Aditee Gautam* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 090  096
Aditee Gautam ^{1} , Meenakshi Panwar ^{2} , Dr.P.R Gupta ^{3}
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC)
B30, Institutional Area, Sector 62, Noida, India
Email ID: gautamaditee@gmail.com
Abstract: Encryption is mainly used to transmit
the data over networks. There are so many
techniques introduced which are used to protect the
confidential image data from any unauthorized
access. Multimedia data contains different types of
data that includes text, audio, video, graphic,
images with the increasing use of multimedia data
over internet, here comes a demand of secure
multimedia data. Most of the encryption algorithm
available is generally used for text data and not
suitable for multimedia data. In this paper we
discuss a block based transformation algorithm in
which image is divided in to number of blocks.
These blocks are transformed before going through
an encryption process. At the receiver side these
blocks are retransformed in to their original
position and performed a decryption process which
gives the original image. Advantage of this
approach, is that it reproduce the original image
with no loss of information for the encryption and
decryption process we used a blowfish algorithm.
Keywords: Image Encryption, Image Correlation,
Decryption, Image Entropy, Permutation.
1. INTRODUCTION
Encryption is a common technique to uphold image
security in storage and transmission of digital
images are exchanged over network types. Image
encryption has application in various fields include
internet communication, multimedia systems,
medical imaging and Telemedicine and military
communication. The information security has
become more important with the progress in the
exchange of data and various encryption systems to encrypt and decrypt image and no single encryption algorithm which is satisfied different types of image.
In order to dissipate the high correlation among pixels and increase the entropy value, we have introduced a transformation algorithm that divides the image into blocks and then shuffles their positions before it passes them to the encryption algorithm. In this case that correlation, histograms and entropy has used to measure the security level
of the images, advantages of this results in a lower
correlation , higher entropy value and a more
uniform histogram is compared to using the
blowfish encryption algorithm, measures to the
security level of the encrypted images. This is
similar or different encryption of the variable
length secret key is needed in the transformation
and encryption process, which is used to build the
secret transformation table with a variable number
of blocks. If the secret key is changed, another seed
will be generated and then the different secret
transformation table is obtained.
The variable secret key of the Blowfish encryption
algorithm is used to encrypt the transformed image.
This encryption process can be decreases the
mutual information among the encrypted image
variables and thus increasing the entropy value.
2. BACKGROUND
Image Encryption can become an integral part of
the image delivery process if encryption is the
process of transforming the information to insure
its security with the huge growth of computer
networks and the latest advances in digital
technologies. As a result, different security
techniques have been used to provide the required
protection [1][2]. Each type of data has its own
characteristics include high correlation among
pixels, bulk data capacity and high redundancy.
Hence, many different techniques should be used to
protect confidential image data from unauthorized
access.
The security level of digital images over network
has attracted much attention recently, and many
different image encryption methods have been proposed to enhance the security of these images
[1].
According to the image encryption scheme try to convert an image to another one that is hard to understand only. On the other side, image decryption retrieves the original image from the encrypted one. We believe that by proposing block based encryption and decryption algorithm, it will reduce to increasing the entropy value of the encrypted images as well as lower correlation.
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3. RELATED WORK
3.1 A Technique for image encryption using
Digital Signature
In this paper, Aloha Sinha and Kehar Singh [4] have proposed a new technique to encrypt an image for secure image transmission using digital signature of the original image is added to the encoded version of original image, the encoding of the images is done using an error control code. An error control code is determined in realtime on the
size of the original image. The digital Signature
enables the recipient of a message to authenticate
the sender of a message and verify that the message
is intact.
3.2
A
Lossless
Image
Encryption Using SCAN
Compression and
In this paper, S.S.Maniccam and N.G. Bourbakis
[5] have presented an image encryption using
SCAN pattern. The image encryption is performing
by SCAN based permutation of pixels and a
substitution rule which together form an iterated
product cipher, SCAN is a formal languagebased
two dimensional spatialaccessing methodology
which can efficiently specify and generate a wide
range of scanning paths or space filling curves,
which performs both lossless compression and
encryption of binary and gray scale image.
3.3
A
new
Mirror
like
Image
Encryption
Algorithm and its VLSI Architecture
In this paper, JiunIn Guo and JuiCheng Yen [6]
have proposed an new scheme efficient mirrorlike
image encryption (MIE) and Visual Cryptography
(VC) algorithm based on a binary sequence
generated from a chaotic system, an image is
scrambled according to these algorithm. This
algorithm has possessed low complexity, high
security and no distortion.
3.4 A New Chaotic Image Encryption Algorithm
In this paper, JuiCheng Yen and JiunIn Guo [7]
have proposed a new image encryption scheme
based on a chaotic system. It is used to create a
binary sequence again. The chaotic image
encryption algorithm is used for encryption of text
and images. But this algorithm does not have any compression scheme and authenticity verification.
3.5 A New Image Encryption Approach using a
combination of permutation techniques
In this paper, A.Mitra, Y.V. Subba Rao and S.R.M. Prasanna [3] have proposed a new random combinational image encryption approach with bit, pixel and block permutations. This perceivable information in an image ,it will reduced to
decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques,
whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher security level of the image compared to bit permutation.
4. PROPOSED APPROACH
A block diagram of the proposed algorithm is shown fig. 1
Original image
Transformation process
Key
Cipher image
Figure 1 Proposed Algorithm
5. PROPOSED ALGORITHM
The proposed algorithm is divided the image in to
it random number of blocks with predefined
maximum and minimum number of pixels,
resulting in a stronger encryption and a decreased
correlation.
Overview of the Transformation Algorithm
The transformation technique works as follows [1]
[2]: where the original image is divided into
number of blocks which are shuffled within the
image to build a newly transformed image. The
generated (or transformed image) is then fed to the
blowfish encryption algorithm and thus generated
one can be viewed as an arrangement of blocks.
This perceivable information can be reduced to
decreasing the correlation among the image
elements using certain transformation technique.
The secret key of this approach is used to
determine the seed. The seed plays as role in
building the transformation table which is then
used to generate the transformed image with
different random number of block sizes. In this
case, the transformation process refers to the operation of dividing and replacing an arrangement of the original image. Block based encryption and
decryption algorithm is based on the combination of image transformation followed by encrypted images and image measurements of correlation, entropy and histograms will be used to measure to the security of the original image, transformed images, encrypted images and decrypted image using the combination technique.
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The plain image (256color bitmap) can be decomposed into blocks; each one contains a specific number of pixels (5 pixels x 5pixels blocks) increasing number of block by using smaller block sizes is resulted in lower correlation and higher entropy. The blocks are transformed into its new locations. For better transformation in the block size should be small, because fewer pixels keep their neighbours. In this correlation will
be decreased and thus it becomes difficult to predict the value of any given pixel from the values
of its neighbours. At the receiver side, the original
image can be obtained by the inverse
transformation of the blocks.
An Overview of the Encryption Algorithm
In general the same key is used for both encrypting
and decrypting is grouped using private key
technique while there are two different asymmetric
key
techniques: public key for encryption and
private key for decryption. This transformation
process should be conducted by a user providing
secret key and the decryption process is the inverse
transformation to the cipher text using the same
key.
Blowfish encryption algorithm is a symmetric
block cipher that can be effectively used for
encryption and safeguarand of data just like DES or
IDEA. The blowfish encryption algorithm has been
analysed considerably and is gaining acceptance as
a existing encryption algorithm. The block size is
64 bits blocks and key can be any length up to 448
bits before encrypting them. It takes a variable
length key from 32 to 448 bits; All operations are
XORs and additions on 32 bits words [16] and
making it ideal for both domestic and exportable
use. In this algorithm is the part of system has to
generate key, through any key generating
algorithm.
Bitmap Image Encryption
Bitmap file is a type of uncompressed image format
all information about the image data store in it.
1. In the encryption process, data image as a
plaintext and the encryption key are two inputs of
encryption process. In this case, original image data
bit stream is divided into the blocks length of
Blowfish algorithm. Image header is excluded to
encrypt and the start of the bitmap pixel or array
begins right after the header of the file. The byte elements of the array are stored in row order from left to right with each row representing one scan line of the image and the rows of the image are encrypted from top to bottom.
2. In the decryption process, the encrypted image is divided into the same block length of Blowfish algorithm from top to bottom. The first block is entered to the decryption function and the same encryption key is used to decrypt the image but the application of sub keys is reversed. The process of decryption is continued with other blocks of the image from top to bottom.
Encrypted
Image
Decryption key
Blowfish
Original
Decrypted
Image
This sender and receiver side has to do following
steps:
5.1 At the Sender Side
Convert given image into blocks of n x n
Encrypt image each pixel using their
position (x, y). 

Encrypt 
image 
each 
block 
using 
the 
encryption key. 
Calculate the entropy and correlation for
security level of the image analysis.
It is Transfer the Image.
Algorithm Encrypt_Image
Image (image, n, pub_rec)
1: Load the plain Image (i.e. Original image)
2: 
calculate the Width and Height of the input 
image 

2.1: Lower Horizontal Number of Blocks = Integer 

(Image_Width / n) 

2.2: Lower Vertical Number of Blocks = Integer 

(Image_Height /n) 

3: 
No.of Blocks = HorizontalNumber of Blocks × 
VerticalNumber of Blocks
4: For n = 0 to No.ofBlocks 1
4.1: for x=0 to n1
4.2: for y=0 to n1
4.3: Encrypt image each pixel using their position
(x, y),
end
Perform_Encryption by pixel using their position
Perform_Encryption by Number of block
Input: Image blocks, Receiver public key for
encryption. 5: For n = 0 to No.of Blocks – 1 5.1: Encrypt image each block with the key of receiver, 6: Calculate correlation and entropy of this original
image and encrypted image
Output: Encrypted image with decreased
correlation and increased entropy value.
Algorithm Perform_Transformation
1: for i=0 to No.ofBlocks1
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1.1: Get the new location of block i from the transformation table 1.2: Set blocks i in its new location. END Perform_Transformation table Input: Original Image (BMP image) and Transformation table. Output: Transformed Image.
5.2 At the Receiver Side
Divide the received Image in n x n blocks
by sender
Decrypt 
image 
each 
block using the 

decryption key. 

Decrypt image each 
pixel 
using 
its 

position (x, y). 
Decrypted Image is the original.
Algorithm Decrypt_Image
Image (image, n, pub_rec,)
1: Load the plain Image (i.e. Original Image)
2: calculate the Width and Height of the image
3.1: Lower Horizontal Number of Blocks = Integer
(Image_Width / n) 

3.2: Lower Vertical Number of Blocks = Integer 

(Image _Height/n) 

4: 
No.of Blocks = HorizontalNumber of Blocks × 
VerticalNumber of Blocks
5: For n = 0 to No.of Blocks 1
5.1 Decrypt image each block with the key of
receiver,
end
Perform_Encryption by pixels using their position
Perform_Encryption by Number of block
Input: Image blocks, Receiver private key for
decryption.
6: For n = 0 to No.of Blocks – 1
6.1: for x=0 to n1
6.2: for y=0 to n1
6.3 decrypt image each pixel using their position
(x, y)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Figure 2 Frame (a), (d) and (g) Color image respectively show the Original image of Lena, Om and Airplane. Frame (b), (e) and (h) respectively show the Encrypted image (i.e. cipher
image). Frame (c), (f) and (i) respectively show the Decrypted
Image.
(j)
(l)
(m)
Figure 3: Frame (j) Gray Image show the original Image of
lena. (l) Show the Encrypted image. (m) Decrypted image.
Difference between Original image fig 2(a) and
Decrypted Image fig 2(c) is shown fig.4. so, there
is no loss of information if difference is always 0.
Figure 4 Difference Image (No loss of information)
This algorithm is applied on a bit mapped (bmp)
image that has the size of 300 pixels x 300 pixels
with 256 colors. In order to test the impact of the
number of blocks on the correlation and entropy,
three different cases are tested. The number of
blocks and the block sizes for each case are shown
in Table 1.
Table 1: the Number of Blocks on the
Correlation and Entropy
6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 
Case 
Number of 
Block Size 

Number 
Block 

1 
30 
x 30 
10 pixels 
x 
10 

pixels 

2 
60 
x 60 
5 
pixels x 5 pixels 

3 
100 x 100 
3 
pixels x 3 pixels 

(a) 
(b) 
(c) 

(d) 
(e) 
(f) 
(a) (b) 
(c) 

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(d)
Figure 5 Result of encryption by using block size.
(a)
Original image. (b) Transformed image using 10 pixel x 10 pixels. (c) Transformed image using 5
pixels x 5 pixels. (d) Transformed image using 3 pixels x 3 pixels.
Figure 6: (a) Original Image (b) Histograms of Original Image (c) Encrypted Image (d) Histograms of Encrypted Image
7. SECURITY ANALYSIS
A good encryption procedure should be robust
against all kinds of cryptanalytic, bruteforce and
statistical attacks. In this case, the performance of
the proposed algorithm is analyzed.
7.1 Key Space Analysis
For secure image encryption, the key space should
be large enough to make the brute force attack
infeasible. The proposed algorithm has 2
256 (a)
(b)
different combinations of the secret key. An image
cipher with such as a long key space is sufficient
for reliable practical use [11]. Furthermore, if we
Figure 6(a): (a) show the histograms of red, green and blue
channels of the original image (b) show the histograms of red,
green and blue channels of the encrypted image.
consider the two seed points of shuffler as part of
the key; the key space size will be even larger.
Hence, the key space of the proposed algorithm is
extensively large enough to resist the exhaustive of
bruteforce attacks.
7.2 Histogram Analysis
In the experiments, the original image and its
corresponding encrypted image and their
histograms of red, blue and green channels are
shown in fig 6 and 6(a). It is clear that the
histogram of the encrypted image is nearly
uniformly distributed, and significantly different
from the respective histograms of the original
image. So, the encrypted image does not provide
any clue to employ any statistical attack on the
7.3 Correlation of Two adjacent Pixels
Correlation is a measure of the relationship
between two variables if the two variables are the
original image and their encryptions then they are
in prefect in correlation. In this case the encrypted
image is the same as the original image and the
encryption process failed in hiding the details of the
original image. There is a very good correlation
between adjacent pixels in the image data. Then,
calculate their correlation coefficient using the
following two formulas [12]:
Cr=
N ∑ j1 ^{N} (x _{j} y _{j} )  ∑ j1 ^{N} x j X ∑ j1 ^{N} y j
(1)
√ [N ∑ _{j}_{}_{1} ^{N} x _{j} ^{2} – (∑ _{j}_{}_{1} ^{N} x _{j} ) ^{2} ][N ∑ _{j}_{}_{1} ^{N} y _{j} ^{2} – (∑ _{j}_{}_{1} ^{N} y _{i} ) ^{2} ]
proposed encryption of an image procedure, which
makes statistical attacks difficult.
These properties tell that the proposed image
encryption has high security against statistical
attacks. In the original image (i.e. plain image),
some grayscale values in the range [0, 255] are
still not existed, but every grayscale values in the
range [0, 255] are existed and uniformly distributed
in the encrypted image. Some grayscale values are
still not existed in the encrypted image although the existed grayscale values are uniformly distributed. Different images have been tested by the proposed image encryption procedure.
(a)
(b)
Where x and y are gray values of two adjacent
pixels in the original and encrypted image and N is
the total number of adjacent pixels selected from
the image. We randomly select 5000 pairs of two
adjacent pixels. If the correlation coefficient equals
zero, then the original image and its encryption are
totally different i.e. the encryption image has no
features and highly independent on the original
image. If the correlation coefficient equal 1, this means encrypted image is a negative of the original image. Figure 7 shows the distribution of two adjacent pixels in the original image and encrypted image. It is observed that adjacent pixels in the original image (i.e. plainimage) are correlated too
much, while there is a small correlation between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image. Result for correlation coefficients of two adjacent pixels is shown in Table 2 and Table 3.
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Table 2: Correlation of Two adjacent pixels
Adjacent Pixels 
Plain Image 
Cipher Image 
Orientation 

Horizontal 
0.9883 
0.0045 
Vertical 
0.9958 
0.0188 
(c)
(d)
Figure 7: Correlation of two adjacent pixels: (a) distribution of
two horizontally adjacent pixels in the original image, (b)
distribution of two horizontally adjacent pixels in the encrypted
image(i.e. cipher image), (c)distribution of two vertically
adjacent pixels in the original image, (d) distribution of two
vertically adjacent pixels in the cipherimage.
Table 3: Correlation coefficient of two adjacent
pixels in the proposed method
should not provide any information about the plain image. The information entropy is calculated using
equation (2)
He = ∑ _{k}_{=}_{0} ^{G}^{}^{1} P (k). log2 (P (k))
Where:
(2)
He= Entropy of image G = Gray value of an input image (0255). P (k) = Probability of the occurrence of symbol k
If each 
symbol has an equal probability then 
entropy He= 8 which corresponds to some random 

source. 
Table 4: Image Entropy
Image 
Number of Block 
Entropy Value 
Original 

7.5875 
Image fig 2(a) 

7.6807 

7.7173 


7.7565 

Encrypted 

7.9313 
Image fig2(b) 

7.9817 

7.9939 


7.9994 

7.5 Time Analysis 
In this work, all programs applied in simulating the
encryption algorithms, the security analysis, and an
Correlation coefficient Analysis 
efficient measuring methods used to produce the values of comparison criteria are designed by 

Adjacent pixels orientation 

Borland Delphi 5.0 and MATLAB 7.4 under Microsoft windows XP Professional Version 2002 

Image 
Number 
Service Pack 2 on, Intel(R) Pentium(R) CPU 

of Block 
Horizontal 
Vertical 

1.73GHz, 504 MB of RAM, and 80 GB harddisk 

capacity (Laptop computer). We also do the time 

Original Image(plain Image) Fig 2(a) 

0.3221 0.8790 0.9661 0.9706 
0.6861 0.9966 0.9518 0.9887 
analysis on it, but not ideal. The keysteam generation system consumes longer time. The test is applied on two selected bitmap images; each image is 512 × 512 pixels in size. The main interest 

lies in the 24 bit uncompressed RGB color mode, 

and 8 bits per pixel (bpp), or 256 intensity levels. 

Encrypted 

0.2503 
0.1554 

Image 
x 60 
0.3537 
Table 5: Time of Proposed algorithm (in Seconds) 

(Cipher Image) 


0.0548
0.0050 
0.0433 
Image (in 
Size (in 
Type 
Elapsed Time(in 
Encryption Time (in 
Decryption Time (In 

Fig 2(b) 
BMP) 
Pixels) 
Seconds) 
Seconds) 
Seconds) 

Lena 
x 
0.0396 





7.4. Image Entropy 

It is well known that entropy is measures the 
Lena 
x 

0.0255 



uncertainty association with random variable. As for grayscale image in Block Based Image Encryption decreases the mutual information 
Om 
x 

0.0733 



among encrypted image variables (i.e. high contrast) and thus increases the entropy value. A 
Airplane 
x 
0.0397 



secure cryptosystem should fulfil a condition on the 


information entropy that is the ciphered image 

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Aditee Gautam* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 090  096
8. Conclusion
In this paper, proposed algorithm the images has improved for image security using a combination of image transformation and encryption techniques.
The cases showed that the correlation is decreased when the proposed algorithm is applied to them before the encryption algorithm. Experimental results of the proposed technique showed that an inverse relationship exists between number of blocks and correlation, a direct relationship between number of blocks and entropy. The
proposed algorithm will expect in the best
performance; the lowest correlation and the highest
entropy.
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