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Slender columns are subjected to buckling risk and their stability must be checked.
Instability is caused by the interaction between bending and the axial force.
If the deflection A caused by the bending moment is important it will interact with the axial
force P and cause an extra moment equal to A . P
The slenderness problem is also called Pdelta effect.
In linear elastic (first order) analysis, the deflections are considered so small that
this Pdelta effect is neglected but for slender members it is no longer true
and second order structural analysis with stability check must be performed.
Because of the coupling between the deflection, axial force and bending moment,
the second order structural analysis is nonlinear and complex.
ACI and SBC codes allow using simple methods to account for Pdelta effects
and check column slenderness at design stage (moment magnification method).
The slender column is designed using a magnified moment.
Moment magnification method can only be used if the slenderness ratio is less than 100.0
Typical slenderness effects
0
A : First order deflection caused by moment M
0
a
A : Second order (additional) deflection caused by axial compression force P
A
P
Linear and nonlinear structural analysis
Recall Euler critical load for a pinned column:
2
2
u
c
L
EI
P
t
=
More generally the critical load depends on the end conditions:
( )
2
2
u
c
kL
EI
P
t
=
L
u
is the unsupported (clear) length of the column.
kL
u
is the effective length and k is the effective length factor depending on the fixity conditions
of the column ends. k represents the ratio of the distance between points of inflexion (zero
moment). k is therefore equal to unity for a doubly pinned column (original Euler problem) and
0.5 for a doubly fixed column.
Effective length in columns
In real structures, fixity depends on ratio of beam to column stiffness and sway or nonsway
conditions as well as the possible bracing. Braced or unbraced columns depend on the stability
index defined as:
c u
u
l V
P
Q
¯
A
=
0
05 . 0 s Q : Story is braced (nonsway)
05 . 0 > Q : Story is unbraced (sway)
¯ u
P : Total vertical load in all columns and walls of story
u
V : Shear in story due to lateral loads
0
A : First order relative deflection between top and bottom of story due to
u
V
c
l : Height of story (center to center)
Braced (nonsway) frames 0 . 1 5 . 0 s s k
Unbraced (sway) frames 0 . 1 > k
ACI / SBC method of moment magnification for slender columns
1. Basis of the method
The moment magnification method is used at the design stage for slender columns for which the
slenderness ratio is greater than a certain minimum limit and less or equal to a maximum limit
equal to 100.0. Above this value, the method cannot be used and second order effects should be
included in the structural analysis step (second order structural analysis).
Slenderness must be checked in each of the two bending
directions X and Y.
The magnification method is presented for a bending
moment as shown in the figure. The second direction
is treated in a similar fashion.
The slenderness ratio is defined as the ratio of the effective length to the radius of gyration.
Slenderness ratio =
r
kL
u
(1)
L
u
is the unsupported height of the column while r is its radius of gyration defined as:
g
g
A
I
r = (2a)
For a rectangular section b x h, the radius of gyration becomes: h r 3 . 0 ~ (2b)
k is the effective length factor, to be defined later, which depends on the type of column (braced
or unbraced) and its end conditions.
ACI and SBC codes specify that column moments are magnified by a factor to account for
slenderness effects. The magnification factor depends on the ultimate axial force as well as the
critical buckling load and is computed differently for braced and sway columns.
Sign convention for column moments
The top and bottom moments M
1
and M
2
may cause either single curvature or double curvature
as shown in the figure.
M
b
h
Single curvature Double curvature
The ratio
2
1
M
M
is considered positive in single curvature and negative in double curvature.
2. Moment magnification for slender braced columns
For braced columns the effective length factor k is less or equal to unity: 0 . 1 5 . 0 s s k
It is therefore conservative to use a value of unity.
The slenderness effects will be considered if the slenderness ratio is greater than or equal to the
limit defined as follows:
If
2
1
12 0 . 34
M
M
r
kL
u
÷ > : The column is slender (3)
M
1
and M
2
are the smaller and larger factored moments at the column ends. They have the same
sign if the column is bent in single curvature.
The ratio
2
1
M
M
must always be greater or equal to (0.5), otherwise if the slenderness ratio is
greater or equal to 40, the column is considered as slender whatever the value of (
2
1
12 0 . 34
M
M
÷ )
The moment magnification method cannot however be used if the slenderness ratio exceeds the
upper value of 100. In this case a second order structural analysis is required.
If 100 >
r
kL
u
: Use second order analysis
L
u
is the unsupported height of the column while r is its radius of gyration given by equations
(2a) and (2b).
The minimum moment to be considered is:
( ) h P M
u
03 . 0 15
min
+ = with h in mm. (4)
The critical (magnified) moment is then given by:
( )
min 2
, M M Max x M
c
o = (5)
The moment magnification factor is given by:




.

\

÷
= 0 . 1 ,
75 . 0
0 . 1
c
u
m
P
P
c
Max o (6)
where the moment coefficient c
m
is given by:


.

\

+ = 4 . 0 , 4 . 0 6 . 0
2
1
M
M
Max c
m
(7)
The critical buckling load is defined as:
( )
2
2
u
c
kL
EI
P
t
= (8)
The long term column stiffness EI is computed as:
d
g c
I E
EI
 +
=
1
40 . 0
(9)
E
c
is the concrete modulus of elasticity given by:
'
4700
c c
f E = (10)
d
 is the ratio of sustained axial force to ultimate axial force.
u
D
d
P
P 4 . 1
=  (11)
If data is unavailable, a default value of 0.6 for
d
 may be used.
I
g
is the moment of inertia of the column gross section
3. Computation of the effective length factor k for slender braced columns:
The effective length factor k depends on the fixity conditions of the column. At each end, the
fixity ratio is related to the ratio v of the sum of stiffnesses of columns and beams connected to
it as:
beams
columns
L
EI
L
EI

.

\


.

\

=
¯
¯
v (12)
I is the moment of inertia of the cracked section, defined with respect to the gross moment of
inertia I
g
:
Beams:
gb b
I I 35 . 0 = Columns:
gc c
I I 70 . 0 = (13)
If the same material is used, then E is constant and equation (12) becomes:
beams
g
columns
g
L
I
L
I


.

\



.

\

=
¯
¯
2 v (14)
For braced columns, the effective length factor k is computed as:
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
+ +
=
0 . 1
05 . 0 85 . 0
) ( 05 . 0 7 . 0
min
v
v v
B A
Min k with 5 . 0 > k (15)
A
v and
B
v are values of v at top and bottom ends of the column while
min
v is the smaller of
the two. At each end, v is computed by relations (12) or (14). The effective length factor k may
also be read from Tables or nomographs (in ACI / SBC codes) when values
A
v and
B
v are
determined, instead of using equation (15). Considering a unit value for k is always conservative
for braced columns.
Nomographs for reading values of k
4. Moment magnification for slender unbraced (sway) columns
For unbraced columns the effective length factor k is greater than or equal to unity: 0 . 1 > k
The slenderness effects must be considered if the slenderness ratio is greater or equal to 22.0:
If 0 . 22 >
r
kL
u
: The column is slender (16)
The moment magnification factor cannot however be used if the slenderness ratio exceeds the
upper value of 100.0.
The sway moment magnification factor is computed as:




.

\

÷
= 0 . 1 ,
75 . 0
0 . 1
1
c
u
s
P
P
Max
u
o (17)
where u is the following floor to column ratio given by:
c
u
c
u
P
P
P
P
¯
¯
= u (18)
M
1b
and M
2b
are the smaller and larger factored braced moments at the column ends. They have
the same sign if the column is bent in single curvature.
M
1s
and M
2s
are the smaller and larger factored sway moments at the column ends. They have the
same sign if the column is bent in single curvature.
If
g c
u
u
A f
P
r
l
'
0 . 35
s then the magnified moments are:
s s b c
M M M
1 1 1
o + =
s s b c
M M M
2 2 2
o + = (19)
If
g c
u
u
A f
P
r
l
'
0 . 35
> : then the braced moment magnification factor o is computed as for
braced columns but with 0 =
d
 and the magnified moments are:
) (
1 1 1 s s b c
M M M o o + = ) (
2 2 2 s s b c
M M M o o + = (20)
5. Computation of the effective length factor k for sway columns:
For unbraced columns, the effective length factor k is computed as follows:
If both ends are restrained and 2 <
m
v :


.

\

+
÷
= 0 . 1 ,
1
) 20 ( 05 . 0
m
m
Max k
v
v
(21)
If both ends are restrained and 2 >
m
v : ( ) 0 . 1 , 1 9 . 0
m
Max k v + = (22)
If the upper end is hinged:
B
k v 3 . 0 2 + = (23)
If the lower end is hinged:
A
k v 3 . 0 2 + = (24)
If both ends are hinged: 30 = k (25)
A
v and
B
v are values of v at top and bottom ends of the column while
m
v is the average of the
two. At each end, v is computed using equations (12) or (14) and k may also be read in Tables
or nomographs.
Slender braced column example: Material data: MPa f
c
20
'
= MPa f
y
420 =
The structural analysis results for columns CD and DE are:
Column CD Column DE
Axial force
(kN)
Top moment
(kN.m)
Bottom
Moment
(kN.m)
Axial
force
(kN)
Top
moment
(kN.m)
Bottom
Moment
(kN.m)
Dead 310.0 78.6 31.6 220.0 57.5 43.0
Live 85.5 20.5 8.1 60.0 15.0 11.0
Ultimate 579.4 144.9 58.0 410.0 106.0 78.9
The moment sign convention used in structural analysis is for a positive moment in clockwise
direction. Columns CD and DE would therefore be subjected to moments as shown:
A
B
C
D
E F
9100 mm 7600 mm
5695
7300
350
350
Column section
610
225
385
b
f
= 2275
mm
400
Effective Tsection of beams
106.0
78.9
Column DE
Single curvature
144.9
58.0
Column CD
Double curvature
Analysis of column DE:
Column DE being deflected in single curvature, the ratio (M
1
/ M
2
)
is therefore positive.
The values must be: M
1
= 78.9 kN.m and M
2
= 106.0 kN.m
The column unsupported length is: mm L
u
6690
2
610
2
610
7300 = ÷ ÷ =
The radius of gyration given by equation (2b) is: mm x r 105 350 3 . 0 = =
The right hand term of (3) is: 07 . 25
106
9 . 78
12 34 12 0 . 34
2
1
= ÷ = ÷
M
M
The slenderness ratio
r
kL
u
is equal to =
105
6690
63.7 if k =1.0, and equal to 31.85 if k = 0.5
So
2
1
12 0 . 34
M
M
r
kL
u
÷ > whether k =1.0 or k =0.5
This means that column CD is slender (since k must be between 0.5 and 1.0)
On the other hand
r
kL
u
is less than 100. This means that the moment magnification method can
be used.
Determination of k: (this part is skipped if k is known)
At top end E of the column, there is one beam (EF) and one column (DE). At bottom end D,
there is one beam (BD) and two columns (DE and CD). The fixity ratios given by (14) at both
ends are:
EF
g
DE
g
Top
L
I
L
I


.

\



.

\

= 2 v
BD
g
CD
g
DE
g
Bot
L
I
L
I
L
I


.

\



.

\

+


.

\

= 2 v
The moment of inertia (about centroid axis) of the column gross section is
4 9
4
10 25 . 1
12
350
mm x I
g
= =
The moment of inertia of the shown effective Tsection of the beam is
4 9
10 07 . 15 mm x I
g
=
The fixity ratios are:
1727 . 0
7600
10 07 . 15
7300
10 25 . 1
2
9
9
= =
x
x
Top
v 4719 . 0
9100
10 07 . 15
5695
10 25 . 1
7300
10 25 . 1
2
9
9 9
=
+
=
x
x x
Bot
v
The effective length factor given by equation (15) is then: k = 0.732
Sustained axial force ratio: Given by (11): 751 . 0
410
220 4 . 1 4 . 1
= = =
x
P
P
u
D
d

Concrete Young’s modulus: Given by (10): MPa f E
c c
0 . 21019 20 4700 4700
'
= = =
Long term flexural rigidity:
Given by (9):
2 12
9
. 10 0 . 6
751 . 0 1
10 25 . 1 21019 40 . 0
1
40 . 0
mm N x
x x x
I E
EI
d
g c
=
+
=
+
=

Critical buckling load:
Given by (8):
( ) ( )
kN N
x
x x
kL
EI
P
u
c
3 . 2469 6 . 2469315
6690 732 . 0
10 6
2
2 12
2
2
= = = =
t t
Moment coefficient:
Given by (7): 8977 . 0 4 . 0 ,
106
9 . 78
4 . 0 6 . 0 4 . 0 , 4 . 0 6 . 0
2
1
=

.

\

+ =


.

\

+ = Max
M
M
Max c
m
Moment magnification factor (6):
153 . 1 0 . 1 ,
3 . 2469 75 . 0
410
0 . 1
8977 . 0
0 . 1 ,
75 . 0
0 . 1
=




.

\

÷
=




.

\

÷
=
x
Max
P
P
c
Max
c
u
m
o
Minimum moment (4):
( ) ( ) m kN mm kN x h P M
u
. 455 . 10 . 10455 350 03 . 0 15 410 03 . 0 15
min
= = + = + =
Critical moment: Given by (5): ( ) m kN x M M Max x M
c
. 2 . 122 106 153 . 1 ,
min 2
= = =o
Column DE must therefore be designed for this critical moment (instead of M
2
) and the same
axial force.
Analysis of column CD: In double curvature the ratio (M
1
/ M
2
)
is negative.
The right hand term of (3) is: 8 . 38
9 . 144
58
12 34 12 0 . 34
2
1
= + = ÷
M
M
The column unsupported length is: mm L
u
5390
2
610
5695 = ÷ =
It is less than that of column DE.
The fixity ratio at the top end is the same ratio at bottom end for column DE: 4719 . 0 =
Top
v
The bottom end is attached to the foundation which is much stiffer than beams. The bottom ratio
would be smaller than other values obtained. k for column CD would then be less than for
column DE.
Assuming a value for k of 0.732 (same as for column DE), slenderness ratio
r
kL
u
will be equal
to 37.6
Column CD is therefore short. No moment magnification is required.
In 3D analysis, with columns subjected to biaxial bending, slenderness effects are checked in two
planes XZ and YZ.
RCTOOL and RCBIAX software include moment magnification method for slender columns
(braced and sway).
Linear and nonlinear structural analysis EI 2 L2 u Recall Euler critical load for a pinned column: Pc More generally the critical load depends on the end conditions: Pc Lu is the unsupported (clear) length of the column. kLu 2 EI 2 kLu is the effective length and k is the effective length factor depending on the fixity conditions of the column ends. k represents the ratio of the distance between points of inflexion (zero moment).5 for a doubly fixed column. . k is therefore equal to unity for a doubly pinned column (original Euler problem) and 0.
Effective length in columns In real structures.05 : Story is braced (nonsway) Q 0. fixity depends on ratio of beam to column stiffness and sway or nonsway conditions as well as the possible bracing. Braced or unbraced columns depend on the stability index defined as: Q P u 0 Vu lc Q 0.05 : Story is unbraced (sway) P u : Total vertical load in all columns and walls of story Vu : Shear in story due to lateral loads 0 : First order relative deflection between top and bottom of story due to Vu lc : Height of story (center to center) .
0 .0 Unbraced (sway) frames k 1.Braced (nonsway) frames 0.5 k 1.
the radius of gyration becomes: r 0.ACI / SBC method of moment magnification for slender columns 1. M h b The slenderness ratio is defined as the ratio of the effective length to the radius of gyration. Slenderness must be checked in each of the two bending directions X and Y. The magnification factor depends on the ultimate axial force as well as the critical buckling load and is computed differently for braced and sway columns. The magnification method is presented for a bending moment as shown in the figure. .3h (2b) k is the effective length factor. the method cannot be used and second order effects should be included in the structural analysis step (second order structural analysis). Basis of the method The moment magnification method is used at the design stage for slender columns for which the slenderness ratio is greater than a certain minimum limit and less or equal to a maximum limit equal to 100. The second direction is treated in a similar fashion. ACI and SBC codes specify that column moments are magnified by a factor to account for slenderness effects. which depends on the type of column (braced or unbraced) and its end conditions. to be defined later. Above this value.0. Sign convention for column moments The top and bottom moments M1 and M2 may cause either single curvature or double curvature as shown in the figure. Slenderness ratio = kLu r (1) Lu is the unsupported height of the column while r is its radius of gyration defined as: r Ig Ag (2a) For a rectangular section b x h.
5 k 1.5).0 12 M1 ) M2 . otherwise if the slenderness ratio is M2 greater or equal to 40. The ratio M1 must always be greater or equal to (0. M2 2. the column is considered as slender whatever the value of ( 34. The slenderness effects will be considered if the slenderness ratio is greater than or equal to the limit defined as follows: If kLu M 34. Moment magnification for slender braced columns For braced columns the effective length factor k is less or equal to unity: It is therefore conservative to use a value of unity.Single curvature The ratio Double curvature M1 is considered positive in single curvature and negative in double curvature.0 The column is slender (3) M1 and M2 are the smaller and larger factored moments at the column ends.0 12 1 : r M2 0. They have the same sign if the column is bent in single curvature.
4 1 . If kLu 100 : r Use second order analysis Lu is the unsupported height of the column while r is its radius of gyration given by equations (2a) and (2b).4 M2 (7) The critical buckling load is defined as: Pc kLu 2 EI 0.4 PD Pu .75 Pc (5) (6) where the moment coefficient cm is given by: M cm Max 0. a default value of 0.The moment magnification method cannot however be used if the slenderness ratio exceeds the upper value of 100. (4) M c x Max M 2 .6 for d may be used. If data is unavailable. Ig is the moment of inertia of the column gross section d 1.0 Pu 1.6 0. 1.03h The critical (magnified) moment is then given by: with h in mm. The minimum moment to be considered is: M min Pu 15 0.40 E c I g 1 d EI 2 (8) The long term column stiffness EI is computed as: (9) Ec is the concrete modulus of elasticity given by: Ec 4700 f c' (10) (11) d is the ratio of sustained axial force to ultimate axial force.0 0. 0. In this case a second order structural analysis is required. M min The moment magnification factor is given by: cm Max .
05 min 1.0 (14) with k 0. the effective length factor k is computed as: 0.5 (15) A and B are values of at top and bottom ends of the column while min is the smaller of the two.05( A B ) k Min 0.85 0. the fixity ratio is related to the ratio of the sum of stiffnesses of columns and beams connected to it as: EI L columns EI L beams (12) I is the moment of inertia of the cracked section. Considering a unit value for k is always conservative for braced columns. At each end. .70 I gc (13) If the same material is used. At each end. defined with respect to the gross moment of inertia Ig: Beams: I b 0.35 I gb Columns: I c 0.7 0.3. Computation of the effective length factor k for slender braced columns: The effective length factor k depends on the fixity conditions of the column. is computed by relations (12) or (14). then E is constant and equation (12) becomes: Ig L columns 2 Ig L beams For braced columns. instead of using equation (15). The effective length factor k may also be read from Tables or nomographs (in ACI / SBC codes) when values A and B are determined.
Nomographs for reading values of k .
Moment magnification for slender unbraced (sway) columns For unbraced columns the effective length factor k is greater than or equal to unity: k 1. 1.0.4.0 The slenderness effects must be considered if the slenderness ratio is greater or equal to 22. lu 35. They have the same sign if the column is bent in single curvature.0 Pu 1.0 r Pu f c' Ag If then the magnified moments are: M 1c M 1b s M 1s lu 35. M1s and M2s are the smaller and larger factored sway moments at the column ends. The sway moment magnification factor is computed as: 1 s Max . They have the same sign if the column is bent in single curvature.75 Pc (17) where is the following floor to column ratio given by: P u P Pc c Pu (18) M1b and M2b are the smaller and larger factored braced moments at the column ends.0 : r Pu f c' Ag M 2 c M 2b s M 2 s (19) If then the braced moment magnification factor is computed as for braced columns but with d 0 and the magnified moments are: M1c (M1b s M1s ) M 2 c ( M 2b s M 2 s ) (20) .0: If kLu 22.0 0.0 : r The column is slender (16) The moment magnification factor cannot however be used if the slenderness ratio exceeds the upper value of 100.
0 k 2 0. . the effective length factor k is computed as follows: If both ends are restrained and m 2 : If both ends are restrained and m 2 : If the upper end is hinged: If the lower end is hinged: If both ends are hinged: 0.1. is computed using equations (12) or (14) and k may also be read in Tables or nomographs.05(20 m ) k Max .0 1 m k Max 0.1.3 B k 2 0. At each end.3 A (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) k 30 A and B are values of at top and bottom ends of the column while m is the average of the two. Computation of the effective length factor k for sway columns: For unbraced columns.5.9 1 m .
6 20.m) 57.0 Column CD Double curvature 78.Slender braced column example: E Material data: f c' 20 MPa F f y 420 MPa Column section 7300 350 350 B 5695 D A 9100 mm C 7600 mm Effective Tsection of beams bf = 2275 mm 225 610 385 400 The structural analysis results for columns CD and DE are: Column CD Axial force (kN) Top moment (kN.0 Column DE Top moment (kN.m) Dead Live Ultimate 310.0 85.0 106.0 144.m) 43.9 Column DE Single curvature 58.5 579.9 The moment sign convention used in structural analysis is for a positive moment in clockwise direction.9 31.1 58.5 15.6 8.0 11.0 410.0 78.0 Axial force (kN) 220.0 60.5 144. Columns CD and DE would therefore be subjected to moments as shown: 106.4 78.9 .0 Bottom Moment (kN.m) Bottom Moment (kN.
The values must be: M1 = 78.25 x 10 9 1.3 x 350 105 mm M1 78.5 This means that column CD is slender (since k must be between 0.9 kN. there is one beam (EF) and one column (DE).m Lu 7300 610 610 6690 mm 2 2 r 0.0 12 1 r M2 whether k =1.Analysis of column DE: Column DE being deflected in single curvature. Determination of k: (this part is skipped if k is known) At top end E of the column. there is one beam (BD) and two columns (DE and CD).5 and 1.0 kN.07 M2 106 The slenderness ratio So kLu 6690 63.07 x 10 9 9100 .07 x 10 7600 Bot 1.0 or k =0.1727 15. and equal to 31.25 x 10 9 2 7300 9 0. At bottom end D.9 34 12 25. The fixity ratios given by (14) at both ends are: kLu is less than 100. the ratio (M1 / M2) is therefore positive.0.85 if k = 0.7 if k =1.0 12 and M2 = 106.0) On the other hand be used.4719 2 7300 15.25 x 10 9 5695 0. This means that the moment magnification method can r Top Ig L 2 Ig L DE EF centroid Bot 2 Ig L I g DE L Ig L BD the CD The moment of inertia (about axis) of column gross section is Ig 350 4 1.m The column unsupported length is: The radius of gyration given by equation (2b) is: The right hand term of (3) is: 34.5 is equal to r 105 kLu M 34.07 x10 9 mm 4 The fixity ratios are: Top 1.25 x10 9 mm 4 12 The moment of inertia of the shown effective Tsection of the beam is I g 15.
m Critical moment: Given by (5): M c x Max M 2 .03h 41015 0.751 Pu 410 Concrete Young’s modulus: Given by (10): Ec 4700 f c' 4700 20 21019 .153 410 1.The effective length factor given by equation (15) is then: Sustained axial force ratio: Given by (11): d k = 0.m Column DE must therefore be designed for this critical moment (instead of M2) and the same axial force.9 610 5390 mm 2 The column unsupported length is: Lu 5695 It is less than that of column DE.732 1.8977 M2 106 Moment magnification factor (6): cm Max .4 x 220 0.40 Ec I g 1 d 0.75 Pc 0.3 kN Moment coefficient: M 78.6 N 2469.0 0.4 PD 1.455 kN. 1.0 MPa Long term flexural rigidity: Given by (9): EI 0.8977 .2 kN.8 M2 144.4 .6 0.4 Max 0.4 1 . M min 1.732 x 6690 2 6 x1012 x 2 2469315 .4 0.25 x 10 9 6.03 x 350 10455 kN.mm 10.0 x 1012 N .40 x 21019 x 1.153 x106 122. 1. 0.6 0.0 Max Pu 1. The right hand term of (3) is: 34.mm 2 1 0. The fixity ratio at the top end is the same ratio at bottom end for column DE: Top 0.0 1. 0.75 x 2469 .4719 .0 12 M1 58 34 12 38.9 Given by (7): cm Max 0. Analysis of column CD: In double curvature the ratio (M1 / M2) is negative.751 Critical buckling load: Given by (8): Pc kLu 2 EI 2 0.0 0.3 Minimum moment (4): M min Pu 15 0.
with columns subjected to biaxial bending. slenderness ratio to 37. RCTOOL and RCBIAX software include moment magnification method for slender columns (braced and sway).732 (same as for column DE). The bottom ratio would be smaller than other values obtained. kLu r will be equal In 3D analysis. slenderness effects are checked in two planes XZ and YZ. . Assuming a value for k of 0.The bottom end is attached to the foundation which is much stiffer than beams. k for column CD would then be less than for column DE.6 Column CD is therefore short. No moment magnification is required.
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