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Aditee Gautam* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 090 - 096

A New Image Encryption Approach Using Block Based Transformation Algorithm

Aditee Gautam 1 , Meenakshi Panwar 2 , Dr.P.R Gupta 3

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC)

B-30, Institutional Area, Sector- 62, Noida, India

Abstract: Encryption is mainly used to transmit

the data over networks. There are so many

techniques introduced which are used to protect the

confidential image data from any unauthorized

access. Multimedia data contains different types of

data that includes text, audio, video, graphic,

images with the increasing use of multimedia data

over internet, here comes a demand of secure

multimedia data. Most of the encryption algorithm

available is generally used for text data and not

suitable for multimedia data. In this paper we

discuss a block based transformation algorithm in

which image is divided in to number of blocks.

These blocks are transformed before going through

an encryption process. At the receiver side these

blocks are retransformed in to their original

position and performed a decryption process which

gives the original image. Advantage of this

approach, is that it reproduce the original image

with no loss of information for the encryption and

decryption process we used a blowfish algorithm.

Keywords: Image Encryption, Image Correlation,

Decryption, Image Entropy, Permutation.

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

Encryption is a common technique to uphold image

security in storage and transmission of digital

images are exchanged over network types. Image

encryption has application in various fields include

internet communication, multimedia systems,

medical imaging and Tele-medicine and military

communication. The information security has

become more important with the progress in the

exchange of data and various encryption systems to encrypt and decrypt image and no single encryption algorithm which is satisfied different types of image.

In order to dissipate the high correlation among pixels and increase the entropy value, we have introduced a transformation algorithm that divides the image into blocks and then shuffles their positions before it passes them to the encryption algorithm. In this case that correlation, histograms and entropy has used to measure the security level

of the images, advantages of this results in a lower

correlation , higher entropy value and a more

uniform histogram is compared to using the

blowfish encryption algorithm, measures to the

security level of the encrypted images. This is

similar or different encryption of the variable

length secret key is needed in the transformation

and encryption process, which is used to build the

secret transformation table with a variable number

of blocks. If the secret key is changed, another seed

will be generated and then the different secret

transformation table is obtained.

The variable secret key of the Blowfish encryption

algorithm is used to encrypt the transformed image.

This encryption process can be decreases the

mutual information among the encrypted image

variables and thus increasing the entropy value.

2. BACKGROUND

Image Encryption can become an integral part of

the image delivery process if encryption is the

process of transforming the information to insure

its security with the huge growth of computer

networks and the latest advances in digital

technologies. As a result, different security

techniques have been used to provide the required

protection [1]-[2]. Each type of data has its own

characteristics include high correlation among

pixels, bulk data capacity and high redundancy.

Hence, many different techniques should be used to

protect confidential image data from unauthorized

access.

The security level of digital images over network

has attracted much attention recently, and many

different image encryption methods have been proposed to enhance the security of these images

[1].

According to the image encryption scheme try to convert an image to another one that is hard to understand only. On the other side, image decryption retrieves the original image from the encrypted one. We believe that by proposing block based encryption and decryption algorithm, it will reduce to increasing the entropy value of the encrypted images as well as lower correlation.

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3. RELATED WORK

  • 3.1 A Technique for image encryption using

Digital Signature

In this paper, Aloha Sinha and Kehar Singh [4] have proposed a new technique to encrypt an image for secure image transmission using digital signature of the original image is added to the encoded version of original image, the encoding of the images is done using an error control code. An error control code is determined in real-time on the

size of the original image. The digital Signature

enables the recipient of a message to authenticate

the sender of a message and verify that the message

is intact.

3.2

A

Lossless

Image

Encryption Using SCAN

Compression and

In this paper, S.S.Maniccam and N.G. Bourbakis

[5] have presented an image encryption using

SCAN pattern. The image encryption is performing

by SCAN based permutation of pixels and a

substitution rule which together form an iterated

product cipher, SCAN is a formal language-based

two dimensional spatial-accessing methodology

which can efficiently specify and generate a wide

range of scanning paths or space filling curves,

which performs both lossless compression and

encryption of binary and gray scale image.

3.3

A

new

Mirror

like

Image

Encryption

Algorithm and its VLSI Architecture

In this paper, Jiun-In Guo and Jui-Cheng Yen [6]

have proposed an new scheme efficient mirror-like

image encryption (MIE) and Visual Cryptography

(VC) algorithm based on a binary sequence

generated from a chaotic system, an image is

scrambled according to these algorithm. This

algorithm has possessed low complexity, high

security and no distortion.

  • 3.4 A New Chaotic Image Encryption Algorithm

In this paper, Jui-Cheng Yen and Jiun-In Guo [7]

have proposed a new image encryption scheme

based on a chaotic system. It is used to create a

binary sequence again. The chaotic image

encryption algorithm is used for encryption of text

and images. But this algorithm does not have any compression scheme and authenticity verification.

  • 3.5 A New Image Encryption Approach using a

combination of permutation techniques

In this paper, A.Mitra, Y.V. Subba Rao and S.R.M. Prasanna [3] have proposed a new random combinational image encryption approach with bit, pixel and block permutations. This perceivable information in an image ,it will reduced to

decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques,

whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher security level of the image compared to bit permutation.

4. PROPOSED APPROACH

A block diagram of the proposed algorithm is shown fig. 1

Original image

Transformation process

Key

Encryption process
Encryption process

Cipher image

Figure 1 Proposed Algorithm

  • 5. PROPOSED ALGORITHM

The proposed algorithm is divided the image in to

it random number of blocks with predefined

maximum and minimum number of pixels,

resulting in a stronger encryption and a decreased

correlation.

Overview of the Transformation Algorithm

The transformation technique works as follows [1]

[2]: where the original image is divided into

number of blocks which are shuffled within the

image to build a newly transformed image. The

generated (or transformed image) is then fed to the

blowfish encryption algorithm and thus generated

one can be viewed as an arrangement of blocks.

This perceivable information can be reduced to

decreasing the correlation among the image

elements using certain transformation technique.

The secret key of this approach is used to

determine the seed. The seed plays as role in

building the transformation table which is then

used to generate the transformed image with

different random number of block sizes. In this

case, the transformation process refers to the operation of dividing and replacing an arrangement of the original image. Block based encryption and

decryption algorithm is based on the combination of image transformation followed by encrypted images and image measurements of correlation, entropy and histograms will be used to measure to the security of the original image, transformed images, encrypted images and decrypted image using the combination technique.

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The plain image (256-color bitmap) can be decomposed into blocks; each one contains a specific number of pixels (5 pixels x 5pixels blocks) increasing number of block by using smaller block sizes is resulted in lower correlation and higher entropy. The blocks are transformed into its new locations. For better transformation in the block size should be small, because fewer pixels keep their neighbours. In this correlation will

be decreased and thus it becomes difficult to predict the value of any given pixel from the values

of its neighbours. At the receiver side, the original

image can be obtained by the inverse

transformation of the blocks.

An Overview of the Encryption Algorithm

In general the same key is used for both encrypting

and decrypting is grouped using private key

technique while there are two different asymmetric

key

techniques: public key for encryption and

private key for decryption. This transformation

process should be conducted by a user providing

secret key and the decryption process is the inverse

transformation to the cipher text using the same

key.

Blowfish encryption algorithm is a symmetric

block cipher that can be effectively used for

encryption and safeguarand of data just like DES or

IDEA. The blowfish encryption algorithm has been

analysed considerably and is gaining acceptance as

a existing encryption algorithm. The block size is

64 bits blocks and key can be any length up to 448

bits before encrypting them. It takes a variable

length key from 32 to 448 bits; All operations are

XORs and additions on 32 bits words [16] and

making it ideal for both domestic and exportable

use. In this algorithm is the part of system has to

generate key, through any key generating

algorithm.

Bitmap Image Encryption

Bitmap file is a type of uncompressed image format

all information about the image data store in it.

  • 1. In the encryption process, data image as a

plaintext and the encryption key are two inputs of

encryption process. In this case, original image data

bit stream is divided into the blocks length of

Blowfish algorithm. Image header is excluded to

encrypt and the start of the bitmap pixel or array

begins right after the header of the file. The byte elements of the array are stored in row order from left to right with each row representing one scan line of the image and the rows of the image are encrypted from top to bottom.

Encryption key Original Image Blowfish
Encryption key
Original
Image
Blowfish
Encrypted Image
Encrypted
Image

2. In the decryption process, the encrypted image is divided into the same block length of Blowfish algorithm from top to bottom. The first block is entered to the decryption function and the same encryption key is used to decrypt the image but the application of sub keys is reversed. The process of decryption is continued with other blocks of the image from top to bottom.

Encrypted

Image

Decryption key

Blowfish

Original

Decrypted

Image

This sender and receiver side has to do following

steps:

5.1 At the Sender Side

Convert given image into blocks of n x n

Encrypt image each pixel using their

position (x, y).

 

Encrypt

image

each

block

using

the

encryption key.

 

Calculate the entropy and correlation for

security level of the image analysis.

It is Transfer the Image.

Algorithm Encrypt_Image

Image (image, n, pub_rec)

1: Load the plain Image (i.e. Original image)

2:

calculate the Width and Height of the input

image

2.1: Lower Horizontal Number of Blocks = Integer

(Image_Width / n)

2.2: Lower Vertical Number of Blocks = Integer

(Image_Height /n)

3:

No.of Blocks = HorizontalNumber of Blocks ×

VerticalNumber of Blocks

4: For n = 0 to No.ofBlocks -1

4.1: for x=0 to n-1

4.2: for y=0 to n-1

4.3: Encrypt image each pixel using their position

(x, y),

end

Perform_Encryption by pixel using their position

Perform_Encryption by Number of block

Input: Image blocks, Receiver public key for

encryption. 5: For n = 0 to No.of Blocks – 1 5.1: Encrypt image each block with the key of receiver, 6: Calculate correlation and entropy of this original

image and encrypted image

Output: Encrypted image with decreased

correlation and increased entropy value.

Algorithm Perform_Transformation

1: for i=0 to No.ofBlocks-1

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1.1: Get the new location of block i from the transformation table 1.2: Set blocks i in its new location. END Perform_Transformation table Input: Original Image (BMP image) and Transformation table. Output: Transformed Image.

5.2 At the Receiver Side

Divide the received Image in n x n blocks

by sender

Decrypt

image

each

block using the

decryption key.

 

Decrypt image each

pixel

using

its

position (x, y).

 

Decrypted Image is the original.

Algorithm Decrypt_Image

Image (image, n, pub_rec,)

1: Load the plain Image (i.e. Original Image)

2: calculate the Width and Height of the image

3.1: Lower Horizontal Number of Blocks = Integer

(Image_Width / n)

3.2: Lower Vertical Number of Blocks = Integer

(Image _Height/n)

4:

No.of Blocks = HorizontalNumber of Blocks ×

VerticalNumber of Blocks

5: For n = 0 to No.of Blocks -1

5.1 Decrypt image each block with the key of

receiver,

end

Perform_Encryption by pixels using their position

Perform_Encryption by Number of block

Input: Image blocks, Receiver private key for

decryption.

6: For n = 0 to No.of Blocks – 1

6.1: for x=0 to n-1

6.2: for y=0 to n-1

6.3 decrypt image each pixel using their position

(x, y)

Aditee Gautam* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.

(g)

(h)

(i)

Figure 2 Frame (a), (d) and (g) Color image respectively show the Original image of Lena, Om and Airplane. Frame (b), (e) and (h) respectively show the Encrypted image (i.e. cipher

image). Frame (c), (f) and (i) respectively show the Decrypted

Image.

(j)

(l)

(m)

Figure 3: Frame (j) Gray Image show the original Image of

lena. (l) Show the Encrypted image. (m) Decrypted image.

Difference between Original image fig 2(a) and

Decrypted Image fig 2(c) is shown fig.4. so, there

is no loss of information if difference is always 0.

Figure 4 Difference Image (No loss of information)

This algorithm is applied on a bit mapped (bmp)

image that has the size of 300 pixels x 300 pixels

with 256 colors. In order to test the impact of the

number of blocks on the correlation and entropy,

three different cases are tested. The number of

blocks and the block sizes for each case are shown

in Table 1.

Table 1: the Number of Blocks on the

Correlation and Entropy

6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

 

Case

Number of

 

Block Size

 
 

Number

Block

 

1

30

x 30

 

10

pixels

x

10

 

pixels

 

2

60

x 60

5

pixels x 5 pixels

3

100 x 100

3

pixels x 3 pixels

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(d)

(e)
(e)
(e)

(e)

(f)

(f)

(a) (b)

(a)

(a) (b)

(b)

(c)

(c)

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Aditee Gautam* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.

(d)

Figure 5 Result of encryption by using block size.

(a)

Original image. (b) Transformed image using 10 pixel x 10 pixels. (c) Transformed image using 5

pixels x 5 pixels. (d) Transformed image using 3 pixels x 3 pixels.

(c) (d)
(c)
(d)

Figure 6: (a) Original Image (b) Histograms of Original Image (c) Encrypted Image (d) Histograms of Encrypted Image

7. SECURITY ANALYSIS

A good encryption procedure should be robust

against all kinds of cryptanalytic, brute-force and

statistical attacks. In this case, the performance of

the proposed algorithm is analyzed.

  • 7.1 Key Space Analysis

For secure image encryption, the key space should

be large enough to make the brute force attack

infeasible. The proposed algorithm has 2

  • 256 (a)

(b)

different combinations of the secret key. An image

cipher with such as a long key space is sufficient

for reliable practical use [11]. Furthermore, if we

Figure 6(a): (a) show the histograms of red, green and blue

channels of the original image (b) show the histograms of red,

green and blue channels of the encrypted image.

consider the two seed points of shuffler as part of

the key; the key space size will be even larger.

Hence, the key space of the proposed algorithm is

extensively large enough to resist the exhaustive of

brute-force attacks.

  • 7.2 Histogram Analysis

In the experiments, the original image and its

corresponding encrypted image and their

histograms of red, blue and green channels are

shown in fig 6 and 6(a). It is clear that the

histogram of the encrypted image is nearly

uniformly distributed, and significantly different

from the respective histograms of the original

image. So, the encrypted image does not provide

any clue to employ any statistical attack on the

7.3 Correlation of Two adjacent Pixels

Correlation is a measure of the relationship

between two variables if the two variables are the

original image and their encryptions then they are

in prefect in correlation. In this case the encrypted

image is the same as the original image and the

encryption process failed in hiding the details of the

original image. There is a very good correlation

between adjacent pixels in the image data. Then,

calculate their correlation coefficient using the

following two formulas [12]:

Cr=

N ∑ j-1 N (x j y j ) - ∑ j-1 N x j X ∑ j-1 N y j

(1)

√ [N ∑ j-1 N x j 2 – (∑ j-1 N x j ) 2 ][N ∑ j-1 N y j 2 – (∑ j-1 N y i ) 2 ]

proposed encryption of an image procedure, which

makes statistical attacks difficult.

These properties tell that the proposed image

encryption has high security against statistical

attacks. In the original image (i.e. plain image),

some gray-scale values in the range [0, 255] are

still not existed, but every gray-scale values in the

range [0, 255] are existed and uniformly distributed

in the encrypted image. Some gray-scale values are

still not existed in the encrypted image although the existed gray-scale values are uniformly distributed. Different images have been tested by the proposed image encryption procedure.

Aditee Gautam* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.

(a)

Aditee Gautam* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.

(b)

Where x and y are gray values of two adjacent

pixels in the original and encrypted image and N is

the total number of adjacent pixels selected from

the image. We randomly select 5000 pairs of two

adjacent pixels. If the correlation coefficient equals

zero, then the original image and its encryption are

totally different i.e. the encryption image has no

features and highly independent on the original

image. If the correlation coefficient equal -1, this means encrypted image is a negative of the original image. Figure 7 shows the distribution of two adjacent pixels in the original image and encrypted- image. It is observed that adjacent pixels in the original image (i.e. plain-image) are correlated too

much, while there is a small correlation between adjacent pixels in the encrypted image. Result for correlation coefficients of two adjacent pixels is shown in Table 2 and Table 3.

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Table 2: Correlation of Two adjacent pixels

Adjacent Pixels

Plain Image

Cipher Image

Orientation

Horizontal

0.9883

0.0045

Vertical

0.9958

-0.0188

(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 7: Correlation of two adjacent pixels: (a) distribution of

two horizontally adjacent pixels in the original image, (b)

distribution of two horizontally adjacent pixels in the encrypted-

image(i.e. cipher image), (c)distribution of two vertically

adjacent pixels in the original image, (d) distribution of two

vertically adjacent pixels in the cipher-image.

Table 3: Correlation coefficient of two adjacent

pixels in the proposed method

should not provide any information about the plain image. The information entropy is calculated using

equation (2)

He = -∑ k=0 G-1 P (k). log2 (P (k))

Where:

(2)

He= Entropy of image G = Gray value of an input image (0-255). P (k) = Probability of the occurrence of symbol k

If each

symbol has an equal probability then

entropy He= 8 which corresponds to some random

source.

Table 4: Image Entropy

Image

Number of Block

Entropy Value

Original

  • 30 x 30

7.5875

Image fig 2(a)

  • 60 x 60

7.6807

  • 100 x 100

7.7173

  • 300 x 300

7.7565

Encrypted

  • 30 x 30

7.9313

Image fig2(b)

  • 60 x 60

7.9817

  • 100 x 100

7.9939

  • 300 x 300

7.9994

7.5 Time Analysis

In this work, all programs applied in simulating the

encryption algorithms, the security analysis, and an

Correlation coefficient Analysis

   

efficient measuring methods used to produce the

values of comparison criteria are designed by

   

Adjacent pixels

orientation

Borland Delphi 5.0 and MATLAB 7.4 under

Microsoft windows XP Professional Version 2002

Image

Number

 

Service Pack 2 on, Intel(R) Pentium(R) CPU

of Block

Horizontal

Vertical

1.73GHz, 504 MB of RAM, and 80 GB hard-disk

     

capacity (Laptop computer). We also do the time

       

Original

Image(plain

Image)

Fig 2(a)

  • 30 x 30

  • 60 x 60

  • 100 x 100

  • 300 x 300

0.3221

0.8790

0.9661

0.9706

0.6861

0.9966

0.9518

0.9887

analysis on it, but not ideal. The keysteam

generation system consumes longer time. The test

is applied on two selected bitmap images; each

image is 512 × 512 pixels in size. The main interest

lies in the 24 bit uncompressed RGB color mode,

and 8 bits per pixel (bpp), or 256 intensity levels.

Encrypted

  • 30 x 30

0.2503

0.1554

Image

  • 60 -0.1846

x 60

-0.3537

Table 5: Time of Proposed algorithm (in Seconds)

(Cipher

Image)

           
  • 100 x 100 x 300

0.0548

  • 300 -0.0619

0.0050

0.0433

Image

(in

Size

(in

Type

Elapsed

Time(in

Encryption

Time (in

Decryption

Time (In

Fig 2(b)

BMP)

Pixels)

Seconds)

Seconds)

Seconds)

Lena

  • 256 Color

x

 

0.0396

  • 0.0906 sec

  • 0.0889 sec

 
  • 256 sec

7.4. Image Entropy

             

It is well known that entropy is measures the

Lena

  • 300 Gray

x

  • 300 sec

0.0255

  • 0.1389 sec

  • 0.1372 sec

uncertainty association with random variable. As for grayscale image in Block Based Image Encryption decreases the mutual information

Om

  • 512 Color

x

  • 512 sec

0.0733

  • 0.2443 sec

  • 0.2407 sec

among encrypted image variables (i.e. high contrast) and thus increases the entropy value. A

Airplane

  • 256 Color

x

 

0.0397

  • 0.0907 sec

  • 0.0927 sec

secure cryptosystem should fulfil a condition on the

  • 256 sec

information entropy that is the ciphered image

 

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8. Conclusion

In this paper, proposed algorithm the images has improved for image security using a combination of image transformation and encryption techniques.

The cases showed that the correlation is decreased when the proposed algorithm is applied to them before the encryption algorithm. Experimental results of the proposed technique showed that an inverse relationship exists between number of blocks and correlation, a direct relationship between number of blocks and entropy. The

proposed algorithm will expect in the best

performance; the lowest correlation and the highest

entropy.

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M.

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