General Telecom

Telecom Concepts 2000

Handout

770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07

Status Change Note

Released

Short Title Telecom Concepts 2000 All rights reserved. Passing on and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization from Alcatel.

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770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07

Contents

Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 3 Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13 14 15 15 17 19 19 20 20 21 22 24 27 28 30 33 34 35 36 36 40 41 44 54 59 59 64 69 69 72 73 79 81 83 84

Text Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Core Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Network Structures and Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Point to Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 Star Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Meshed Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 Ring Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.5 Tree Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Links : Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) . 3.2.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) . . . 3.2.3 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) 3.2.4 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5 Repeaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nodes : Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Switching Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Cross Connection (XC), Add Drop Mux (ADM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Circuit Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4 Packet Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analogue Line Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISDN Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concentrating Remote Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital Subscriber Line, ADSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber in the Loop (FITL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Microwave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2

3.3

4

Access Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10

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. . . . 4. .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .4.10. . .1. . .2 Services Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . Internet Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .9 6 6. . . . . . . . . 84 87 89 92 93 94 95 97 98 99 100 100 101 104 105 109 109 109 110 111 111 112 114 115 115 115 115 116 116 117 120 121 121 122 123 125 125 125 126 128 128 Customer Premises Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .2 Network Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . Internet Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4. . . . . .13 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5.Contents 4. . . . . . 5. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Virtual Private Network . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .4 Systems . . . .3 ISDN Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . 5. . . . . . . GSM 1800 / GSM 1900 . . .2 ISDN Modem . . . . .2 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) .3 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Satellite Frequencies . . 5. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .7 5. . . . . . . .4 Local Area Network . . .1 Analog Telephone . . . . . . . Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . 5.1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .1 Network Services . . . . .3 GSM Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Satellite Data . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Fax . . . . . . . . Screenphone . . . . . . Supplementary Services . . . . . Pager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Computer . .5 Mobile Phone . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ADSI/CLASS Telephone . . .4 Other Mobile Evolutions . . . . 5. . . . . .10. .10. . . . . . . . . . . .17 5 5. DECT . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . UMTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal Digital Assistant . . . Private Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mobile Data . . .15. . . . . . . Web-TV . . . . Computer Network . .12 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 4. . . .4 Facsimile. . . . .15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Analog Modem . . Third Generation Mobile . . . .15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 4. Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Centrex . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.10. Computer. . . . .15. . . 6. . . . . .3. . . . .3 5. . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) . 5. . . . . 6. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 . . . . . . .

. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internet Services . . Asynchronous. . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . Synchronous . . . . . . . . . . . . The Race for Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . Time . . . Plesiochronous.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Internet Telephony . . . . . . . . MultiMedia . . . . 6. . . . . . . . 07 5 / 190 . . . . . . .Frequency . 6. . . . . . . Mobile Telephony Services . . . . . . . . . . . the Frequency Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . a Protocol Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Concentration .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Appendix K Appendix L Appendix M Appendix N Appendix O Analog versus Digital . .1 Telecom Network Management (TMN) .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 6. 6. . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Code . .Contents 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality of Service (QOS) . . . .6 7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 129 129 129 132 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 145 145 145 148 151 157 165 167 168 169 171 173 Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modulation & Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Intelligent Networks . .3 Proxy Server . . . . . . . . .1 Internet Access Provider . . . . . . Standards . .2 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analog to Digital . . . . . Links to Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection-Oriented vs. . .4. . . . . .2 Services Overview . . . . . Connectionless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real Life Networks and their Features 174 175 177 180 181 183 184 185 188 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . A Call Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 FireWall . . . . .3 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Text structure maps on 5 aspects of Telecom Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coupling PDH and SDH . . . . . Time Switching : 4*4 time-switch . . . User Information versus Signalling Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Folded View. . . . . . example 3 : Map with European Fiber links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchical Structure of the Telephone Network : Multi-Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Unshielded) Twisted Pair. . . . . . . . . . . Network evolution with Access Nodes : view from the sky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ring Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IP ATM and SDH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Point to Point network . . . . . . . . Separation of Signalling Network and User Data Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . example 1 : the first Internet plan . . . . . . MultiService Access Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . example 2 : todays complex networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplexing Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combining WDM and TDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Space Switching : 4*5 space-switch . . . . Multiplexing Hierarchy . 07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protection Switching . Cascading switching elements . . Star network . . IP Packet (IPv4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network evolution with Access Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STM versus ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meshed Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic E1 structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchical Networks . Self Healing Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATM versus IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analogue Access . . . Hierarchical Structure of the Telephone Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio : Microwave Dish and other antenna's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 20 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 28 30 31 33 34 37 38 38 39 40 41 42 43 48 48 51 52 53 56 57 61 61 62 63 65 65 66 68 70 6 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back to Back versus Add-Drop Multiplexer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Access to Several Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATM Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backbone Network : example Telenet . . Reflection Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hierarchical Networks : example Telenet . . . . . . . . . . . Optical Fiber (8 fibers) . . Modular Structure of CCS #7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Space Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . Aplio Internet Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Satellite Systems . . . . . . 71 71 74 74 75 77 78 78 79 80 80 81 82 85 86 89 90 91 92 95 96 97 99 100 101 102 103 105 107 110 111 111 114 114 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 129 133 137 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. . . ADSL Frequency Spectrum . . . . ADSL Network Termination . . . . . . . Network Elements for Short Message Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intelligent Network Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analog or ISDN Dial-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DECT Frequency/TDM Structure . . . . . . . . Iridium logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discrete Multi-Tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3COM Palm V and Alcatel One Touch Com . . . . . . . . Ethernet LAN without / with a Hub . . . Nortel ADSI Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Swatch Paging Wristwatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internet Access : Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ericsson T28 GSM with Bluetooth wireless ear and microphone . . . . . Centrex . . Example of Frequency Planning : groups of 7 frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parabolic dish to GeoStationary Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hybrid Fiber Coax evolution : Full Coax Star Network . . . . . Alcatel 2810. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internet Access via combination Modem / Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcatel 21XX. . . . . . . Sony Web-TV : set-top box and remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUN Microsystems JavaStation. GSM Network Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a Network Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobile Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM Frequency/TDM Structure . . ADSL . . . . Alcatel 'Web Touch' . . . . . . 07 7 / 190 . . . . Internet Access Provider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internet Access Provider. . . . . . . . . . . ADSL Access on ATM core Network . . . . . . . . . . . . Coax Tail Typical spectrum allocation for Cable-Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Token Ring LAN without / with a Hub . . . . . .Contents Figure 44 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 Figure 72 Figure 73 Figure 74 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 79 Figure 80 Figure 81 Figure 82 Figure 83 Figure 84 Figure 85 Figure 86 Figure 87 Figure 88 ISDN Basic Rate Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Elements for WireLess Access Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISDN Primary Rate Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS Network Structure . . Hybrid Fiber Coax evolution : Optical Backbone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISDN Telephone . Globalstar logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber in the Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motorola Pager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analog Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mixed GSM / ISDN Modem Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IP on ATM over ADSL . . . . . . Different DSL techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning of Bluetooth in Bandwidth versus Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SkyBridge logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . Voice over IP functionality in Gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SNMP Protocol Stack . . . . . . . . ISO logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . One Touch Com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ETSI logo . . . . . . . Proxy Server . . . Overlapping Businesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management Network . . . . . . . 138 138 139 140 141 141 147 150 172 177 177 178 178 178 180 181 183 184 186 186 187 8 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. . . . . . . . . Internet Access Provider. . . Frequency Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATM Forum logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MultiMedia . . Bellcore logo . . . . . . . . Voice over IP all functionality in the terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 QAM : Quadrature Amplitude Modulation .Contents Figure 89 Figure 90 Figure 91 Figure 92 Figure 93 Figure 94 Figure 95 Figure 96 Figure 97 Figure 98 Figure 99 Figure 100 Figure 101 Figure 102 Figure 103 Figure 104 Figure 105 Figure 106 Figure 107 Figure 108 Figure 109 Internet Access Provider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diamond Multimedia RIO mp3 player. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FireWall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ISDN Local Call Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ITU logo . . . . . . . . . . Bandwidth growth predictions . . . . Protocol Stack . 07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy . . . . . PDH versus SDH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Active/Passive Optical Networks . . . SDH Multiplex Signals. . . . . . Routing/Connection Table Contents : . . . . . SDH Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STM versus ATM . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Voice versus Data . . . . . . . . . Types of Access Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STMn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 29 31 32 33 36 39 50 60 83 101 166 176 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Satellite Frequency Bands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection Oriented versus Connection-Less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analogue versus Digital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 9 / 190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

07 .Contents 10 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

alcatel.bec. suggestion or anything else.alcatel. a Web site : http://aww. All are derived from the same single source.bel.alcatel. principles are generalized. the course points you. At the Web site. a Printerleaf.be If you want to discuss about this material. just presented under a different medium. and as such contain the same information. where-ever possible. not to say a revolution. you are welcome to send it to : tc2000@bec. " As the Telecom business undergoes a rapid evolution. the introduction goes wide. PostScript or Portable Document Format (PDF) file which can be used to locally view or print a copy of the paper handout. overviews and comparisons are made.be/tc2000 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.bec. This material may come to you in one or more of three media : " " " a paper copy handout. there is the possibility to download : " a Zipped version of the whole Web site. For more details. If you'd like to contribute a comment. 07 11 / 190 . allowing you to browse it Off-line. to additional more in-depth information. this material needs constant updating.bel.be/users/o/ot/GETE/1100E a CD-rom version of paper text and Web-site. As this area is quite large. you can tune into the newsgroups news://news.Preface Preface The purpose of this Telecom Concepts 2000 course is to introduce you to the basic principles and techniques used in the Telecom business. rather than deep : all relevant concepts are explained.bel.

Conversion to HyperText Markup Language (HTML) with ACDS Export HTML tuning with Home-Made Excel Macro's " " 12 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 .Preface Telecom Concepts 2000 was developed using : " " Platform was Compaq Armada 7700 running Win98 Interleaf 6 with Alcatel Customer Documentation Standard (ACDS) 3.

07 13 / 190 . Rather this text will try to describe these technologies or principles in the order in which you would act if you were to build such a system or network yourself : a) the Core Network b) the Access Network c) the Terminals d) the Services e) the Network Management However. also called speech data As we are heading towards a multi-media communicating world. In the past there were mainly two distinct types of information : " " voice. some basic understanding of the specifics and differences of voice and data communication is important. Therefore both are introduced here. Therefore this text will no longer categorize all telecom technologies in either the voice-world or the data-world. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.1 Introduction 1 Introduction Telecom systems provide a service to their users which is all about transporting information. the difference between these two types becomes blurred or no longer relevant.

1 Introduction Network Management Services Terminal Access Network Core Network Access Network Core Network Figure 1 Text structure maps on 5 aspects of Telecom Networks 1. because the more samples. This is done by Sampling the soundwaves : measuring their shape. refer to appendix A) When communicating voice digitally. the soundwaves in the air must be digitalized.transport . the telecom community agreed to take 8000 samples per second. comparison of analog versus digital.1 Voice The majority of all telecommunication today uses Digital techniques. you create a continuous stream of information flow : every second you generate . and this costs money. To be able to reconstruct the voice with sufficient quality. This will not result into perfect audio-quality. and the dominance of digital is so strong that in this text we will neglect Analog communication almost completely. As you are converting the soundwaves to digital numbers. but is enough to understand the person on the other side of the line.terminate 8000*8 = 64000 bits. the more digital numbers needs to be transmitted. 07 . At the receiver. each 8 bits precise. This is a trade-off. and converting this measurement into numbers. These numbers are a digital form of the voice signal. the number of samples taken (called the Sampling-rate) and the accuracy of each sample (called the Resolution) must be sufficient. (For an explanation. This 14 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. As a good compromise for understandable voice. the measurement-values (called samples) are used to reconstruct the original soundwave.

the longer the call lasts. can be compared as follows : 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. where only 64 kbps for a telephone line. This continuous stream lasts as long as the phone conversation lasts. Although this is no strict rule. Typically a computer needs some limited input data.1 Introduction amount is called the Bit-rate. typically a few minutes. 1. So one computer sends a packet of input to the other computer. an audio CD signal uses 44100 samples per second. and then responds with a limited amount of result data.3 Comparison The two above communication mechanisms are fundamentally different. then processes this.2 Data When computers or machines communicate with each other. whereas the majority of data uses packet switching. Note As a comparison. and then returns a packet with the results. As a result a single digital voice connection is often referred to as a 64 kbps (kilo-bits-per-second). which processes it. From this explanation. Note 1. and it is important to understand this in order to understand the future evolution of the telecom industry. 07 15 / 190 . they usually don't send a continuous stream of information. You will agree that CD sound quality is much better than a phone-line. each 16 bit precision. and two channels (left+right) to provide stereo.411 Mbps for the CD. circuit switching (voice) and packet switching (data). today the majority of voice is transported using synchronous circuit switching. Therefore data communication is using the concept of information packets : a group of information bits. (These terms will be explained in more detail later) Given this simplification. but the price for this is that you need to transport 1. it is clear why telephone calls are usually charged as a function of the duration : each second 64000 bits need to be handled by the telecom system. the more total bits need to be handled.

and different services can be realized using the same transport mode. 07 . Strictly speaking transport mode and service are independent of each other : a service can be realized using different transport modes. The aspect of using circuit or packet switching to accomplish this is called the Transport Mode or also Bearer Capability. 16 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.1 Introduction Table 1 Voice versus Data Packet Switching : Data Undefined time between packets Bitrate can be anything Bitrate can vary dynamically Circuit Switching : Voice Fixed time between samples Bitrate is multiple of 64 kbps Bitrate is fixed during 'the call' Note The aspect of transporting voice or data is called the Service : the function you deliver to the end-user.

As an example. access network and terminals) this network can be used for several different functions. The services or features which are important for the network provider. the Access Network : this is the part of the network that allows the user to get him onto the core network. So different services can be offered. When thinking about the classical telephone network. Highways don't pass next to each house. When comparing with the roads network. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. a mobile phone. a local network of computers. when you have the classical telephone network. The Core Network is also called the BackBone.o. are described together with the description of each of the technologies. the core network maps onto the Highways. Most of the access network is only used by a limited number of users. by making a call to you at a specified time. the Network Services : when we have a network (by installing a core network. In this chapter the services made available to the end-user are described. whereby all telephone exchanges are interconnected. Simple examples are a telephone. and a set of appendices. See also Figure 1.) to : D D " " " make voice communications between two persons let the network wake you up.2 Text Structure 2 Text Structure This text is divided into four chapters. the Customer Premises Equipment : this is the equipment which the end user uses. a computer with modem. The four chapters cover the most important telecom technologies and concepts in the following order : " the Core Network : this is the part of the network that provides information transfer at high speeds over long distances. some of it is dedicated to just a single user. the Access Network would be your telephone connection from your home to your local exchange. 07 17 / 190 . It is shared by all users of the network. etc. using the same network infrastructure. Compare it to the roads network where you have smaller access roads between you and the highways. you can use it (a. the Core Network is the international telephone network. When thinking of the classical telephone network.

a well-managed network provides services such as reliability. low signal distortion. They each cover a specific item which is more generic and is used in several different telecom systems. reconfigure. etc. however for the end user. add new customers. 07 . In addition to the five main chapters. Therefore they are grouped at the back. increase capacity. there is a set of Appendices. The network operator is the one who is directly involved in Network Management. etc. low information loss.2 Text Structure " the Network Management : when we have a network (by installing a core network. 18 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. and the chapters will point to them. access network and terminals) this network must also be operated : you must constantly check for errors.

This infrastructure contains network nodes and transmission links. some basic principles for the structure of networks can be sorted out : 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. transport information with minimal amount of errors. Public (and Private) Data Networks. transport information fast over long distances. per user they are economical. 3. the Internet. each network is different. The main purpose of the Core Network is to : " " " As for the low cost aspect.3 The Core Network 3 The Core Network The core network refers to a (public or private) infrastructure that provides the connections between communicating users. transport information at low cost. even if the networks themselves are typically very expensive. However. So the cost of these networks is also shared by many users and therefor. due to the large number of users. 07 19 / 190 .1 Network Structures and Topologies Because networks typically grow in an organic way. Examples of core networks" are : " " " " the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN). note that Core Networks are always shared by many users.

html 20 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.2 Star Network Another simple way to interconnect more than two terminals is a Star network. Some examples are : " " direct connection between two computers. Some examples are : " " private telephone network : Private Branch Exchange (PABX) mainframe computer with terminals http://www. it is the basic building block of more complex networks and many networks start as a simple point to point.canarie.ca/eng/networks/CAnetii/CAnetii. direct connection between two sub-networks.3 The Core Network 3. etc. secure : no intermediate 'nodes' " The advantages of a point-to-point connection are : " " Figure 2 Point to Point network 3. radio connection between satellite and ground-control station.1 Point to Point The simplest form of a 'network' is a point-to-point connection between two terminals. One Network Element forms the center of it. simple routing.1. addressing.1. Although not much of a real network. 07 . all other terminals are on radii of the star. later growing to more complex structures.

A big advantage of a meshed network is its reliability : even when some links would break. You can easily see that when the number of nodes grows. 07 21 / 190 .1.3 Meshed Network In a meshed network. all terminals are out of service. 3. A price for this reliability or redundancy is that the nodes are more complex : each node needs to be able to route information further to the destination. A disadvantages of a star network is its reliability : if the device in the center of the star fails. addressing in the center of the star. simple next step from a point-to-point network : add the network center device.3 The Core Network Figure 3 Star network The advantages of a star network are : " " simple routing. there are always alternative interconnections between a pair of nodes. the number of links grows quadratically (n*(n-1)/2). are only found when there are a limited number of nodes in the network. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. every node is connected to all the other nodes. then add terminals. It is a collection of point to point links between a collection of nodes. So fully meshed networks.

07 .htm " Figure 5 Ring Network 22 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Metropolitan Area Networks. but also simplifies operation of such a network. resulting into only n links.be/telepolis/manap1.4 Ring Network Ring networks simplify the interconnection of a large number of nodes : each node interconnects to only two neighbor nodes.3 The Core Network Figure 4 Meshed Network 3. " " University Campus Backbone.1. 'Token ring' computer networks. This is not only reducing equipment and installation costs. http://www.dma.

3 The Core Network Figure 6 Backbone Network : example Telenet A disadvantage of the ring network is the lower reliability : a single broken link can open the ring and put the network out of service. Node Active fibre Spare fibre Node Figure 7 Protection Switching Node Fiber cut Node Restoration Node Node Figure 8 Self Healing Ring 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 23 / 190 . Other mechanisms use a double ring. There exist however solutions to this : with Protection Switching the Active fibres can be protected against failures by a Spare fibre. Such networks with 'automatic' repair in case of faults are also called Self-Healing Networks. and the nodes can isolate a failing segment. restoring the ring.

consists again of subnetworks. To simplify a network.3 The Core Network 3.5 Tree Network With a very large number of nodes. 07 . each network becomes complex to manage. on the backbone the nodes are actually subnetworks.1. a hierarchical tree concept with different levels can be used : the highest level is the backbone. Examples : " " Telephone network Internet Backbone Network Regional Network 1 Regional Network 3 Regional Network 2 Figure 9 Hierarchical Networks Figure 10 Hierarchical Networks : example Telenet 24 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Each network. etc.

07 25 / 190 .3 The Core Network Figure 11 example 1 : the first Internet plan Figure 12 example 2 : todays complex networks 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

26 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. as a conclusion we can see that all networks consist of Nodes interconnected with Links. but rather consist out of a combination of them. 07 . However.3 The Core Network Figure 13 example 3 : Map with European Fiber links In real life. a network will almost never be as simple as one of the above basic topologies.

because all individual data-flows. and they are explained and compared in Appendix D : " " " Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) Code Division Multiplexing (CDM) Furthermore these multiplexing techniques can be combined into more complicated schemes : for example the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) uses a combination of FDM-TDM. In order to keep it manageable. share the cost of the common carrier. deploy some form of Multiplexing. combined into bigger.2 Links : Transmission All telecom technologies which interconnect nodes with links.3 The Core Network 3. this difference is explained in Appendix C. a number of the first order multiplex signals are again multiplexed into a second-order multiplex. Multiplexing is a technique to transport several information-flows over the same carrier. this mechanism repeats itself a number of times : small signals are combined into bigger. There exist a number of different techniques to do multiplexing. Today's multiplexing systems can send a huge number of information-channels over a single medium. Multiplexing reduces the cost. 07 27 / 190 . sometimes also called lower-order. combined into the final multiplex signal. " " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. frame synchronization (optional) signalling CH 0 CH 1 CH 15 CH 16 CH 17 CH 31 1 Frame = 125 µsec Figure 14 Basic E1 structure Multiplexing is different from Concentration. a hierarchy is used : " basic information channels are multiplexed into a so-called first-order multiplex.

com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/npf211.3 The Core Network Basic Signals First Order Multiplex Second Order Multiplex Third Order Multiplex Figure 15 Multiplexing Hierarchy Information transmission systems typically span different countries and continents.htm 3. Three different variants have been standardized for Europe. 28 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 .1 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) multiplex system uses Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). To guarantee this. therefore all these systems must be compatible. international standards are defined.alcatel. and employ equipment from different manufacturers. (See Appendix I) " http://aww. North-America and Japan.2.

770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. because the PDH system includes a little of Overhead information in each step : " bits for Frame Synchronization : to mark the boundaries of the frame bits for stuffing : bits which can be used or skipped in order to compensate for the slight differences in clocks used in the network.192 Mbps.544 Mbps 6. " In the early days of PDH. down to the seconds.544 Mbps order Europe E1 32 * 64 kbps. The timing reference used by all nodes in the network are 'almost' synchronous to each other.368 Mbps 4th E4 4 * 34 Mbps. the incompatibility became a serious disadvantage. almost the same.736 Mbps T4 3 * 44. 2. North America and Japan where not a big problem. 1. 1. 139. 34.048 Mbps 8. and so the differences between Europe. because.3 The Core Network Table 2 1st Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy North-America Japan T1 24 * 64 kbps.312 Mbps 44.544 Mbps T2 4 * 1. However.264 Mbps 24 * 64 kbps. 07 29 / 190 . as this traffic grew.264 Mbps Note From one order to the next order multiplex is not exactly an integer factor.736 Mbps 139. the inter-continental communication traffic was still relatively small. they are all slightly different. A good analogy are our wrist-watches : they all indicate the same time. Another important aspect of PDH lies in the word plesiochronous : plesiochronous means 'almost' synchronous.048 Mbps 2nd E2 4 * 2.448 Mbps 3rd E3 4 * 8.312 Mbps T3 7 * 6.

todays new networks are all using the more advanced SDH system. just like making an exact appointment becomes more difficult when all wrist-watches indicate different times. and the push of new technological developments. As a matter of fact Europe (SDH) and North-America (SONET) had different standards. It results in the so called Back-to-Back multiplexing.2. It also makes it impossible to extract the E1 out of an E4. a so-called SDH-'island'. a new multiplex system was defined : Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). This allows easy connection of SDH and SONET. SDH simplifies interconnection of nodes. Third Order Multiplex Second Order Multiplex First Order Multiplex Basic Signals Figure 16 Multiplexing Hierarchy A lot of PDH is still installed and operated today.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) From the experience of PDH. 3.E2. interconnection becomes more complicated.. 07 . " " 30 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. However given the limitations. but they were defined in a more compatible way. This complexity limits the PDH bit-rates to the fourth order 140 Mbps. by using a single reference clock for a whole group of nodes. SDH allows to multiplex to higher bitrates. without first extracting the E3. This clock is generated by a Primary Reference Clock and distributed through the whole SDH-network.3 The Core Network When the timing references are all slightly different. given the simpler interconnection. SDH improves PDH in the following ways: " It is standardized as a worldwide standard.

This means that existing PDH can be interconnected with new SDH : D D PDH signals can be sent 'inside' a higher speed SDH signal. and decent network management became a necessity : D D D D detecting and measuring bit errors labelling and naming the multiplex components alarm indications protection mechanisms. the Unit signal is the STM-1. Automatic Protection Switching (APS) SDH Containers bitrate 1.544 Mbps 2. " Synchronous : no introduction of additional overhead. eg. SDH islands can be interconnected using PDH links. SDH is made in such a way that it is backward compatible with existing PDH. PDH Source SDH Network PDH Sink SDH Network 1 PDH Link SDH Network 2 Figure 17 " Coupling PDH and SDH SDH added more network management functions : networks grew bigger and bigger. This 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 31 / 190 . the signals are named Synchronous Transport Module (STM).048 Mbps 8 Mbps 34 Mbps 140 Mbps Table 3 SDH Containers VC11 VC12 VC2 VC3 VC4 In SDH. For example.3 The Core Network " given the large installed base of PDH equipment.

SDH networks are often deployed in ring-topologies : a boackbone ring. STMn bitrate 155. an Add-Drop Multiplexer contributing traffic to the ring. the multiplexer can find any contributing signal (tributary) in the multiplex signal. The most important Virtual Containers contain the standard PDH signals. STM-16.3 The Core Network signal is then multiplexed into higher orders STM-n.. with at each station. . 32 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 . This feature allows then to make simpler Add Drop Multiplexers. As a result from this. where n is the order-number of the STS multiplex (this is the typical naming in the USA) : " " STM-1 = OC-3 STM-16 = OC-48 Note Multiplexing a number of STM-1 into higher levels (STM-4. Another important advantage of SDH is the possibility to directly access lower-order signals within a high-order multiplex : the SDH overhead includes a number of Pointers and by applying the pointer-processing.) introduces no additional overhead.488 Gbps 10 Gbps 40 Gbps Multiplex order STM-1 / STS-3 STM-4 / STS-12 STM-16 / STS-48 STM-64 / STS-192 STM-256 / STS-768 Note The different multiplex orders are also referred to as OC-n.08 Mbps 2. Table 4 SDH Multiplex Signals. The components of the STM-1 are called Virtual Container (VC).52 Mbps 622.

3 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is in fact a form of frequency multiplexing : wavelength = reciprocal of frequency. Therefor.htm " 3.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmsdh.alcatel.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmson. Each of the individual colors can be any signal. It combines several colors of light onto the same optical fiber. WDM is not a direct replacement or successor of SDH or PDH. but typically the signal components are SDH signals.3 The Core Network Back to Back Multiplexer (PDH) Add-Drop Multiplexer (SDH) Figure 18 Table 5 PDH Back to Back versus Add-Drop Multiplexer PDH versus SDH SDH Synchronous One Higher order Hierarchy Flexible Hierarchy Extended management features Very limited bit-stuffing -> simpler Pointers to frame-boundary -> Add-Drop multiplexing Plesiochronous Different Hierarchies Fixed Hierarchy Limited management features Stuffing Bits -> complicated multiplexing No pointers to frame-bound ary -> back-to-back multi plexers " SDH Products : http://aww.htm Sonet Products :http://aww. 07 33 / 190 .alcatel. eg. Example of combination of SDH and WDM : 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. but rather a complementary new technology which can be combined with existing ones to further increase bandwidth capacity.2. STM-16.

4 Media Different media can be used for the high-speed interconnection-links : " " " " Fiber Coaxial Cable Radio Laser-light The most common deployed medium today is fiber. also called 40 λ's total capacity : 40 * 2.5 Gbps ♦ ♦ 96*2.2.488 = 100 Gbps WDM is one of the first functions of what is becoming a whole new technological area : the Optical Networking.488 Gbps WDM : 40 wavelengths.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmwdm. more precisely glass-fiber.oxygen.3 The Core Network " " SDH : STM-16 = 2.692 Project Oxygen : http://www.5 Gbps ♦ ♦ 8*2. etc. resistance to 34 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. " WDM Products : http://aww. are being developed.5 Gbps ♦ Year 1996 2000 2004 Figure 19 Combining WDM and TDM see Appendix J for an article about the race for bandwidth. 07 .alcatel. other optical functions like cross connects.5 Gbps 4*2.5 Gbps ♦ 128*2.5 Gbps ♦ ♦ 565 Mbps 2.1 ♦ 1984 140 Mbps 1988 1992 40*10 Gbps 8*10 Gbps 16*2.org/ Fiber Capacity [Gbps] " " 1000 100 10 1 ♦ 0. add-drop muxes.5 Gbps ♦ 2*2. 3. next to multiplexers. because of its relative low cost. Its rapid development being fueled by the exponential increasing demand for bandwidth.htm ITU-T Standards : G.

etc) when the terrain is not free accessible (roads. This function is called a repeater. These media are described in more detail in chapter 4. the repeaters are needed and form a part of the network infrastructure cost. 3. better handling. are being developed. other media may be preferred : " Radio : with radio. Under certain circumstances.5 Repeaters When signals are sent over fibers or coax for long distances. " Transmission Products : http://aww. but requires line-of-sight.3 The Core Network interference and huge bandwidth capacity.alcatel. for example every 50 km.2. lower bandwidths could be required. etc. the bandwidth is more limited (eg. buildings. With today's fibers.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/npf211. STM1 or 155 Mbps) but you don't have to route kilometers of fiber : just raise a tower. land-owners) " Coax : Coaxial Cable has also less bandwidth potential than fiber. 07 35 / 190 . rivers. and to the network topology the repeaters are not important.2. D D D D when you want very rapid deployment (days).htm 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Fibers with smaller losses. want to have a network for only a limited time when the terrain is very hostile (mountains. but can be deployed as fast as radio. Fiber technology is rapidly evolving. Nothing happens to the flow of information. Furthermore Laser is not susceptible to interference. 100m or less at the border of the network. smaller dispersion. " Laser : a beam of Laser-light can be focused over long distances. through the air. yielding coax as economically preferred. but can be deployed for : D D short distances. a distances-span of a few hundred kilometers can be realized without repeaters. For long haul links. the signals attenuate and must be re-amplified. It can be used for interconnection over short distances only.

(hence the origin of the name 'switching'). you need m*n switches.3. Several techniques exist to do this. it typically has to traverse several nodes. 3. In Space switching. Below these concepts are listed. Table 6 Types of Switching Switching Concept Cross Connect Add Drop Multiplexer between 1 hour . Typically each user has an input and an output. Even for packet switched systems. When there are m inputs and n outputs. ordered by the life-time of the connection they make. the incoming link has to be connected to the outgoing link.3 The Core Network 3. eg. 07 . or a combination of Both. a number of physically distributed inputs are connected to a number of physically distributed outputs by the means of Switches. usually two switches need to be closed.3 Nodes : Switching When sending information through the core network. and then m=n and equals the number of users. Inside the nodes. Time-switching. To make a bidirectional connection. 36 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.1 second typically less than 1 second Note Circuit Switch Packet Switch Connection Life Time* typically more than 1 hour Connection Life Time refers to the duration of the connection inside the switching node. an end-to-end connection may exist for longer times.1 Switching Techniques Switching information is physically performed using Space-switching. hours.

but multiplexed in time.3 The Core Network Space Switch Figure 20 Space Switching : 4*5 space-switch Space switches are limited by the physical density of the input and output ports. Typically the Time Division Multiplex (TDM) structure consists of a number of channels. Time switching occurs in the dimension of time : the individual users are all on the same physical medium. When doing time switching. In many telecom systems this pattern repeats at 8000 times per second. occurring in a cyclic pattern. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 37 / 190 . information received on one particular time-slot or channel is sent out on another time-slot / channel.

In PORT 1 PORT 2 PORT 3 PORT 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 Out CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 PORT 1 PORT 2 PORT 3 PORT 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 Time-Space Switch CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 Figure 22 Time Space Switch 38 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 . Both mechanisms described above are usually combined in order to maximize the density in both physical and frequency domain. Any time-slot/channel (of 32) from any port (of 16) can be switched to any other time-slot/port. combined with 32 channels TDM signals in order to build a 512*512 channels switch element. the A1000 S12 switch element uses 16*16 Space switching. As an example.3 The Core Network In Time Switch Out Time Division Multiplex In Out CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 Figure 21 Time Switching : 4*4 time-switch Time switches are limited by the frequencies of the TDM input/outputs.

the concept can be applied recursively. As such by increasing the number of stages. the system is represented symmetrical in a so-called Folded view. Ch 4 Even with a combination of Space.) a 16*16 element. a connection in 2 switch elements must be made. The folding line of such a folded system is called the Reflection Point : information travels into the switch up to the reflection point. Ch 2 Port 4. and then travels back out to the destination output. The solution to this is to interconnect several switching elements in a cascade. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. In figure 23. using four 2*2 switch elements. the 'new' 4*4 element can be combined to form (eg. For even bigger capacities. an arbitrary large switch can be built. 07 39 / 190 .and Time-switching.3 The Core Network Table 7 Port 1 2 4 Routing/Connection Table Contents : Channel 1 4 1 Connect to : Port 2. Ch 3 Port 4. In order to set up a connection from input to output. of course at the cost of more and more 'basic' switch elements. These are called Switching Stages. Resulting 4*4 Switch Element First Stage 2*2 Switch Element Second Stage 2*2 Switch Element 2*2 Switch Element 2*2 Switch Element Figure 23 Cascading switching elements Because in most systems Inputs and Outputs are paired. a single switching element cannot handle all ports from a large exchange. it is shown how a 4*4 switching element can be made.

(eg. or in some special case Add-Drop Multiplexers.3 The Core Network First Stage 4*4 Switch Element 4*4 Switch Element 4*4 Switch Element 4*4 Switch Element Second Stage 4*4 Switch Element Switch Element Figure 24 Folded View. often called Aand B-matrix. the other one still services the connection. typically last hours or more. the world expo.3. we call the nodes Cross Connects. Connections are made manually through operator actions Examples : " Communications connections established between sport-stadium and broadcasting services for the coverage of the Olympic games. 40 / 190 Reflection Point 4*4 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. If one matrix fails. the world cup football. Alcatel 1000 S12) " 3. For switching systems this redundancy is usually obtained from one of two approaches : " the switching matrix is provided in two copies. Add Drop Mux (ADM) When the connections made in the nodes. Reflection Point A switching system must always be designed in a reliable way : even a single fault should not lead to a service degradation. (eg. Each connection is set up over both matrices in an independent way. 07 .2 Cross Connection (XC). Alcatel 1000 E10) the switching matrix is built with stages of Orthogonal Planes. etc.

is to communicate directly with the end-user. So regional areas will be covered by several exchanges. For large public networks. The local exchange can be recognized by the fact that it has a Subscriber Database with all information about its subscribers. end-to-end path. User Information Connection Signalling Information Connection Figure 25 User Information versus Signalling Information An important aspect of a circuit switched connection is that it consists of a dedicated. This interconnection can be a fully meshed network. A channel is reserved strictly for the end-user during the whole duration of the call. This kind of switching is called Call-by-Call switching". this becomes also unmanageable. called Signalling. it is impossible to connect all subscribers to a single exchange. using access networks (see Section 4). there are the following levels : " Local : at the 'lowest' level. it becomes too much a burden to have the connections set up manually through an operator. and all of these must be interconnected to provide a worldwide network. the Local Exchange collects the subscribers. the user instructs the network what kind of connection to set up and to what destination. and a hierarchical network is used.3 Circuit Switching When a connection is only needed for a duration from (typically) seconds to hours. that controls the real user to user communication : through signalling. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. but from a certain size. One extra function required for a switch. This is sometimes referred to as a physical connection in contrast to a virtual connection from a packet switch. In that case a Circuit Switch can do that automatically.3. 07 41 / 190 . Signalling is a meta-communication. In this hierarchy.3 The Core Network 3.

International : The highest level is the International Exchange. International " " " International Gateway Tandem Transit .Toll Local Figure 26 Hierarchical Structure of the Telephone Network In some countries there are several transit networks (or core networks) called Carriers. .. each one operated/provided by a different company.. New York.3 The Core Network " Transit/Toll : Several local exchanges are interconnected through Transit exchanges. These Transit/Toll exchanges do not 'know' individual subscribers. It provides interconnections within a certain layer. Each Transit/Toll layer collects a number of exchanges from the lower layer. several layers of Transit/Toll can be provided. and interconnects to other exchanges in the same layer. It is a bypass of the hierarchy for more efficient interconnection of certain areas. 07 . also called Toll exchanges. In such a network structure. Tandem : a tandem exchange is a special case that does not fit perfectly in the hierarchy. as well as to a higher layer. For example for the telephone network. In a very large network. the user must be 42 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. there are a limited number of international exchanges : London. International Gateway : At the highest National level is the International Gateway Exchange : the exchange which is at the boundary between the national toll/Transit network. and the international network. but no connections to higher levels.

different services must be provided by different networks.e. " " Therefore. it can not support new services like videophony.g. It is half-integrated.. i. 07 43 / 190 . it can deliver bitrates up to a few kbps. PSTN. e. Although this bitrate is quite adequate to provide telephony. i. Note In the US. It is 64 kbps based. Datanetworks. the names Transit.. Cable Television Network (CATV). . In this case.e. the tendency of the future (which is progressing very slowly) is to come to 1 unified. Carrier 1 Carrier 2 Carrier 3 Tandem InterExchange Carrier Local Figure 27 Hierarchical Structure of the Telephone Network : Multi-Carrier Some critiques of the current Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) are the following : " It is Narrowband (NB). toll and Tandem are used in a less strict and interexchangeable way. multi-service B-ISDN 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. there is an additional level in the hierarchy : " InterExchange Carrier : all Carriers access the local exchanges via this special transit exchange.3 The Core Network able to use any of the transit networks.

and forward the packet in the right direction. flow control. so Cell switching achieves the same results. " " In the early days of computer communication. Other packet switches operate ConnectionLess. Frame Relay Packets. There exist different terms to name the information packets : " " " Cells. eg. Some packet switches still need the user to set up a connection using signalling. eg.3 The Core Network 3. while being simpler.. Before sending the first real packet of information. they don't need a strictly reserved channel. Because computers communicate with packets of information. IP Packets. 07 . They are called Connection Oriented Packet Switches. in which case Packet switching was the best solution. versus how much is done in the end terminals : " Cells : only require a minimum of processing in the nodes. the network is of much better quality. 44 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. the links had poor qualty. eg. today. A switch being able to switch information packets is called a Packet Switch. so that the packet switches in the network know how to send the packet to the destination.25 Packet These names reflect a difference in how much processing is needed to handle the packet in the packet switch. retransmission. resequencing. Frames : medium processing in the nodes Packets : intensive processing in the nodes : error correction. Cells also have fixed lengths. and the end terminals were very expensive (main frame computers).3. the user must first send some signalling packets to set up a connection. cheaper and faster. X. Note Appendix H explains the difference between Connection-Oriented and Connectionless operation.. They are pre-programmed to analyze the final destination address. then send his user payload and afterwards release the connection. ATM Cells Frames. and the end terminals are cheaper (PCs).4 Packet Switching When computers are communicating. they can share a single channel with other computers.

This is called Charging. Flow-Control Procedures Bit-rates up to 64 Kbit/sec. " X-25 is a mature technology. this is not the best way to charge : because of the 'packet' nature of the information. however. only exchanging packets 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. The provider of a network requires that you pay for the usage of his network infrastructure.25 is the name of an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard describing a packet switching system.25-related protocols are among the most used packet protocols and offer worldwide interconnectivity. Packets up to 4096 bytes. X. (each network specifies the maximum supported packet length) The packet switching protocol is connection-oriented. you will have to pay as a function of : " " duration of the call distance between originator and receiver However for packet switched networks. typical packets will be 128 bytes.25 system offers : " " " " " " Error-Free delivery of data packets to the destination Delivery of data packets without loss. The X.25 Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Internet Protocol (IP) Their key characteristics are worked out here in a bit more detail.25 X.3 The Core Network Some examples of Packet Switching techniques are : " " " " X. For example. you may be connected for several hours. The X. for the telephone network. 07 45 / 190 . For different types of networks. In-sequence delivery of data packets. there are different ways of charging developed.

the X-25 protocol describes the interface between the user and the network. 46 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. the so-called User-to-Network Interface (UNI). Note In fact. the chraging will be on Volume : the amount of packets sent. In addition.3 The Core Network during some minutes. In this case. the X. 07 .75 protocol has been defined for communication on the Network-to-Network Interface (NNI).

what the FR network offers is : " " " " " In-sequence delivery of data frames. The cell is divided into a Header and a Payload part. graphics. Although the functionality of the FR network. ATM is recommended by ITU-T as the technology to be used in the future B-ISDN. 53 bytes long.. video.e. retransmitting. The header is standard. 07 47 / 190 . Thus. it became a burden to do all the error checking. ATM-cells are Fixed-size packets. and consequently its services. . Error detection is performed and erroneous frames are discarded. text.3 The Core Network Frame Relay As the quality of the network improved. this is more than compensated for by the higher bit rates. but the main driving force was the demand for the interconnection of Local Area Networks. A first simplification led to Frame Relay (FR). In fact. Frame Relay was originally designed in1981 as a NB ISDN packet mode bearer service. The most important aspect of the reduced functionality of FR is the lack of error correction. which explains the name Frame Relay. i. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. no more processing is performed anymore.. with the result that not all the information is delivered to the destination. Therefore. data. etc. ATM offers a uniform method for the transport of these multiple services. Higher Throughput Lower Delay bit rates of 45 Mbps (US) or 2 Mbps (Europe). in each node. on the packet level. the payload part can contain whatever information : speech. The Frame Relay protocol is connection-oriented. as there was hardly any error in the network. the contents of the payload completely transparent to the network (there is even no error control). Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM is a form of connection-oriented cell-switching. is more limited than in a packet switching network.

To solve this. Therefore. 48 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. " ATM allows extreme fast switching.3 The Core Network 5 Bytes HEC CLP VCI VPI PTI 48 Bytes Header User Payload Figure 28 ATM Cell On an ATM link. which explains the term asynchronous". some signalling. the ATM cell header carries a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) / Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI). Synchronous Transfer Mode (STM) ch 1 ch 2 ch 3 ch 4 ch 1 ch 2 ch 3 ch 4 ch 1 ch 2 ch 3 ch 4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) A B A C A A B Idle cells Figure 29 STM versus ATM ATM operates in the connection-oriented mode. a setup of a virtual connection must be performed first. (for example the Cell Loss Ratio (CLR) ) Another effect of the connection-oriented mode is that the sequence of ATM cells will be preserved. the receiver can not distinguish information (coming from different users ) by means of the timeslots.e. the simple protocol stack (no error control. 07 . and is due to the large feature-set quite complex. no flow control. " However the connection setup/release requires some time. no reassembly in intermediate nodes). " An important effect of this setup phase. a continuous stream of cells is transmitted. up to the Gbps range. A specific user can send on any position. the fixed size of the cells. is that it is possible to have some guaranty of service. i. because of " " the connection-oriented nature. the minimum performance of the connection can be negotiated.

multiplexing 1000 virtual connections of 1 Mbps Max. and is is seriously threatened by a competing technology : IP The limted success of ATM is probably due to . ATM switching itself is quite simple. " Figure 29 shows a comparison between ATM and 'traditional' circuit switching or Synchronous Transfer Mode (STM). today it is not yet very widespread.) is still very limited.3 The Core Network Also the number of terminals providing an ATM interface (PC. fixed-size cell-format.. 1000 * 1 fits into 150. each onto a carrier of 150 Mbps. etc. 07 49 / 190 . (technical and non-technical) but here are some of the difficulties with ATM : " Connection Oriented nature makes it quite complex for the terminal : he has to talk a complex signalling language dialogue to setup a connection. video.. In a Local Area Network (LAN) (PC-network) environment. Possible allows Statistical Multiplexing : eg.. WS. flow control. This then allows ATM to deliver real-time services such as speech. resulting into any possible bitrate. it is currently only justified for high-end workstations. operations and mainenance.. and becuase of conection oriented nature.. adaptation layers. Fast switching because of simple. allows variable bitrates allows flexible multiplexing of different 'streams' onto a single carrier. small. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. several factors. Multimedia-phone. ATM cels have the following strengths : " small bandwidth granularity : any number of 'cells per second' is allowed. " " " Despite the strengths of ATM technology.. but additional functions on top of that are quite complex : resource management. as not all of the 1000 virtual connections require the full 1 Mbps at the same time. .

" http://aww. or 128-bit IP : An IPv6 (version 6) header is 40 bytes. the IPv6 payload can vary between 0 and 65535 bytes.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmatm. over an ADSL link. Note today. the so-called IPv6.3 The Core Network Table 8 STM STM versus ATM ATM Reservation of Virtual channels Variable number of channels Variable bitrate of channels Small granularity of bitrates Resources only used if some thing is really transmitted Overhead 5/53 (ATM Cell) Reservation of Physical chan nels Fixed number of channels Fixed bitrate of channels Large granularity of bitrates Resources are permanently re served. provided bandwidth and effective data volume. for which there is no need for charging.. but they can also be transmitted in SDH frames.alcatel. 07 . An IPv4 (version 4) header is 20 bytes.. IP is a form of connection-less packet switching. ftp. In the future charging could be a function of time. WWW-browser. Charging for ATM-connectivity is not yet available. a future . IP version 4 is the most common used IP However. PDH frames. .htm IP IP means Internet Protocol. Newsgroups. IP is very popular because many popular applications use it : email. the IPv4 payload can vary between 0 and 65535 bytes. IP packets are variable in size. 50 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Typical packet sizes are 576 or 1500 bytes. Most systems today are private networks (Local Area Networks). version of the IP protocol is being standardized. even if nothing is trans mitted Overhead 1/27 (STM-1) ATM cells can be transmitted without any other transmission system (called a 'cell based interface')..

g. Example : 138. fueled by the succes of internet applications. which splits the 32 bits into 4 bytes. IP Multicast : Multicast is a protocol that enables the same information to be sent from a server to a number of clients.001 An IP network operates in the best effort" mode : no guarantee is given if and when an IP packet will reach its destination.203. By avoiding duplicate sending of the same information.048. or connection time.3 The Core Network 20 Bytes 0.000 possible addresses. Today (IPv4) the IP address is 32 bits wide. This makes it somewhat more difficult for the terminals.. it improves efficiency. Nevertheless. 2 models are defined : " " " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.65535 Bytes Header User Payload Figure 30 IP Packet (IPv4) As an IP-network is connection-less. Most IP networks are charged as flat fee (fixed monthly price). IPv6 : The current Internet addressing scheme is being updated. and each byte has a value from 0 to 255. IP addresses are represented in a so-called dotted notation. e. access control and confidentiality. This IP address has to be unique in the network. On the other hand there is no need to set up a connection. Routing decisions will be based upon the destination IP address carried in the IP header. IP QoS : A lot of effort is going on to provide some quality of service in IP networks.000. there is a fast evolution of the protocol. 07 51 / 190 . This makes the Internet more acceptable for applications that are similar to conventional TV broadcast.000. Voice over IP (VoIP). integrity. thus also allowing real-time services. IPv6 increases the length of the addresses. The following are fast developing areas in the IP world : " IPSEC : a mechanism to improve security in the Internet. IP is 30 years old. A security protocol will provide cryptographic security services that support combinations of authenticication. allowing some 4. The growth in the Internet has led to a shortage of addresses. it is more computing intensive for the nodes to route the packets.

ATM and IP originate from a different Business : ATM from Telecom. ATM has been developed as a Broadband Multimedia technology from scratch. and extremely fast-growing. This way it is not at all compromised by backward compatibility to legacy systems. call acceptance control. the complexity (and cost) of many aspects of this new technology were under-estimated : policing. D ATM versus IP ATM and IP are to some extent overlapping (and as such competing) technologies. . legacy and practices. by means of the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). The Differentiated Services model is based on the idea of tagging individual packets with an indication of their priority. Both these businesses have their own history. DiffServ : The difficulties of large-scale implementation of RSVP have led to alternative suggestions for solving the problem of securing sufficient bandwidth. A lot of research is going on which technology is the best answer to our current and future needs.. There is a lot of support for it. 07 .. thanks to the (relatively) simple and proven protocol stack. steadily and efficiently. and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standardization body seems to work decent. IP is currently very successful. IP from computer networks.3 The Core Network D IntServ : Integrated Services providing QoS in an ATM-like way. reserving bandwidth to a particular destination. 20 years of legacy do not seem to burden new innovations. OAM. On the other hand. as well as complementary. IP : virtuous circle ATM : vicious circle Slow Take-Up High Growth Rapid Innovation High cost of Ownership Lack of Applications Figure 31 ATM versus IP 52 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

. " The 'Optical/Physical' layer takes care of the actual transmission of the bits at the lowest level. Figure 32 shows four ways to combine all these: 1. All systems need this. The application generates IP packets. there exist today several possibilities. The pipes can be any bandwidth with any Quality of Service. Very popular.) The ATM layer can be included when high-speed switching is needed : ATM can provide high-quality. 4. " " " Applications 1. As a result of this. as the IP and Optical layer need to be completed with some maintenance features. signal labels. 2.3 The Core Network IP ATM and SDH . ATM SDH Optical Layer (WDM) / Physical Layer Figure 32 IP ATM and SDH . 2. This can be represented in a protocol stack graph as shown in Figure 32. and transmits them directly onto a physical medium. 07 53 / 190 . and transmits them in SDH containers onto a physical medium. high bandwidth 'pipes' of information transfer. bit error detection. This is under development. IP 3. .. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. but still lacking a guaranteed real-time service. The application generates IP packets. For 'applications' to communicate to each other. The IP layer can be included for the service integration : many existing applications allow to exchange information via IP packets. The SDH layer can be included : it provides the standardization and the management features of SDH (protection switching.

Because it is still quite complex. and because there is very little applications being able to interface to an ATM protocol stack. and signalling between the user and the network. Historical reasons " " " The older signalling systems can only communicate a limited number of events. Also there is some overlap between the protocol stack layers. The signalling between user equipment and the network is called User to Network Interface (UNI) signalling. versus UNI is single-service. The ATM cells are transmitted in SDH containers onto a physical medium. Inside the network. User to Network Interface Signalling (UNI) Following is a list of popular UNI signalling systems : 54 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. between 2 exchanges is called the Network to Network Interface (NNI) signalling. this solution is not yet that successful. 07 . packages a number of streams into ATM virtual connections. but also complex. because of higher degree of multiplexing for the NNI. NNI signalling is multi-service. Quite flexible. 3. traffic can be optimized by using (a subset of) ATM : semi-permanent connections between subnetworks and routers. because they use messages (packets of information) between the network elements. i. The application generates ATM Cells. See appendix L for a simple. telecom observers estimate that the future could be 80% IP and 20% ATM. which leads to some inefficiency and higher cost. Different protocols are defined because of a number of reasons : " Different addressing identification for channels. The application generates IP packets. NNI signalling is protected.3. This is the stack proposed by the ATM community. Today. states and digits. Most applications will use the IP protocol. The ATM cells are transmitted in SDH containers onto a physical medium.5 Signalling Signalling can be categorized in two types : Signalling inside the network. typical call setup/release scenario. 4. The signalling inside the network. versus UNI is not protected.e. A sequence of these messages is called a Scenario. The newer signalling systems are very flexible.3 The Core Network 3.

Signalling Transfer Point Signalling Network User Payload Network Figure 33 Separation of Signalling Network and User Data Network 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Therefore it is described in a little more detail in this chapter. a transport mechanism called Common Channel Signalling System #7 (CCS #7) was developed. 07 55 / 190 . Today the more advanced Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (DTMF) system is used. is to transport digits dialled by the subscriber to the exchange.3 The Core Network " Analog Subscriber Signalling System (ASSS) : one of the functions of the analog signalling system. and has become the dominant system for signalling and other control communication. In the mean time this transport mechanism has been extended with many other features. In the early days this was done using a Pulse system : short interruptions of the line circuit. ISDN Digital Subscriber Signalling System 1 (DSS1) B-ISDN Digital Subscriber Signalling System 2 (DSS2) " " Network Node Interface Signalling (NNI) Following is a list of popular NNI signalling systems : " " " Channel Associated Signalling (CAS) ISDN User Part (ISUP) B-ISDN User Part (B-ISUP) Common Channel Signalling System #7 To transport ISUP signalling messages in a reliable way. where each digit is represented by a mix of two tone-frequencies.

look-ahead signalling. the paths of the signalling information and the user information can be different. which makes it : D D D multi-purpose. for IN. than for the user data. 07 . expandable future-safe " It uses a common channel for the signalling of different users. D Application Layers Mobile Application Part (MAP) Intelligent Network Application Part (INAP) (MRVT) (SRVT) B-ISDN User Part (B-ISUP) Telephone User Part (TUP) ISDN User Part (ISUP) Base Station Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP) OSI Transaction Capabilities ApplicationPart (TCAP) Transport Layers Signalling Connection Control Part SCCP) Message Transfer Part (MTP) Figure 34 Modular Structure of CCS #7 56 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. for charging and billing information.3 The Core Network CCS #7 has become the dominant signalling system (and will most probably stay it in the future) because of a number of its characteristics : " Its modular structure. Moreover.. signalling for calls. by using Signalling Transfer Points (STPs) more advanced protocols can be implemented. . for TMN. e.g. as is shown in figure 33.g. This complete separation of the signalling network offers some advantages : D D more efficient use of signalling links a much higher protection can be foreseen for the signalling network.. e. e.g.

Broadband ISDN User Part (B-ISUP): signalling in the B-ISDN network. The Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) increases the functionality of the MTP It supports a more efficient routing . Typically this is required for Operations and Maintenance and in the TMN (Telecommunications Management Network). it supports remote operations in a real-time environment. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. ISDN User Part (ISUP): signalling in the ISDN network. such as the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) and the Intelligent Network (IN). Recently a new common part was introduced to support new telecom services. All user parts rely on the MTP but not necessarily on the SCCP . . Telephone User Part (TUP): signalling for telephony. Known as the Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP). but also between a Mobile Switching Center and its associated Visitor Location Register and Home Location Register. MTP Routing Verification Test (MRVT): procedures to test that data in the MTP routing tables is consistent. On top of the SCCP connection oriented an OSI stack can run. SCCP Routing Verification Test (SRVT): various procedures to verify the routing functions performed by the SCCP . 07 57 / 190 . The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is used to exchange call state information not only between Mobile Switching Centers (MSC). ! The Intelligent Network Application Part (INAP) is used to exchange messages between the Services Switching Point and the Service Control Point during a service call.3 The Core Network The Message Transfer Part (MTP) is capable of sending messages over the network. " The Base Station Subsystem Application Part (BSSAP) is used for signalling between the Base Station Subsystem and the Mobile Switching Center. algorithm (connection-oriented) as well as extended addressing capabilities. Error Correction and Flow Control functions are provided to ensure reliable information transfer.

on the move. in a more cost-effective way. (re-using existing infrastructure to keep the cost down) Providing new services on new infrastructure.4 Access Networks 4 Access Networks 4. " " Table 9 groups some access network concepts according to these criteria.) and the core network. The main difference between core network and access network is that the access part of the network. where the core network is shared by thousands of subscribers. It is for example still too expensive to bring optical fiber to all homes directly. The Access network must bridge the distance between the user (at home. etc. local loop. the main targets of an Access Network are : " Providing existing services. They will be explained in more detail below. 07 59 / 190 . subscriber line. on new infrastructure.1 Objectives Access networks are to solve the so-called Problem of the Last Mile". As a result of this different costing. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. at work. This makes the Access Network much more cost-sensitive. is used only for a single (or small number of) subscriber. thus for the same cost. Note Other names for Access Network are : subscriber loop. (a cost-improvement for existing services) Providing new services on existing infrastructure.

4 Access Networks Table 9 Types of Access Networks Existing Service New Service XDSL HFC V5. to a small number of large locals. The Access Node is an additional network element in the network hierarchy. service(s) to be provided. users can be clustered or evenly spread. accessibility of the terrain. low. 07 . using access nodes to collect the users. network builders want to simplify the networks. estimated growth and new services. (see Figure 35) On the other hand. Density can be high. An Access Node is smaller and simpler than an Exchange. The Access Node can achieve this because it reduces the number of Local exchanges.x HFC GSM DECT Existing Infrastructure New Infrastructure An important factor when dimensioning an access network. to reduce the operation cost. It requires less maintenance. Following is a list of 'design-parameters' for deploying an access network : " " " " " " " operator's existing infrastructure. is the physical distribution of the users in space. This results in a trend where networks evolve from a large number of small locals. user clustering. user density. traffic requirements. 60 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

07 61 / 190 .5 1 5 Access Node Serviced Area 1 0. 2.5 0.000 Subscribers Access Nodes Users Figure 35 Network evolution with Access Nodes Traditional MultiExchange topology Exchange with 5k subscribers Exchange Serviced Area 10 5 20 20 3 5 10 5 20 10 5 Access Nodes based topology Access Node with 5k subscribers 5 5 0.5 30 1 1 0. 20.4 Access Networks to Transit Level 100 Local Exchanges.5 5 0.5 1 78 5 1 5 5 0.000 subscribers 10 Local Exchanges.5 1 5 Figure 36 Network evolution with Access Nodes : view from the sky 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.5 5 1 0.

In the US. long distance calls can still be made via a long-distance operator. different aspects of Telecom Services can be splitted over several providers : " " one provider operates the access. the access to the user is so expensive. Transit Level Voice Network Provider 1 Voice Network Provider 2 Data Network Provider 1 Access Nodes Users Figure 37 Access to Several Networks With Access Networks. by dialling a carrier prefix. called Long Distance Carriers have been added : MCI-Worldcom... . On the other hand. that it is certainly not economical to provide a separate access from each service provider to each user. one or more other providers operate the core network. 07 . different companies are licensed to service different parts of the network : " " regional Bells : Access AT&T : Core Transit Network Some time later. Each user should be free to choose whichever telecom-service-provider he wants. Which service provider is choosen by the user can be statically configured in the Access Node.4 Access Networks Access Nodes also simplify the network design in a Multi-operator market. 62 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. where as the network behind that is liberalized. In some countries the government-owned network provider is to provide the access network. selected via a prefix. Even if no Access Node exists. Sprint. additional core network companies. It can also be choosen dynamically.

is to give new service providers.. 07 63 / 190 . Fiber can reach them (FFC. (high-speed internet providers) direct access to the subscribers local loop. MultiScenario MultiService MultiVendor Local Loop Unbundling Figure 38 " MultiService Access Networks Access Products : http://aww. FTTH). Access Nodes can support different topologies in the access network : star.htm 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. This is referred to as unbundling of the local loop. ring or a mix. depending on the nature of the subscribers you want to connect.4 Access Networks One step further in the liberalization process.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/npf212. Data. FTTB. BB. ISDN. Mixed MultiService Access Node Other. Leased Lines. access nodes capacity can range in size up to 2000 users per node (typically 100 . tree. Internet Tree. open interfaces allow interoperability with any switching exchange. TV Mixed subscriber Business subscriber Residential subscriber Telephony Access Network : Star. As explained. This is the multiservice aspect. Ring.. Integration of a flexible mix of NB and BB services on a single platform : POTS. Further.600 subscribers per access node) This is shown in figure 38. a unique Access Node can provide all the services from the different networks to the different users at their offices and at their homes.alcatel.

07 . in order to reduce the interference with the environment. On one hand because there is existing infrastructure from the past. Typical throughputs of twisted pair are in the range 100 kbps (ISDN) to 10 Mbps (Ethernet). an additional number indicating the type of wire used. as XDSL does.2 Media In the access networks. on the other hand because new services install additional new media.asd. Most access networks use a Combination of : " " " " twisted pair coaxial cable optical glass-fiber and plastic fiber radio The Combination of media results from the fact that the two segments are very different. and thus optimized differently : " the part between the user and the Access Node. and XDSL technologies create an extra life-cycle for Twisted Pair. The pair is twisted. that it is already installed to all of our houses. it was reused for data-networks.com/ 4. Example UTP-5. avoids the cost of routing new media to the subscriber. the whole bunch of pairs. Unshielded twisted pair is called UTP sometimes with . " Twisted pair is the oldest and cheapest medium.alcatel. (or each pair individually) is additionally shielded from interference with a metal cover. Originally used for telephone lines. 64 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. also called the Tail. Twisted pair comes in an Unshielded and Shielded variant. For the latter.4 Access Networks " Access Systems division home page : http://aww. Re-using the existing Twisted Pair infrastructure. a multitude of different media are used. Usually more than one pair is combined into a single cable : from 2 to hundreds of pairs. the part between the Access Node and the Core Network. and most of all. The advantage of Twisted Pair is that it is cheap.

For example the Cable-TV network. crosstalk. Figure 40 Coaxial Cable Optical fiber has many advantages as a signal carrier (for that reason it is widely deployed in core networks) : " " " very high bandwidth capability. noise.4 Access Networks Figure 39 (Unshielded) Twisted Pair. As soon as better transmitters/receivers are developed. 07 65 / 190 . etc. brings a Coax to most of the homes in cities. The Fiber actually allows much more than 2. the 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. avoiding installation costs. it is made from cheap materials (sand). This allows higher frequency signals to be transported compared to twisted pair. protected from interference and signal loss by a metal cover. and receiver-diode are limited to this speed.) 2. many Coax is already installed. (Terabits/s or more) resistant to interference. As with Twisted Pair. Typical throughputs of coaxial cable are in the range 10 Mbps (Ethernet) to 1 Gbps (digital TV broadcast). This means that a given Fiber carries today (eg.5 Gbps. 4 pairs Coaxial Cable (nicknamed Coax) is a single wire.5 Gbps. because the Laser-transmitter. Fiber is also an interesting medium for the network builder because its bandwidth is currently only limited by the Terminations. although the handling is more expensive. Coax is more expensive than Twisted pair. and can be re-used. but allows more bandwidth as well.

An interesting concept to overcome this is the soliton.ucsd. which implies a high labor cost.2. This way you don't need to dig into the streets again in the short future.4 Access Networks capacity of the same Fiber can be upgraded to (eg. are called Dark Fibers.edu/ http://soliton. so as soon as it is decided to bury Fibers.Groundstation link. Radio can be used in a 'Point to Point' or in a Broadcasting way of communicating : " Point to Point : Microwave links. etc. The Fibers which are currently not yet used. The Fiber cable itself is not so expensive. resulting in a lot of spare capacity. Mobile telephony. Satellite . http://soliton.) dispersion : the smoothing out of pulses. It is an optical pulse. etc.ucsd. because no light is sent through them yet. Figure 41 Optical Fiber (8 fibers) Several research activities are ongoing to further improve the quality and capacity of fiber-systems. 07 . " The advantages of radio are : 66 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. This is actually happening with Wavelength Division Multiplexing in the Core Network. Fiber-link lengths are currently limited by (ao. (see Chapter 3. etc.3).) 10 Gbps or 40 Gbps. Broadcasting : Radio/TV-broadcasting. immediately a group of Fibers (eg.html Another domain of innovation is Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) : fibers which are made of plastic instead of glass.edu/links. 100) is laid. which has such a shape that it is in-sensitive to dispersion. The Disadvantage of Fiber is the cost of bringing it to the subscriber : this requires trenches to be digged through streets.

(it works in vacuum) so lower installation costs. This can be a particularly important advantage in hostile environments like mountains. . in the broadcasting case. it is susceptible to interference. " " Radio has however some severe limitations : (Therefor radio is usually only deployed for applications really requiring mobility or for environments where wiring is more expensive) " Point-to-Point radio-links require Line of Sight : the sender. 155 Mbps. a typical SDH point to point link is limited to STM-1. swamps. everyone can listen-in on your transmission. short reconfiguration time. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. these bands are limited. Because the earth is a sphere. For example. governments have regulated the usage of this.4 Access Networks " no medium to be installed. its bandwidth is limited. the radio-medium is shared by everyone : D D D " it is not so secure. for a long link this requires relay-stations every 50 km or so. terminals can be Mobile..and receiver-antenna must be able to see each other. each for a particular application. trees.. 07 67 / 190 . flying craft. Although there is no real upper-limit to the spectrum. Everyone can send at the same time in the same frequency band. They define the spectrum into several bands. Objects blocking the line-of-sight also block the communication : new buildings. Given the fact that there is only one spectrum for everyone. short installation time. etc.

4 Access Networks

Figure 42 Note

Radio : Microwave Dish and other antenna's

MCI is an abbreviation for Microwave Communications Incorporation : started as a microwave radio based network provider, they have expanded into many other telecom markets. http://www.mciworldcom.com/ Negroponte switch : Professor Negroponte (MIT MediaLab) noted that concerning wired and wireless, the world seems to evolve in a remarkable way : information which used to be broadcasted through radio (TV, Radio) is now being distributed through Wires (Cable TV). On the other hand, information that used to be 'wired' like telephone, is becoming more and more wireless via radio (Mobile phones). This observation is called the Negroponte switch. This observation may not stand for the long term : when demand for bandwidth grows to more than just telephony, wired provides a much more cost-effective solution. Also low-cost may be more important to users than mobility. http://www.media.mit.edu/

Note

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4.3

Analogue Line Access
A simple, low-cost twisted pair from the local exchange (or from the Access Node) to the subscriber is all you need for analogue telephony. Millions of these lines are installed worldwide, some of them operating for many decennia. See figure 43 and 44 for comparison with ISDN

4.4

ISDN Access
The Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) is a concept defined in the late 70's as a first attempt to define a single uniform network for all services. Part of the standards describe the Access part of the network, not only the physical layer, but up to the protocols. ISDN defines two types of Access :
"

Basic Rate Access (BRA), in the US also called Basic Rate Interface (BRI). It consist of 2 user payload channels, each 64 kbps, and 1 signalling channel of 16 kbps. The user channels are know in the standards as B-channels, and the signalling channel as D, so the BRA is sometimes referred to as 2B+D. Primary Rate Access (PRA), in the US also called Primary Rate Interface (PRI). It consists of 30 user payload channels of 64 kbps, and 1 signalling channel of 64 kbps. (another channels is used for synchronization and is not available to the user). The PRA is also referred to as 30B+D. The physical layer bandwidth is 2.048 Mbps, the user has 1.92 Mbps available.

"

Note

On top of the B and D channels, ISDN also specifies an S-channel, used for synchronization. The Basic Rate Access requires a Network Termination (NT) at the subscribers premises. A number of terminals can be connected to this box, allowing several devices (Telephones, Fax, Computer, ..) to share the access. Existing analog line terminals (telephone, fax, modem) can still be connected through a so-called Terminal Adapter (TA).

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Users requiring more bandwidth, such as computers, or private exchanges, will connect through a Primary Rate Access, as shown in figure 45. Note The D channel of Basic Rate Access and Primary Rate Access are different in bandwidth (16 resp. 64 kbps). This bandwidth is somewhat proportional to the amount of user channels (B) that have to be controlled, and is found to be sufficient in both access types. ISDN is more than just an Access Network : it is also about services. This services aspect will be described in chapter 6.

Note

Subscriber Premises
Analogue Line Analog Telephone

Local Exchange Office

Local Exchange

Figure 43

Analogue Access

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Subscriber Premises
S-Bus

Local Exchange Office

ISDN Digital Telephone(s)

U Interface ISDN NT

Local Exchange

ISDN Fax

Analog Telephone

Terminal Adapter

Owned by Subscriber

Owned by Network Provider

Figure 44

ISDN Basic Rate Access
Local Exchange Office

Subscriber Premises

Primary Rate Access

Local Exchange

Primary Rate Access ISDN Private Exchange

Local Exchange

Figure 45

ISDN Primary Rate Access

Using ISDN as Access has the following advantages :
"

Multi-Service : voice, data, fax, ...

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which gives rise to more cabling. and with the right charging strategy could become an interesting way to provide internet access.4 Access Networks " Higher speeds than analogue : 64 kbps. High speed Signalling : 16 Kbps D-channel. the number of twisted pairs available was exhausted. chat. Easy implementation of Supplementary Services (see also chapter 6. 1920 Kbps. (see also Figure 35) This is (among others) to reduce the operation costs. This is an efficient way of using the ISDN network. going from a network with many smaller exchanges to a network with a few big exchanges. 128 kbps. When collecting more subscribers to a local exchange. and network providers searched for a solution to service more subscribers over the available twisted pairs. and then bringing them to the exchange in an efficient way. such as email. 07 . The Accesses behind the Access Node are typically analogue lines. This is sufficient for low-bitrate data-services.5 Concentrating Remote Users There is a trend in the telecom networks. or Basic Rate Accesses. In the so-called Always-On / Dynamic ISDN (AOD ISDN) the user is connected fulltime using only the 16 Kbps D-channel. locally collecting/concentrating users.alumni. " " ISDN : http://www.sonnet. they must be collected from a larger radius around the exchange. this can happen very fast. or for a voice call) one or more B-channels are opened. ISDN can be well employed as an Access for voice and data.com/ 4.1) " " " With the above features. or a combination of them. SubAddressing : several terminals onto a single access. The first systems were proprietary solutions : " " the Alcatel Remote Terminal Subscriber Unit (RTSU) the Alcatel Remote Concentrator Unit (ARCU) 72 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.caltech. When you need more bandwidth (for a data-transfer. etc. In some cases.edu/~dank/isdn/ AOD ISDN : http://always. As a solution to this there are access nodes. Using the fast signalling possibilities of the D-channels.

07 73 / 190 . " http://aww.4 Access Networks More and more. optimizing the use of it case by case. ADSL Digital subscriber lines apply modern digital techniques on twisted pair medium to deliver new services over existing infrastructure.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/fr6. today's more powerful signal processing and computing techniques allow to build equipment that adapts to each particular twisted pair. V5. qualities. and an analog line must assume the worst case common denominator of all. when 'surfing' the Internet this is much longer. Telephone networks are dimensioned for phonecalls. for example the average phonecall duration is 100 seconds. etc of twisted pairs used.2 : concentrated.x access node. not for accessing the Internet. operators demand standard products with open interfaces One of the most successful products of this open standard type is the V5. The bandwidth and quality of a typical analog telephone line is relatively low (300. For the Telecom operator.3400 Hz).htm see Alcatel 1570 BB 4. Advantages for the end-user : " " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. lengths. 30 subscribers on a 2 Mbps access. This is mainly because there is a wide variety of types. telephone network is not used for data-services.. There are two types : " V5. multiplexed : typically 200 subscribers on a 2 Mbps access. However.1 : multiplexed non-concentrated. telephone and data-services can be used at the same time.6 Digital Subscriber Line.alcatel. and resulting in much higher throughputs. like accessing the Internet. the advantages are : " " no additional cable-cost : uses existing telephone line. resulting in congestion in the telephone network. high throughput : up to Mbps telephone is still available when surfing the Internet.

07 . Throughput [bps] Frequency [Hz] Figure 47 Discrete Multi-Tone 74 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. See Appendix E for more info on modulation. POTS band sub-bands Quality. For example. by testing it. After measuring the quality of all the sub-bands. As each twisted pair is different. its possibilities are also different.1 MHz in to 255 sub-bands of 4. much higher than the classical analog telephone line. Better quality means less noise and interference. the DMT technique partitions the frequency band 5 KHz to 1. Each sub-band uses its own modulation scheme.3 kHz. it is decided for each band how much bits-per-second can be sent over this. a good-quality frequency sub-band allows to transmit more bits per second. The total bandwidth of the twisted pair cable. For each band the line terminals determine what is the quality of each individual sub-band. this results in a total bandwidth capacity. Another way to look at this is that for the same amount of bit-errors. For the total twisted pair.4 Access Networks POT S ban d ADSL Upstream 800 kbps Downstream 8 Mbps Frequency [Hz] Figure 46 ADSL Frequency Spectrum Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) is an advanced form of Frequency Multiplexing. is divided into a large set of small bands. and that results into less bit-errors. for ADSL. resulting into typical capacities from 1 Mbps to tens of Mbps.

4 Access Networks XDSL is a family name for a number of similar techniques. the ADSL Modem will restart 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Should the capacity of the line change drastically after it is put into service. rewind. typically a few Mbps going downstream. The x is a placeholder for several variants of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). etc) only a few kbps going upstream.048 Mbps are needed. before taking the ADSL-line into service. play. This matches with typical residential applications such as : " Video-on-Demand (VOD) : video. but only twisted pair (no coax or fiber) is available. This is called Automatic Rate Adaptive at Startup. in the newer version. with the user control (selecting the video. " ADSL does not make changes to use of the twisted pair as an access to an analog phone : The new services come on top of the existing Plain Old Telephony Service (POTS). Internet : WEB-contents going downstream is megabytes. or. HDSL is typically deployed in the network where 2. ADSL A future evolution will be Adaptive ADSL. stop. Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is the best known variant of XDSL : The main principles are the same. on top of ISDN. Computer ADSL Modem (NT) ADSL Modem (LT) Router Internet Telephone Local Exchange Telephone Network (PSTN) Figure 48 Internet Access Provider. In the current system. user requests are only a few hundred bytes. The first one which was deployed was High Speed Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) It is a symmetrical technique : the same bandwidth is available in both directions. but the bandwidths are divided Asymmetrical : more bandwidth is made available from network to user (Downstream) then from network to user (Upstream). 07 75 / 190 . the capabilities of the twisted pair are measured once.

This will result in a 15 seconds outage. The throughput of ADSL is directly determined by the 'quality' of the twisted pair. a number of variants of DSL-techniques are being developed. Ethernet). An additional complexity is that is requires applications aware of flow-control : the applications must adapt to the bandwidth which is available. less bandwidth is available for the ADSL-part. ADSL on ISDN Access is very similar to ADSL on analog lines. However. However. This however required then that you build two networks in your house : a telephone network (POTS) and a data-network (for example. when these measurements are done continuously. 1 Mbps or lower. and tap the ADSL data at any position where you have a telephone. This margin can be used to adapt to small changes in the line conditions. the higher the throughput. Todays ADSL modems are Rate Adaptive at Startup. from long distance . First generations ADSL provide a large bandwidth on top of a standard Analog Line Access. ADSL Lite will be available in Distributed Splitter technology. This is possible with ADSL Lite : the Splitter and ADSL NT are placed at the telephone plug.4 Access Networks and then adapt to the new line conditions. New developments have extended this to ADSL on ISDN Basic Rate Access. sometimes it would be convenient to have just the telephone network. each time the modem starts up. not where the line enters your house. Further improvement is possible.low bandwidth to short distance . and even Splitter-less technology Digital subscriber lines make a trade-off between bandwidth and distance : the shorter the line. since IDSN uses more bandwidth for the Telephony. not yet Rate Adaptive On-Line. is that the data-capacity of the ADSL Lite is substantially lower. As a result of this. For this reason. One drawback however. This results in a 15% lower throughput for the ADSL data. ADSL positions the Splitter and ADSL NT where your telephone line enters your house. 07 . he reserves a small amount of spare capacity. This can be : 76 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.high bandwidth. Another parameter is the division of Upstream/Downstream bandwidth. This technique is called Bit Swapping. resulting in the maximum capacity of the line at that time to be made available. This is called Automatic Rate Adaptive at On-Line.

Because most (PC) applications connect to an IP protocol stack. there is IP on ATM. New DSL variants using these new techniques are called Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL). upstream+downstream is fixed. fixed asymmetrical. but at any time this total can be assigned in a certain ratio to either direction. The Alcatel solution transports the application information over the ADSL using ATM-cells. asymmetrical. a protocol stack is needed. dynamic : the total bandwidth. as the one described in Figure 32. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.6 Km 10 Km Length of Access line Figure 49 Different DSL techniques The ADSL system covers the physical layer.4 Access Networks " " " symmetrical : the same in each direction. But on top of this. Bandwidth 15 Mbps VDSL 6 Mbps 2 Mbps 500 m ADSL HDSL 5. 07 77 / 190 .

xdsl.adsl.htm The ADSL Forum : http://www. Through time this ATM-part can grow gradually. 07 .com/ http://www.alcatel.4 Access Networks Applications IP ATM Physical Layer: ADSL Figure 50 IP on ATM over ADSL Coupling this ADSL access to the core network is done at the ATM level. As long as communications stay on the ATM-based part of the core network. ATM ATM Core Network Client ADSL Modem (NT) ADSL Modem (LT) Server Data Access Network Adapter (DANA) Other Core Networks Server Figure 51 " ADSL Access on ATM core Network ADSL Products : http://aww.com/services/analyses/trox/ " " 78 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmads. very-high speed and high quality is guaranteed. This ATM-network is then coupled to the Internet or other core networks.

07 79 / 190 . The last branch (tail) of the network. operators started interconnecting several regional networks. but is typically the result of the evolution of the Cable-TV network : " " Originally Cable-TV networks were all coax. Then operators optimized the network for quality and capacity by converting the Backbone to Fiber. It can be installed as a new network.7 Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) 'Hybrid Fiber Coax' uses a combination of Fiber and Coaxial cable. and upgrade of equipment in the remaining coaxial part " " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Operators converted their uni-directional networks (TV distribution DownStream) to bi-directional networks. into bigger networks. This required additional equipment in the fiber backbone. After the backbone became fiber.4 Access Networks Figure 52 ADSL Network Termination 4. is still coax running through the street to each of the homes.

One such band can carry a TV-channel. specific bands of bandwidth are reserved for the different services. 80 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Services provided on this HFC network are (typically) : " " " " Cable-TV new Digital TV channels. or a number of narrowband speech channels. 30 Mbps of data. to be shared by a group of subscribers. This is called a Cable Modem. On the Hybrid Fiber Coax network. Coax-cells range 250 to 400 m. Coax Tail Typical HFC networks have : " " 100 to 500 users per Coax-cell. Also there is only one coax. so a device is needed to multiplex the access of several users. sometimes 'on demand' Analog or ISDN Telephony Internet Access Cable networks are usually organized in 6 MHz bands.4 Access Networks Figure 53 Hybrid Fiber Coax evolution : Full Coax Star Network Coax Cell Figure 54 Hybrid Fiber Coax evolution : Optical Backbone. 07 .

8 Fiber in the Loop (FITL) 'Fiber in the Loop' indicates that there is Fiber used somewhere in the Access Network. Fiber to the Building (FTTB) : In a next step.htm 4. Internet Cable Telephony Digital Video Services Cable-TV FM Radio 450 480 500 862 Upstream Figure 55 " Typical spectrum allocation for Cable-Access HFC Products : http://aww. This is done through coax. fiber could be routed all the way to office buildings. etc. Typically the following three cases are distinguished. http://www.4 Access Networks Hybrid Fiber Coax networks provide an alternative to Twisted Pair for telephony : as most homes are already wired for Cable-TV. skyscrapers. Internet Cable Telephony Downstream Supervision 5 8 10 118 17 26 47 Data. Examples are the UK. a second operator can have an access network deployed within a short time.htm Set top Box return Data.be/index.english. and also Telenet in Belgium. twisted pair. eg.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmhfc. depending on how close you come with the fiber to the subscriber : " Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) : this brings fiber to the 'corner of the street'.telenet. radio. eg. 07 81 / 190 f [MHz] . At this place. an access node collects enough users and bandwidth to justify the fiber. " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. etc.alcatel.

for the same cost they provide a further penetration of the optical part. typical bit rates: 622 Mbps downstream. and lower security. Disadvantages of Passive Optical Networks are the higher complexity of the terminals. 07 . As a result. fiber is routed to individual homes.4 Access Networks " Fiber to the Home (FTTH) : In the final step.20 km. but is also the more expensive. Each user is connected to one sub-fiber. 155 Mbps upstream. Passive Optical Networks provide a low cost solution for the splitting/multiplexing function. network to user distances typically 10 . 82 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. narrowband and broadband services. a few tens of users. Curb Building Home A typical FITL network provides : " " " " FTTC FTTB FTTH Figure 56 Fiber in the Loop Passive Optical Networks (PON) are point-to-multipoint fiber networks : the fiber is mechanically sliced at one end into a large number of sub-fibers. This provides a simple solution with lots of bandwidth capacity.

sSTM1k (1 or more VC12/VC11. GSM or DECT. In case users are sufficiently dense clustered. a point to point microwave link can be used. In case of sparse user distribution. 07 83 / 190 .) In such case. 2 Mbps). coax. To bridge the distance between the backbone network and the cluster of users. They can provide economical solutions to the 'problem of the last mile'. wireless access can provide an economical alternative. or STM-1 SDH. 34 Mbps). rivers. passive Optical 'device' Network Passive optical networks serving up to 2000 connected users over a range up to 100 km are currently being studied.. This due to environmental factors (mountains. or an older analog mobile standard. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. and/or problems to deploy wires. Hybrid Fiber-Coax is also a case of Fiber in the Loop. Sub-rate SDH is a new development for SDH standards with lower bitrates. Note Strictly speaking. etc. but also at lower costs. .4 Access Networks Table 10 Active/Passive Optical Networks Advantages Disadvantages Expensive optical compo nents in splitter More complex security : all information is Broad casted to all users Upstream access uses a shared medium : requires access mechanism Active More flexible in Band Optical width management Network Passive Splitter is simple. ADSL. The last part of the access can be either wired or wireless . 6 Mbps). the cost of burying cable or fiber is very high. eg. They are referred to as SUPERPONs.) or legal (land is owned by competitors. the Tail can be twisted pair. etc. or also sub-rate SDH. 4. the tail can also be a radio technology.. They could be PDH. sSTM-2n (1 or more VC2.9 Microwave In some areas. Examples are STM-0 (1 VC3.

The smaller the cells. The cells are typically represented as hexagonal. In real life. the cell boundary is determined by the area where the antenna signal from the cell equals that of the adjacent cells. GSM is a Cellular system : this means that the whole area to be covered. the base-stations are connected to the mobile network with microwave point to point links. Due to the actual terrain conditions. but this is only because hexagons are simple shapes that connect nice together to cover a certain area. etc. cells may have quite irregular shapes. For GSM the cell size radius varies from 300m to 35 km. 84 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. used by Police. the smaller the cell. however.4 Access Networks An example of 'Point to Point Microwave' with 'Wireless Tail' is the implementation for GSM base-stations along the French Autoroutes : due to the (mostly) deserted area.1 GSM Introduction Today's most popular standard for Mobile Access is Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) (during its development. the abbreviation GSM meant 'Groupe Speciale Mobile') A mobile network with public access is called the Public Lands Mobile Network (PLMN). the lower the power needed to transmit signals through the air. 4.10.10 4. This is important for portable mbile communication. Also. Each cell has installed an antenna and services a certain (limited) number of users. Transportation companies. so typically cells in the city center are smaller than cells in a rural area. the higher the user density. 07 . is subdivided into a number of cells. This is in contrast to private mobile networks.

Users can walk around freely from one cell to another. and constantly looks for the nearest (strongest signal) base-station. " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. stressing the fact that calls will not be interrupted when moving from cell to cell. In the past. highways). Today mobile networks do not allow International Handover : moving between cells from different networks When you move from a cell owned by one network provider to a cell owned by another provider. during a communication. this is called Roaming. As such also the network knows where the user currently is. This requires the system to Hand Over the call with all its resources from one cell to the other. Even when not communicating. Multiplex : combination of Frequency.4 Access Networks Figure 57 Example of Frequency Planning : groups of 7 frequencies Users can walk around freely from one cell to another. also National Roaming has been deployed : roaming between networks in the same country. This can particularly useful for new operators : they can focus on providing network capacity in high density areas (cities. It is then necessary that these providers have a mutual Roaming Agreement. to another network in another country. the GSM set stays in contact with the Base-station. One of the aspects of the agreement is how the charging/billing between both providers will be settled. 07 85 / 190 . ie. from a network in one country. most roaming was International Roaming. Recently however.and Time-multiplexing. This feature is called Handover. and still offer full national coverage to their customers. through a roaming agreement with an existing operator. Handover is sometimes also called seamless handover.

960 MHz Downlink Carrier spacing : 200 kHz Number of carriers : 124. this would lead to interference problems at the boundaries of the cells. In order to avoid this. uplink and downlink channel are in bands 45 MHz apart. some Frequency Planning must be done. So when deploying a GSM network. Using 13 kbps instead of 64 kbps. since the signal from 86 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. allows more simultaneous calls through the same frequency band. frequencies can be the same. This is sometimes also called Frequency Re-Use. Timeslots : 8 timeslots User speech is encoded as 13 kbps (rather than 64 kbps). it is not allowed to use the same frequency in adjacent cells. 935 . " " " " " Frequency [MHz] 960 Downstream Band 935 915 Upstream Band 890 Frame Timeslots : 8 Time 124 sub-bands. the bitrate is 9. a little misleading because it actually means frequencies cannot be re-used in adjacent cells.6 kbps or 12 kbps. 07 .4 Access Networks " Frequency band : 890 .915 MHz Uplink. In cells far enough apart. each 200 KHz wide Figure 58 GSM Frequency/TDM Structure If all cells would use all possible frequencies at the same time. When using GSM for data connections. using more advanced compression techniques.

07 87 / 190 . the Network Subsystem (NS) : this part is a typical Core Network. Its coverage area defines the cell.10. Base Station Controller (BSC)controls a group of Base Transceiver Stations for power control. that the 900 MHz GSM must be assigned to at least 2 independent operators. " Base Station Subsystem (BSS) The user equipment (the mobile phone set) is called a Mobile Station (MS).4 Access Networks the far away cell is sufficiently attenuated. The MSC is responsible for : 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Each Mobile Station is identified by a unique International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI). both mobile network providers Proximus and Mobistar each are assigned 60 of the 124 frequency sub-bands. they must divide the available frequencies among each other. 4. etc. Note It is a european law. transmitters and receivers.2 Network Elements a GSM network consists of two parts : " the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) : This is actually the part which is relevant to Access. The Transcoder (TC) building block adapts the bitrates between the Base Station and then Network Subsystem : " " 13 kbps . not to cause interference problems. however with a few additions specific to mobility.64 kbps for voice rate adaptation for data : 12 kbps . When network providers work in parallel in the same area. The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) contains the antenna's.64 kbps Network SubSystem (NSS) The Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) is a real exchange. serving a number of Base Station Controllers. handover. Each user of the mobile network is identified by his Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) The smart-card holding the SIM is called the SIM-card. For example in Belgium.

The Authentication Center (AUC) contains the individual subscriber identification keys (also contained in the SIM). ISDN and data networks). The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) stores information about mobile stations in use and can bar calls from a mobile station if it is stolen. An MSC can also act as gateway towards other GSM networks and towards other public networks (PSTN. This way the subscribers profile information is stored in two parts : one part is always stored in the 'home' part of the network : the network where you are subscribed to a provider. 07 . The other part is stored moves along the network as you move around. routing. " " " " The Home Location Register (HLR) contains information about subscribers which 'home' is in this part of the network. control and termination of the calls management of inter-MSC handover supplementary services charging and accounting The MSC is connected to the location and equipment registers and to other MSCs in the same GSM network.4 Access Networks " call control : setup. 88 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. and is stored in the Visitors Location Register of the visited network. The Visitors Location Register (VLR) holds information relating to subscribers visiting this part of the network. not type-approved or has faults that can disturb the network. and provides subscriber data to the HLR and VLR for authentication.

com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmgsm.3 Mobile Data Up to now. as already explained in the introduction. Fax and Modem are possible.be/nl/M/network.com/gsminfo/gsminfo. they provide more bandwidth and more advanced services. 9. eg.htm " " 4. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.mobistar.alcatel. 07 89 / 190 . mobile networks really focused on Voice.data convergence".6 Kbps for GSM.gsmworld.10. versus 56Kbps for PSTN-modems. However. step by step. but the throughput is limited.html http://www.4 Access Networks to Transit Level Network Subsystem Authentication Centre Equipment Identity Register Home Location Register Visitor Location Register Mobile Switching Centre Transcoder Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Base Station Subsystem Figure 59 " GSM Network Structure GSM Products : http://aww.htm http://www. there is a clear trend voice . For mobile communications this convergence is happening in 4 steps : " " " " Short Message Service (SMS) Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) General Packet Radio System (GPRS) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) The main difference between these four is that.

It is possible to connect the system to ther networks. using a Gateway. so that a mobile user can be informed of a received voice mail. for example to send messages from the Internet to mobile telephones. 90 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. to Transit Level Network Subsystem Mobile Switching Centre Voice Mail System IP Network Short Message System Centre (SMS-C) Base Station Subsystem Figure 60 Network Elements for Short Message Service The purpose of the Wireless Access Protocol is to provide access from mobile phones to data networks. The service is explained in more detail in section 6.4 Access Networks This system allows to send small text-based messages between mobile telephones. the so-called WAP protocol stack. Figure 60 shows the additional network elements needed. via an SMS message. Note the Short Message Service . WAP requires some additional network elements (see figure 61) as well as some extra software in the mobile phone.Centre often has also a connection to the Voice Mail System. mainly the Internet. 07 .5.

A GPRS-aware mobile phone. 160 kbps. WAP allows to use this data-connection for accessing the Internet. a packet switched data-communication. This will soon reveal the bandwidth bottleneck that SMS and circuit switched connections have. Once the Mobile user has a Gateway to the Internet. allows to combine up to 8 timeslots (see figure 58) of each maximum 22. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. This bandwidth must be shared by all users of that same frequency.4 Access Networks to Transit Level Network Subsystem Mobile Switching Centre Internet WAP Gateway WAP Service Base Station Subsystem other Internet Services Figure 61 Network Elements for WireLess Access Protocol General Packet Radio System.8 kbps to provide a maximum of approx. A solution to this is General Packet Radio System : it adds to the Mobile network. 07 91 / 190 . both by the voice-users and data-users ! Note GPRS and WAP are Complementary technologies : GPRS gives a mobile user a 'high-speed' data-connection. he can start using more and more services.

into a channel of 13 Kbps.4 Access Networks to Transit Level Network Subsystem Mobile Switching Centre Home Location Register Transcoder Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) Internal Network Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Internet Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Base Station Subsystem Figure 62 GPRS Network Structure Finally the third generation mobile system will bring broadband mobile access.10.4 Other Mobile Evolutions At the first standardization of GSM. 07 . This was the best compromise between capacity (number of users) and voice-quality. however. and todays technology can do better : 92 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. as well as a whole architecture focused on services. Note that 13 Kbps requires some compression because standard voice uses 64 Kbps. and different vendors have different ideas of what this next generation mobile system should be. the engineers choose to code a single voice signal. the standards are not yet completely finalized. In the mean time. More info on UMTS can be found in section 4.14. 4. compression techniques have improved.

and also as PCN 1900 If more than two Mobile Networks are provided in an area. some of these frequencies may be disturbed. reflections on buildings in cities). " " Note In the early days of its design. but other will be good. As some older GSM telephones do not yet support SFH. where 1800 MHz was already allocated). there are places with poor reception for certain frequencies. a Better voice quality can be provided for the same 13 Kbps. allowing 3 times as much frequencies. the third network provider 'KPN Orange' uses GSM 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 299 for GSM1900. This is called Enhanced Full Rate (EFR). The result is that the received voice quality is more equally spread over all locations. the capacity of the 900 MHz GSM band will eventually be exhausted. usually the younger networks deploy GSM1800. A solution to this is GSM 1800/ GSM 1900. resulting into smaller cells.25W). cell sizes : 100 m to a few Km. 07 93 / 190 . " Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) is also a technique to improve the signal quality. and as a result. In a certain location. and the growing number of mobile network providers. Due to interferences (eg. so also 3 times as much users : 374 frequencies for GSM1800.11 GSM 1800 / GSM 1900 With the growing number of mobile users. the 1800/1900 MHz band is wider than the 900 MHz. This technique is called Half Rate Channel. and typically smaller power (1W. Technical properties of GSM 900 and GSM 1800/1900 are very similar : the main differences are : " 1800 or 1900 MHz frequencies are used. a double amount of users can be services for the given bandwidth. there are always some frequency-bands excluded from the rotation scheme. For example in Belgium. Slow Frequency Hopping continuously changes (rotates) the used frequency. Instead of using a single frequency band for the whole call. 4. the GSM1800/1900 system was also known as DCS 1800 / DCS 1900 : Digital Cellular System (DCS). It is the allocation of a second frequency band in the 1800 MHz range (1900 MHz for the American continent. 0.4 Access Networks " the same voice-quality can be compressed to 6.5 Kbps.

possibilities to also use it as Wireless Local area Network : several voice channels can be combined into a single bearer. Wireless Local Area Networks. " GSM Products : http://aww.orange.html " " " 4.orange.net/index. also called Cordless Telephone Mobility (CTM) mobility up to 250 meters outdoors. Residential systems. Also some first operators are using GSM 1800 (on top of GSM900) to increase their network capacity.12 DECT The Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication (DECT) system specifies a wireless access system for local environments to access wide area network services. each floor/room of a building can be a cell. 25 to 50 m indoors. Cellular system. wireless access to public telecom networks. Typical applications are: " " " " Private Exchanges with wireless handsets.net/kpn. fast installation of communication infrastructure. 07 . such as the PSTN.alcatel.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmcdm. For data this up to 552 kbps.uk.html http://www.com/telecom/mbd/msd/opg/lpcmgsm.be.htm CDMA Products : http://aww.4 Access Networks 1800.alcatel. Features of DECT systems are : " " " " " " 94 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.htm http://www. DECT Base station and small Private Branch Exchange (PABX) can be integrated for residential applications. resulting into speech quality equivalent to or better than that of a wired telephone. with very high user densities / Micro Cells : in a business environment. ISDN and mobile networks. Air interface is digital. It consists of a communication protocol and an air interface standard. due to wireless access.

Frequency band : 1880 .and Time-multiplexing. short range radio links between mobile 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.4 Access Networks " Multiplex : combination of Frequency.1900 MHz Carrier spacing : 1. low-cost.13 Bluetooth Bluetooth is the codename for a technology specification for small form factor. This is also the reason why no frequency planning is required in micro-cellular DECT systems.728 MHz wide Figure 63 Note DECT Frequency/TDM Structure A DECT terminal continuously monitors the available carrier channels to select the one which provides the highest quality communication. which makes the system very flexible. Terminal Station Transmits Upstream Link " " " " Frequency Base Station Transmits [MHz] Downstream Link 1900 1880 Frame Time Timeslots : 2 * 12 Sub-band : 1. The control part is not involved in the selection. 07 95 / 190 .728 MHz Number of carriers : 10 Timeslots : 24 timeslots. each timeslot unidirectional. 4.

and the possibility of automatic. without the need to buy. carry. unconscious. Figure 64 Positioning of Bluetooth in Bandwidth versus Distance Bluetooth will enable users to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunications devices easily and simply. It will virtually eliminate the need to purchase additional or proprietary cabling to connect individual devices. it will also potentially replace multiple cable connections via a single radio link. It will allow them to think about what they are working on. 07 . It delivers opportunities for rapid ad hoc connections. "The instant postcard". 96 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. for different applications such as "Surfing in the sofa". rather than how to make their technology work. mobile phones and other portable devices. or connect cables. Because Bluetooth can be used for a variety of purposes. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to market. connections between devices.4 Access Networks PCs.It creates the possibility of using mobile data in a different way. "Three in one phone" and many others.

ericsson. by Ericsson : http://bluetooth. It was quite successful in the US (Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)). where usually transmitter and receiver are both 'owned' by the end-user.14 UMTS. Third Generation Mobile The first generation mobile system was the Analog Cellular system. 07 97 / 190 . 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. From this point of view you could also classify it as a technology used in Customer Premises Equipment.se/support/online.4 Access Networks Figure 65 Note Ericsson T28 GSM with Bluetooth wireless ear and microphone Bluetooth technology is intended for short range wireless communication.bluetooth. unlike its very limited success in Europe. bluetooth home page : http://www.com Web-Based Training course on Bluetooth.asp " " 4.

and the non-adoption of the GSM standard results in a slightly slower deployment. data-connections can only achieve up to 9. These systems are extremely successful in Europe. Unpopulated areas like desert. The third generation mobile system is also called Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS). a network can be built that really covers the whole earth. Using satellites. Eg. forests.4 Access Networks The second generation mobile systems are the ones based on digital techniques. GSM and the US counterparts Personal Communication System (PCS). 4. will not be covered. albeit that the availability of a satisfactory analog system. etc. 07 . Asia and also in the US. is the coverage : only at places with sufficient (potential) users it is economically worthwhile to place base stations.6 Kbps. 98 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. at sea. One of the main limitations of the second generation systems is the limited bandwidth. Digital AMPS (D-AMPS).15 Satellite The main problem that remains with the above mobile networks. This is where the next generation (the third generation) mobile systems wants to improve : providing the user with mobile access of typical 384 Kbps over 2 Mbps to even 10 Mbps in some proposals. especially for data-communications. via a GSM set.

07 99 / 190 . Because the earth rotates around its axis as well. making it impractical for portable devices. " Disadvantages are : " " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. a long round-trip delay occurs when using these satellites (250 ms). 36000 km.1 Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) Geostationary satellites are rotating around the earth at an altitude of ca. Typically only 3 satellites are needed for full coverage. for a GEO-satellite above the equator.15. This delay is impractical for voice communication or for fast computer communication. The advantages of communication systems using GEO-satellites are : " high altitude allows to cover a large part of the earth. This high altitude causes the satellite to rotate quite slowly : 1 rotation per 24 hours. due to long distance (high altitude). more power is needed to send signals to the satellite. antennas to the satellite can be fixed parabolic dish antennas. due to high altitude.4 Access Networks Figure 66 Satellite Systems 4. this means it appears to stand still when seen from the earth.

allowing fast data communication. low altitude covers only a small part of the earth. more bandwidth will be available. " Disadvantages are : " " " When having a large number of satellites close to the earth.2 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Low-Earth orbit satellites are much closer to the earth. less power is needed to send signals to the satellite. nicely distributed over the earths sky is called a Constellation. This large group of satellites. another advantage is that per user. satellites will also fly over low.4 Access Networks Figure 67 Parabolic dish to GeoStationary Satellite 4. small round-trip delay (<30 ms). 4.3 Satellite Frequencies Satellites can use different frequency bands. As a result they rotate faster.15. 07 .or unpopulated areas.15. again with some pro and contra's for each band : 100 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Typically 50 or more satellites are needed for full coverage. typically once every 2 hours. satellites rotate faster than the earth : antennas can not be fixed. typically 600 to 800 km. and hand-over mechanism is needed such that your communication is always mapped on the closest satellite. responsive systems. The advantages of communication systems using LEO-satellites are : " due to 'low' altitude.

Figure 68 Globalstar logo Globalstar is a satellite-based. has brought the telecom world back to reality due to its many startup problems : " " a number of technical problems with the voice quality.7 lots of band (down) width and good building 14-17. messaging and other 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.4 Access Networks Table 11 Band L Satellite Frequency Bands. 07 101 / 190 . the first of these 'satellite constellation' systems. However. wireless telecommunications system designed to provide voice.8 penetration (up) 18-31 Ka lots of band requires pow width available erful transmit ters subject to rain fade Teledesic Celestri Spaceway 4.7 radiowaves penetrate buildings Contra large parts of this band are already used.53-2.15.7-12.4 Systems Below four concrete systems are briefly described. Irirdium. Example Globalstar Iridium SkyBridge Ku 11. large parts of this band are already used. " For two of these systems. satellite telephony seems to be too expensive. data. many plans for global satellite systems have been proposed. Iridium is not realizing the forecasted number of subscribers the market for satellite telephony is becoming smaller due to the faster growth of Public Lands Mobile Networks : the areas not covered by GSM (and similar) systems is smaller than expected. The past years. a comparison Frequency Pro [GHz] 1. Alcatel participates : SkyBridge and GlobalStar. fax.

Users of Globalstar will make or receive calls using hand-held or vehicle mounted terminals similar to today's cellular phones. Distance Learning and Entertainment.4 Access Networks telecommunications services to users worldwide.com Figure 69 SkyBridge logo SkyBridge wants to bring High-speed local access to multi-media broadband services. to a groundstation and then through local terrestrial wireline and wireless systems to their end destinations. Calls will be relayed through Globalstar's 48 satellite constellation. Video-conference. Approximately 200 gateway stations are planned for worldwide coverage.469 km). http://www. SkyBridge will use a constellation of 80 satellites in the Ku band.globalstar. for business as well as residential users. the system allows to combine several of these together. all over the world. The total worldwide capacity of the system will be 215 Gbps (backbone) and each user can have n*20 Mbps downstream (satellite to user) and n*2 Mbps upstream (user to satellite).414 kilometer (approximately 900 mile) orbit above the earth. but rather 'reflects' all traffic to the earth and uses terrestrial fiber-optic networks. GlobalStar plans operation in 2000 http://www. This low earth orbit allows the short signal propagation time .30 milliseconds . SkyBridge does not use inter-satellite links. Typical applications will be Internet. Each gateway will have a 234 miles radius (350 km) coverage.com 102 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. orbiting at an altitude of 913 miles (1.skybridgesatellite.needed for the provision of real-time interactive services. SkyBridge plans operation in the year 2002. 07 . in a 1. n is the number of channels used.

000 km) in two major ways. " " http://www. Iridium services provide telephony and paging coverage virtually anywhere in the world: " Iridium World Satellite Service provides a direct satellite link for both incoming and outgoing communications in remote areas. First. they are close enough to receive the signals of a handheld device. poorly covered regions.com The Teledesic Network is a high-capacity broadband network that combines the global coverage and low latency of a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) constellation of satellites. the flexibility and robustness of the Internet. the Iridium system is the first low-Earth-orbiting system for wireless telephone service.iridium. they act like cellular towers in the sky . The Iridium World Page Service provides global alphanumeric messaging. Iridium World Roaming Service allows you to roam across multiple wireless protocols.4 Access Networks Figure 70 Iridium logo With 66 satellites forming a cross-linked grid above the Earth. The Ka-Band serves as the link between the satellite and the gateways and earth terminals. 07 103 / 190 . and locations outside terrestrial networks. and "fiber-like" Quality of Service (QOS). The L-Band serves as the link between the satellite and Iridium subscriber equipment. allowing you to keep one telephone number and receive one telephone bill for calls made anywhere on earth.where wireless signals can move overhead instead of through ground-based cells. Only 780 km (485 miles) high. and second." the Teledesic Network brings affordable access to interactive broadband 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Essentially an "Internet-in-the-Sky. these satellites work differently from those at a much higher orbit (36. The Iridium system will employ a combination of Frequency Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access (FDMA/TDMA) signals multiplexing to make the most efficient use of limited spectrum.

com 104 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. it is picked up by a PC with dish-antenna receiver. using eg. Typical speed is 400 kbps. Service provider retrieves information from Internet-server. 1.16 Satellite Data Due to their broadcasting possibilities.000 times faster than today's standard analog modems.5 . One example is the Internet Access provided by Hughes : 1. As the satellite planes orbit north-to-south and south-to-north. http://www. When retrieved. including those areas that could not be served economically by any other means.com 4. satellites can also be used for data-broadcasting. 28800 bps) 2. Broadband terminals will offer 64 Mbps of two-way capacity.4 Access Networks communication to all areas of the Earth. T1/E1 connection. http://www. each with 24 satellites.direcpc. Most users will have two-way connections that provide up to 64 Mbps on the downlink and up to 2 Mbps on the uplink. the Earth rotates underneath.teledesic.2 Mbps 3.eg. the data is sent from service provider to satellite (together with the information goes an identification of the requestor) 4. This represents access speeds up to 2. divided into 12 planes. 07 . The Teledesic Network will consist of 288 operational satellites. PC sends browser request via 'traditional' modem to service provider. Satellite broadcasts the info.

770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. However. etc.17 Internet Access A user can access the public voice network in many different ways.. as was described in the previous section : " " " " " " " Analog Line ISDN GSM DECT Satellite Hybrid Fibre Coax etc. almost all these types of access. government organizations.4 Access Networks Internet PSTN Figure 71 Internet Access via combination Modem / Satellite 4. for the Internet Access. This is also called Always-On". " your computer or computer-network is full-time connected. also allow to access the Internet. medium to large companies. This is the case for universities. As a matter of fact. there is some additional terminology which is worth explaining.. 07 105 / 190 .

ADSL. etc. the Internet Access network. is called an Internet Access Provider (IAP). the (intermediate) provider access network and the Gateway. Today. many residential users use email and occasionally World Wide Web (WWW)-browsers. You can establish a temporary connection for the duration of your information transfer.. newsgroups. This is provided by a Telecom provider. over the PSTN to a modem in the Point of Presence. on this provider network there are usually a number of servers providing Internet Services. " " " " 106 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. your Cable-TV.. consists of the following parts (see Figure 72) : " a public access network : this can be the PSTN. This is called an Internet Service Provider (ISP).. In general. etc. and often too expensive. GSM. a provider access network.. 07 . For example. The gateway is a router on the edge of the Backbone and the Access network.4 Access Networks " you connect to the PoP via a dial-up connection. . and connect them to the backbone with just one GateWay. Usually there is no straight connection from the Point of Presence to the Internet Backbone : the provider will combine several POPs via a provider network. a Point of Presence (POP) : this is the other end of the connection over the public access network. This is traditionally called Dial-Up". such as email. the provider offering the Point of Presence. a permanent connection is not really necessary. For these applications. Cable-TV provider. web-pages. you call via the modem of your computer. The part behind the POP is normally invisible to the end user.

4 Access Networks GateWay Internet Core Network Provider Access Network Point of Presence (POP) Public Access Network Internet Service Provider (ISP) Figure 72 Internet Access : Terminology In some cases. 07 107 / 190 . the whole access can be offered by a single provider. playing all 3 roles. Finally. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. In other cases Internet Access provider (IAP) and Internet Service provider (ISP) are one and the same. each part of the network can be provided by a different provider.

4 Access Networks 108 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 .

1 Phone Analog Telephone This is still the most widespread type of phone worldwide. 07 109 / 190 . Pulse mode : each digit is represented as a number of short interruptions on the line. like for example the Alcatel Maximum Integration Phone Set (MIPS). eg digit '4' consists of 4 interruption pulses.5 Customer Premises Equipment 5 Customer Premises Equipment 5. Analog phones are inexpensive due to years of cost-improvement : it can be built around a single integrated circuit. Todays analog phone has features like : " " " " " Calling Line Identity.1 5. Re-dial Handsfree use etc. Analog phones can signal the digits using one of two ways : " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.1. each 100 ms. analog Number Memories.

since signalling capabilities of an analog phone are limited.9. 07 . This allows 16 combinations. 0. http://www. using these analog phone services is slightly more complex. '*' . The CLASS telephone has the service codes for supplementary services hard-coded into the telephone. 110 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.5 Customer Premises Equipment " Tone mode : a system called Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (DTMF) : each digit is signalled using a combination of 2 frequencies out of a set of 4+4.D.C. Figure 73 Alcatel 21XX.B.com/HYPERTEXT/MT/dtmf. This server provides the text on the display. and interpretes the selections of the user. Analog Telephone 5..1.HTM Note Many services available to ISDN are brought to analog phones. and Analog Display Services Interface (ADSI) are two types of analog phones that facilitate the use of supplementary services by adding a display providing interactive guidance. The ADSI phone acts as a terminal which keeps a connection with an ADSI-server. However.conservinc. '#' and A.2 ADSI/CLASS Telephone Custom Local Area Signalling Services (CLASS).

there were small differences in the implementation of the standard from country to country. In the early days of ISDN.4 Facsimile. Fax A Fax-machine contains 3 parts : 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. As a result. Figure 75 Alcatel 2810. ISDN-phones could not be used worldwide as easily as analog phones do. a feature used by several ISDN services.5 Customer Premises Equipment Figure 74 Nortel ADSI Phone http://www. ISDN Telephone 5.com/ 5.3 ISDN Telephone ISDN phones are similar to Analog ones.astadsi.1. to provide shortcuts to the ISDN Supplementary Services. The set usually also has a number of programmable keys. but almost always have a display to show messages to the user. 07 111 / 190 .1.

the more advanced the compression and modem techniques. etc.Copier. Group IV : uses an ISDN B-channel : 64 kbps. with 100 numbers or more. modem) you are able to perform the functions of Printer. and printed there. " " A fax scans the image on the page you want to send. Japan. " When you have the three building blocks for a fax (scanner.4.5 Mobile Phone As explained in chapter 4. a telephone directory. several types of Mobile standards exist : " " " " Analog types Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone GSM other standards in the USA. differing in how they transfer information over the telephone network : the newer the fax. a set of Navigation Keys to navigate through all the features. stored on the receiver machine. Modem and Fax. Even with these differences. Following are common types : " Group III : speeds up to 9600 bits per second. and less than 5 seconds per page. and the faster the pages can be sent. and negotiates a format to send the information. 07 .1. printer. a Printer : it prints the image back on paper. " " 112 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.10 and later. 5.5 Customer Premises Equipment " an Image Scanner : it scans any image on paper into a set of pixels which are black or white. etc. in a compressed way. a Modem (see chapter 5.1 ) : via the modem the scanned information is transmitted via the telephone network from one fax-machine to the other. display with messages. Scanner . the end-user features of the mobile handset are very similar : " Small display to guide supplementary services. resulting in 10 o 15 seconds per page throughput. Recently such 4 in 1 office machines have been introduced on the market. Then it makes a phonecall to the receiver machine. Then the image-information is sent. Several generations of fax-machines exist.

Another example is GSM / Satellite : when leaving the coverage of the GSM network. When travelling with your (eg. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. using mobile phones while driving a car is forbidden.11. using the public network. and will probably only be used for specific applications.5 Customer Premises Equipment " " different ringing melodies to indicate different calling parties. being more expensive however. 07 113 / 190 . One step further than Dual Band is Dual Mode. you can fall back on the worldwide coverage of a satellite network. for example DECT and GSM : when you are in your office. Dual Mode phones are even more complex than dual band. In some countries. This requires of course additional High Frequency (HF) electronics. even when using a handsfree set : because the drivers concentration is not 100% dedicated to driving. 1800 MHz. and 1900 MHz. This clearly limits your mobility. As explained in chapter 4. the phone uses the private network. the risk of accidents increases by a factor 4. within the coverage of your DECT private mobile network. This is a phone combining different technologies.10 and 4. Note Using mobile phones while driving a car is dangerous. when you are out of the office. your phone will not work. so the phone will be a little bit more expensive. Therefore Dual Band or Multi Band phones are being developed. having the possibility to use more than one frequency band. GSM networks use different frequency bands : 900 MHz. not as a general consumer product. (out of the coverage of the private network) the phone switches to GSM. microphone and speaker extensions to use it in a handsfree way.) 1800 MHz band GSM to a country that has only 900 MHz mobile networks.

Originally pagers are simplex : only receiving information. but newer generations provide duplex communication.5 Customer Premises Equipment Kyocera Alcatel One Touch View Ericsson SH888 Dual Band GSM Dual Mode GSM/Iridium Figure 76 Mobile Phone 5. and Swatch Paging Wristwatch 114 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 .2 Pager Pagers are small compact devices that can receive messages sent using radio-transmission. Pagers can be built as small is integrated into a wristwatch. Figure 77 Motorola Pager.

through the public network. Small PABX : Alcatel 2740.4 5. etc.4. The numbers of subscribers serviced by a private exchange can range from as small as 10 to several thousands. Alcatel 2750 Large PABX for Business. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Free communications can be made between the sets.1 Virtual Private Network Multi-site companies can interconnect their private exchanges. Small private exchanges. Residential DECT often also provides a private exchange functions. Computer Network Analog Modem An analog modem uses a standard analog telephone line to communicate data. Note A public exchange can also emulate a private exchange. whereby one base-station can serve up to (eg. Hotel. Internal communications are free. The throughput of these modems is however limited : " Older modems had throughputs of 9600 bps. They allow to have phones in different rooms. are also deployed in homes. This is described in chapter 6.5 Customer Premises Equipment 5. Hospital : Alcatel 4400 " " 5. a connection for fax and modem.3. and usually these exchanges provide additional business-oriented features that are not available (yet) in the public network.) six mobile phones.3 Private Exchange Many companies have private telephone exchanges.1 Computer. The advantage is that such a telephone line and these modems are (virtually) a world wide standard. 14400 bps (the speed also used by many fax machines) and 28800 bps. as well as their private data-networks. 07 115 / 190 .2 on Services. so that a traveller can use them anywhere. Many cases this is still done with so-called leased lines. 5. typically less than 10 lines.

ISDN Modems are not backward compatible with analog lines. 128 or 144 kbps. but the speeds are nevertheless limited to eg.90 standard. only have this high throughput in one direction : downloading. for example GSM. 9600 bps. In newer modems. because the ISDN S-Bus provides a digital channel. the maximum speed of the connection. and since ISDN is not yet available worldwide. the computer cards or boards that interface to this bus are called modems. Modems are being integrated into more and more devices. When making a connection with two modems. ISDN Modems are less applicable for portable computers.4. and as such will still work together with older modems. (this is also used in Fax-machines). However. depending on the quality of the telephone line. Fortunately most modems are backward compatible with lower speeds.4.5 Customer Premises Equipment " Newer modems use compression and more complex modulation schemes to increase throughputs to 33600 bps and recently 56000 bps. Also the throughput is not guaranteed.56k. http://www.2 ISDN Modem ISDN Modems have higher throughput. the connection-bitrate can even be reduced by the modems in case of a poor quality telephone-line. 07 . The last modems of the so-called 56K Flex or V.3 GSM Modem Modems exist that can connect over mobile phones. 64. in analogy with analog modems. 5. as a PCMCIA extension card for portable PC's or as a separate set-top device. a travelling salesman who wants to reach the 116 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. these modems are used only in specific applications where the mobility is mandatory. Modems come in many shapes : as an extension card for the PC. to allow more users at the same time. is limited by the slowest of both modems. depending on the combination of the 2 B + D channels. Strictly spoken ISDN-Modems are not really modems. allowing such device to communicate over standard telephone lines.com/ 5. Because of the limited throughput. The connection-bitrate will be determined by the slowest modem. eg. Technically they are somewhere in-between analog modems and ISDN : they use digital transmission. This because a mobile network limits the bandwidth of a channel.

07 117 / 190 . 2 Mbps. such that no two computers talk at the same time.4 Local Area Network Individual computers can be interconnected using Local Area Networks (LAN). A simple mechanism to organize this is called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA-CD) : every computer that wants to talk. as well as some additional concepts specific to these networks. In this chapter. As a result they must somehow agree how to share the channel. resulting into a so-called Collision. eg. However. they consist of links interconnecting nodes. the most popular standards for local area networks are described. either connection-oriented or connection-less.5 Customer Premises Equipment company network from his car. This still yields a chance that 2 computers start talking at the same time. To detect this. the reason why they are described in this chapter. the nodes are packet-switches. the main principles explained in the chapter on core networks also apply to these local area networks : " " " they are organized as ring. listens until all other computers are quiet. star. One of the features of the third generation mobile network is to improve data-communication. Only then it starts talking. On simple LANs. These networks are usually completely private.4. These techniques are called Media Access Control (MAC). Figure 78 Mixed GSM / ISDN Modem Card 5. computers are all connected in parallel sharing a common communication channel : it is said the they share the medium. or other network structures. therefore it will provide much larger bandwidths. a 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

07 . not just himself. this way clearly avoiding any collision. (logical structures). It is available in speeds of 10 Mbps (10BaseT). This device allows computers to be physically connected as a star network. the computers will suspend transmitting. The popular Ethernet uses CSMA-CD as sharing mechanism. The concept of a Bus and a Ring are useful as topologies. a token is circulating. This is called a jammed network. 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbps). passes the token to its neighbor. The Token Ring network was developed to overcome the problem of jammed networks. but as a physical layout they have disadvantages : whenever a computer has to be added to the network. Experiments are done with 10 Gbps Ethernet. Only the computer who currently holds the token is allowed to transmit. resulting in a temporary unavailability of the network. Because this random time is different for all machines. at least for a random time. As soon as this happens.5 Customer Premises Equipment computer keeps listening even when he is talking. each collision may be followed by another. Bus Hub Figure 79 Ethernet LAN without / with a Hub 118 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. A more practical way to operate a network is using a Hub. When there is a collision. On the network. and as a result no one can get through anymore. A computer that doesn't want to transmit. In computer network terms. they will usually not start again at the same time. However when there is a large number of computers wanting to send. while logically they are still a bus or ring. the bus or ring has to be opened. the network would be down. he will hear two computers.

and vice versa. eg. a device is needed that Bridges the technology-gap. but adapts from one technology to the other as well. Some bridges only copy packets if the Destination address of the packet is on the other side. each again meeting the size-limit. it routes packets to their destination. the lowest 3 layers of the IP-routing protocol. by looking to the Source addresses. Rapid installation time and simple configuration (low cost of ownership in general) are the main advantage of these devices. This term refers to devices which are mostly pre-configured. copying the data packets from one sub-network to the other. When interconnecting networks of different technologies. The term LAN Switch refers to a router in which most functions are implemented in hardware. These bridges are called Self-learning bridges and are actually almost a router A router differs from a bridge in two aspects : " " it can connect to more than two networks. and ready-to-use from the box. 07 119 / 190 . It also copies packets from one network to the other.5 Customer Premises Equipment Ring Hub Figure 80 Token Ring LAN without / with a Hub When the distance between the computers exceeds the specifications of the LAN network type. The repeater is simply amplifying the signals. Many of these devices are 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. a repeater can break the network up into two smaller networks. by only copying to the network that holds the computer indicated by the packet destination address. They can learn which address is on which network.

" " Figure 81 3COM Palm V and Alcatel One Touch Com 120 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 5. portable device.. . to-do list etc. etc. Many of the newer generation devices have networking capabilities : " Modems. Routers. Infrared Data Association (IrDA) infrared ports. to connect to PCs.5 Customer Premises Equipment self-learning. events. etc. etc. or Mobile phones. Typical functions are Web-servers. which can hold and organize your personal information such as : " " " " " phonenumbers addresses agenda with meetings. Firewalls.5 Personal Digital Assistant aPersonal Digital Assistant (PDA) is a small.. to connect via telephone networks dial-up to information servers. 07 . self-healing. GSM (or similar) to connect via wireless networks.

When connected they need lots of bandwidth.nc. but does not have permanent storage. This concept is somehow also an evolution of the ADSI or CLASS services. " However.5 Customer Premises Equipment 5. they are not so mobile. rather than being dependent upon a network. due to the following disadvantages : " they are not significantly cheaper than standard personal computers. through which it can load applications and/or data. resulting in costs there as well. " " http://www. except for a relatively cheap harddisk. since they contain the same building blocks. This connection can be a modem. users still like to have control over their own Personal computer. a Network Computer 5. they can only work when connected to the network. because application and data must be downloaded. network computers are not yet very successful. promoted by (mainly) Sun and Oracle. but are uncomfortable with 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 121 / 190 .7 Screenphone The screenphone is a mix between a telephone and a WEB-browser. The network computer needs a lot of bandwidth.com/ Figure 82 SUN Microsystems JavaStation.6 Network Computer A Network Computer looks like any computer. need not worry about upgrading software : a complete up-to-date application is downloaded instantly when he needs it. Advantages of the network computer are : " the user need not install software himself. Rather it always has a network connection. like a harddisk. the user doesn't need to buy (expensive) software which he will only use a few times : he can pay per use. Cable-modem or similar. ADSL-modem. Marketing studies show that many people find a telephone very familiar.

eg. which allows it to connect to WEB-servers.8 Internet Phone The Internet Phone uses Voice-over-IP technology. The phone makes a Local call to the nearest Internet Access Provider. The screenphone integrates a simple computer into a telephone. booking for theater.5 Customer Premises Equipment a personal computer. so it can be used for on-line shopping : after selecting an article you can pay by inserting your electronic money smartcard. and the article will be sent to you. 122 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. This will facilitate on-line services such as : " " " " home-banking. 07 . Figure 83 Alcatel 'Web Touch' 5. checking stocks etc. (in some countries. to offer voice service over the Internet. The screenphone also has a smart-card reader. It can be used for normal phone-calls. this call is even for free. USA) The long distance is covered by the Internet or by other IP carrier-networks. and be used as a browser. a (retractable) keyboard and a display. etc. film. but also has a modem.

The TV-program contains additional information about 'hyperlinks' (carried in much the same way as the teletext system) and these are shown high-lighted on the screen. " " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. It is estimated that in the future. Internet Access and TV.aplio. an actor during a movie. . Examples of interaction are : " " " " jump to the Web-site of a company showing a advertisement order a product demonstrated on TV televote look up more info on an athlete during a sports program.9 Web-TV Web-TV is a device that integrates an Internet Browser with a television..com/ Figure 84 Aplio Internet Phone 5. This box is (usually) set on top of your TV. print the weather forecast after watching it on TV . internet phones can be manufactured for cost comparable to todays analog telephones. This way it combines the best of both : " " high downstream bandwidth of the TV : high quality pictures interactivity of the Internet Web-TV places an additional box between your Cable-TV. http://www. The user can then 'click' this link to additional information with his remote control (or a remote keyboard) and this way start to interact with the Web-TV program.5 Customer Premises Equipment The voice is converted into IP packets in the telephone itself thus avoiding this conversion in the Access or Core network.. 10$.. 07 123 / 190 .. and therefore called Set-Top Box.

webtv.5 Customer Premises Equipment http://www. 07 .net/ Figure 85 Sony Web-TV : set-top box and remote control 124 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

as well as between network/service providers) is now in the area of supplementary services. and as such most competition (between manufacturers.6 Network Services 6 Network Services This chapter describes what you can do with a network. http://www. Belgacom (Belgian incumbent operator) offers you the 'Comfort Services' package.htm http://www. a packet of 5 supplementary services at the cost of 85 BEF/month. rather than how it is structured.telenet. you can make phone-calls. However they 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.be/thuis/thuis6.1 6.belgacom. All the things the network can do for you are called Services. and it is not the intention to describe the complete list here.htm (NL) Way over 100 supplementary services have been defined.1. They are additional features on top of the Basic Call : a simple two-party duplex voice connection. As a simple example.be/catalog/en/services/additionalservices/thecomfortservic es/default.1 Supplementary Services Introduction The first type of services are called Supplementary Services. but you can also use the same infrastructure to implement a Wake-Up Call. it is very mature. As an example. Similarly Telenet (Belgian second operator) offers you the possibility to pick service by service. Since the basic call for digital telephony is over 15 years old. 07 125 / 190 . once you have the telephone network. 6.

1. After the meeting. your calls will no longer be forwarded. you de-activate the forwarding. called the Invocation of the service. before a meeting you activate your calls being forwarded to a secretary...6 Network Services can be grouped into categories. On the other hand. you can interrogate (ask) the system about the current status. to simplify them to their customers. his call will effectively be forwarded. " " An important factor of complexity for supplementary services are the Interactions between services : services have to behave differently when several of them are invoked at the same time : " 'Calling Line Identity Presentation' and 'Calling Line Identity Restriction' cannot be executed at the same time. In the area of supplementary services. or to distinguish themselves from competitors. and some examples of each category will be given as a first introduction to them. 07 . Invocation : when someone calls you during the meeting. some network/service providers invent new names for existing services. Interrogation : when you don't remember exactly whether a service is activated or not. 3 important terms are : " Activation / De-Activation : for example for Call Forwarding. Each of these services has also an abbreviation by which they are know in the standardization bodies. " 6.2 Services Overview This group of services is all about finding out who are the parties involved in calls : " " " " " " " Number Identification Services Malicious Call Identification (MCI) Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP) Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR) Called Line Identification Presentation (CALIP) Called Line Identification Restriction (CALIR) Connected Line Identification Presentation (COLP) Connected Line Identification Restriction (COLR) 126 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 'Hold' service will need to work differently when 'Three-Party Call' is already invoked.

" " " " Home meter Advice of Charge at Begin Advice of Charge During Call Advice of Charge at End (AOC-E) Restriction Services These services restrict users to certain telephony services. They can be unconditional. Many calls are unsuccessful because the called party is busy or not answering. or depending on conditions such as 'on busy subscriber'. Call Redirection Services These services allow some user-flexibility in the routing of the calls towards him..6 Network Services Addressing Related Services The purpose of these services is to simplify the addressing of parties : you don't have to remember or dial long strings of digits. " " Incoming Calls Barred (ICB) Outgoing Calls Barred (OCB) 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. " " " Abbreviated Address (AA) Fixed Destination Call (FDC) HotLine Call Waiting and Call Completion Services The purpose of these services is increase the number of successful calls (and as such the revenue of the provider). " " Call Waiting (CW) Call Completion on Busy Subscriber (CCBS) Call Forwarding.. etc. time of day. 'on no answer'. " " " " " Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU) Call Forwarding on Busy Subscriber (CFBS) Call Forwarding on No Reply (CFNR) Follow me Explicit Call Transfer (ECT) Charging Services Services to improve the visibility of the subscriber on the charges related to calls and/or services. 07 127 / 190 .

07 . 6. In this case the public exchange can emulate a private exchange. and as such the implementation is not standardized.2 Centrex For small companies the investment in a private exchange is not always justified. This is called Wide-Area Centrex and is usually realized using the Intelligent Networks mechanism. (see also 6.3 Implementation The supplementary services mentioned above only have the scope of the local exchange.6 Network Services " Do Not Disturb Multi-Party Services These services permit telephone calls among three or more persons. They are completely implemented in each individual local exchange. with which they can make 'company internal' calls. except for the signalling which is controlling the services.1. It is possible to extend the Centrex function over several exchanges. " " " Three Party Call (3PTY) Conference Call (CONF) Meet-me Conference (MM-CONF) 6. As such the supplementary services realized in this way are also called Embedded supplementary services. 128 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. A group of users of the public exchange are treated specially : they have (on top of their public number) a private numbering plan.3 to contrast this to Intelligent Network).

and the networks that have them are called Intelligent Networks (IN).3 6. 6.2 Services Overview " Company Network oriented Personal numbering plan.3.6 Network Services Local Exchange public :240 56 56 public :240 56 00 public :240 23 45 private :1 public :240 25 67 private :2 public :240 12 78 private :3 Figure 86 Centrex 6. more.3. There is however another group of services for which the scope is the Whole Network : for these services. (the logic needed to implement a certain service) is completely separated from the switching. This situation changes with the introduction of Intelligent Networks where the intelligence. In the US they are called Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) services. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. These services are called Intelligent Network Services. 07 129 / 190 . or all exchanges in the network need to cooperate to realize the services.1 Intelligent Networks Introduction The above Supplementary Services have a scope only for the Local Exchange of the involved subscriber : different exchanges in the network do not have to work together to realize these services. Services and switching functions have historically been integrated very closely together in the telephone exchange (see the above Supplementary Services).

(see also chapter 6. even if it is not equipped with a card reader.6 Network Services " Virtual Private Network : multi-site companies can realize a company-wide private telephone network using the Virtual Private Network service. When the users of the Centrex span multiple public exchanges.2). 130 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Generally. Wide area Centrex : a Centrex is a private exchange function realized on a public exchange. the service can be activated from any type of telephone set. as well as some public lines are mapped to a private numbering plan. All the private exchanges. In an IN based network. All the different local exchanges work together coordinated by the IN service. the service user's password is checked before the call is set up. Closed user group. " " Customer defined and Supplementary Services " " " " Personalized services Centralized database services Screening Customized presentation features Virtual Card Services " " Validation services Credit card call : This service allows the service user to charge the call to a particular credit card account. Calling card Account charged call Alternate billing " " " Mass Calling Services Mass calling services manage the bursts of traffic on the public network that are generated by radio and television polls or contests. it is called a Wide Area Centrex. 07 . Credit card companies require access to the database to insert new credit card numbers or delete non-existing or temporarily suspended numbers.

Flexible rerouting " " " " " Personal Mobility Personal mobility services make it possible that calls are routed to any fixed or mobile point in the network. Universal access number : This is a number that can be assigned to a particular subscriber. Routing is flexible and can depend on parameters such as time. depending on the date and the time. Via the statistics function on the SMP an operator can look at the value of the counters. Televoting : This service enables the caller to vote or give an opinion by telephone. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Automatic call Distribution Split charging : The caller pays only for a local call. When someone calls this number. Competition services " Number Translation & Routing Number translation and routing services distribute dialled calls to a predefined destination. For example. Calls to a Freephone number are not charged to the caller but to the freephone service subscriber. 07 131 / 190 . origin of call. that is. the rest of the call charge is paid by the called party. day. Calls are blocked on SSP level to prevent the SCP to go in overload. the called party. the destination of a Freephone call can vary depending on the time or on the date of the call. the call is routed to one of several predefined destinations. The freephone subscriber can make changes in the service database to modify the routing information. traffic load and caller input.6 Network Services " Opinion poll. Also moving between different operators is supported.The service offers a range of advanced features. " Advanced Freephone : Most telephone administrations support a freephone service. The blocked calls to each number that can be voted on. These services are typically used during television or radio broadcasts. Number portability : A subscriber can move from one place to another without loosing his telephone number. so that the subscriber can be reached by telephone at any time or place. Similarly. are counted. the call destination can differ according to the geographical location of the calling party.

the weather forecast) that a certain company offers. The service subscriber can also preprogram a list of the destinations where he can be contacted during the day. Centralised database services Screening Customised presentation features " " " Internet Services " " Browse and Talk Pay per Surf Customer Defined Supplementary Services " Customer defined and supplementary services enable the customer to invent services that meet his specific needs by putting together several features.3 Implementation Because the exchanges (or Network Elements (NE)) in the network can be from different manufacturers. 132 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. he can register his current location with the IN.3. Universal personal telecommunication Personal communication services " " Personalized Services " Premium Rate (kiosk service): Caller pays for extra information (e.g. When the subscriber is out of the office (or away from home). The profits of the call are split between the operator and the company that offers this information. 6.6 Network Services " Personal Number : A personal number enables a service subscriber to be assigned a private number which can be used to contact him wherever he is in the network. All calls are then routed automatically to the new location. including the times he will be at those locations. 07 . Intelligent Networks are structured according to ITU standards.

The Intelligent Peripheral (IP) is a device providing functions complimentary to the switching of the Service Switching Point : " " " announcement generation digit reception speech recognition 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. It contains the normal call handling and call control software like any other exchange. When a service call is initiated.6 Network Services Other Network Intelligent Network Service Management Point (SMP) Service Creation Environment (SCE) Service Control Point (SCP) Service Switching Point (SSP) Core Network Service Switching Point (SSP) Service Switching Point (SSP) Core Network to Users Intelligent Peripheral (IP) Figure 87 Intelligent Network Structure The Service Switching Point (SSP) is an enhanced digital telephone exchange. Inside the SSP we will find some extra code that enables us to interact with the Service Control Point. but it additionally also provides an interface with a central controller called the Service Control Point using a CCS #7 signalling link. The SSP is the access point in the telephone network for IN services. but this extra code will be service independent. The SSP is operated by the network operator of the telephone network. the SSP recognizes it as such and activates the SCP . 07 133 / 190 .

The SCP is implemented on a computer. services can be replicated over 2 or more SCP's. however. The Service Control Point (SCP) is the network element where the 'service intelligence' is located : " " " " Service code. in the form of Service Logic Programs (SLP) Service Database Access Service related Data Service Management Together with the switch (the SSP) it will be involved in the real-time handling of the call. statistics and call tickets monitor the network via specific Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) contain the reference database it is the machine from which you install new services on the different SCP's keep the data consistent in the different SCP's that have replicated services collecting charging to be sent to an external Billing Centre " " " " The user interface to the SMP typically uses a client-server approach : a Web Browser or a proprietary protocol. For security reasons. 07 . The Service Control Point can have several supplementary services installed. When activated by the SSP the . A particular service is always controlled by a single SCP . 134 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.X) or another vendor's machine. the SSP the slave. The SMP is not involved in the real-time call handling. This can be an Alcatel machine (A8300 series in release 1.6 Network Services " speech synthesis An Intelligent Peripheral can be implemented as a standalone unit or integrated within an Service Switching Point.X) The Service Management Point (SMP) is the function from which you Manage the network : " " gather alarms. Service Control Point takes over the Control functions : the SCP will be the master. (Compaq DEC Alpha Server or SUN in release 2. You will have one SMP in your network and this will be a computer such as a Compaq DEC Alpha Server or SUN.

amazon. When ready for deployment. Transfer Protocol (HTTP). 07 135 / 190 . However. this time on the public internet.3.6 Network Services The Service Creation Environment (SCE) is a development environment for the creation and customisation of IN services. The SCE consists of 2 parts: " a graphical user interface.com 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. " " http://www. or follow-up the processing of your service.4 Internet Services The technology for the Internet established a number of de-facto standards for computer communication : TCP/IP HyperText . Soon companies realized they could reduce the cost of their computer network. . they wanted to protect their private data. by reusing the Internet principles. they are forwarded to the Service Management Point. . Still companies want also the be present on the World Wide Web (so called Web-exposure) and provide a second site.dell.5) This interface is a standard to ensure that SSP's and SCP's from different vendors can interwork The messages on this interface control the real-time flow of the call " " 6. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) etc. in which the services are designed using reusable building blocks (Service Independent Building Blocks) the compiler " This interface carries all the messages between the SSP and the SCP during execution of a service call : " This interface is based on the No. This network is called the Intranet. where they provide their public information. and on their Extranets you can buy online. Certain companies use the Internet extensively as customer communication channel. and so they made a private version of the Internet for internal communication.com http://www. Services are designed off-line on this environment. Finally they are then downloaded and installed to the Service Control Point.7 Common Channel Signalling protocol using MTP SCCP TCAP and INAP (see . chapter 3.

In some countries local calls are for free or at fixed charge anyway. medium to large companies. and often too expensive. On top of all this you still have to pay a phonecall to your Telephone Network Provider.6 Network Services 6. 07 . This is the case for universities. He sees your Dial-Up connection just as any phonecall. if your Internet Access Provider has a Point of Presence (the place you make a phonecall to) in your area. Depending on how intensive you use the Internet. government organizations. you make a telephone connection with your Internet Access Provider.4. routers. and a connection-time dependent part. " " This kind of Access is also called Dial-Up.. . because you make a phonecall to connect you to the Internet.1 Internet Access Provider In order to be connected to the Internet..). Sometimes there is a fixed part. this access can be a Full Time connection. " Today. many residential users use email and occasionally World Wide Web (WWW)-browsers. For these applications. a permanent connection is not really necessary. In that case the Telephone Network can provide the Access to the Internet : " your computer uses a Modem to send its information over telephone lines. there are special telephone tariffs towards Internet Access Providers. there are two possibilities: " your computer or computer-network is full-time connected to the Core Network. In some countries. Typically you have to pay a fixed monthly fee to the Internet Access Provider (for using his equipment : modems. at your Access Provider there is a second modem (often part of a so-called Modem Pool). etc. 136 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. or only a Temporarily connection. connected to a Router which is permanently connected to the Internet. you connect to the Core Network via some Access Network. usually this is a local call.

07 137 / 190 . You are not connected permanently : you cannot really act as an information Server. Also a new feature is Always On/Dynamic ISDN. a user can access the internet with ADSL or Cable.. " " As a possible solution to all these drawbacks. whenever you need the Internet. providing a low-bandwith permanent connection.6 Network Services Internet Router Modem Computer Analog Modem Telephone Network (PSTN) Local Exchange ISDN NT Computer Figure 88 Internet Access Provider.7/7. which takes some time.. so you could use one B-channel for Data. While Accessing the Internet. Also the Data-connection is in parallel with the telephone (and other) services. so there is no problem in being On-Line 24/24 . Note ISDN provides partly a solution to these limitations : with a Basic Rate Interface there are 2 B-channels. Analog or ISDN Dial-Up Some problems with the Dial-Up Internet Access are : " Limited Bandwidth : 56 kbps with analog modems. no telephone traffic is possible anymore. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. you need to connect. and the second for Voice. 64 kbps or 128 kbps with ISDN. The resulting bandwidths are Mbps instead of kbps.

6 Network Services Computer ADSL Modem (NT) ADSL Modem (LT) Router Internet Telephone Local Exchange Telephone Network (PSTN) Figure 89 TV Internet Access Provider. 138 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Companies connecting their computer networks to the Internet are a target to hackers from all over the world. but the Upload direction. there is a fast channel. ADSL Cable-TV Network Computer Cable Modem Cable Modem Router Internet Telephone Local Exchange Telephone Network (PSTN) Figure 90 Note Internet Access Provider.4. do not make the whole Internet a hundred times faster: In the Download direction. Cable Access Networks that provide the user Mbps instead of kbps. 6.2 FireWall The fact that the Internet is not owned by a single organization is one of its succes factors. However. a disadvantage resulting from this is the difficulty to make it a secure network. and the Server Response Time are still the same. 07 .

6 Network Services The most secure solution is to have mission-critical applications and confidential information on an isolated network.3 Proxy Server A Proxy Server is also a computer in the network. while allowing them in the opposite direction. Intranet FireWall Internet Figure 91 FireWall 6. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Act as a cache for the server data. A FireWall is a computer at the boundary between the Internet and Intranet. Rather than the client accessing the server directly. and restricts the kind of connections from Internet to Intranet and vice versa. 07 139 / 190 . For example.4. he asks the Proxy Server. Another solution is the so-called FireWall. The Proxy Server can then check the request and do a number of actions : " " " " Log data like client address. It runs a solid communications protocol stack. time and date. Validate access rights. it can prohibit File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transactions from Internet to Intranet. server address. reroute request to other server. named after the walls that have to prevent a fire from spreading around to other parts of the building.

6 Network Services Proxy Server Client Intranet FireWall Internet Client Server Server Figure 92 Proxy Server 6.4. 140 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. no matter how long you use it. packaged into IP packets and routed through the Internet or another IP network. Voice over IP networks could be built from all new network components. In general in telephony. no matter at what physical distance the servers you are accessing. the cost of the call is depending on the Duration and the Physical Distance between the parties. which would result in calls which are (almost) for free.4 Internet Telephony Internet Telephony was born out of the following discrepancy : " international or long-distance phonecalls are expensive. (so echo cancelling is needed) and lost packets result in lost speech fragments. In the latter case. Speech is compressed. 07 . However. internet access is usually a flat monthly fee. " So it was investigated whether it was possible to make phonecalls over the Internet. it is more difficult to get a satisfactory speech quality : there is a lot of delay. independent from the duration and distance. The technology is now know as Voice-over-IP (VoIP). due to the fact that these networks are Packet Switching networks. but also reuse the existing access infrastructure. Gateways are needed between the existing PSTN and the Voice-over-IP network. are located.

Features for the operator / network provider : " " " guaranteed payment before using the service stimulated change-over to full subscription reduces service administration Features for the end user : 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.6 Network Services MultiMedia Computer MultiMedia Computer Internet Figure 93 Voice over IP all functionality in the terminals . Calls can be made immediately. or have the first one reloaded with new value. Internet VoIP GateWay VoIP GateWay Telephone Network (PSTN) Telephone Figure 94 Voice over IP functionality in Gateways . The prepaid SIM card is typically implemented using Intelligent Networks. you can buy another card. When your calling value is consumed. 07 141 / 190 . in which case you can also keep the telephone number. The telephone number is printed on the SIM-card. You buy a card with a certain Calling Value. eg.5 Mobile Telephony Services The prepaid SIM card plays an important role in the calling card services portfolio. $20 and insert it into the mobile handset. 6.

. E-mail interworking : send and receive email from your mobile set.be/nl/tariff/tempo. brokerage directory services 142 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. email in your mailbox. exchange rates. banking.mobistar. the SMS has the following advantages : " " Increased call completion Easy mechanism for simplifying services such as Advice of Charge. Reminders for appointments and events. .htm http://www. avoiding to subscribe a long term contract. stock-info. 07 . etc...be/en/services/paygo. A few key properties of SMS are : " " " " up to 190 characters guaranteed delivery to the destination out-of-band transfer duplex For the operator / network provider.6 Network Services " no subscription needed : you can buy such a card in a foreign country and use it.proximus. Directory services. fax. Information services : (see below) D D D D D " Typical end-user applications are : " " " weather reports traffic information entertainment information financial information : stock quotes. or expensive international calls via your home-contract. Notification services : notification upon receipt of voice mail. budget control " http://www. The service makes use of a Short Message Service Center (SMSC) which acts as a Store and Forward system for the messages. Possibility to provide value-added information such as notifications.html The Short Message System (SMS) provides a mechanism for transmitting 'short' messages to and from wireless handsets.

.. Additional features : " the service may be for free. Delay variance < ??? . As an answer to this. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. data connection : BER<10-9 video : BER 10-3.6 Network Services A mobile phone-user cannot take the yellow pages directory with him.proximus. This minimum quality is then specified for a number of properties..htm 6. the Information Services have been set up : You dial a simple number. and (when applicable) the variation on that delay. the information can be sent to you in a message to your Short Message System (SMS) " http://www.. . the End-to-End delay on your information.. " " " Usually not all these parameters are specified individually for each use of the network.6 Quality of Service (QOS) In general the term Quality of Service (QoS) refers to the idea that for each service a subscriber pays. Rather a number of 'standard' combinations is made which cover frequently used services : " " " " speech connection : BER<10-6.. such as : " the Bit Error Ratio (BER) : how likely is it for the network to introduce errors into your information. the probability that your connection will be 'lost' due to a fault from the network .be/en/services/scoot. 07 143 / 190 . and mention the region where you want it. Then a large database is queried searching for the information you need. give the name of the product or service you want to find.. he wants to receive a certain minimum quality. actually sponsored by the companies/services in the database. Delay<25 ms.

6 Network Services 144 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 .

(Data communication.7 Network Management 7 Network Management 7. Today there are 2 main standards for network management : " Telecom Management Network (TMN) : a set of standards developed in the traditional telecom business. (Voice communication).. " 7.1. 07 145 / 190 . This network contains : " various types of Network Elements (NE) ..possibly from many different vendors. and as such requires continuous management : " " " " " Extension Reconfiguration Performance Measurements Fault Isolation .1 Introduction Building a network is one thing.1 Telecom Network Management (TMN) The basic concept behind the Telecom Management Network (TMN) is to provide an organized architecture to manage and operate a network. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) : a set of standards developed in the data-communication business. This is the equipment to be managed : 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. This is the task of the Network Management (NM) System. Internet). but a network is a complex system. almost a 'living' system.

such equipment is generally referred to as Network Elements (NEs). " Operation System (OS) (not operating systems !) which are the Managing and controlling elements in the network. " " " " 146 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. signalling terminals. Accounting Management : Measure the network service use. Configuration Management : Control and identify network elements (NE). file servers When managed. Security Management : Assure the securisation procedures management. switching systems. The usage of standards has to ensure that all equipment from any manufacturer can be controlled by a network management system from any other manufacturer.7 Network Management D D D D D transmission systems. collect data generated by these elements and provide them configuration data. multiplexers. and determine the costs of this use. Following functions are provided by the Telecom Management Network : " Fault Management : Detect. 07 . Performance Management : Evaluate and analyses the behavior of telecommunication equipment and the network or network element efficiency. locate and correct running anomalies of the telecommunication network and of its environment.

the management functionality may be considered to be partitioned into logical layers. 07 147 / 190 . The provision. cessation or modification of network capabilities for the support of service to customers. usage. It has one or more element OSF and/or MFs that are individual responsible for some subset of network element functions. Maintaining statistical. Network Management Layer : has the responsibility of the management of a network as supported by the Element Management Layer D D D D " The control and co-ordination of the network view of all network elements within its scope or domain. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. etc.7 Network Management Operation System Operation System Telecom Management Network Data Network Network Elements Transmission Exchange Exchange Transmission Transmission Exchange Figure 95 Management Network To deal with the complexity of the telecommunications management. log and other data about the network and interact with the service manager layer on performance. " Element Management Layer : Manages each network element on an individual or group basis and supports an abstraction of the functions provided by the Network Element Layer. availability. The maintenance of network capabilities.

Interaction with service providers. QoS). Supporting the management of AO&M related budget. D D D D Customer facing and interfacing with other administrations.7 Network Management " Service Management Layer : is concerned with the contractual aspects of services that are being provided customers or available to potential new customers.2 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol suite consisting of three specifications : " " " RFC 1155: the Structure of Management Information (SMI) RFC 1213: the Management Information Base (MIB). Interaction between services. 07 . RFC 1157: the SNMP protocol itself. " Business Management Layer : This layer has responsibility for the total enterprise.g. complaint handling and invoicing. Some standard interfaces are : " " " " The Q3 interface The Qx interface The F interface The X Interface 7. Maintaining statistical data (e. Maintaining aggregate data about the total enterprise. Supporting the supply and demand of OA&M related manpower. D D D D Supporting the decision-making process for the optimal investment and use of new telecommunications resources. 148 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.1. From the SNMP point of view the world consists out of three different entities: " The Network Management Station (NMS). Some of the main functions of this layer are service order handling.

7 Network Management " The Network Element (NE) : the devices to be managed. and many vendors publish the details of their equipments Management Information Base. Each Network Element includes a database which is called Management Information Base (MIB). The routing function of the IP layer allows to place the Network Management anywhere in the IP network. such that Network Management Applications can know how to control the Network Elements. Using the SNMP protocol the SNMP manager can read and write in this database. The operations include: " " " " " GET GET-RESPONSE GET-NEXT SET TRAP 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. The SNMP protocol itself which is polling based. Standards define the structure of this database. the UDP/IP (a variant of TCP/IP). " Figure 96 shows the protocol stack used in case of SNMP It uses . 07 149 / 190 . An SNMP agent will respond to the requests coming from the SNMP manager and will also send traps towards the SNMP manager. They include the SNMP agent.

For this to work... the NMC will sent an SNMP GET towards the NE.) in which case the NMC will send an SNMP SET. the NMC's IP address must be configured in advance in each NE.7 Network Management Network Management Centre Network Element SNMP Management Application GET–RESPONSE SNMP Managed Objects GET–RESPONSE GET–NEXT GET–NEXT TRAP Figure 96 Some examples: if the operator issues a command to read the linkstatus of a NE. location. 07 . The status is retrieved from the MIB database and the result is sent towards the NMC using an SNMP GET RESPONSE. The operator can read the result in a graphical window. GET TRAP GET SNMP Manager UDP IP Link SNMP Protocol Stack SET SNMP Manager UDP IP Link SET 150 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. A last example is when there is an alarm in the NE. . In this case the NE will send this unsolicited event towards the NMC using a trap. Similar the operator can change the configuration (name.

07 151 / 190 .Abbreviations Abbreviations 3PTY AA ACDS ADSI ADSL AIN AM AMPS AOC-E AOD ISDN APS ARCU ASSS ATM AUC B-ISDN B-ISUP B-ISUP BER BRA BRI BSC BSS BSSAP BTS CALIP CALIR CAS CATV CCBS CCS #7 Three Party Call Abbreviated Address Alcatel Customer Documentation Standard Analog Display Services Interface Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line Advanced Intelligent Network Amplitude Modulation Advanced Mobile Phone System Advice of Charge at End Always-On / Dynamic ISDN Automatic Protection Switching Alcatel Remote Concentrator Unit Analog Subscriber Signalling System Asynchronous Transfer Mode Authentication Center Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network B-ISDN User Part Broadband ISDN User Part Bit Error Ratio Basic Rate Access Basic Rate Interface Base Station Controller Base Station Subsystem Base Station Subsystem Application Part Base Transceiver Station Called Line Identification Presentation Called Line Identification Restriction Channel Associated Signalling Cable Television Network Call Completion on Busy Subscriber Common Channel Signalling System #7 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

Abbreviations

CDM CFBS CFNR CFU CLASS CLIP CLIR CLR COLP COLR CONF CSMA-CD CTM CW D-AMPS DCS DECT DMT DSL DSS1 DSS2 DTMF DVD ECT EFR EIR FDC FDM FM FR FTP GPRS GSM

Code Division Multiplexing Call Forwarding on Busy Subscriber Call Forwarding on No Reply Call Forwarding Unconditional Custom Local Area Signalling Services Calling Line Identification Presentation Calling Line Identification Restriction Cell Loss Ratio Connected Line Identification Presentation Connected Line Identification Restriction Conference Call Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Cordless Telephone Mobility Call Waiting Digital AMPS Digital Cellular System Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication Discrete Multi-Tone Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Signalling System 1 Digital Subscriber Signalling System 2 Dual Tone Multiple Frequency Digital Versatile Disc Explicit Call Transfer Enhanced Full Rate Equipment Identity Register Fixed Destination Call Frequency Division Multiplexing Frequency Modulation Frame Relay File Transfer Protocol General Packet Radio System Global System for Mobile Communications

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Abbreviations

GUI HDSL HF HLR HTML HTTP IAP ICB IETF IMEI IN INAP IP IP IrDA ISDN ISP ISUP ITU LAN MAC MAP MCI MIB MIPS MM-CONF MPEG MRVT MS MSC MTP NB NE

Graphical User Interfaces High Speed Digital Subscriber Line High Frequency Home Location Register HyperText Markup Language HyperText Transfer Protocol Internet Access Provider Incoming Calls Barred Internet Engineering Task Force International Mobile Station Equipment Identity Intelligent Networks Intelligent Network Application Part Internet Protocol Intelligent Peripheral Infrared Data Association Integrated Digital Services Network Internet Service Provider ISDN User Part International Telecommunication Union Local Area Network Media Access Control Mobile Application Part Malicious Call Identification Management Information Base Maximum Integration Phone Set Meet-me Conference Motion Picture Expert Group MTP Routing Verification Test Mobile Station Mobile Switching Centre Message Transfer Part Narrowband Network Elements

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Abbreviations

NE NM NMS NNI NS NT OCB OS PABX PCS PDA PDF PDH PLMN PM POF PON POP POTS PRA PRI PSTN QAM QoS RFC RSVP RTSU SCCP SCE SCP SDH SFH SIM

Network Element Network Management Network Management Station Network to Network Interface Network Subsystem Network Termination Outgoing Calls Barred Operation System Private Branch Exchange Personal Communication System Personal Digital Assistant Portable Document Format Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Public Lands Mobile Network Phase Modulation Plastic Optical Fiber Passive Optical Networks Point of Presence Plain Old Telephony Service Primary Rate Access Primary Rate Interface Public Switched Telephone Network Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Request For Comment Resource Reservation Protocol Remote Terminal Subscriber Unit Signalling Connection Control Part Service Creation Environment Service Control Point Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Slow Frequency Hopping Subscriber Identity Module

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07 155 / 190 .Abbreviations SLP SMI SMP SMS SMS SMSC SMTP SNMP SRVT SSP STM STM STPs TA TC TCAP TDM TDM TMN TUP UMTS UMTS UNI VC VCI VDSL VLR VOD VoIP VoIP VPI WAP WDM Service Logic Programs Structure of Management Information Service Management Point Short Message Service Short Message System Short Message Service Center Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol SCCP Routing Verification Test Service Switching Point Synchronous Transport Module Synchronous Transfer Mode Signalling Transfer Points Terminal Adapter Transcoder Transaction Capabilities Application Part Time Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiplex Telecom Management Network Telephone User Part Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Universal Mobile Telephone System User to Network Interface Virtual Container Virtual Channel Identifier Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line Visitors Location Register Video-on-Demand Voice over IP Voice-over-IP Virtual Path Identifier Wireless Access Protocol Wavelength Division Multiplexing 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

Abbreviations WWW World Wide Web 156 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 .

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line : is a new method of transmitting digital data at high bit-rates (multi-mega-bit per second) over the existing installed twisted-pairs of the access network. An analog signal can transmit analog or digital data. Alternate Mark Inversion. you can consult good online Telecom Glossary and Abbreviations-lists at : http://aww. explicit violations of this alternating can be used.htm http://www. ATM is also accepted as the technology to interconnect computers over ATM LANs.Glossary Glossary In case a term cannot be found here. grouping a number of telecom users. A type of signal that encodes data transmitted over wire or through the air. AAL5. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. and changes smoothly between values. which has a very large installed base in US. while a modem transmits digital data using analog signals.its.bldrdoc. A line-coding technique which represents '1'-bits by pulses ('marks') and '0'-bits by zero signal.alcatel. Pulses can be positive or negative. to facilitate data and video applications. ATM Adaptation Layer : A layer above the ATM Layer. AAL3/4. 07 157 / 190 . A standardization organization. For example. and is commonly represented as an oscillating wave. four AALs are standardized : AAL1. Advanced Mobile Phone Standard : AMPS is an analogue mobile system standard. Asynchronous Transfer Mode : the technology used for broadband communication services and is now accepted by ITU as the technology for B-ISDN. AAL2.gov/fs-1037/ Third-Generation Wireless system : The 3G Wireless is a broadband mobile communications system evolving from second-generation digital cellular wireless communication systems. a radio station sends analog music data using analog systems. In order to signal special conditions. providing additional functions to the payload inside the ATM cell. and are alternated. A piece of equipment. such that there are an equal amount of positive and negative pulses. and providing them access to one or more core networks. An analog signal can take any value in a range.com/news/library/telecom/1997/10_28/pg. formed by Computer and Communications companies to standardize ATM networks.

The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies assigned to a communication channel or used on a transmission medium. A connection between end points over a physical medium. used for both data and signalling purposes. A function of a public telephone exchange to behave as a private exchange. A bridging table identifies destination addresses known to exist in a network. CAP uses a filter pair (Hilbert). between two network segments based on the destination field in the packet header. the more the data throughput and thus the capacity. The higher the bandwidth. Carrierless Amplitude/Phase Modulation : the principle of CAP is similar to QAM. It is built dynamically by a learning bridge as it passes data in a network. consisting of two 64 kbit/s B channels. Code Division Multiple Access : CDMA is a wireless communications technology that uses spread-spectrum communication. Where QAM uses a carrier frequency for the symbol generation. representing one of the two possible values (usually indicated by "1" or "0"). A device that connects and passes data. or "bearer" channels. Binary digit. Basic Rate Access / Basic Rate Interface : An ISDN subscriber line.Glossary ! Authentication Center : It provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. A B channel is a 56-kbps or 64-kbps channel that carries user data. 158 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. The smallest unit of information a computer can process. In digital environments this term refers to bandwidth above 2 Mbps. Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy and Telephony. a narrowband message signal is multiplied by a spreading signal. Provides connectivity between subnetworks in an enterprise-wide network. 07 . and one 16 kbit/s D channel. COder / DECoder : a device used to convert analogue signals to digital and back. which is a pseudo-noise code sequence that has a rate much greater than the data rate of the message. The part of the communications network intended to and designed to carry the bulk of traffic. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. The main difference is the implementation. In a CDMA system.

Customer Premises Equipment : Terminal equipment located on the customer premises. each of which will carry a fixed number of bits. Compressed data can be compromised in quality.). the digital values do not change continuously. Cordless Telephone System : CTS enable GSM users to make and receive calls over the fixed network via a CTS Fixed Part.Glossary Compression is a technique that reduces the quantity of bandwidth or bits required to encode a block of information. Digital Subscriber Line. CTM is a public access over DECT. and can free up storage space on in-demand data lines. in the office and in public areas where coverage is provided. A type of signal that encodes data transmitted over a wire using a limited number of discrete values. the channel is closed and the bits are assigned to other channels to keep the bit rate constant. 07 159 / 190 . It allows a single handset to be used at home. Depending upon the quality of the channel more or less bits are inserted (4QAM.. and is also known as IS-54/136. . Discrete Multi-Tone : is a form of multicarrier modulation. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. For each symbol period QAM modulation is used. The time of day represented by a digital clock. Data that can have only a limited number of separate values. D-AMPS also employs FDMA/TDMA technology like GSM. but remain at one discrete value and then change to another. DMT divides time into regular "symbol periods". 64QAM.. An subscriber network access using advanced digital techniques in order to increase the bandwidth capacity of the line. The CTS-Fixed Part (CTS-FP) is connected directly to the fixed network. Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Standard : US digital cellular standard designed to coexist with analogue cellular AMPS system. Roaming using a single number is possible. The value of the data encoded in a digital signal depends upon the state of the signal during a particular time period. Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications : DECT provides wireless access to any type of telecommunication network. but the advantages of bandwidth savings are frequently worth the trade-off. The bits are assigned in groups to signalling tones of different frequencies. or the temperature represented by a digital thermometer are examples of digital data. Compression saves transmission time and capacity. discrete value. If there is ingress noise in one of the channels.

a gateway is a device that provides mapping at all seven layers of the OSI model. High-speed Digital Subscriber Line : is a technique which allows to transmit 2. 1. and electrical compatibility and safety. As a result.800MHz and 1. 160 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. based on FDM/TDMA and operates in the 900MHz. Now a new international standard for efficiently handling high-speed. bursty data over wide area networks.900MHz frequency bands. Gateways perform code and protocol conversion to facilitate traffic between data highways of differing architecture. they might get out of reach of the radio system currently serving him. During calls mobile users are continuing to move. The call is given to another radio system. Gateways are points of entrance to and exit from a communications network. printers. such as a videoconference terminal or LAN bridge or router. a gateway is that node that translates between two otherwise incompatible networks or network segments.048 Mbps over two or three UTPs. DTE often refers to application equipment. Packet technology is used to provide efficient transmission inside one high-speed channel (speed up to 144 kbps). A local area network that connects devices like computers. A gateway can be thought of as a function within a system that enables communications with the outside world. Frame Relay : A form of packet switching. General Packet Radio Service : GPRS is a high capacity data service developed on GSM networks. This is done completely transparently for the end user. and terminals. equipment to which DCE (Data Communications Equipment ) is connected. while DCE refers to equipment such as network access equipment.Glossary Data Terminal Equipment : As defined in the RS-232 specification. the network makes a handover. It is a second-generation digital cellular standard. Viewed as a physical entity. Each frequency channel carries information for a separate communication. An organization in the USA organizing the allocation of frequency-spectrum. such as personal computers or data terminals.25). but using smaller packets and less error checking than traditional forms of packet switching (such as X. 07 . Global system for Mobile Communications : GSM is a European originated mobile communication standard. In OSI terms. In this way. Federal Communications Commission. Frequency Division Multiplexing : A technique in which the available bandwidth is divided into frequency channels. Distances vary from 2 to 5 km depending upon the copper-pair section and the number of pairs (two or three).

will provide universal coverage and will enable seamless roaming across multiple networks. The most popular LAN type is Ethernet. 07 161 / 190 . Intelligent Networks provides the glue between different networks. The receiving demodulates the analog signal into digital data and sends it to the DTE to which it is attached. typically supplied by a telecom operator. but also high-speed data services to provide new applications. typically in one building or a part of a building. and sends the data over the channel.Glossary Home Location Register : It is a large static database containing information about the subscribers who have subscribed with associated operator. Local Area Network : A network that interconnects devices over a geographically small area. The third generation systems will be developed to provide not only voice services. such as a telephone line. data. A DTE refers to a device that an operator uses. Internet Protocol. High Speed Circuit Switched Data : HSCSD is a high capacity data service developed on GSM networks by setting up (circuit switched) a number of parallel channels as one circuit. translates (or modulates) the 1s an 0s into analog form. MOdulator/DEModulator : A DCE (Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment) installed between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and an analog transmission channel. not a service from a catalogue but service defined by customer at time of contract signature. International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 : The IMT2000 third generation wireless standard(s). such as wireless Internet access. A system that provides simultaneous voice and high-speed data transmission through a single channel to the user's premises. A dedicated and non-switched circuit. and signaling. that permanently connects two or more user locations. The service(s) are tailor-made. A format of exchanging information using packets. such as a computer or a terminal. These services are available on top of any network. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. The DCE connects the DTE to a communications channel. Media Access Control : A system of rules used to move data from one physical medium to another. Intelligent Networks : Powerful environment supporting the creation of tailor-made services for any network. Integrated Services Digital Network : Integrated Services Digital Network. such as a telephone line. These packets are variable size and connection-less in nature. A modem takes digital data from a DTE. ISDN is an international standard for end-to-end digital transmission of voice.

A set of rules governing message exchange over a network or internetwork. compression and transmission of audio-visual information. wires. such as media access control (MAC). letting developers of networks and communication systems rely on the presence of certain functions at certain places in a standard system. In the transport layer. Private Branch Exchange : A private exchange. Plain Old Telephone Service : is another name for the well known analogue telephone service on a twisted pair. used in business environments. In the network layers. 07 . information from different networking protocols is distinguished (example: internet protocol (IP)). data is packaged for transport in a size and organization appropriate for its intended environment (example: control protocol (TCP) works. the amplitude of the voice conversation is sampled. Pulse Code Modulation : PCM is a method of taking an analog voice signal and encoding it into a digital bit stream. Open Systems Interconnection : A reference model used to describe layers of a network and the types of functions expected at each layer. For communication between mobile and fixed users interworking with a fixed network is necessary. First. presentation. Like bridges. Personal Handy System : PHS is a Japanese based cordless communication system. The session. 162 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.Glossary Motion Pictures Expert Group.Top to bottom. Personal Digital Communication : It is a strictly Japanese national mobile system standard. for the specific purpose of providing land mobile communication services to the public. and basic addressing functions. the seven layers are:applicationpresentationsessiontransportnetworkdata linkphysicalThe physical and data link layers have to do with hardware. The OSI model is used as a standard. Unlike bridges. routers provide logical paths at OSI layer 3. which logically connect at OSI layer 2. Public Land Mobile Network : The PLMN network established and operated by an Administration or its licensed operator(s). remote sites can be connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs. It provides communication possibilities for mobile users. and application layers keep information streaming in and convert it to a usable format. An interconnection device that can connect individual LANs. An organization defining standards on formats for storage. This second generation mobile system uses the access FDMA/TDMA method. Personal Access Communications System : PACS is a US based cordless communication system. signals on wires.

The agents and managers share a database of information. 'cell loss ratio'. In other words. printers. By changing the amplitude and the phase of a carrier frequency. Typical parameters are 'bit error ratio'. A standard for multiplexing information and transmitting it over large distances at high speed. or thinnet. each amplitude and phase (one symbol) corresponds to a certain bit-sequence. established for the duration of a call. is . Simple Network Management Protocol : A standard way for computers to share networking information.4" diameter coaxial cable for Ethernet networks. A packet-based network service allowing the creation of high-sped data networks . A temporary connection between end points. called the Management Information Base (MIB). Thin Ethernet. of communicating devices exist: agents and managers. is .A term that describes a type of Ethernet cable. describing the quality a user can expect from the service he is using. etc.2" diameter coaxial cable for Ethernet networks Time Division Multiplex : A technique for transmitting a number of separate and independent data. for the purpose of essentially negating dispersion over long distances. The circuit is disconnected when the call ends. A set of parameters. An optical pulse having a shape. and power level designed to take advantage of nonlinear effects in an optical fiber waveguide. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. voice and/or video signals varying in speeds simultaneously over one communications medium by quickly interleaving a piece of each signal one after another. spectral content. Quality of Service. In this way up to ten bits (1024QAM) and more can be inserted in one symbol. In SNMP two types . Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol :A family of protocols that defines the format of data packets sent across a network. or thicknet. A term that describes a type of Ethernet cable. it is possible to transmit multiple bits in one symbol. Switched Multimegabit Data Service. Thick Ethernet. A local area network that connects devices like computers. and terminals. Ethernet operates over twisted-pair or coaxial cable at speeds at 10 or 100 Mbps. over which two parties exchange data. 07 163 / 190 . and is the communications standard for data transmission between different platforms.Glossary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation : this is a two-dimensional modulation technique. An agent provides networking information to a manager application running on another computer. Synchronous Optical Network. Sonet is the US version of SDH.

to form twisted-pair cable. A set of CCITT specifications for an interface between DTE and DCE for synchronous operation on public data networks. Includes connector. electrical. By varying the length of the twists in nearby pairs. Multiple twisted pairs are packaged in an outer sheath. the possibility of interference between pairs in the same cable sheath can be minimized. are twisted together to form a twisted pair. 164 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Wide Area Network : WANs are large networks in which connections between different cities or nations are made. It contains information on all subscribers currently roaming in the network covered by the MSC. and dialing specifications. to enable high-speed data and multimedia services over wireless platform.Glossary Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service : UMTS are the third-generation mobile communications standards. Visitor Location Register : The VLR is a dynamic database closely associated with the MSC. proposed by the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI). or jacket. 07 . each encased in its own color-coded insulation. Unshielded Twisted Pair : Two copper wires.

Just like the wind distorts the smoke signals made by the Indians. so even if the received shape is a little distorted. by choosing the closest matching value. with only two possible signal values : " " On : represented by (eg. Note The digital receiver can only reconstruct the perfect signal. the 5V is attenuated to 4V. because they transmit information. triangles and squares. This way you can remove the distortion. only a finite number of signals are allowed. When you do this in an analog way. and which part is due to distortion. Digital electronics are so successful. The more the distortion. only a limited number (finite) is allowed. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. if the distortion is not too much : it has to match received distorted signals with the originals. In the digital system. the matching will be correct. you know that only a select set of shapes is allowed. you can select the shape with the best match. 07 165 / 190 . the receiver can easily guess whether it was On or Off. the receiver cannot distinguish which part of the shape belongs to the original sent shape.) 0 V voltage Even if the signal is distorted. any possible shape you can imagine (infinite number) is allowed. eg. When you do this in a digital way. and only if the distortion is limited. In an analog system. the more the receiver will 'guess' the wrong original shape.) 5 V voltage Off : represented by (eg. resulting in an error as well. " Let's clarify this with a first example : imagine you want to transport information using shapes (a little like the smoke signals that the Indians used).Appendix A Analog versus Digital Appendix A " Analog versus Digital The main difference between analog and digital information is : for analog signals an infinite numbers of signal values are allowed for digital signals. Now the problem of the receiver. circles. and reconstruct a perfect signal. This is because any shape was allowed. eg. Conclusion : Digital Transmission can correct errors. When you transmit your information (= your shape) it will be distorted by its environment.

Baseband Digital Representation Sampling Pure Digital Representation Digital Information Modulation 166 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.Appendix A Analog versus Digital Table 12 Information Analog Information Analogue versus Digital Analogue Representation Pure Analogue. 07 .

with a certain precision (eg 8 bits = 256 levels). 07 167 / 190 . this is called Quantization. Then this measurement is converted to a number. to one of the finite digital values. When sampling and converting to digital. there is always a small error made : the digital value is an approximation of the analog signal. This error is called the quantization error. When converting the infinite possibilities of the analog signal. rather than the whole signal value. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. it is sometimes more efficient to indicate only the changes from step to step. the analog signal is first Sampled : it is measured at fixed interval times.Appendix B Analog to Digital Appendix B Analog to Digital When converting an Analog signal to a digital signal.

In the above example. This guarantees a high-usage of the multiplex and efficient use of the bandwidth. then these channels are multiplexed together. 07 .Concentration Appendix C Multiplexing . can be concentrated into 32 channels used at 93. it is always possible that a blocking occurs : when in the group of (eg. as it needs to map channels not just one to one in a fixed way. and the channel is said to be Idle. there is some space in the multiplexed signal. leaving 18 unserved.Concentration Multiplexing is a technique to combine a number of lower speed signals onto a single higher speed signal. only the first 32 will be served. the telephone is not used.15/32). but more dynamically. When the composing signals of a multiplex are signals which are not full-time used. 5 of the 32 channels would carry voice. The solution is Concentration. only 15% of the time) into a smaller number of more intensively used channels. For example. 168 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 50 users want to make a call at the same time. This is clearly not optimal. 85% of the time. When concentrating.Appendix C Multiplexing .75% (200*0. (eg. concentration and multiplexing are combined : first concentration to increase the average usage of the channels. ordinary telephone lines are only used at most 15% of the time. Many times. Concentration is a technique to convert a large number of channels which are 'lightly' used. The complementary mirror function of multiplexing is de-multiplexing : decomposing the single higher-speed signal back to its component lower-speed signals. 27 would be idle.) 200 channels. As a typical example 200 telephone channels. some of the capacity is waisted. It is like a road with four lanes at 30 km/h being converted onto a single lane at 120 km/h. depending on their idle/busy status : only the Busy channels are switched. A typical example is to multiplex 32 voice channels of 64 kbps into a single 2.048 Mbps signal. used at 15%. An important aspect of a multiplexer is the fact that the throughput (or bandwidth capacity) is the same before and after the multiplexing : for each composing signal. Concentration requires more functionality. also in the multiplexed signal.

07 169 / 190 . This last technique is called Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) " " Furthermore. Because voice and other sources. Since the women's voice has a higher pitch than a men's voice. by transporting them one after the other. An analogy for TDM is a group of people in a room. but Scrambled with different encryption codes.Code Appendix D Time . is essentially FDM. Time Division Multiplexing combines multiple signals. with c the propagation speed in the medium. Because the frequencies of visible light are so high. and two men. Multiplexing different colors (= wavelengths) of light. generate a continuous stream.Code When multiplexing. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. albeit in a very high frequency range. Frequency Multiplexing uses different carrier frequencies to shift its component baseband signals into different bands. Since most voice is based on 8 KHz sampling (= 125µs) most frames have also this 125 µs timing. and then one fragment of all sources is combined into something called a Frame. also talking to each other at the same time. Eg.Frequency . where a number of stations are using the same common air-medium but using different carrier frequencies. there are three basic techniques which can be applied : " Sending individual information one after the other which is called Time Division Multiplex (TDM) Sending individual information modulated at different carrier frequencies. eg. all those streams must be chopped in fragments (called channels or timeslots). A simple example of Frequency Multiplexing is radio-broadcasting.75E14 Hz. talking one after the other. Another example of FDM is Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) : Frequency (f) and Wavelength (λ) are related as f=c/λ.Frequency . each listener can filter the conversation he wants to hear. called Frequency Multiplexing (FDM) Sending individual information at the same time. combinations are possible. GSM uses a FDM-TDM combination. it is more practical to refer to them with wavelengths. using the same frequency band.Appendix D Time . 800 nm equals 3. An analogy for FDM is two women talking to each other.

these signals are added. Again by filtering (and understanding !) a particular language. At the receiver side. but when decoding with the wrong key results into a zero signal. 64 or 128 bits. you can listen to a certain conversation. talking at the same time in a different language. called chip-sequence. all keys are chosen such that when decoding with the matching key. encoded with their own keys.Frequency . the information is decoded using a matching key. Each information stream is encoded with a key. This encoding converts each single bit. 170 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. When all users send their information. When decoding this sum of signals. eg. to further increase the number of simultaneous communications : " " " " SDH (= TDM) + WDM (=FDM) GSM : TDM + FDM DECT : TDM + FDM . These different multiplexing techniques can be combined.. results in the original signal. and only the component with the matching key comes out. 07 .Appendix D Time .. al the components encoded with other keys yield zero. into a group of bits. in the same frequency band. An analogy for CDMA is a group of people in a room.Code CDMA allows to transmit different signals at the same time.

even if they are all zero..Appendix E Modulation & Coding Appendix E Modulation & Coding When sending a signal over a medium. leading to one or more Bit Errors. with some noise. the so-called Baseband Signal by using more complicated pulses. and then de-scrambled at the receiver. Modulation allows to use in a more precise way the amount of available bandwidth. the signal would be all the time 0V. Things that can usually be modified are : " " " the Amplitude of a signal : Amplitude Modulation (AM) the Frequency of a signal : Frequency Modulation (FM) the Phase of a signal : Phase Modulation (PM) 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. (twisted pair. not allowing to count the pulses and recognize the bits. and is simple. but not the most efficient : " it sends a DC component on the wires. and to recover the bits. and that clock can always be recovered. Line Coding allows to balance the DC. coax. it doesn't allow the clock to be recovered : if you would transmit a large amount of zeroes.. bits can easily get wrong : some interference could turn 0 Volt into something closer to 5 Volt. straightforward. or all one. fiber. two techniques are used : " " Coding techniques can encode the signal you want to send. such that the DC component is zero. Modulation means 'controlling a specific property of a carrier signal at the rate of the baseband signal'. to prevent bit errors. " " " To improve this situation. A more modern way to do coding is Scrambling : bits are 'mixed up' by a scrambler into a seemingly chaotic sequence. radio) the digital signal could be directly controlling the transmitter in a simple way : " " sending a '1' : switch 5V on the wires sending a '0' : switch 0V on the wires This method is called non-Return to Zero coding.. which is sometimes harmful or even impossible it is not using the available bandwidth of the medium in the most optimal way. 07 171 / 190 .

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). is shifted to center around the carrier frequency. 07 . the frequency spectrum of the baseband. eg. 90° 10111 10011 00110 00010 10010 10101 10001 00100 00101 00111 10110 10100 10000 00000 00001 0001 1 180° 11011 11001 11000 01000 01100 0111 0 01010 0° 11111 11101 11100 01001 01101 11010 11110 01011 01111 270° Figure 97 32 QAM : Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 172 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.Appendix E Modulation & Coding " a combination of these. a combination of PM and AM. When modulating a Carrier frequency with a baseband signal.

Synchronous Appendix F Asynchronous. 07 173 / 190 . Plesiochronous. Plesiochronous.Appendix F Asynchronous. Synchronous To be completed 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.

07 . B-ISDN To be completed 174 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.Appendix G Real Life Networks and their Features Appendix G G.2 G.1 G. PSTN Cable-TV.4 Internet Real Life Networks and their Features Public Switched Telephone Network. CATV Broadband ISDN.3 G.

before sending the first user information. all the resources associated to it must be freed again. just following the arrows set up by the explorers. After the actual transfer of information. As a result they all follow the same route (as a convoy) and also arrive in sequence. because they are stuck in a traffic jam. when a group of families want to do the same trip. Each of them makes driving decisions on their own. not thinking about which route. Working Connectionless means that there is no connection setup phase : the user information is sent immediately to the network. also. The army would do this the connection-oriented way : they first send a Jeep with explorers. Then the bulk of the army drives to the beach. Imagine that a trip is made from here to the beach. and which route it will follow. a connection between both users is set up. Connectionless When working in Connection oriented mode. they could go there the connection-less way : they agree upon a destination address (and deadline for arrival) and then each drive individually to the beach. and setting up driving instructions (special arrows) on each cross-road (= the switches). different pieces cannot be correlated together. finding a route to the beach. This set up includes agreements about which kind of information transfer. 07 175 / 190 . and as such may be handled in different ways : they could for example follow a different route. they may follow different routes and they may also arrive out of sequence. Because the network is not 'prepared' to this. more work needs to be done for each piece of information to be sent.Appendix H Connection-Oriented vs. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Connectionless Appendix H Connection-Oriented vs. the connection must also be released. some may arrive too late.

Connection-Oriented All packets follow the same path Sequence of packets is pre served Setup and Release of a connec tion required before resp. They set up this 'connection' to each other. Connectionless Table 13 Connection Oriented versus Connection-Less Connectionless Packets need not follow the same path : multi-path No sequence-integrity : pack ets can arrive out of sequence no setup or release : all routing possibilities defined at system configuration or system startup. and maintain it for some time. 07 . Faster. Each node Interprets full des tination address. This means that end-to-end. Examples : D D TCP on IP SCCP on MTP " Connection-Less over Connection Oriented. Usually these connection are semi-permanent. terminals are communicating by just sending messages. only execute their small part of the connection. The messages however are routed from node to node onto dedicated connection between these nodes.Appendix H Connection-Oriented vs. simpler routing More complex routing In some cases the different layers of a communication protocol stack can be a different connection-type : " Connection-Oriented protocol over Connection-less. without first setting up a connection between each other. This means that two communicating devices on the network are involved in a continuous communicating. Examples : D D IP on ATM IP on SDH 176 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. the information is carried over packets which are all routed Connection-less. after the actual information transfer Intermediate nodes are not concerned about final destina tion. even if at the lower level.

This organization was called CCITT. Most telecom customers however. that recommend what behavior a compatible system should have. The most important ones will be briefly introduced in this appendix.sel. and every edition the back of the book has a different color.alcatel. 07 177 / 190 . and good compatibility between different systems is an economical must. people refer to the blue book. ITU publishes so-called recommendations. called standardization bodies. regard the ITU recommendations as minimum requirements : it is hard to sell systems that do not comply with ITU standards.Appendix I Standards Appendix I Standards Telecom systems reach worldwide. but renamed to ITU. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.de/smis/ Figure 98 ITU logo 1. the red book. Alcatel has a WEB-site collecting the on-line access to most standards : http://aww. ITU-T : International Telecommunication Union.stgl. ITU standards are numbered according to a scheme with one letter.1200 : Intelligent Networks Figure 99 ETSI logo 2. This way.703 : 2 Mbps PCM Physical Layer Q. ITU publishes its results in books. section Telecommunication. ETSI : European Telecommunication Standards Institute. This compatibility is organized through Standardization : certain organizations who define and publish standards according to which all systems must comply. Several organizations. Examples : D D G. exist. a dot and a number. ETSI continues the standards set by ITU but focuses on the European context. every 4 years typically.

and therefor ETSI and BellCore usually adopt all ITU recommendations. Figure 102 ISO logo 5. and the ATM forum has become a quite large standardization body itself as well. and other matters its standards do apply to telecom systems. and they decided to organize themselves in a new smaller and faster organization : the ATM forum. It is however not dedicated to telecom only. today also all Telecom companies contribute to it. 178 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. Figure 101 ATM Forum logo 4. ETSI and BellCore do not always align. is probably the world's largest standardization body. and then standardize specific further details. 07 . and sometimes this makes telecom manufacturers life hard. applicable to the local continent. environmental. Being founded by the main Computer-industry players. BellCore.Appendix I Standards Figure 100 Bellcore logo 3. ATM Forum : In the early days of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). However for a number of electrical. Having several incompatible standards is as bad as having no standards. complained that the standardization-process of the ITU was too slow. ISO : the International Standards Organization. BellCore is the American counterpart for ETSI. security. BellCore defines a number of telecom standards applicable to the (North-) American continent. a number of Computer (not Telecom) companies.

IETF : the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) governs the standardization of the Internet : the protocols.. 07 179 / 190 . available to the public on the Internet. etc. Standards are proposed in so-called Request For Comment (RFC) documents. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. addressing structure.Appendix I Standards 6.

predict a growth : " " for Voice : 10% / year for Data : between 30% and 50% / year This means that data-traffic is growing much faster than voice. and the whole world starts using the World Wide Web more and more. telecom was primarily oriented towards voice. data traffic will outgrow voice-traffic. Bandwidth Data Voice Time Figure 103 Bandwidth growth predictions This evolution will mean a revolution to the telecom business : a change from voice-dominance to data-dominance will take place in only a few years time. voice will be a relatively small fraction of all traffic.Appendix J The Race for Bandwidth Appendix J The Race for Bandwidth The past 100 years. 180 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. The last years however. and that some moment in time. Eventually in future. There is some uncertainty about when this happen. Large companies are interconnecting their computer networks. maybe as small as 1%. Analysts studying the telecom market. 07 . there is a significant growth for data communications. During this time most growth. sales and profit was originating from installing the well-known voice telecom systems. but there is an agreement that it is somewhere between the year 1995 and 2000.

located in another country. This job is done by the Translation layer : it receives the report from the doctor. Let's take an analogy : a doctor wants to send a medical report to a colleague.) he would probably 'sub-contract' part of the job. The translator delivers the translated report to the receiving doctor. and can deliver this guaranteed worldwide. who translates the report back to the language of the receiver. booking for transportation. a railway company. possibly to a common language. delivery of the report. This output then goes to a parcel delivery service. FedEx delivers the package to a local translator. The purpose is to split up a complicated task into a chain of simpler tasks. eg. eg. English. 2. 5. Although the doctor could take care of all details himself (translation. 3. 4. The transportation company delivers the parcel to FedEx somewhere close to the destination. 6. it needs some translation. 4. Doctor Destination Translator Parcel Delivery Figure 104 Protocol Stack The following steps describe a layered approach for this task : 1. When the doctor has his report ready. and outputs a translated report. 07 181 / 190 . Doctor Source Translator Parcel Delivery 1. FedEx again subcontracts the transportation of the parcel to other companies : they rent cargo-space from an airplanes company. 5. Transport 6. 3. Federal Express. a truck transportation company. himself only taking care of the medical writing. They take any package. What are now the advantages of this approach ? 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 2.Appendix K a Protocol Stack Appendix K a Protocol Stack Many telecom systems use a so-called Protocol Stack. etc.

So if you just want to deliver some report to your colleague next door. The details of these lead too far for this introductory text. The transportation companies only deal with the parcel-delivery companies.Appendix K a Protocol Stack " Each Layer is specialized for a single particular task. the doctors not even knowing this. You can refer to Computer Networks. Note Two very popular (and therefor) important protocol stacks are the OSI-stack. and faster to just hand it to him. Each layer could be replaced with another layer. for more details. and can be optimized for this. Each layer needs only to know what are its interfaces to the above and below layer : the doctor only interfaces with the translator. " " There are of course also some drawbacks to this approach. and does not need to know what is happening below that. You can imagine that getting this report sent. and do not know any details what is above that. etc. Example. 182 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. it would probably be cheaper. each of the independent companies doing it different. given they have the same interfaces. if FedEx is on strike. requires quite some paperwork.. Tanenbaum. 07 . they could be replaced with DHL. and the TCP/IP-stack.

07 183 / 190 .Appendix L A Call Scenario Appendix L A Call Scenario SETUP Calling Party INFORMATION CALL PROCEEDING SETUP SETUP ACKNOWLEDGE Network Set-up Called Party CALL PROCEEDING ALERTING ALERTING CONNECT CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE CONNECT DISCONNECT RELEASE RELEASE COMPLETE RELEASE COMPLETE DISCONNECT Release RELEASE Figure 105 ISDN Local Call Scenario An example of a call scenario for ATM UNI v3.1 can be played at http://www. 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.com/~dhudek/junidemo1.ultranet.shtml (JAVA enabled browser needed).

Appendix M the Frequency Spectrum Appendix M the Frequency Spectrum A lot of communication techniques use electromagnetic waves.... 915 MHz Uplink. GSM 1800 : 1710 .. 935 .. 1805 .5 . disturbance from one communication to the other. 108 MHz : FM Radio BroadCasting 512 KHz .... 1880 MHz Downlink.3 * 10^14 Hz Light : 900 nm . 1900 MHz 1GHZ . 1785 MHz Uplink. Below are some of the most important frequencies and frequency-bands listed : " " " " " " " 20 .5*10^19 Hz Gamma Rays : 5*10^18 Hz . To prevent interference. 10 GHz : MicroWave frequencies (5 * 10^11 Hz) Infra Red : 5*10^11 . 960 MHz Downlink.. 1600 KHz : AM Radio Broadcasting 300 . 20000 Hz : Audio frequencies. 500 MHz Television Broadcasting 900 MHz : GSM Mobile Telephony. 800 nm Ultra Violet : 10^15 . DECT : 1880 .. 07 . 20 KHz ...5*10^17 Hz X-Rays / rongten : 5 * 10^17 .up FM Radio InfraRed light GSM GSM1800 DECT MicroWave UltraViolet " " " " " " " " audio ultrasonic TV AM Radio 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G 100G 1T 10T 100T Frequency [Hz] Figure 106 Frequency Chart 184 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 100 KHz UltraSone 87. all these applications got assigned a certain frequency band.. 3400 Hz : analog telephone 50 MHz . 890 .

Sony. Network Computers. Camcorder. video. DEC. graphics. Computer : Personal Computers. NEC.. Mobile Phone Organizers (One Touch Com.. . Consumer : TVs. . Bell ITT.. Computer and Consumer features. audio. Mobile.. In this appendix we want to give a view on what is MultiMedia from a Telecom Business perspective. Important companies were Philips. Nokia Communicator) Email " 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed.. Important companies were (not exhaustive) Siemens. and because it is being used in so many contexts... " " In the last 20 years. developing new technologies and products : " " " Telecom : ISDN. Household appliances. Computer : Mainframe computers.. these businesses start to overlap. it gets a vague or fuzzy meaning.. video. Some examples are : " " " " Computers with built in (voice) modems. and the overlap area itself is a new business area with an interesting combination of Telecom. . As a result. . Computers able to do video-conferencing. Some 20 years ago there were clearly distinct businesses for : " Telecom : telephone networks. is : Information consisting of different media... CD. Important companies were IBM.. Consumer : Walkman. etc.. each of these business areas has expanded..Appendix N MultiMedia Appendix N MultiMedia MultiMedia is a buzzword. 07 185 / 190 . such as text. Internet. HardDisks. . HP . One very limited definition of MultiMedia. Lucent.. Local Area Networks.

Appendix N

MultiMedia

Figure 107
" " " " " " " "

One Touch Com

CD-ROM, -Recordable, -Rewritable Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) Prepaid Card for Mobile Phone, sold in supermarket DECT Private Exchange Web Touch Worldwide databases, such as CDDB Web-TV Rio MP3 player : a device playing Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) layer 3 (mp3) encoded audio. Music in this format can be downloaded from providers on the Internet.

Figure 108

Diamond Multimedia RIO mp3 player.

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Appendix N

MultiMedia

In this view, MultiMedia is : A new business area, combining technologies from Telecom, Computer and Consumer industries. The challenge will be to survive as a player in this new area, amid a competition which is not only Telecom, but also Computer and Consumer companies.

Figure 109

Overlapping Businesses, MultiMedia

770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07

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Appendix O

Links to Further Information

Appendix O
"

Links to Further Information
The following documents must be handed over to the students : The paper handout of this course is identified by document 770 00438 1100 VHBE Additionally this document is available on CD-ROM, as a Printerleaf file, and as a set of HTML files, which can be viewed with a WEB-Browser. The HTML-version can be accessed on-line at : http:///aww.bec.bel.alcatel.be/users/t/tc2000 At the same address, the Printerleaf file and a Zipped version of the Web-site can be downloaded.
"

A list of abbreviations can be found in document 3CL 00067 0003 TQZZA An Alcatel Telecom Product Catalogue is described in document 3CL 00243 0001 TQZZA

"

This site focuses on Wireless and Access, on which there are many articles and tutorials. The site has also a number of Resource Links, pointing to :
" "

Manufacturers Tutorials

http://www.telecomresearch.com/ This site focuses on Telecom Business aspects : announces new products, new contracts, company reorganizations, etc... A mailing can keep you up to date. http://www.totaltelecom.com/ This site provides a set of reports on different telecom technologies. http://www.telechoice.com/content/reports.asp The list of resources on the Web is endless, but lots of interesting material is grouped at : http://www.data.com/tutorials/ http://www.gbmarks.com/ref.htm http://china.si.umich.edu/telecom/telecom-info.html

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Appendix O Links to Further Information 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 189 / 190 .

Appendix O Links to Further Information 190 / 190 770 00438 1100 VHBE Ed. 07 .

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