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Part I Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings.

By the usage of Geometry which is to determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of cake to be produced. Secondly ,Calculus (differentiation) can be used as the mathematics method to determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cakebaking, to estimate minimum or maximum amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate minimum or maximum size of cake produced. Next , the usage of Progressions in cake baking and cake decorating by determining the total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions, estimating total ingredients needed for cake-baking and estimating total amount of cream for decoration.

Part II

Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shownin Diagram 1 for the Teachers Daycelebration. (Diagram 11)

1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800cm3, and the height of the cake is to be 7.0cm,

calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school. [Use = 3.142] Answer: Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake 3800 x 5 = (3.142)(d2) x 7
190007(3.142) = (d2)

863.872 = (d2)
d2 = 29.392

d = 58.784 cm

2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin width and 45.0 cm in height. a)If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,hcm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to beused,d cm. Tabulate your answers.
First, form the formulafor d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, V = 19000, that is:

19000 = (3.142)(d/2)h 19000(3.142)h = d4

24188.415h = d

d = 155.53h Height,h (cm) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Diameter,d(cm) 155.53 109.98 89.80 77.77

5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

68.56 63.49 58.78 54.99 51.84 49.18

(b)Based on the values in your table, (i)state the range of heights that is not suitable for the cakes and explain your answers. By using the height of 7cm which is not suitable, because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven. Furthermore, the cake would be too short and too wide, making it less attractive. (ii)suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Giver easons for your answer. By using the height of 8cm and the diameter of 54.99cm,I think this is the most suitable dimensions for the cake.It is because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitable for easy handling.

(c)(i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation betweenhand d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you haveformed. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computersoftware.] 19000 = (3.142)(d2)h 19000/(3.142)h = d4
24188.415h = d

d = 155.53h d = 155.53h-12 log d = log 155.53h-12 log d = -12 log h + log 155.53

Log h

Log d






(ii)(a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. When the h = 10.5cm, log h = 1.021, log d = 1.680, d = 47.86cm (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use yourgraph to estimate the height of the cake obtained.

When d = 42cm, log d = 1.623, log h = 1.140, h = 13.80cm

3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thicknessof the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about1cm (a)Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using thedimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii).

When h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = Vol. of cream at the top surface + Volume of cream at the side surface Vol. of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream = (3.142)(54.992) x 1 = 2375 cm Vol. of cream at the side surface = = = = Area of side surface x Height of cream (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1 1382.23 cm

Therefore, amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.23 cm

(b)Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height andvolume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream tobe used on each of the cakes.

Shape 1 Rectangle-shaped base (cuboid)

19000 = base area x height base area = 190002 length x width = 2375 By trial and improvement, 2375 = 50 x 47.5 (length = 50, width = 47.5, height = 8) Therefore, volume of cream = 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm

2 Triangle-shaped base

19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 12x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750 By trial and improvement, 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95, width = 50) Slant length of triangle = (95 + 25)= 98.23 Therefore, amount of cream = Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.68 cm

3 Pentagon-shaped base

19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon therefore: 2375 = 5(length x width) 475 = length x width By trial and improvement, 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25, width = 19) Therefore, amount of cream = 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. of top surface = 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm

(c)Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the leastamount of fresh cream to be used? Pentagon-shaped cake, since it requires only 3135 cm of cream to be used.

Part III Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream todecorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus.State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers.

Method 1: Differentiation Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a). 19000 = (3.142)rh (1) V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)rh (2)

From (1): h = 19000(3.142)r (3) Sub. (3) into (2): V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)r(19000(3.142)r) V = (3.142)r + (38000r) V = (3.142)r + 38000r-1 (dVdr) = 2(3.142)r (38000r) 0 = 2(3.142)r (38000r) -->> minimum value, therefore dVdr = 0 38000r = 2(3.142)r 380002(3.142)= r 6047.104 = r r = 18.22 Sub. r = 18.22 into (3): h = 19000(3.142)(18.22) h = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44cm

Method 2: Quadratic Functions Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function. Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake: 19000 = (3.142)rh (1) f(r) = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)hr (2) From (2): f(r) = (3.142)(r + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142) = (3.142)[ (r + 2h2) (2h2) ] -->> completing square, with a = (3.142), b = 2h and c = 0 = (3.142)[ (r + h) h ] = (3.142)(r + h) (3.142)h (a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value), min. value = f(r) = (3.142)h, corresponding value of x = r = --h) Sub. r = --h into (1): 19000 = (3.142)(--h)h h = 6047.104 h = 18.22 Sub. h = 18.22 into (1):

19000 = (3.142)r(18.22) r = 331.894 r = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22 cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44 cm

Reasons for me to choose of such the dimensions : I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such cakes are difficult to handle easily.

FURTHER EXPLORATION Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, asshown in Diagram 2. The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on. (a)Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparingall these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern?Explain and elaborate on the number patterns.

When the height, h of each cake = 6cm radius of largest cake = 31cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake 31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599 a = 31, r = 910

V = (3.142)rh Radius of 1st cake = 31, volume of 1st cake = (3.142)(31)(6) = 18116.772 Radius of 2nd cake = 27.9, vol. of 2nd cake = 14674.585 Radius of 3rd cake = 25.11, vol. of 3rd cake = 11886.414 Radius of 4th cake = 22.599, vol. of 4th cake = 9627.995 18116.772, 14674.585, 11886.414, 9627.995, a = 18116.772, ratio, r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = = 0.81

(b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximumnumber of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using othermethods.

Sn =(a(1 - rn)) (1 - r) Sn = 57000, a = 18116.772 and r = 0.81 57000 =(18116.772(1 (0.81)n))(1 - 0.81) 1 0.81n = 0.59779 0.40221 = 0.81n og0.81 0.40221 = n n = log 0.40221 log 0.81 n = 4.322 therefore, n 4


For this project work , I learnt to be more thankful when conducting stuff relating to Additional Mathematics.Everyone knows that this subject is hard to

be learnt by students.By this project work , my knowledge about Additional Mathematics getting better and I am happy doing my revisions on Additional Mathematics.I am getting more excited on doing Additional Mathematicss practices and I am confident to do well in this subject. In this project work , there are so many moral values that I learnt . First of all,this project taught me to be more patience as Additional Mathematics requires 100% of effort and focus to work on it.Next,it taught me to be more rational and be smart on making decisions on which and how am I going to answer all the question.After conducting this project,I think I have falling in love with Additional Mathematics as before this I hate this subject for the hardness.But now,I have changed my mind and I want to get A+ in this unique subject.