | t
t
LL r
V V =
(8)
Since | is varied from 10% to 90% of (t/6) radians, it can
be approximated as follows:
sin (|/2 ) ~ (|/2)
Therefore,
) 2 / ( 218 . 5 |
LL r
V V =
(9)
B. Three-phase PWM Inverter
The fundamental component of the line currents of the
three-phase pulse width modulated inverter i
as
, i
bs
, and i
cs
forms
a balanced set of three-phase currents with maximum value as
I
as(max)
and can be expressed as follows:
I
as(max)
= k I
DC
(10)
where k is obtained through Fourier analysis of inverter line
current waveforms, and this is given by the following:
) ( current link D
current line inverter l fundamenta of value maximum
DC
I C
k =

The value of k depends on the operating frequency of the
inverter and varies from 0.8485 to 0.9970 for variation in
operating frequencies from 10 to 50 Hz. Since the inverter
output fundamental current peak is taken along the q
e
axis of
the reference frame, the transformed phase current equations in
the d
e
-q
e
reference frame are as follows:
i
0s
e
= 0 ;
DC
e
qs
kI i = ; 0 =
e
ds
i (11)
Assuming power loss in the inverter to be negligible, i.e.,
input power = output power, we can derive the following:
inv inv
I V =
cs cs bs bs as as
i v i v i v + + = ( )
e
ds
e
ds
e
qs
e
qs
i v i v +
2
3
(12)
Substituting the values of i
qs
e
, i
ds
e
, and I
inv
in terms of I
DC
,
the following equation is obtained:
inv
V =
e
qs
v k 5 . 1 (13)
C. DC Link
The rectifier output voltage V
r
is the sum of the inverter
input voltage
inv
V and DC link voltage, hence
( )
DC f f
e
qs r
I pL R V k V + + = 5 . 1 . (14)
D. Three-phase Induction Motor with Load
The induction motor can be modeled in the d
e
-q
e
reference
frame using the following assumptions:
- The three-phase stator windings of the motor are
balanced and sinusoidally distributed in space.
- The air gap flux is maintained at rated value.
- The motor line currents are sinusoidal due to
capacitor at the motor terminals.
- The DC link current is ripple free.
- The inverter switching transients are ignored.
- There is no core loss in the motor.
The motor can be described by fourth-order matrix equation
in d
e
-q
e
reference frame as follows:

+
+
+
+
=

e
dr
e
qr
e
ds
e
qs
r r r sl m m sl
r sl r r m sl m
m m e s s s e
m e m s e s s
e
ds
e
qs
i
i
i
i
pL R L - pL L
L pL R L pL
pL L - pL R L -
L pL L pL R
v
v
0
0
(15)
The electromagnetic torque equation of the motor is
expressed as follows:
e
T = ( )
e
ds
e
qr
e
dr
e
qs m
i i i i L .
P
.
2 2
3
(16)
The equation of motion of the drive is given by the
following:
r
r
l e
B
dt
d
J T T e
e
+ + =
(17)
The load torque equation is expressed as
( )
base r L l
T T e e . = . (18)
E. Three-phase Capacitor Bank
The capacitor current is related to the stator voltage of the
induction motor, as shown below:
dt
dv
C i
s
c
= (19)
Transforming (19) in the synchronously rotating reference
frame d
e
-q
e
, we have the following:
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S. M. Tripathi* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 337 - 342
ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 239
( ) ( ) t v t v
dt
d
C t i t i
e
e
qs e
e
ds e
e
qc e
e
dc
sin cos sin cos = (20)
Differentiating (20) and comparing the terms on both sides,
d-axis and q-axis currents are expressed as follows:
) v C (pv i
e
qs e
e
ds
e
dc
= (21)
) v (pv C i
e
ds e
e
qs
e
qc
+ = (22)
IV. STARTING PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION
The starting performance of the drive is investigated
through MATLAB simulation by analyzing the various
response curves of the drive for a step speed command of rated
value (298.29 rad/s) from standstill. The electromagnetic
torque and rotor speed characteristics settle to the steady state
values 1.245 N-m and 298.29 rad/s respectively in 3.24
seconds as depicted in Figures 23. The slip corresponding to
the rated speed (298.29 rad/s) and rated load torque (1.31 N-m)
is realized 5% as shown in Figure 4. The actual DC link current
acquires the reference value near the steady state as shown in
Figure 5. At steady state the DC link current is found to be
5.506 A. The V / f ratio is estimated from Figure 6 to be about
2.5322 volts / Hz except during transients for aforesaid rated
load torque condition. The RMS stator current / phase is found
to be 7.932 A during starting and settles to a value 3.108 A in
steady state as shown in Figure 7. Figure 8 shows the d-axis
and q-axis stator currents of which steady state values are
found 3.9342 A and -1.9609 A respectively. Similarly, the
RMS rotor current / phase is found to be 6.798 A during
starting and settles to a value 1.869 A in steady state as
depicted in Figure 9. Figure 10 shows the d-axis and q-axis
rotor currents of which steady state values are found -2.4725 A
and -0.9343 A respectively. Further, as shown in Figure 11, the
RMS capacitor current / phase is found to be 5.9567 A in
steady state. Figure 12 shows the d-axis and q-axis capacitor
currents / phase of which steady state values are found to be
-3.9342 A and 7.4504 A respectively. The RMS inverter output
current / phase is established 3.8811 A in steady state as shown
in Figure 13. The d-axis inverter output current is zero whereas
the q-axis inverter output current at steady state is found to be
5.4895 A as shown in Figure 14.


Figure 2. Electromagnetic torque vs. time

Figure 3. Rotor speed vs. time

Figure 4. Percentage slip vs. time

Figure 5. Reference DC link current vs. time (RED) and actual DC link
current vs. time (BLUE)

Figure 6. V / f ratio vs. time
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S. M. Tripathi* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 337 - 342
ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 240

Figure 7. RMS stator current / phase vs. time

Figure 8. d-axis stator current vs. time (RED) and q-axis stator current vs.
time (BLUE)

Figure 9. RMS rotor current / phase vs. time

Figure 10. d-axis rotor current vs. time (RED) and q-axis rotor current vs.
time (BLUE)

Figure 11. RMS capacitor current / phase vs. time

Figure 12. d-axis capacitor current / phase vs. time (RED) and q-axis
capacitor current / phase vs. time (BLUE)

Figure 13. RMS inverter output current / phase vs. time

Figure 14. d-axis inverter output current vs. time (RED) and q-axis inverter
output current vs. time (BLUE)
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S. M. Tripathi* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 337 - 342
ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 241
V. CONCLUSIONS
A closed-loop scheme incorporating speed and current PI
regulators for self-commutating PWM CSI-fed induction motor
drive with volts / Hz control strategy has been discussed. The
starting performance curves have been obtained through
MATLAB simulation. The settling time of the drive during
starting for the selected values of regulator parameters and
reference speed command of rated value (298.29 rad/s) has
been observed 3.24 seconds. The analysis of the starting
performance curves confirmed the satisfactory and fast
operation of the proposed closed-loop scheme of the drive
during starting.
APPENDIX
Name plate ratings of induction motor
1 hp, three-phase, 400 V, 50 Hz, four-pole, 1425 r.p.m., star
connected
Induction motor parameters
R
s
= 3.520 O R
r
= 2.780 O L
s
= 0.165 H
L
r
= 0.165 H L
m
= 0.150 H J = 0.01289 kg-m
2

DC link parameters
R
f
= 0.250 O, L
f
= 0.040 H
REFERENCES
[1] P. Agarwal and V. K. Verma, Performance Evaluation of Current
Source Inverter-fed Induction Motor Drive, Journals of Institution of
Engineers, Vol.72, pp. 209-217, February 1992.
[2] P.N. Enjeti, P.D. Ziogas and J.F. Lindsay, Programmed PWM
Technique to Eliminate Harmonics: A Critical Evaluation, IEEE
Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 302-315,
March/April 1990.
[3] S.R. Bowes and R.I. Bullough, Optimal PWM Microprocessor
Controlled Current Source Inverter Drives, IEEE Proceedings, Vol.
135, Pt. B, No. 2, pp. 59-75, March 1988.
[4] Y. Xiao, B. Wu, S. Rizzo and R. Sotuden, A Novel Power Factor
Control Scheme for High Power GTO Current Source Converter,
Conference Record IEEE-IAS, pp. 865-869, 1996.
[5] A.K. Pandey, Pramod Agarwal and V.K. Verma, Optimal Capacitor
Selection for Modified Self-commutated CSI-fed Induction Motor
Drive, IEEE ISIE 2006, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp. 1166-1171,
July 9-12, 2006.
[6] P. Agarwal and V.K. Verma, Parameter Coordination of
Microcomputer Controlled CSI-fed Induction Motor Drive, IE (I)
Journal EL, Vol. 88, December 2007.
[7] Pramod Agarwal, V.K. Verma and A.K. Pandey, Performance
Evaluation of a Self-commutating CSI-fed Induction Motor Drive for
Different Operating Conditions, IETE Journal of Research, Vol. 54,
Issue 4, July/Aug. 2008.
[8] Pramod Agarwal, A.K. Pandey and V.K. Verma, Performance
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2009.

BIOGRAPHIES
Saurabh Mani Tripathi is presently working as
Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at
Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology, Sultanpur,
(U.P.), India. He obtained his B.Tech. degree in
Electrical & Electronics Engineering in 2006 and
did his M.Tech. in Electrical Engineering in 2009
from U.P. Technical University, Lucknow. He has
authored several books on Modern Control
System and Basic System Analysis. His areas of
current interest include electrical machines, control
systems, power electronics and electric drives.


Ashok Kumar Pandey received his Ph.D. degree in
Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of
Technology, Roorkee in 2003. He did his M.Tech. in
Power Electronics, Electrical Machines and Drives
from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi in 1995.
Currently, he is working as an Associate Professor
with the Department of Electrical Engineering at
M.M.M. Engineering College, Gorakhpur, (U.P.),
India. His areas of interest include power electronics,
electrical machines, and drives. He is a fellow of
Institution of Engineers (IE), India and Institution of Electronics and
Telecommunication Engineers (IETE), India.


Ankit Kumar Srivastava received his B.Tech.
degree in Electrical Engineering in 2008 from the
VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur (U.P.), India.
Currently, he is pursuing M.Tech. in Power
Electronics and Drives from Kamla Nehru Institute
of Technology, Sultanpur, (U.P.), India, affiliated to
G.B. Technical University Lucknow (U.P.), India.
His interests are in the area of power electronics
and drives.






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S. M. Tripathi* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES
Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 337 - 342
ISSN: 2230-7818 @ 2011 http://www.ijaest.iserp.org. All rights Reserved. Page 242