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INTRODUCTION The course represents an attempt to introduce trainees to the main problems concerned with the methodology of teaching English. It tries to be an instrument of work, which might help them with choosing and handling different approaches/ methods/techniques, planning a lesson, teaching skills/vocabulary/grammar/literature and cultural awareness, or, getting information about class management, evaluation, testing and error correction. AIMS 1) to facilitate the trainees‘ understanding of the principles and practice of English language teaching, with particular reference to the Communicative Approach 2) to familiarize the trainees with different aspects of the process of language learning and teaching, with different methods, approaches, techniques and strategies of TEFL and make them understand the advantages and disadvantages of using a certain method and technique 3) to help the trainees link theory to practice 4) to prepare the trainees for the teaching practice and help them get familiar with different schools, grades and learners‘ needs 5) to develop trainees‘ ability to evaluate adapt and design teaching materials (tasks, exercises, lesson plans and teaching aids) and testing materials 6) to teach the trainees how to organize different types of activities in the classroom 7) to help the trainees become aware of the teacher‘s and the learner‘s role, as well as the learner‘s needs and problems, as necessary basis for effective teaching practice and theory 8) to encourage trainees‘ current and future professional development through reflection on their practices and beliefs, self-evaluation and co-operative work with other teachers OBJECTIVES By the end of the course the trainees will be aware of the different approaches in ELT, the nature of communication, the role and functions of language and their implications for teaching and will be able to: 1) demonstrate their understanding of the principles of ELT through lesson-planning, micro-teaching, selection and adaptation and design of tasks 2) use English appropriately for classroom management 3) establish and apply appropriate criteria for the evaluation and selection of materials 4) exploit, adapt and create materials for different purposes and contexts 5) use appropriate techniques to evaluate and assess learner performance 6) self-evaluate through critical reflection, observation and analysis
7) develop awareness of the needs and interests of their learners 8) develop awareness of their own needs for self-development as language teachers 9) evaluate ELT materials 10) develop critical understanding of the rationale behind the existing materials and methods TEACHING METHODS -delivery of lectures -seminars -workshops -micro-teaching; peer-teaching EXAM REQUIREMENTS -evaluation of the tasks established in the course -written paper of the end of the semester -book/article report -evaluation of a lesson plan CONTENTS I.LANGUAGE LEARNING AND LANGUAGE TEACHING I.1. Language learning I.2. Learning theories and approaches I.3. Language teaching I.4. Teaching approaches and methods Task II.TEACHING SKILLS II.1. Teaching listening 1.1.Listening and its place in the context of teaching skills 1.2.Classroom activities II.2.Teaching speaking 2.1.Speaking and its place in the context of teaching skills 2.2.Classroom activities II.3.Teaching reading 3.1.Reading and its place in the context of teaching skills 3.2.Classroom activities II.4.Teaching writing 4.1.Writing and its place in the context of teaching skills 4.2.Classroom activities 4.3.Developing project work in English classes Task III.TEACHING VOCABULARY III.1.Teaching vocabulary in the context of language teaching III.2.Classroom activities III.3.Teaching pronunciation Task
Classroom activities Task VI.1.Classroom activities V.Classroom activities Task V.1.EVALUATION AND TESTING VIII. LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING Aims 1)to introduce to trainees the concepts of language learning and language teaching 2)to identify the theories and approaches in language learning and language teaching Objectives 1)trainees will increase their awareness of the similarities and differences between L1 and L2 2)trainees will understand the way knowledge of language learning influences language teaching 3)trainees will be able to identify the appropriate needs of their students 4)trainees will be able to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each method according to the teaching context they have been exposed to .2.Testing VIII.1.Field of investigation Task VIII.General considerations VI.1.2.Types of lesson plans Task VII.2.Literature and its place in the context of language teaching V.Evaluation VIII.1.Developing cultural awareness V.3. LESSON PLANNING VI.TEACHING GRAMMAR IV.IV.Grammar in the context of teaching English IV. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT VII.TEACHING LITERATURE AND DEVELOPING CULTURAL AWARENESS V.4. Error correction Task GLOSSARY NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY Appendix 1: Objectives for learners Appendix 2: Activity types and procedures in the classroom Appendix 3: Objectives of TP Appendix 4: Classroom observation I.2.
2. they like teachers to give oral instructions and they like making tape recordings of what they are learning and 5 .Contents I. organizes information about the language.Teaching approaches and methods Task I. There are several learning styles. being able to supply these items when they are missing. they remember instructions best if they see them on the blackboard -auditory learners – learn well by hearing things (lectures or tapes).3. It is a heterogeneous process.Learning theories and approaches I. One is said to know a language even when one speaks hesitantly. up to the most complex ones. according to them. beginning with those of Pavlov‘s conditioning type. listening and reading) Learning a language is a step-by-step process proceeding from the simple to the more difficult. One is said to know a second language when one‘s competence (knowledge of the grammar that determines an intrinsec connection of sound and meaning of each sentence) is like that of a native speaker. writing.1.Language learning Language is a social phenomenon. a part of the culture of a people. learns certain strategies to keep conversation going.4. or being able to do without them. taking charge of his learning and experimenting with grammar and words. It is not necessary that one‘s performance (what the speaker/hearer actually does) be identical with the native language. comprising lots of mechanisms. those of the type of problem solving.Language teaching I. with errors or a foreign accent. we distinguish between: -visual learners – learn better by visual means (by reading and by looking at pictures or films). according to the formality of the situation. Knowing a language means knowing the items that make up the language.1. is creative. uses contextual cues to help his comprehension . learns different styles of speech and writing. uses linguistic knowledge. makes guesses.Language learning I. stress and intonation) -grammar (knowledge of the rules which help creating an infinite number of sentences = grammatical competence) -vocabulary (knowledge of what words mean both literally and metaphorically) -discourse (knowledge of how language is used appropriately and how language is organized as discourse = communicative competence) -appropriacy (knowledge of how to use language appropriately: “how to get it to do what we want it to do in the right circumstances”)1 -language skills (possession of the four basic skills: speaking. makes error work for him. A good language learner finds his own way. Knowing a language means knowing its: -pronunciation (knowledge of sounds. Language learning means the acquisition of psychological habits closely related to the cultural and social background of a people. It also means the ability to produce an infinite number of sentences in response to an infinite number of stimuli. in learning a second language. including knowledge of the first language.
conscious learning acts as a monitor that checks and repairs the output of the acquired system. Krashen‘s merits are: -he stressed on the importance of input (students should receive much comprehensible input in speech or writing -his acquisition/learning theory raises the problem of transferability of language skills from the formal learning situation to real life -recommends taking care that the comprehensible input provided to the learner should slightly exceed the learner‘s current competence -recommends learning by communication He made the distinction between acquisition and learning. It represents a subconscious process which has as a result the language proficiency through understanding and using language for meaningful communication. According to him. conscious learning has the function to call upon learned knowledge to correct ourselves when we communicate c)the natural order hypothesis .Learning theories and approaches Acquisition and learning. is considered to be the “natural” way. for him. It is more successful and longer lasting than learning. that is. The distinction between these two processes was made by Stephen Krashen. while learning means knowledge leading to the ability to monitor. the language that students hear or read. The input should contain language that the students already know and language they have not previously seen.claims to explain the relationship between what the learner is . the acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predictable order (the order is similar to that in the first language). Krashen also established the main hypotheses regarding language acquisition: a)the acquisition – learning hypothesis (the difference between acquisition and learning mentioned above) b)the monitor hypothesis . it result only in “knowing about” the language. errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes and during the acquisition process.according to this. provided that they get a great deal of comprehensible input. similar to first language development in children. that is explicit knowledge about the forms of a language and the ability to verbalize this knowledge. in his opinion. Learning refers to the process in which conscious rules about a language are developed. similar developmental errors occur in learners no matter what their mother tongue is d)the input hypothesis .2.having discussions -kinaesthetic learners – learn best when they have hands-on experience. they like moving around when they learn and prefer a variety of classroom activities I. successful acquisition depends on the nature of the language input which the students receive. He also considers that students are able to acquire language on their own.the basic idea is that the acquired linguistic system is said to initiate utterances when we communicate in a second or foreign language. acquisition means the knowledge leading to communicative performance.2 Acquisition. when they are physically involved or can actively participate.
the learner‘s emotional state or attitudes are seen as an adjustable filter that freely passes. A large part of language acquisition means in fact the learning of the system. if there is a sufficient quantity of comprehensible input. they had a profound effect upon the practice of language teaching. who applied the theory of conditioning (an animal can be trained to learn something through a three-stage procedure: stimulus. after the acquirer has built up linguistic competence by understanding input e)the affective filter hypothesis . the stage following the acquirer‘s level of competence will be provided automatically. 3)task-based learning – is based on the idea that attention should not be given too much to the nature of language input.image tend to be more successful -low personal anxiety and low classroom anxiety are more conducive to second language acquisition -whatever helps comprehension is important -as much comprehensible input as possible must be presented. The language learner acquires language competence (knowledge of the grammar rules present in the system) and he experiments it as language user. Students should be asked to perform communicative activities (tasks) in which they have 7 . but a rulebased system. the main ideas are: -a low affective filter is desirable. Linguistic competence is the most important thing. student work should center on meaningful communication rather than on form Despite the fact that many learning second language theories originate in studies of how people learn their first language. The conception was developed by Noam Chomsky. the main ideas are that people acquire language best by understanding input that is beyond their current level of competence. who considered that language was not a form of behaviour. input should be interesting -in order to lower the affective filter. but to the learning tasks that students are involved in. 2) The Cognitive Code Theory – language acquisition is considered to be a more or less autonomous process based on an inborn mechanism of language acquisition. Language was considered as a form of behaviour. response and reinforcement/ reward) to the way humans acquire their first language. since it blocks less the necessary input -acquirers with a low affective filter seek and receive more input.it emerges independently in time. impedes or blocks input necessary to acquisition. Language learning is considered to be based on experience. while good results were immediately praised. Among the most well-known hypotheses regarding language acquisition are: 1) Behaviouristic– developed by Skinner. which prevents acquisition -learners with high motivation generally do better -learners with self-confidence and a good self. Mistakes were immediately criticized. the ability to speak fluently cannot be taught directly.exposed to (the input) and language acquisition. imitation and selective conditioning and the language “habit” formed by constant repetition. interact with confidence and are more receptive to the input they receive -anxious acquirers have a high affective filter.
7)humanistic approaches – based on the idea that the humanistic aspects of learning should be stressed. engage students in some form of genuine problem solving activity 4)cooperative learning – involves the learner-centered characteristics. 6)self-directed learning. comprehensible and available for learning way. S (1995): Teaching Practice Handbook. dictations. receive authentic language input in real-life contexts. the better they become at using the language. copying exercises. the interactive classes are those which do group and pair work.44 . Walters. the tasks chosen. as well as the encouragement of positive feelings are considered to be as important as their learning of a language. The experience of the students is what counts. have carefully designed elements and well specified objectives. Its main components are considered to be the acts of: -presenting and explaining the new material (in a clear.3. taking into account the age of the students and their level of knowledge ) -providing practice (in order to consolidate learning and improve performance) -testing and evaluation (to check what has been mastered and what still needs to be learned or reviewed. at the same time. questions for which prompts are offered. produce oral communication. the age and level of knowledge of the students. they can be divided into three large categories1: a) controlled activities (the teacher decides upon the language to be used and controls the activity accordingly). I. The development of the students‘ personality. A good language programme should be based on a mixture of class-work and self-study. Generally. it also refers to the collaborative efforts of students and teachers working together to pursue goals and objectives 5)interactive learning – created for communicative purpose. short dialogues supplied by the teacher. The theory is based on the idea that students have to be trained to be good learners. p. integrate the four skills. R. Oxford. as well as on the teacher`s professional skills. write to and for real audience. This type of activities include drills. how best to study. This theory gave birth to the methods of Communicative Language Teaching. produce language for meaningful communication. 1 Gower. should: contribute to communicative goals. imagination and creativity. enhance learning. learning objectives. if they can take their own decisions about what to do next. Heinemann. D. The more they do this. b) guided activities (the teacher decide on the language areas but. to evaluate both the students‘ and the teacher‘s work) The activities in the classroom depend on the type of leasson.to use the language. their learning is better if they make most of their own resources.Language teaching The teaching process is as complex as the learning process. focus on the social aspect of language. Phillips.
promotion or passing an examination). which is concerned with what takes place in the classroom (as opposed to extrinsec motivation. the teacher should be patient and understanding. which means concern with factors outside the classroom – learning a foreign language. teaching a language means teaching about the people speaking that language. as well as the students‘ success in learning. being influenced by such factors as: the physical condition in which learning takes place. the method by which students are taught.he offers students the possibility to make some limited choices) c) free/creative activities (the teacher supplies the motivation and (maybe) some materials and allows students to manifest freely. There can be mentioned some principles of teaching a foreign language: 1)the communicative principle – language as a means of communication is an activity. the foreign language should be used almost exclusively during the classes. their culture and way of thinking 6)the affective principle – language learning and teaching should take place in a relaxed and supportive atmosphere. This type of activity is especially used for speaking and writing. understood as attraction to the culture of the target language community or as an instrument of getting a better job or status. on their capacity of analysis and synthesis 3)the intrinsec motivation principle – stress should be on the students developing their intrinsec motivation. on the methods he could use and on the effectiveness of procedures. to use any language they choose in order to communicate and complete the task). The teaching process was labelled “ Teacher –centred” Later on . conversational practice is introduced from the very first stage 2)the meaningful learning principle – asks for avoidance of too much grammatical explanation and mechanical techniques. the teacher should choose suitable techniques – from simple to complex and constantly affirm his belief in their ability of solving tasks 5)the language–culture connection principle – students should develop a positive perception of the target language and its people. students should be encouraged to work throughout the whole course of a class. The teacher‘s task is to develop strategies so as to give students reasons to work. so foreign language classes should be active.”The difference between the two can be noticed in the following table: 9 . the main interest in teaching was on the teacher`s role . intrinsec motivation plays an important role in the students‘ success or failure as language learners. the perspective has changed and the process got the name of “Learner/Student-centred teaching. to motivate them to fully take part in the process of learning 4)the risk-taking principle – students should be encouraged to take risks in their attempt to use the language. stress should be on students developing their power of making associations. the teacher and his teaching style. he should also encourage co-operative learning Until the 80`s.
a system.: a song = an object.Teacher-centred Teaching . A method is an orderly presentation of the material at a given stage of the lesson.students decide upon content. representing the level at which assumptions and beliefs about language and language learning are specified. dynamic techniques (dramatization.teaching uses the students` knowledge. representing the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skills to be taught.the student has little possibility to take initiative and to experiment . as well as on organizing activities . It includes many methods of teaching.the focus is on classroom management.4. the feedback given to learners concerning the form or content of their utterances). technique. An approach is a conception.g.the language is seen from the point of view of the teacher. the teacher`s explanations and his manner of teaching Learner-centred teaching .the teacher establishes what is to be taught. he initiates exchanges. it encompasses the actual moment-tomoment teaching (drills. controls the class (turn-taking and all activities) and evaluates the students` responses .the centre of interest is the teacher and his responsibility for learning . There can be static techniques (illustration. explanation. method.the students have an active role in their process of learning . simulation) or integrated ones – consisting of both a linguistic “object” and a related activity (e. aims and characteristics . A procedure is a part of a method.the focus is on students` needs. demonstration).the emphasis is on materials and methods I. it is a set of techniques and procedures. dialogues. the content to be taught and the order in which this content will be presented.the teacher shows flexibility and adaptability . their mental processes and learning strategies . procedure. experiences and feelings as a source of input . singing = the activity). A technique is a stratagem used to accomplish an immediate objective in the lesson. a point of view concerning the nature of the subject matter to be taught. Within one method there may be several procedures. It involves commitment to a particular theory about language or learning. The term strategy refers to the way of dealing with the subject . as it considered that he knows what is best for his students .the teacher encourages students` autonomy. It determines the methods and techniques. pairing and grouping. strategy and tactics.Teaching approaches and methods Pedagogical literature operates with such terms as: approach.
do role-play. encourage students to ask questions -to help students use their intuition: praise students for their guesses. The students had to learn the rules and construct sentences based on them. The drawbacks consisted in the fact that it was a very schematical and rigid system. The synthetical method was grounded on the conception that language is a synthesis of words arranged in sentences according to different rules. Strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem. considered 11 . Rebecca Oxford (1990)3 mentions some different techniques and recommends the strategies: -in order to lower inhibition: play guessing games. phrases and idioms. play down competition. to come to teach its words and rules. Within it. The analytical method started from the conception that teaching should start with the written text and by its analysis. Its aim was to develop the students‘ capacity of memorizing and habit-forming. The Direct Method – was introduced in the last decades of the 19th century in Germany. unable to embrace richness and variety of the spoken language (idioms and set phrases could not be learned according to rules and lists). The meaning of the words was explained by the direct presentation of objects. Its aim was to develop the students‘ capacity of thinking in a foreign language. Pronunciation was considered to be important. correct only selected errors There have been developed lots of theories and trends concerning language learning and teaching. little attention was given to the written language. It excluded any form of writing. laugh with students -to encourage risk-taking: praise students for their efforts to practise language -in order to build self-confidence: tell students that you really believe in them -to promote cooperative learning: direct students to share their knowledge.Palmer. there could be distinguished two trends: the synthetical and the analytical method. sing songs. The complete elimination of the mother tongue can be considered one of its drawbacks. by direct intuition. In England it was used for the first time by Sweet (The Practical Study of Language).matter in the process of teaching. It stressed the importance of acquiring the spoken language. abstract notions were explained by means of paraphrases. The advantage of the method was that it emphasized the spoken language and at the same time it replaced the learning of isolated words and endless grammar rules and definitions with the learning of sentences. The teaching of grammar was considered secondary and was achieved by practice. The rules were memorized in a strict traditional order.E. The advantage was that it paid great attention to meaning. and excluded completely the use of the mother tongue. The main technique was translation into the target language. they represent modes of operation for achieving a particular goal. a task. The development of the method was linked with the introduction of phonetics. The earliest approach in foreign language teaching is considered to be Grammar Translation Method. Everything had to be taught by induction. synonyms. antonyms or by deducing the meaning from the context. The Oral Method – was introduced by H.
who considered that the main aim of teaching was understanding and creative solution of problems. This is why drills (structural exercises) became the main activity. it stressed on the simultaneous use of auditory and visual stimuli: filmstrips. This is why the method insisted on students comfortably relaxed. It was based on the idea that the teacher should be silent as much as possible in the classroom and the learner should be encouraged to produce as much language as possible. and provided methods of work meant to develop the students‘ power of unconscious assimilation. In such a setting (bright and cheery appearance of the classroom. The Audio-Visual Approach – was introduced in 1926 by Michael West. slides. The method is based on sociolinguistics. Suggestopedia – was a humanistic approach. discovering activity. baroque music). It meant the application of the structural linguistics to the teaching of the foreign language. and helped by the modern technical aids. Dialogues were used as the main means of presenting language and emphasis was on listening and speaking. The advantage of the method is considered to be the fact that students become familiar with everyday language and form the capacity to talk on general topics and read non-specialized fiction. films and tapes. The idea was that the special setting. on comfortable furniture and music. whose description was given by Brooks (1960). introduced by Lozanov. in which the learner is the main actor. which led to the development of skills and habits. The method brought two advantages: the first laboratory classes were introduced and listening became a skill used for the first time. the adoption of a new identity and the dependence on listening to dialogues could help students to acquire the language. Rivers (1968). Attention was given to stress. without needing to be conscious of them. The Situational Method . students could be in danger of becoming parrots. he models the language to be learned once only. intonation and rhythm. The . The teacher‘s role was to create situations in which the learner is most suggestible and then to present linguistic material in a way most likely to encourage positive reception and retention by the learner. spontaneity and receptivity of a child. The drawback was that using such drills. The Audio-Lingual Approach – was a method of the 60‘s. not as writing. Roberto Lado (1964) and W. and then indicates what students should do by pointing or other silent means. students could master the rules inductively.was also based on behaviourism and considered language as an established set of habits. Its aim was the acquisition of a practical set of communicative skills and to make language accessible to large groups. The students were expected to give themselves over to activities and techniques designed to help them regain the self-confidence. students were given new names and listened to extended dialogues. it was based on conditioning and on behaviourism. reclining chairs arranged in circle. The method views learning as a problem-solving. It considered that through the observation and imitation of language in realistic situations. The Silent Way – was a method devised by Caleb Gattegno. creative.that should be no reading matter at all. The main characteristics were repetition and memorization. the teacher offers a very limited amount of input. followed by positive or negative reinforcement. the general ease of the situation. a set of responses conditioned to occur with certain stimuli (situations or words). The idea was that the foreign language should be learned in its natural forms as speech.
this is why the main goal of the approach is enabling students to communicate using the target language appropriate to a given social context. Successful learning involves commitment of the self to language acquisition through the use of silent awareness and then active trial. the use of authentic texts in the learning situation. the necessity to link classroom language learning with language outside the classroom Within this approach. The teacher gives students instructions. According to David Nunan 2 the five characteristics of the Communicative Language Teaching are: an emphasis on the interaction in the target language. he writes the script. He emphasizes comprehension skills before students are taught to speak. models and presents the new material. sets the mood. The teacher evaluates not only accuracy but also the 2 Nunan. New York p. attention is given to communicative tasks to be achieved through the language rather than exercises on the language and the emphasis is on student initiative rather than on teacher-centered activity. on the learning process.teacher does not praise. he decides what to teach. from the part of learners. until success is achieved. developing their communicative competence. The Total Physical Response – was a method developed by James Archer. selects supportive material for classroom use. They respond to these commands individually and collectively. that is. they are encouraged to speak only when they feel ready to do it. students do not have to speak. he does not criticize either. They have little influence over the content of learning. focus. enhancement of the learner`s own experience in the process of learning the foreign language. This way. concentration is on use and appropriacy rather than on meaning and grammar. since content is determined by the teacher. he simply indicates that the student should try again.challenging. through physical response. to interact with each other and suggest alternatives to each other. Learning becomes a process of personal growth resulting from growing student awareness and self. This approach in language teaching starts from a theory of language as communication. they give commands to other students. creating lesson elements and creating an environment that encourages students risk taking and that facilitates learning. Teacher is responsible for designing teaching sequences. Learners create their own utterances by putting together old and new information. The Communicative Approach (Communicative Learning Theory). Prentice Hall. The teacher plays an active and direct role. 279 13 . David (1991): Language Teaching Methodology. It is built around the coordination of speech and action. as important tool for learning to communicate. Chooses the props. they have to listen carefully and then carry out the teacher‘s commands. models the action and designates the players. but also. they learn language through actions. Speaking abilities are developed in learners at their own natural pace. Charts and other visual aids are used. not only on the language as such. Its ultimate aim is to teach basic speaking skills. When students are ready for it. They are expected to develop autonomy and responsibility. it attempts to teach language through physical activity.
but does not always interact with students. it includes taking into consideration the status role of the speaker. accepting. sometimes he is a co-communicator. It is considered desirable to give students an opportunity to develop strategies for understanding language . likes. The role of the teacher is not the same as in the traditional approaches. his attitude. Dialogues center round communicative functions. The new types of activities: brainstorming. writing are integrated. He is the initiator of the activities. The classroom procedures favour interaction among students. They become more responsible for their learning. meanings. The students‘ native language has no particular role in this approach. maintain. simulation and problem solving tasks. offering. they are actively engaged in negotiating meaning. The students learn from classroom management exchanges. the teacher is a facilitator of his students‘ learning. he is a manager of the classroom activities (modifies them and adjusts them to the needs of his students). The four skills: listening. they use the language through several communicative activities: games. Teacher helps learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language. but also for examples. agreeing. info transfer. Attempts to communicate are encouraged from the very beginning and this is why errors are considered a normal part of learning. in pairs or in groups. the shared information. mime. dislikes. developing their analytical and creative thinking. role-play. answering the students‘ questions and monitoring their performance. they try to learn to communicate by communicating. reading.). story-telling. identification. give them freedom and responsibility. giving them the chance to work individually. they are not normally memorized. contextualization is a basic premise. knowledge about the language and the necessary skills required to understand and express the literal meaning of utterances -sociolinguistic competence: refers to the ability to understand the social context in which communication takes place. repair and redirect communication Another characteristic of this approach is the use of authentic materials. Students do not follow the lesson passively. they are offered large possibilities to use the language and learn it both consciously and unconsciously. functions (situations. Canale and Swain established four dimensions of communicative competence: -grammatical competence: the domain of grammatical and lexical capacity. refusing. the degree of formality and social convention -discourse competence: refers to the interpretation of individual message elements. speaking. In “Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing”(1980). location. but more often he establishes situations that prompt communication between and among students. any device which helps the learner is accepted. the mastery of the language code. dialogues. weight. the ability to combine meanings with unified texts -strategic competence: refers to the verbal or non-verbal strategies that communicators employ to initiate. etc. They put much more effort into these activities. in explaining the activities to students or in assigning homework.students‘ fluency. disagreeing. during the activities he is an advisor. recognition exercises. the target language should be used not only during communicative activities. the ability to produce and understand utterances in terms of the context in which they appear. the communicative purpose. The approach uses such concepts as forms. finish. arguing) and notions (time.
The Balanced Activities Approach – is. he chooses a rich mix of classroom activities. according to Harmer3 a sum of many other methodological approaches (based on various theories of language learning and teaching). It is a communicative approach. involving much group work or pair work. which focuses on teaching communicative abilities. Longman 15 . He acts out physical commands. participates in group problem solving or offers personal information and opinions.as it is actually used by native speakers. he creates an interesting and friendly classroom atmosphere. In order to 3 Harmer. The teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input. The theory of learning is grounded on Krashen‘s acquisition theory. He mentioned a number of seven functions that langugae performs for children learning their first language: -the instrumental function: using language to get things -the regulatory function: using language to control the behaviour of others -the interactional function: using language to create interaction with others -the personal function: using language to express personal feelings and meaning -the heuristic function: using language to learn and discover -the imaginative function: using language to create a world of imagination -the representational function: using language to communicate information (p.not form: the students must be concentrated on what they are saying and not on how they say it -variety of language: the activity must involve students in using a variety of language. Jeremy (1991): The Practice of English Language Teaching. Techniques recommended are borrowed from other methods and adapted to meet requirements. the students should be trained for communicative efficiency.11-17) The Natural Approach – has as its main representatives S. the activity should not be designed to control what language the students should use. games. fills in charts. According to it. answers questions. Harmer offers some criteria for evaluating how communicative classroom activities are: -communicative purpose: the activity must involve the students in performing a real communicative purpose -communicative desire: the activity must create a desire to communicate in students -content.D. involves himself in role-play. Language is considered as a vehicle for communicating meanings and messages. The learner is seen as a processor of comprehensible input. points to pictures. in which there exists a low filter for learning.1970). the choice of the language should rest with the students A linguistic theory of communication favoured in Communicative language teaching is Halliday`s functional account of language use. they should feel free to improvise -no teacher intervention: the students must work by themselves rather than with the teacher -no materials control . Krashen and Tracy Terrell. developed in Language Structure and Language Function.
Besides this. first of all an attitude to life.mainly competitive . depending on the students` learning style. Neuro.the learner has an active role -cognitive and affective domains are given equal status .learning is understood as a process and errors are seen as natural . This means that it is the teacher`s role to find out the strength of his students and adapt the teaching methods and techniques according to them. it represents a range of techniques.little creative expression -accent is on creative expression Characteristics of “new” approaches : . visual and kinaesthetic factors. a model of correct forms and a controller of the class . to provide them with a variety of activities. Its main idea in the teachinglearning process is that learnig is based on audio.little testing -teacher is considered as a guide and learner too -learning is made by discovery .the teacher controls everything in the class .the learner has a passive role -cognitive domain is emphasized .students are characterized by extrinsec motivation .Linguistic Programming (NLP) – is.hierarchical and authoritarian structure .mainly co-operative group work . Characteristics of the traditional approaches . patterns and strategies meant to assist in effective communication.achieve this. to show flexibility in the classroom work.regular testing -teacher as instructor and imparter/provider of knowledge.mainly memory.learners and teachers see each other as equals .intrinsec motivation is developed in students .language is understood as a system of forms and structures that need to be learned . there exist important differences between traditional approaches and new approaches in teaching English. the teacher has to motivate the students. learning a language and in personal growth.language is seen as a means of expressing meaning through form . As a conclusion.errors are immediately pointed out and corrected . practice and rote .
Developing project work in English classes Task II.3.Classroom activities II.Classroom activities II.3.Teaching listening II.Task 1)What do you understand by some concepts as teacher-centred approaches and studentcentred approaches? 2)What are the advantages of the modern approaches in language learning and teaching? II. TEACHING SKILLS Aims 1)to introduce trainees to the main skills in language learning and teaching 2)to identify the main classroom activities for each of the language skills 3)to stimulate trainees‘ capacity of appreciation and critical thinking Objectives 1)trainees will be able to distinguish between receptive and productive skills 2)trainees will understand the necessity of choosing/devising the most appropriate types of activities in order to teach skills and sub-skills Contents II.22.214.171.124.Teaching reading II.4.1.1.Teaching listening II.Classroom activities II.2.2.Classroom activities II.126.96.36.199.Speaking and its place in the context of teaching skills II.Listening and its place in the context of teaching skills II.Reading and its place in the context of teaching skills II.Teaching speaking II.188.8.131.52.2.3. or literature.Teaching writing II. teaching a foreign 17 . vocabulary.1.2.Listening and its place in the context of teaching skills Besides teaching pronunciation.1.4.Writing and its place in the context of teaching skills II. grammar.
especially because the strategy of audio-lingualism had made students listen and repeat rather than listen and understand. The teaching of listening comprehension is somehow a recent innovation in language teaching. listening was neglected in teaching. Speaking and writing involve production. when we listen to someone/something. they are called productive skills. It is different from hearing. it is only perception of the sound. Listening and reading involve reception in the foreign language. Listening is an active process. we usually pay attention to the sound or message. speaking. adjectives -recognizing systems: tense.language means teaching skills such as: listening. which means the ability to identify and understand what other people are saying. reading and writing. Other listening aims could be: -listening for discriminating among the distinctive sounds of English -recognizing reduced forms of words -recognizing grammatical word classes: nouns. The main aim is that of making students understand the foreign language spoken at normal speed and in normal conditions. This skill is preliminary to oral proficiency. without paying conscious attention to the component elements which he can deduce out of the conversational context. Listening can be divided into sub-skills: -ability to follow the general trend of what is said -ability to understand specific details . dialects and speech rhythm. It involves students being able to concentrate upon the whole meaning of the message. agreement plural forms -listening for the main idea/gist -listening for specific information -distinguishing between literal and implied meaning -inferring situations or participants -listening to check if your answers are right or wrong -listening to match pictures with descriptions -listening to complete a picture -listening to re-order a jumbled dialogue -listening for dictation -listening for identifying intention/attitudes -listening for identifying relevant points and rejecting irrelevant ones -listening for recognizing discourse markers (well/now/finally) -listening for recognizing cohesive devices in spoken discourse (which/that) -listening for guessing unknown words or phrases -predicting outcomes This skill is not acquired automatically. verbs. it also means recognizing speech sounds. When we hear someone/something. this is why they are called receptive skills.
-let the students hear “the real thing” from early stages in the course -tell students that they do not need to understand everything from the very beginning. identification of words and phrases in their structural relationships). teacher should provide them with preparation. each with its own listening task -providing students with a variety of voices.2. particularly if this is taped. English songs -longer pieces of listening should be divided into shorter sections. an interactive one. elicits. stories. this allows students to use anticipation. although the main focus is on listening. the level of difficulty of the material and the students‘ language level. the teacher must make sure that students can notice the difference between different sounds and use a variety of listening and responding activities -students should be offered a first listening for a general idea and then segments of tape for detailed work -students should be let to check answers together in pairs or groups before a feedback work -the listening material should be graded according to the students‘ level -the interest of the students should be encouraged -students‘ should be provided with different types of input: lectures. The process involves recognition/ identification (of sounds. selection (drawing out from communication those elements which seem to express the purpose of the speaker) and then the use of correct punctuation. TV plays. he uses lots of active listening strategies in order to develop in students abilities in listening comprehension. he introduces the material. which requires much effort and practice on the part of the students. the amount of preparation varies according to the class.1.-ability to check a specific piece of pre-knowledge against what is said -ability to understand the speaker‘s intention -ability to understand the speaker‘s attitude Teachers must first teach sub-skills. checks and manages the listening activities properly. the skill is frequently integrated with oral or written activities. announcements. The role of the teacher is very important. radio news. elements of meaning conveyed by stress. register and style. they can: -direct students listening. everyday conversations. intonation and pitch. Among these strategies there could be mentioned: 19 . accents and speaking styles -listening should be integrated with oral or written activities listening activities should be stopped once the students become restless or frustrated II. Classroom activities We have already stressed upon the idea that listening is an active process. The teacher should give them guidance on the structure of what they are going to hear. So. films.
to activate the learner‘s background knowledge about the topic and activate a vocabulary set associated with the topic). with no visual clues or context provided.g. there follows the last listening. they listen the second time. etc. students confirm comprehension by responding in writing or orally. disagreeing. The task must be always given before the students do listening. Then. a pre-listening activity compensates for this. then. The activities included in this stage could be: -elicitation/discussion about the topic (to encourage students exchange ideas/opinions about the topic) -brainstorming (students predict the words and expressions likely to appear in the passage. e. based on previous knowledge) -games (for warming-up relaxation and training in basic listening skills. The teacher may also assign a task to be completed by the students. checking for comprehension and allowing time for completion of listening task. During their second-time listening. approving. in such a case. disapproving. the new vocabulary is introduced to students and they are also offered a reason for listening. The stage may include activities such as: 1)bottom-up exercises of the type: -discriminating between phonemes -obeying instructions – students perform actions or draw pictures in response to instructions -ticking off items – students are given a list. miming words and expressions heard. Most listening activities are done using a cassette recorder. the teacher stops the cassette after meaningful “chunks” of language. A listening activity class has three stages: a)Pre-listening (meant to provide a context for listening. and teacher must be sure that the task is one the students can do while they are listening. text or picture and they are asked to tick off . minimal-pair distinction) -guiding questions During this stage.-inferring information about the speakers and the situation that is implied in what they hear -matching what they hear against their own experience and knowledge of the world ant their preoccupations -distinguishing the most important information from less important details -trying to visualize elements of what is heard and form a mental picture that corresponds to that of the speaker -making predictions about what the speaker is going to say -responding intellectually or emotionally to the listening material: agreeing. express hypotheses about the content of the passage. b)While-listening The students should be made to listen the first time for general comprehension.
circling in a list the word they hear.students give the right order for a series of pictures -information search .students listen to a passage and take notes on the segments that answer a particular question c)Post-listening The stage may include activities such as: -answering to show comprehension . they listen to the text which offers the correct answer and detect it -note-taking – students take brief notes from a short lecture or talk -recognizing pertinent details -comparing (to compare passages with prediction in pre-listening) -obeying instructions (students show comprehension by physical movement.a problem is described orally. including a number of deliberate mistakes and students have to detect them -true/false exercise – students tick or cross what they think is right or wrong -cloze – the listening text has occasional brief gaps. pointing to a image or a thing.students answer to multiple-choice or true/false questions 21 . finishing a task. students listen to it and discuss the solution -getting the gist of the text -recognizing the topic -analysing discourse structure -evaluating themes and motives -finding main ideas and supporting details -making inferences -predicting outcomes -information transfer (maps/plans/grids/lists/pictures) -sequencing .words or components as they hear them within a spoken description. story or simple list of items -word recognition (matching word with pictures.) -repetition of short phrases or complete utterances recorded -detecting differences or mistakes – the teacher tells a story or describes something the class knows. students write down what they think might be the missing word 2)top-down exercises: -paraphrasing – students rewrite the listening text in different words -summarizing – students write a short summary of the listening passage -problem solving. pointing to a image or a thing) answering questions – students are asked one/more questions in advance. etc.
they come together to exchange information in order to complete a story or perform a task -writing as follow-up to listening activities -speaking as follow-up to listening activities II. The content aspect refers to communication as information. and use language for real purposes.2. the opportunity to hear and speak English as much as possible. We must have in view that verbal communication always has a relation aspect and a content aspect. be aware of variations in language use. processing ideas and expressing utterances) -dealing with hesitations. the speaker always means something by his verbal utterances (has particular intentions).Speaking and its place in the context of teaching skills Speaking is a productive skill. These intentions can include: .different groups of students listen to different but connected passages.students are given all the information relevant to a particular problem and then set themselves to solve it -summarizing -jigsaw listening . students need to develop interactive strategies such as: -starting up a conversation (initiating a content: greetings).1. exclamations. hedges (avoidance of direct answers) -interrupting conversation (interruption of an already existing relationship by joining in a conversation) -ending a conversation (breaking off a content: leave taking) It can also be achieved qualitatively. Teaching speaking involves developing oral communicative competence. by expressing the personal attitude of the speaker to the listener (positive. The principle of starting the teaching of a foreign language with the spoken language is nowadays unanimously accepted. Speaking competence must be built systematically. The main condition for developing skill in speaking is practice. -maintaining and modifying a content (formal questions. negative or neutral attitude). then. the students‘ interests and age and if students are allowed to express their opinions freely. beginning with easy to more demanding tasks. The relation aspect can be achieved formally. the spoken language is the source of the literary language. This means that students‘ speaking skills must be developed in close relationship with the presentation and practice of functional language. corrections.2. Students should be encouraged to experiment with the language. reading and writing.-problem solving . that is the ability to use forms in appropriate ways operating within real language situations. each of which supplies some part of what they need to know. It is achieved successfully if the topics for speaking reflect real-life issues. Speaking is often integrated with the other language skills: listening.Teaching speaking II. express themselves. embarrassing situations. It is one of the most necessary language skills for displaying students‘ language proficiency.
in which. surprise. -your contribution must not contain more information than necessary b)The Maxim of Quality (truthfulness): Your contribution should be truthful. the two rules of the maxim being: -your contribution must contain as much information as necessary. -do not say what you think is false. for example the exchange of information is primary. Having in view that conversational exchanges are governed by what Grice5 called “Cooperative Principle”.-requesting information (about a person. event. people can generally assume that in conversation. success is now measured in terms of the acceptability of the forms which are used. do not assert what you cannot prove c)The Maxim of Relation -be relevant to the topic at hand d)The Maxim of Manner – concerns the modality in which things are said: 23 . the activities become student-directed activities. depression) -expressing agreement/disagreement. which are considered to have specific and clear purposes: -they provide “whole-task practice” -they improve motivation (the students‘ ultimate objective is to take part in communication) -they allow natural learning In fact. the teacher creates the situation and sets an activity in motion. In many of the communicative activities. speakers will not say more than is necessary to convey the information required. but it is the students themselves who are responsible for conducting the interaction. refusal -clearing up misunderstandings -contradicting -raising objections -justifying something -making comments A quick look at all these types of activities show us that they are communicative activities. object) -giving/offering information -formulating a wish /invitation/warning/advice -describing the facts -judging facts -adding information -expressing feelings (happiness. anger. which are based on the idea that students choose language which is not only functionally effective. students need to learn how to handle and obey the four conversational maxims: a)The Maxim of Quantity– refers to the quantity of information which should be offered. but also appropriate to the social situation they are in. success is measured according to whether they cope with the communicative demands of the immediate situation -social interaction activities . regret. there can be distinguished two types of communicative activities (Littlewood)4: -functional activities (there may a problem which students must solve or information which they may exchange) –the main purpose is that students use the language they know in order to get meanings as effectively as possible.
This is why. It is wrong for the teacher to jump on mistakes and discourage students‘ contribution. but classroom activity should concentrate on fluency rather than on accuracy. Both accuracy and fluency in speaking have to be developed.Goffman)6. the feedback signals they give. an inquiry look. the way they take the floor. this is why they should learn how to handle various registers. it should be encouraging. their tone of voice (serious. The use of language for informative purposes is the aspect of the spoken English that students most often have difficulty with. teacher can control speed and pronunciation) -do not talk simultaneously with the students. make students feel confident. rhythm and intonation. . the students. supportive and encouraging. but assign topics which encourage students to speak. make learners want to speak. must be understood as a natural and necessary step towards learning. a pause. sarcastic). an insistent correction should be replaced by a positive atmosphere and by encouragement -resort to variety in working with the class -use pair-work. as well as the distribution of their silence. The need to quickly plan and organize what they must say often results in an immediate drop in fluency and confidence. correction and activities. Michael Lewis and Jimmie Hill (Practical Techniques. the teacher must conduct their discussion -beware of setting an artificially high standard of correctness in the early stage. the choice of lexical and grammatical structures. they play out different roles that reveal a great deal about the social personae they are assigning to their interlocutors (E. The proper time for correction should be after the conversation ..-be perspicuous. l995) offer some techniques to be used by the teacher: -do not distort when offering a model -the model should be given with proper accent. mistakes made while speaking. and at proper speed -make use of choral pronunciation (choral work brings the class together and refocuses their attention on the teacher after some activity. To develop fluency teachers should generate a need to speak. the atmosphere. For Language Teaching. The teacher should not interfere too much. during which students have sufficient time to formulate their thoughts and decide what they want to say and how they could say. London. rather than interrupting it. as it is very efficient -do not be explain intonation but demonstrate it The students must be convinced of the need to communicate to each other. jesting. a smile. avoid ambiguity. be methodical Students should become conscious of the fact that as participants in verbal exchanges. Encouragement can take the form of a general question. Classroom atmosphere should be relaxed. There are several things which must be taken into consideration when we define a good speaking class: the teacher. speak briefly. Small errors may not be corrected while students are speaking. they need to be tolerant of each other. The teacher should exploit any opportunity for short spontaneous conversation and the features of natural conversation should be incorporated into classroom activity he should generate a need to speak.
one characteristic of the communicative activities in the classroom is to have a functional language. as a source of developing skill in speaking. What are you doing? Tom: I‘m giving the pencil to Mary. contradict each other. the teacher is the real key to the students‘ acquisition of this material. give answers.2. -understanding and answering questions 25 .student interaction (working in pairs or in groups.II. songs. Other characteristics could be also mentioned: -these activities involve student. Each stage of the lesson offers possibilities for teaching students everyday expressions: -organization of the class: Who‘s absent?/Who‘s on duty?/Why is he absent? -motivation and discipline: Attention please!/Stop talking!/Silence! -checking the homework: What‘s the correct tense?/ Are there any mistakes?/Have you got another solution? -at the blackboard: Go to the blackboard!/Use the sponge! -reading and speaking: Read in chorus!/ Say it again!/Will you repeat? -pictures: Look at the picture!/ What do you see in this picture? -at the end of the lesson: There‘s the bell!/Stand up! The texts contain the speech material which the students have to acquire within each form. riddles Exercises in speaking can be divided into two large categories: a)receptive exercises – based on listening to and comprehending the teacher‘s voice: -understanding and execution of certain commands. to ask questions. phrases and sentences -individual repetition -answering questions -asking questions -offering original sentences after given patterns -engaging in oral drill activities -engaging in a conversation -learning by heart poems. they are motivated to work). support and encourage each other.Classroom activities As we have already seen. give the pencil to Mary. Activities that contribute to the achievement of this task are: -choral repetition of words. The main sources available to develop the students‘ skill of speaking under school conditions are the interchange between teacher and students and the texts. process information and compare results. followed by the reproduction of what is being done: Teacher: Tom. interpret.2. student have different possibilities to exchange ideas. their talking time and activity time are maximised). -the activities are task-based (students are given a task which is to be achieved.
-short communications b)productive exercises – based on receptive work: -imitation of what has been heard -informal discussion and conversation -reaching a consensus – students have to agree with each other after a certain amount of discussion -dialogues and monologues -reporting speech -giving/having interviews -questions and answers -moral dilemmas - students are given a situation and alternative suggestions for acting in such situation; they are asked to reach a consensus on the issue; or, students are given a complex situation and are told to work out a means of survival -learning decisions - students establish together a correct answer/meaning/words or phrases -word guessing game -oral summary -book report -story-telling -creative retelling (a story retold from different points of view) -the debate/controversial topics /“in favour” or “against” exercise -giving instructions -poem/story reconstruction -describing things/processes -simple activities such as : Talk about yourself/ about your hobby/ your favourite movie star/ your favourite pop/rock singer -simulation and role-play - a decision-making activity where the participants, acting either as themselves or in different social roles, discuss a problem/a series of related problems within a defined setting; students simulate the real world in the classroom; the teacher may act either as a prompter or as a participant, helping students in difficulty -summary -the personal interview -comparing two or more things -expressing opinions about a certain topic Communicative games may include activities such as: -describe and draw – one student is given a picture which the other students cannot see; he has to describe the object in the picture and the others have to draw it, by listening to instructions -find the similarities/differences – in pairs/groups, students are given pictures; through discussion, they have to establish the similarities and differences between pictures.
All these activities provide a relaxed classroom environment; they offer students opportunities to practise most of the aspects of the language: structures, functions, vocabulary and interpersonal skills. Pair-work and group discussions are excellent means of increasing the students‘ involvement in the learning process, promote the skill of cohesion, and provide students opportunities to express their own feelings, needs, interests, attitudes, opinions. Supportive atmosphere is the key-word for such activities; students should encourage one another, should be tolerant with their fellows and not jump on mistakes.
II.3.Teaching reading II.3.1.Reading and its place in the context of teaching skills Reading is a receptive skill, which means more than applying decoding conventions and grammatical knowledge to the text. It represents an interactive process between what a reader already knows about a given topic and what the writer knows; it is an active skill as it involves a lot of guessing, predicting, checking and asking oneself questions. Reading must not be regarded as a passive activity; students must recognize sonorous models represented by graphical symbols, their combinations as units of language; they must recognize structural indices (of word classes, of persons, of tenses or category). Aukerman7 divided the process of reading into four major categories, talking about: -perceptual learning- the ability to progress in perceptually discriminating first of gross shapes, objects, people, places and then of finer shapes such as letters and words -associative learning – as contrasted to rote memorization – influenced by the students‘ intelligence, past experience, motivation (a student whose experiences are minimal will have little basis for the development of associative learning in reading) -cognitive learning – relating new experience to past experience and past learning; it involves comparing, being aware of similarities, differences, values and truths ; it is essential to learning to read -affective learning – it is learning triggered by emotions; in reading, this takes place when the reader‘s emotions (joy, delight, excitement, fury, disgust, envy) are aroused by the printed word The reading passages activate the students‘ mental structures; develop their capacity for inference, anticipation, deduction, analysis and synthesis; stimulate their capacity for appreciation and critical thinking by discussion and reflection on the text; raise awareness of language use; foster confidence in reading and interpreting texts. They also develop in students some micro-skills in reading comprehension: -discrimination among orthographic patterns -recognition of words at sight -distinction between the main idea and the specific information -understanding implied information and attitudes
-understanding layout and use of headings -recognition of grammatical word classes (nouns, adjectives, verbs) -recognition of systems (tenses, agreement between subject and predicate, sequence of tenses) -recognition of the communicative functions of the written text -deduction of causes and effects -distinction between the literal and implied meaning -development of reading strategies -development of skills in reading silently and orally -knowledge about how to use an index, a table of contents, a dictionary -development of such skills as predicting, recognizing discourse markers. The reading skill is closely related to all the other language skills and it also serves as a means of introducing and practising the components of language: articulatory skills, intonations, vocabulary and grammatical structures. There are several types of reading grouped in opposites: oral/mental; individual/chorus; prepared/unprepared; controlled/independent; intensive/extensive. Intensive reading is related to acquiring competence under the teacher‘s guidance; it is an accurate type of reading, during which we often take notes, highlight the important parts, identify details; the activities focus on comprehension. In such activity, the students focus on the linguistic or semantic details of a passage. The texts fit to develop such reading are: letters, postcards, telegrams, notices, recipes, weather forecasts, instructions, directions, rules and regulations, labels, menus, tickets, price lists, diagrams, charts, maps, time-tables, essays, reviews, questionnaires, reports (especially functional texts). Extensive reading has as its main purpose the direct and fluent reading for pleasure; its activities focus on students‘ response to texts. For extensive reading, the following types of texts are generally used: diary pages, extracts from novels, tales, stories, newspaper and magazine articles, biographical and autobiographical passages, jokes, poems, comic strips (especially artistic texts). The first step in teaching reading in a foreign language is to make students aware of what they do when they read efficiently in their own language. The second step is to give them guidance and practice, help them recognize and respond appropriately to the type of text in front of them by adopting a suitable attitude and suitable tactics. The overall purpose in teaching reading is to develop in students the attitudes, abilities and skills needed for obtaining information, developing interests and finally driving pleasure by reading through understanding. Students must develop reading skills that lead to a thorough understanding of the text without using translation in their mother tongue. This process must be slow, gradual and continuous. Reading is not recommended with beginners without the help of the teacher. Reading must not be delayed too long as students are tempted to take notes of what they seem to hear. The texts used for reading must contain the orally studied material and symbols will continuously be associated with oral version.
The teacher pre-teaches a few new key-words related to the topic and writes them on the blackboard in sentences. do not completely eliminate moving their lips or saying the words sub-vocally or mentally II.implies the imitation of the examples set by the teacher or the tape. the students read in class first silently and then aloud. There are also some factors which may hinder reading in a foreign language and teachers must be aware of them and always take them into account: -the eye movement – a good reader is considered the one who makes fewer eye movements (take in several words at a time. matching pictures to paragraphs.2. brainstorming.At first. carefully chosen. together with accent and intonation. is especially useful with beginners -semi-independent reading – implies work of the students with the help of the teacher. the most important thing is comprehension The way of actually reading the text involves four tactics/strategies: a)skimming. moving their eyes back to check previous words) -reading habits in the mother tongue .running the eyes very quickly over the text in order to get a general impression of its character and content. reading permits the introduction of some writing exercises. while reading. Elicitation. guiding questions. individually. it can be both choral or individual. The biggest problem in acquiring reading habits is to prevent the students from assigning Romanian values to familiar letters.3.reading the text very quickly in order to locate the information we need c)sequential . listening to a passage on a related topic.some students may not be efficient even when reading in their own language -faulty reading habits – some reader. A task can be also assigned to be done as they are reading. Such tasks can include: filling in a chart. to stimulate students‘ interest and encourage them to read more. perhaps based on visuals are effective techniques. Once introduced. finding out specific words. the model reading is not considered important.Classroom activities The three stages in the reading lesson are: a)Pre-reading The main aims of this stage are: to introduce students to the topic of the text they are about to read. b)While-reading Reading activities can be of three types: -conscious imitative reading. answering true/false questions. has ability in noticing sense units – Nuttall8 do not make regressive eye movement. to activate their background knowledge about the topic and the vocabulary related to it. students will read and repeat after a reading model and they will correlate correct pronunciation with printed sound-symbol combinations.reading the text from the beginning up to its end 29 . thy may also get some texts to read at home and then read them in the class aloud during the next lesson -independent reading – used with advanced students. etc. to get its main idea/the gist b)scanning .
humorous. lexical linkers – repetitions. to impart information) -the attitude of the author (subjective/objective. types of images. indifferent/involved. newspaper article. details. argumentative. specific information. advertisement) -the theme of the text -types of relationships within the text (cause and effect. Students also need to get used to visualizing more than one word at a time and inferring meaning through context. to persuade. pessimistic. ironic. pronominal references. deduced meaning. they have to extract meta-content information. comparison and contrast. narrative. optimistic) -the tone of the writer (monotonous. reflective. poem.d)focusing . allegorical) -the genre (novel. synonyms. showing reinforcement: again and again/ also/ above all. enthusiastic) -the rhetorical devices (cohesive devices.intensive reading of the part of the text of special interest Oral reading is fit for beginners.) -the discourse markers in the text (enumerative: firstly/ secondly/ in the end. the intermediate and advanced students must use efficient silent reading techniques for rapid comprehension. Students should also be encouraged to guess meanings. showing similarity: similarly/ likewise. showing transition: now/ by the way. explanatory. the main idea/general meaning. facts and opinions) -the intention of the author (if he wants to shock. to warn. c)Post-reading Students are expected to extract from the text both its literal and implied meaning: the surface information. optimistic. illustrative: for instance/ for example. contrastive: on the contrary/ by contrast) They also have to find evidence in the text to support their answers and to give personal response to the text. Besides this text-content information. information relationships not especially stated in the text. stylistic devices – metaphors. Silent reading can be intensive and extensive. confident/detached) -the point of view -the setting -the characters -the atmosphere of the extract (gloomy. including: -the type of text (descriptive. etc. personification. to amuse. consequences of actions. hopeful. Comprehension can be checked in various ways: -asking students to answer definite questions beginning with “who/ what/ when/ where/ why” -asking students to answer to true/false questions -multiple-choice exercises -asking students to give responses based on their personal experience and opinions -asking students to respond physically to a command .
secondly. Emphasis should be given to the specific communicative purposes of writing. There has been also noticed a shift from the traditional product-oriented approach to a process-oriented one during the last decades. they should be trained to develop their strategies of prewriting.Teaching Writing II. drafting and rewriting. as a language problem – a problem of assembling words to form grammatical sentences. writing activities should be designed to reinforce listening. The main aim should be to develop students‘ ability to convey information 31 . a way of learning.-asking students to extend/provide an ending to a story As post-reading activities there can be also mentioned: -asking them to follow specific directions (“find the words which show/describe/tell”) -asking them to indicate sequence of ideas by rearranging sentence -numbering sentences in the order they appear in reading -activities based on charts -dramatized dialogues -eliciting a summary of the entire passage -rewriting the story and changing the dialogue into indirect discourse -selecting key sentences which illustrate certain characteristics of the ideas -finding synonyms and antonyms of the new words -finding other stories on the same theme -completing sentences -making use of the new words and sentences in original sentences -a game. speaking and reading abilities and give practice in the structural and lexical items which have been introduced. More recent mehodologists stress on the idea that in teaching a foreign language. as a rhetorical problem – a problem of teaching students to organize words and patterns so as to fulfil a given rhetorical aim.4. Spelling principles have to be introduced gradually. Traditional views of writing in English teaching methodology considered writing as a means rather than as purpose for communication.1. Students should be directed to understand their composing process. as well as communicating. Writing is no longer understood as a product (essay. report. Writing forces the learner to focus carefully on the language and be precise and attentive to details such as punctuation and spelling. So. process is the means to the end.Writing and its place in the context of teaching skills Writing is a productive skill. story) but it is seen as a process that can be taught.4. importance should be given to all four skills. The process should be viewed in two lights: firstly. practised intensively and examples of them given whenever possible. There must be in fact a balance between process and product. the product is the ultimate goal. to practise vocabulary -illustrating favourite events by drama or drawing -engaging in a conversation that indicates appropriate processing of information II.
through linking and developing ideas and arguments in whole pieces of written discourse. They go from a very controlled activity up to a free one. The stages of the lesson include: a)Pre-writing – has the role to stimulate and motivate students to generate materials to write on. Summarizing.silent reading or extensive reading generate ideas for writing .4.orally presenting two sides of an argument/topic -cubing . usual activities include: -oral group brainstorming .2. associate it.the use of leading questions to get students think about a topic or idea -discussing a topic or question -debating .beginning with a key word. by exercises. using paraphrasing and synonyms Students should be encouraged to go through the process of selecting. it is a structural experience that influences active student participation in thinking. planning and organizing and revising their work systematically. students need to develop two types of micro-skills in writing: a)mechanical skills: -correct spelling -appropriate vocabulary -knowledge of grammar (express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms) -knowledge of punctuation -knowledge of formats (letter format. then adding other words.Classroom activities The skill of correct writing is mainly attained by practice.a quick consideration of the subject from six points of view: describe it. paragraph and whole text structure as well as their awareness of sentence linkers and discourse markers. using free association -reading .) -correct choice of register and style appropriate to the task and b)composition skills: -to choose an appropriate layout -to achieve a high degree of accuracy (to avoid ambiguity) -to use linkers (in order to achieve cohesion : However/In addition/First…/Finally) -to get coherence of the text (paragraphing. writing and working on the topic under focus. analyse it. II. to raise their awareness of sentence. apply it. introductions and conclusions) -to use creativity and imagination -to develop writing strategies: using prewriting devices. to develop accuracy and fluency in writing. etc. talking. compare it. memos. argue for/against it -clustering .
can be quite mechanically done. it is a type of controlled writing that combines text dictation and text reconstruction. to write only certain parts of the sentence. thus providing a mood which makes students want to write -looping . but it also demands careful listening and the retention of the material read aloud. Dicto-comp is a form of controlled writing. then the students answer the teacher‘s questions in order to repeat the vocabulary or enrich it with new items -written exercises – comprise structural exercises in relation to the chosen subject. to mark certain grammatical forms. This type of exercise is often boring and uninteresting for learners because it is a completely mechanical one. The technique of a controlled/guided composition includes: -asking the students to tell a given text by the help of main ideas indicating the beginning of sentence just to avoid the repetition of “and” -oral practice – that begins with the choice of the title. Another type of exercise is dictation. This means to give the students a short text as a model. thus. the teacher first reads the whole text and the students listen. to copy an exercise and change the subject. do some oral preparation for writing (with the whole class. dictation can be: auditive and visual. a phrase or a sentence on the blackboard and analyses it. once finished. then. but sometimes.-group discussion . It requires students to write. to change the tense of the verbs or to combine 33 . The visual dictation consists in the teacher writing a word. Copying can be simple (word for word) or tasked (to underline letters or groups of letters which represent a sound. Once the students acquired basic skills of sentence writing.require students to make a voyage into a fantasy world. Dicto-comp is a technique for practising composition. it makes learners concentrate. Besides listening. he cleans the blackboard and the students write the unit from memory.students are guided to generate ideas about the topic -meditating/mind transportation . students giving suggestions. correcting the possible mistakes. the exercise involves the students‘ ability to summarize. introduced from the initial stage is copying.non-stop writing on anything that comes to one‘s mind on a particular topic. According to the way it is carried out. expressions which are used by students as a basis for writing). This exercise represents an intensive activity. to elaborate and use English in a particular context. etc). ideas or bits of ideas for the proper writing stage are generated b)While-writing The most elementary type of exercise in spelling. the teacher builds an outline or a list of key expressions on the board. In the case of auditive dictation. while the students look over their writing. the teacher puts key words on the blackboard and the students write out what they remember from the passage using the words on the blackboard. it helps developing listening as well as writing. The technique is the following: the teacher reads a passage to the class. students have to complete sentences. The transition can be done by “guided writing”(Doff)9. the students listen carefully. they can progress beyond very controlled writing to free paragraph writing. the teacher reads the text for the third time. the teacher reads again sentence by sentence and the students write. without real comprehension.
Paraphrasing implies certain transformations in the text: .getting ideas together (by help of mind-maps. which is very much used in schools now is essay writing.sentences using conjunctions -vocabulary study – the teacher teaches students the correct use of vocabulary -student writing.the student starts to write the composition -simple paragraph writing – the students are offered a paragraph as a model for their own Paragraph writing can include: paragraph about a favourite subject/season/. it can be used to express perceptions. like their first language. the second language is creative. This exercise may use either open questions which invite students to relate some experience of their own to similar experience in the story they have read. It means working on someone else‘s piece of writing. Paraphrasing is an aid to writing. changing the name of the characters -the teacher may ask students about an experience they have had or answer a series of sequential questions on a story they have read in class. Beginning composition work may be developed in different ways: -the teacher gives a list of words within one social or cultural situation and asks the students to use them in short dialogues. pictures information is collected. discussions. an exercise which requires students to give response to the story as a whole or to focus their attention only on one particular aspect of it: its meaning.this means finding the topic for each paragraph -organizing the paragraphs (depending on the type of essay) -planning the essay (a plan of the essay with the ordered paragraphs and an introduction and conclusion) -writing the essay (sometimes this process may include writing of first/second draft before writing the final essay) Complete essay writing can be preceded by essay questions. the students may be asked to write a summary. paragraphs or letters -the teacher may give the students a model of a short composition which is read and discussed and then they are asked to write a similar one. From the very beginning the students become aware that. the setting. imagination. or critical questions which invite students give their personal comments on the theme. the structure of the plot. character or certain issues about those in the text they have read. students discuss the main ideas and support details) -grouping the ideas into units with common themes . An exercise in free writing. paragraph about a city/town/place. The first model paraphrase should be thoroughly discussed in class. Free writing has advantages. the source is personal experience. he should dictate and discuss the text. varied and personal. realities and points of view. a narrative paragraph. The stages for writing an essay are: -brainstorming . The teacher should know how to introduce paraphrasing to students. the type of character. etc. etc. reading.
to their favourite pop stars or film actors. -autobiographical writing -profile of a person -newspaper/magazine articles -rules for a game or sport -filling in an application form for a job -argumentative essay -e-mail/fax messages 35 . clothing. contrasting opinion paragraph. and will help them prepare for comprehension and discussion questions ) -writing reports (book/film/play /interview report) -writing advertisements (to advertise food.based on a model and then personalized -giving directions – students write down directions which other students have to follow -writing commands – students write each other messages which contain commands -writing broadcasts – students write items for news broadcasts which they organize for “transmission” -the tourist brochure – students can be asked to write together a brochure about the place they live in. people and processes -writing postcards -writing recipes -opinion paragraphs. students may invent a fairy story -story reconstruction – students are shown pictures from a story sequence and are asked to write sentences about them. reconstructing the story -warnings or notices -list of advice for keeping fit -resolutions for the future -instructions for using different objects -descriptions of places. books. formal and informal letters. with their specific layout -summary of a song/poem or novel (used especially for lower-intermediate students. are studying in or are about to visit -letter writing – to their friends in the country and abroad. or active by passive -long sentences can be split into short ones -short sentences can be linked to form long ones Other written communicative activities may include: -substitution exercises .in groups. places) -writing journals or diary pages -fairy tale writing .-subordinate clauses are replaced by gerund constructions -passive voice is replaced by active voice.
posters. It means any work on a specific subject which has a concrete result a product: charts. level of formality. an activity which might help bridge the gap between the classroom (language study) and real-life situations (language use in formal or informal situations). encourages their spontaneous expression. letters. both effectively and affectively. It helps students attain communicative competence (something that recent approaches to language learning and teaching emphasize). Pair and group work allow students to use the language in a practical way. etc. it provides solution to the problem of students‘ autonomy. maps. it represents an opportunity for personal involvement. Its main characteristics are that students have a task to complete and have the option of completing the task in a variety of ways.3.paragraphed text that can be studied and broken into 2-3 paragraphs -training in order to distinguish between different registers an d styles. albums. c)Post writing activities It is a revising stage which besides drafting represents the core of the process of writing. a piece of written work: -length -correct grammar -originality of ideas -range of vocabulary used -range and complexity of structures used -appropriateness of style -spelling -handwriting -punctuation -organization of ideas -relevance to the title II.Developing project work in the English classes Project work is rather a practical than theoretical means of teaching English. which is nothing but a step towards discovering and . helps students use English both orally and in writing. The idea is to improve without discouraging . modes of address and use of lexical items Feedback is necessary after each new step in writing. teaching them to cope and take initiative by themselves. Most of the new textbooks offer much project work. mainly in group work. articles.4. The following is a list of some of the factors which may be considered in grading. This activity allows students to be responsible for their own learning and encourages co-operation. One way of giving feedback is to involve the students in the process of evaluating their own work.-letter of reference Steps to improve writing include: -constant and systematic use of reading material to introduce the main rhetorical features of English -use of written exercises that require the students to connect sentences by means of the proper linking devices -rearrangement of scrambled sentences into a proper paragraph -use of a non.
agreeing.analysis and self-knowledge. establish the deadline for the project work -production stage – implies brainstorming and creativity: the output of the project lesson (the teacher offers help) -presentation stage -evaluation Project work can be short-term (completed in one or two lessons) or long-term (taking a large part of the semester or the year) 37 . important events. songs. holiday camp -drawing posters -advertising singers/musical groups -designing albums -looking into areas of the life of the English people: the press. there are: -planning a holiday/a trip -planning and setting up an English event (a party. homes and gardens. establish the linguistic support the students might need. establish the objectives. opportunities to reinforce the material previously studied. Among the most common projects students can be asked to do. etc. increase of student-student communication (social interaction occurs). poems. fashion. stimulus towards self. Each project work generally consists of three stages: -a setting up stage – students are given input of factual or non-factual information to read. a festival) -magazine writing – including the most important news of the school.learning team spirit and team work. New Year or Valentine‘s Day -preparing a menu for birthdays or other important events -making list of things for their holiday trip. riddles. disagreeing with each other. affective learning is increased. new books. jokes -interviews on different topics -a tourist guidebook of the town where the students live -a tourist itinerary -designing cards for Christmas.life situations. the sources of information that can be used. information on sports. The group work gives students opportunity to participate actively in discussions. discuss and process. a coordinator the one who evaluates and checks the language used in the activity at the same time). to member of the group (becomes a participant. contradicting or pleading for something. share opinions. simulating real. Among the most obvious advantages of such activity there could be mentioned: variety to the range of learning situations. change of the role of the teacher from formal instructor and imparter of information. think over. music.
TEACHING VOCABULARY Aims: 1)to teach trainees how to select the vocabulary to be taught 2)to offer trainees different techniques and procedures of introducing and explaining the meaning of new vocabulary items 3)to offer trainees guidance in devising exercises/activities meant to consolidate (new) vocabulary items Objectives 1)the trainees will be able to introduce and explain the meaning of new vocabulary items 2) trainees will be able to handle procedures for reinforcing vocabulary items Contents III. a completed product.Teaching pronunciation Task . critical sense.Classroom activities III. etc.Teaching vocabulary in the context of language teaching III.3.post listening activities to teach a listening lesson? 3)What makes listening comprehension successful? 4)What are five possible ways to motivate students to read English and to enjoy reading ? 5)What are the main reasons for doing a pre-reading activity? 6)List five solutions a teacher must have at hand in order to get efficient communicative classes. the teacher should evaluate the entire process: the activities and tasks the students perform. attitude.2. a report. The results of the project work can be presented in different ways: a poster. responsibility and group interaction. the working methods.while. Task Answer the questions: 1)How does pre-listening help learners understand better? 2)What advantages and disadvantages are there for teachers and learners of using the model pre. III..1.Evaluation is a necessary component. a radio programme.
Teaching a word means several things: teaching its form/shape/spelling. teaching that form and meaning go together. suggestions which surround the word -the appropriate grammatical forms -the style – formal/informal -the transfer of meaning -the lexical sets . Teaching vocabulary in the context of language teaching Vocabulary represents the potentially infinite number of words existing in a language. the emotional overtones the speaker usually associates with each individual use of words. Decoding the meaning means attention given to the context (the entire non-verbal environment which is linguistically relevant for communication purposes) and the co-text (the linguistic environment proper. implying the possibility to be understood in the process of linguistic communication. the word use.if the word relates to other words within a common topic/ situation/ theme -the relations of synonymy/antonymy/homonymy/hyponymy -collocations – in what way it can combine with other words -idioms 39 . it conveys the informational load carried by a word and is neutral as far as the attitude of the speaker is concerned -connotations – “the subjective. “Knowing a word –as Jeremy Harmer explains – means knowing the meaning. So.III. The recent accent on functionality and communication in language learning and teaching (words understood as vehicles for relaying information and ideas. teaching its meaning. acquisition of vocabulary has become as important as the acquisition of grammar. Thus. for communication) made linguists and methodologists turn their attention to vocabulary and stress its importance in language teaching. personal and emotive <extra-meaning> of a word”13. the items in the text which play a role in specifying the meaning of a given lexical item) in which the word is used. but which they do not use. knowing a word means in fact being aware of the following features: -the correct pronunciation and spelling -the denotative meaning – “the objective. this is why the study of vocabulary cannot be separated from the study of phonetics and grammar. the word information and the word grammar”11. that the meaning can be changed. It usually divided into active vocabulary (vocabulary for productive use) – including the words which students have been taught /the students have learned. implications. Students should know that one word has usually more than one meaning. the field of associations. the nucleus of a word. the cognitive or communicative aspect of meaning.1. can recognize whenever they meet them. and which they use. or are expected to use – and passive vocabulary (vocabulary for “receptive” recognition)10 – including words which students know. impersonal and intellective meaning of a word”12 . the meaning which has been fixed in the language of the whole people. stretched or limited by how it is used. teaching its pronunciation.
hot. words that are somehow related. to reinforce the learning process and fix the new vocabulary firmly in the minds of the students. ape. during the proper work with the text under study or during the students‘ individual work with the dictionary. their previous language experience. it is the teacher‘s responsibility to provide a variety of activities that will keep the students interested and will help them understand. to ensure its proper usage. paint work III. warm. this means it is better to teach students lexical sets.2. chair. join together in groups.oriented (using contextual clues. using knowledge of cognates) or discourse-oriented. called lexical sets. painting. This implies ostensive ways of teaching: -demonstration. students should be exposed to different kinds of contexts in which a word may be used. association and integration of the new material with the one which has already been learned). in which words are related in several ways: -by topic: animals. cold. freezing -by super-ordinates and hyponyms: furniture: bed. the main approaches to teaching vocabulary are : system-oriented. students have to work with them actively. family relationships. to learn new words. transfer effects and learning strategies are among the factors which affect their abilities to learn new vocabulary. When the new vocabulary is introduced during the introductory conversation. There are several possibilities of introducing the new vocabulary into the lesson: during the introductory conversation.The students‘ native language. topic-oriented. table. strategic. The teacher utters a sentence related to the text and explains the new word by means of a technique of word interpretation.Classroom activities Generally speaking. cool. in a familiar grammatical structure. jobs -by similarity of meaning: monkey. the teacher should also provide frequent repetition. old/new -in a series or a scale: boiling. gorilla -in pairs – synonyms: journey/trip. In teaching vocabulary the following considerations are highly important: the students must be interested and must make an effort to understand. the teacher has the role of selecting those words which should be acquired by students in an active manner. using knowledge of related forms.by showing an object or a cutout figure. Research into memory has proved that people do not store words in their brain in alphabetical order. armchair -by activity or process: steps in making a coffee or building a house -word families: paint. learning of words should be meaningful (words should be learned through comprehension. painter. regularly and systematically. . each uttered sentence should include only one word with a definite meaning in the given context. analysing internal structure. which needs to be simple and natural. margin/edge -in pairs – opposites: hot/cold.
so that the appropriate meaning of the word should be looked up in the end. Dictionaries are important tools in most vocabulary-building exercises and activities. phrasal verbs -the use of affixes to construct new words -the use of translation Introducing new vocabulary during the students‘ work with the dictionary is a good exercise especially beginning with the third year of study. by putting the word into a defining context. using familiar or famous names words (well-known words from song titles. trace it back to its root form. giving the definition. giving examples. or sentences or pictures). using songs. in order to grasp the meaning of the whole sentence. read the word again in the context.by gestures or by performing an action -using explanations – by description. it is a step forward in training students to work independently. the text is read and students are asked to relate what they have understood. matching (students match words to words. resorting to the semantic field the word belongs to -translation Other techniques of presentation and discovery might include: word-building (use parts of words to help students build new words or guess their meaning). by paraphrasing or by translating. books or people). tape recorder. cassette recorder -miming . illustrations from magazines or newspapers -using pictograms – the teacher draws the word to represent its meaning -using flash-cards. because it offers 41 . The new words can be also introduced during the work with the text. The new words are introduced in different possible ways: -guessing from the context – interpretation by means of contextual inference from meaningful sentences. Students need to be trained to isolate the unknown word. in which students understand almost all words. except the one in question -the definition of the new word by other words in the foreign language -word analysis technique – from a known stem to a new word -the use of synonyms or opposites -substitution -matching words with their definitions –students are asked to find words in the text after having read their definitions -word lists – students list words under appropriate headings -word charts – students are asked to bring to mind what certain words can be associated with detailed descriptions – students connect the words in column A and B to make sentences connected with a certain topic -word webs – words are topic-related -finding out differences between related words -identification of false friends -work with collocations. OHP. A monolingual dictionary is the best to be used. by giving synonyms or opposites for the words students already know. Textbooks are open. blackboard drawings.-using realia – different objects brought into the classroom -using pictures – using photographs. handouts.
spelling word formation metaphorical and idiomatic use. Exercises in teaching vocabulary are of three types: 1)exercises of understanding vocabulary – based on the teacher‘s explanation 2)exercises of recognition: -copying the text and underlying the new words -analysis of the word or lexical unit as to form: root. homonyms. Any learner with a goal for learning English for communicative purposes needs to learn the rhythm and intonation of English. it also helps learners with the spelling system of English. affixes -analysis of word according to semantic peculiarities: synonyms. antonyms -picking up words from the text and then grouping them according to different criteria 3)exercises of use: -filling in the blanks with new words -substitution of drills and known structures -answering questions -translations from Romanian into English -retelling -description of pictures -composition on a given topic previously prepared -questions referring to the text under study -classification of words according to certain topic -correction of statements not true to facts -completion of certain unfinished sentences -replacement of certain words by others making all the other necessary changes -rearrangement f words in the correct order -crossword puzzles -games III. Pronunciation can convey grammatical information (rhythm and intonation can perform grammatical functions) and a lack of knowledge in pronunciation can easily affect reading.information about pronunciation.Teaching pronunciation Pronunciation is an integral part of language learning. Teaching pronunciation goes hand in hand with teaching vocabulary. it is not only important for oral communication. Yet. Some methodological considerations must be observed: -the teaching of pronunciation should start in the early stages of the language course -the teacher should be consistent in correcting the errors -the correction should be done on the spot -the teacher should stimulate the students to notice the mistakes made by their classmates and ask them to offer the correct forms -the teacher‘s explanations concerning pronunciation should be illustrated by many examples and exercises . The ability of students to use a dictionary should be practised in the classroom. stem.3. Learning about pronunciation develops learners‘ abilities to comprehend the spoken language. it is closely connected with the other aspects of language use.
TEACHING GRAMMAR Aims 1)to help trainees understand the importance grammar plays in the context of language teaching 2)to help trainees identify different methods and techniques appropriate to grammar teaching 3)to give trainees hints regarding the types of exercises and other different activities which ensure much practice in grammar Objectives 1)the trainees will be the trainees will become aware and show understanding of the use of different techniques in teaching grammar 2)the trainees will become confident in their ability of choosing and devising the best types of exercises in grammar Contents IV. Teachers should not make an extensive use of the last two ways. The use of audio-visual aids.-the teacher must avoid to repeat the students‘ errors in the form of question of reproach -the teacher is not allowed to make fun of the mistakes -classroom atmosphere should be relaxed -much attention should be given to intonation and stress -the first lessons are of great importance. Comparison is used especially when the students confuse two sounds which are similar.1. radio or TV together with many exercises of recognition and production ensure the learning and mastering of correct pronunciation. articulatory description and comparison. without asking the students to imitate the correct pronunciation of sounds. Task Make a list of ten elements which constitute for you an effective presentation of new vocabulary. IV. there are three ways in teaching pronunciation: imitation. Pronunciation practice should not include only sounds. tapes.Grammar in the context of teaching English IV. Articulatory description is made use of especially when the students find it difficult to pronounce a sound (usually because this does not exist in their mother tongue). cassettes. it is the stage where correct pronunciation should be acquired Generally.2. but also sentences.Classroom activities Task 43 . clusters and words.
IV. Grammar is the way a language manipulates and combines words or bits of words in order to form longer units of meaning. -any grammatical item must not be explained before the analysis of the text under study -in teaching any problem of grammar. It means that students have to be aware of language and how it is used. it also involves being able to supply these items when they are missing. charts. or being able to do without them. It is a system of rules governing the conventional arrangement and relationship of words in a sentence. schemes. It is a systematization and codification of a bulk of data which thus become relevant. it is expected to form new habits in the correct use of the foreign language -the students should use the language and not talk about it -grammatical explanations given to the students should be brief and to the point. -grammar teaching should avoid excess of abstract theory. it is necessary to establish the connection with the chapters previously learned by students -it is important to establish connections between grammar and phonetics. What does teaching of grammar involve? Our aim in teaching grammar should be to ensure that students are communicatively efficient with the grammar they have at their level. vocabulary and oral expression -teaching of grammar should be very natural -the study of grammar should be turned into an interesting and attractive activity in the classroom -the teacher should make use of tables. One is said to know a foreign language when one‘s competence (knowledge of the grammar that determines an intrinsec connection of sound and meaning for each sentence) is like that of a native speaker. Some methodological considerations include: -grammar should never be taught and learned for its sake. Language awareness is also very important. The ability to handle new sentences is evidence of knowing the rules that are needed to generate them. -the problems beyond the students‘ power of assimilation should not be theoretically learned. spelling.1. from proximate to more distant -the students‘ interest must be kept alive during the whole lesson. from the simple to the complex. Grammar in the context of teaching English Anyone using a language must use its grammar. Knowing a language involves knowing the items that make up that language. offer their own examples -most of the time devoted to the study of grammar should be spent on the practical application of theoretical knowledge -learning is from known to the unknown. drawings and other auxiliary materials -students must be encouraged to speak. so that they are using the language as much as possible -any classroom activity should be introduced by means of some brief comments . this means the lesson must be dynamic -students must learn through performing tasks or group activities. as well as the ability to produce an infinite number of sentences in response to an infinite number of stimuli. but as structures to be learned by heart -grammar should always be dealt with in relation to the text under study.
The choice of the method to be used is not a simple problem, if we have in view the fact that each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. So, The Grammar Translation method stressed upon the fact that the students have to learn words and grammatical rules and construct sentences based on rules; rules were memorized in a strict traditional order, related to different parts of speech. The text was the starting point and grammar came after it. The drawback of the method consisted in the fact that it stressed the role of the mother tongue and in its incapability of understanding that phrases and idioms could not be learned according to rules and lists. On the contrary, the Direct Method eliminated completely the mother tongue, considering that the patterns of the first language influence the acquisition of the second one. The advantage of the method consisted in the fact that it replaced the learning of isolated words and endless grammatical rules and definitions with the learning of sentences, phrases and idioms, developing the students‘ power of analysis and synthesis. The students were given coherent texts, and not unconnected sentences to prove and illustrate certain grammatical rule. The teaching of grammar is considered secondly and achieved by practice. The Audio-Visual Approach, as well the Audio-Lingual Approach stressed upon the structures that are drilled. The study of grammar is not a waste of time and students are introduced to language. Repetition of structures leads to fluency and correct usage in speaking a foreign language. Once the students are sure of the structure, they use it willingly and unhesitatingly, their language becoming disciplined. They become aware of their mistakes and are able to correct them. The advantage of the Cognitive Code Approach is that it stressed upon understanding of structures; their understanding precede their use and drill. In developing language ability, the teacher proceeds from competence to performance. The learner must know the system, the rules of the language, before being asked to apply them. The Grammar Explanation Method involves a systematic attempt to provide students with conscious knowledge of the rules. It finds a justification for this: some items appear to be taught more efficiently if we appeal to the students‘ power of reasoning rather than depend exclusively on pattern practice or memorization. The Functional Approach does not deny the importance of mastering the grammatical system of the language. Grammatical form is taught, not as an end in itself, but as means of carrying out communicative intention. This approach is often lost in the concentration on grammatical form. Students often master form without ever mastering how the form is used to perform a communicative act. It is a student-centered approach to language learning. The students are given the opportunity to discover the answers for themselves, in groups, in pairs or individually. At the same time we must have in view that grammar gives us the form or the structures of a language, but these forms are literally meaningless without a second dimension, that of meaning/semantics, and a third dimension, pragmatics. So, grammar tells us how to construct a sentence (word order, verb and noun systems, modifiers, phrases, clauses); semantics tells us about the meaning of words and pragmatics tells us which of several meanings to assign in a given context. The experience of the last decades which is strictly connected with communicative teaching considers that grammatical techniques should be embedded into general
language courses, rather than treating grammar as a separate “skill”. IV.2.Classroom activities Communicative teaching has demonstrated the fact that appropriate grammar focusing techniques have the following characteristics: a)are embedded in meaningful, communicative contexts b)contribute passively to communicative goals c)promote accuracy within fluent, communicative language d)do not overwhelm students with linguistic terminology e)are as lively and motivating as possible There are two ways that lead to the understanding of the phenomena of grammar; induction and deduction. The inductive approach offers various language forms to be practised and lets the learner discover/induce rules and generalizations on their own. Induction helps students to develop their own judgement; the rule or definition is arrived at little by little. It has some advantages: addresses learning-style needs of students who work better using an inductive approach; it is in keeping with natural language acquisition; it serves as a pre-test to identify what students already know and what they need to practise and gets students more actively involved in the learning process. Besides this, the method adds variety to the classroom routine, teaches students to be more independent learners, demonstrates to them that they do not need the teacher for all the answers. It also teaches them a new learning strategy and builds more intrinsec motivation Induction is not sufficient; it must be followed by deduction, that is the rule must be applied in examples, must be practised. So, we must choose the example which seems to be the most suitable and write it on the blackboard; this becomes the “attention pointer”, that calls the students‘ attention to the problem. A good example must illustrate and confirm the structure unambiguously and must have a familiar and simple vocabulary. There are four stages to be followed or, as Penny Ur defines them – four stages in the organization of grammar teaching, that represent a general framework into which a variety of teaching techniques will fit. In Grammar Practice Activities, Penny Ur identifies these stages as being: presentation, isolation and exemplification, practice and test. The aim of presentation is to get the students to perceive the structure, its form and meaning in both speech and writing and to take it into short-term memory. When the structure is a very simple, easily perceived one, the presentation text may be no more than a sample sentence or two, which serve as a model for immediate practice. In such a case, the teacher gives the model of utterance for each pattern with the appropriate intonation, stress and rhythm and the students repeat it. Some of the grammar presentation techniques might include: -using a song/poem text - the teacher finds a song/poem which contains –let`s say – a lot of present continuous examples, the teacher makes a worksheet where some of the verbs are in brackets; as the students listen to the song/poem, they try to fill in the gaps; the teacher then asks questions concerning the way in which the tense was formed, the
adverbs accompanying it, and so on -using a time line - the teacher draws a time line on the blackboard and points to the place the particular tense occupies on it -using a picture - to introduce Present Tense continuous, for example, the teacher shows students a picture representing people doing several things; the teacher makes a statement pointing to one person in the picture and then asks students to do the same for all the other examples -using realia - in order to practice Present Perfect, the teacher puts some objects on the teacher`s desk and asks the students to close their eyes; the teacher removes one of the objects and when the students open their eyes he asks: What have I taken? He helps students formulate the answer: You have taken…; the examples are written on the blackboard and then commented upon -personalising - the teacher asks one student to go to the blackboard and while this one is performing the activity, he says: Look, Tom is going to the blackboard. What exactly is he doing? The students answer, using the model; the teacher then asks another student to perform another action, and repeats the procedure -explaining directly -comparing L-1 and L-2 -eliciting - in order to teach present Perfect, for example, the teacher tells the class what he has done this morning: I have had breakfast; I have left the house at 8; I have taken a bus to come to school; he writes on the blackboard: What have I done this morning? And asks individual students to answer the question, thus eliciting the answers from them; correction of wrong forms are corrected gently; he then offers the necessary explanations concerning the tense The objective of the second step– isolation and exemplification- is that students should understand the various aspects of the structure. We move away from the context now and focus on the grammatical items themselves: their meaning, their function, the rules that govern them. By a careful process of questions and answers, inductively, the teacher helps the students to observe and make the necessary generalisations. Sometimes, in some classes we may make extensive use of the students‘ native language. They are asked to concentrate on the comparison with their native language pattern. Where the structure is very simple or very close to a parallel in the native language, or when the students tend to learn the language inductively rather than intellectually, this step may take only a few minutes. It is assumed that after the first two stages, the students will have memorized the models and understood the problem. They can pass now to the third stage, that is practice. The aim of this to cause the students to absorb the structure thoroughly and to transfer what they know from short-term to long-term memory. This is the most important stage. The students are given the opportunity to use the patterns with different vocabulary and to draw their attention away from the structure being taught, so that its use become a matter of conscious habit. A great variety of exercises can be used. There are several principles to be observed: a)not too much time should be devoted to written exercises; most exercises should be oral
without looking at a printed text -inflexion – one word in an utterance appears in another form when repeated ( I lost that pencil – I lost those pencils) -simple substitution – one word or some words in the pattern are exchanged for others of the same class (a noun instead of another noun. then repeat it in completed form (I‘ll do my homework. the teacher elicits the right answer and explanation for it. by rephrasing. students can prove a sound knowledge of grammar. Among such types of exercises there are: -drills -interaction activities – make controlled language more meaningful and enjoyable. or o practice techniques. several procedures can be used: -using conscious-raising questions – the teacher addresses “concept questions” in connection with a certain language point. students show clear understanding of the sentence to be rephrased and knowledge of the way in which language works. this way. such exercises involve the students‘ personality. help them interact actively According to different authors who recommend them . It is made in any part of the sentence. they have to discover the grammar rules rather than be told the rules. a verb.Mary comes late) -restatement – the students rephrase the utterance and address it to someone else. students are involved in their own learning -text study – students are asked to discover new grammar by concentrating on its use in a text -matching techniques – the students are asked to match parts of sentences and phrases. Discovery techniques are those where students are given examples of language and told to find out how they work. you‘ll do…homework becomes I‘ll do my homework. Harmer considers that these activities may be based either on discovery techniques. to make sure they become aware of its form and meaning. according to instruction (Tell him to open the book . In order to do this. you‘ll do your homework) -transformation – the pattern given as stimulus is transformed into another pattern in the .b)students should apply the rules c)we must make use of a great number of exercises from colloquial speech -individual exercises should be chosen for the students with certain gaps and deficiencies There are several types of activities that students may make extensive use in the classroom. The so-called practice techniques offer students the possibility to practise grammar items.Open the book!) -completion –the students hear an utterance that is complete except for one word. instead of another verb) -replacement –one word in an utterance is replaced by another. this way. the students listen carefully . the exercises can be of different types: -repetition.the students repeat an utterance aloud as they have heard it. this exercise allows students to make choices. students are helped by these questions to notice/observe a new grammar point. thus discovering correct grammar facts -rephrasing – by complex transformations they make. determine where it will fit in the sentence and then include it in the right place (Mary comes early/late .
.) -contraction – a simple word stands for a phrase or for a clause (Put your pen on the desk – can become Put your pen there. -or This new hat on the table is mine. will develop a positive self-image as a language learner. from dialogues or known fragments -repetition of the same drill -minimal changes in the new item -short items.) -drilling position of adverbs of frequency -transposition – when a word is added it takes a certain place in the sentence (I am very busy now. Success-orientation is a principle with wide pedagogical implications. translation is advisable as the last stage of drilling. the students expand it by adding additional units and making the necessary agreements (This new hat is mine. he is told in advance to respond in a certain way (to be polite. affirmative – interrogative. active. It is always the teacher who gives the translation. in a series of questions and answers. regarding only one aspect of the language -limited vocabulary (when teaching grammar) -the drills have to be orally guided by the teacher -drills should also involve creative participation on the part of the student variation of drills to avoid boredom -the series of teaching drills should be followed by a testing series -final application of drills in a dialogue. A learner whose performance is consistently successful. confidence and motivation. etc) -translation – in the case of some problems where the contrast between the native language and the second language pattern produce interference.response (present – past. a game.passive) -expansion /pyramid – starting with a short sentence.) -integration – two or more sentences are integrated into one -rejoinder – the student makes an appropriate rejoinder to a given utterance. never the students.can become This new red hat is mine. Among the examples of assistance there can be mentioned: -giving extra time to reveal and think -repeating or simplifying a text -approving the beginning of an utterance in order to encourage production of the whole 49 . etc. to disagree. to agree. Good drills have the following characteristics: -teaching new grammatical structures and not testing the already known ones each drill has in view one structural model. easily memorizable -each item should be a complete pattern that could appear in oral communications -the drill should induce the production of a single answer. A part of their success is ensured by the teacher‘s careful choice of the drills. to express surprise. one given problem -the structural characteristics to be practised should be already familiar to -the student. It contributes to a positive classroom climate of relaxation. rather than towards assessing and correcting. The teacher‘s activity in the course of practice should be largely directed towards supporting and assisting the students in their production of acceptable responses. – can become So am I.
Classroom activities Task V. TEACHING LITERATURE AND DEVELOPING CULTURAL AWARENESS Aims 1)to introduce trainees in the techniques of approaching a literary text 2)to help trainees develop critical thinking Objectives Students will be able to 1)demonstrate their abilities in planning and presentation of literary texts. it represents a basis for student conversation.4. V. .3. awareness and response) which will allow their students understand. discuss any literary character/theme/point of view/ setting/symbol/language and style) Contents V.Literature and its place in the context of language teaching V. helping them build emotional maturity and critical faculties. Literature and its place in the context of language teaching In recent years there has been an upsurge of interest in the use of literature in the language classroom. developing the students‘ character.1. hints.-suggestions. The literary texts are considered to represent the basis for imaginative interactive and discussion activities.Classroom activities V.1.2. it facilitates content-based classes. it ca provide a stimulus for expressing different opinions.Developing cultural awareness V. guided discovery. interpret and respond to literary texts 3)handle techniques in text analysis (recognize and discuss elements of the plot and plotbuilding. Literature represents a valuable authentic material. Literature provides students with a rich storehouse to explore. valuable source of civilization knowledge. prompts Task Write two advantages and two possible problems for each of the grammar presentation techniques presented above. using an appropriate terminology and language register 2)handle techniques (recognition.
) Students should be also 51 . The students must be able to appreciate and respond to the text‘s coding of its cultural and emotional experience. The main aim of teaching literature is to communicate aesthetic values and stimulate a sense of personal involvement and reaction that will enrich the students‘ life experience.Classroom activities Classroom activities must have in view to teach students how to think and how to interpret the text. stimulate their creativity. This emotional appeal will involve students in the learning process. written in a certain language and it belongs to a certain literary genre) and an open structure (it has the meaning each reader finds in it) at the same time. thus improving their cultural awareness. refine their thinking and feelings. it provides students with an abundance of examples of grammar and vocabulary of English.2. improve their language skills. so. The literature class helps students to get information.group work. in exploring relationships between literary texts and everyday life and between types of literary texts. The teacher‘s role involves imparting and developing notions of taste. Extracting. thus becoming co-authors of it. exhibiting a wide range of vocabulary and developing all four language skills: listening. will give students an emotional and personal experience and give room for reflection. Literature is also useful in reinforcing language points. recognizing beauty. cultural awareness is very important (maybe as important as the understanding of the fact that literature and language cannot be separated. encouraging extensive reading. writing and speaking. Meeting a literary text in a right way. how to use concepts of literary theory. form new moral attitudes. they also offer more or less supplementary information about the author‘s life and literary activity. reading. Any literary text should be presented in the context of the culture and civilization of their time. appreciating and creating beauty should be the main objectives for studying literature. it was written at a certain time. literature is language in use. The literary text must be considered a closed structure (it tells about a certain experience. it cannot be separable from language. The teacher‘s role is to guide and assist students in generalizing from the given text. writing and problem solving activities. it can also help students to form their artistic taste. assessing validity. Readers interpret the text. Attention should be given to the need of having a balance between an overload of information and the extreme subjectivity of interpretation. Teaching literature methodology implies taking into consideration that -the study of literature should be stimulating and enjoyable -students should be taught how to think and how to interpret a literary text -students should be encouraged to personalize literary texts (students should be helped to bridge the gap between the text which was written a long time ago and their own time) -a balance should be reached between the traditional attitude in teaching literature (the teacher seen as the only source of input) and the modern attitude (the student is encouraged to become the only source of input) V. The textbooks offer texts of literature already carefully chosen.
characteristics of his works. the language the characters use. students could be asked to draw up a profile of the major/minor characters. c)deep meaning analysis It is a stage of interpretation and evaluation. In order to talk meaningfully about a literary text. psychological/chronological time. They should also be asked to consider the relationships between the characters. mentalities. 4)characters and relationships The aim is to encourage students to identify the types of characters (real/imaginary. Discussion activities could be centred on a closer examination of these relationships. Until they grasp the basic plot structure.helped to establish a link between the text under study and their own time. his literary activity. initiating action. social status. since this will allow a meaningful discussion to develop in the . climax and resolution). b)factual analysis The student can read the text silently or listen to a recording of it. The stage provides a means for checking whether the students have understood the basic plot. The activities in the classroom include: a)pre activity. ordinary/hero/non-hero/anti-hero/godlike) to analyse the role of the different characters in the story. themes and characters. interpretation and personal response. etc. as well as aspect of plot-building. it is not possible to attempt any deeper level of text treatment. This means offering information about the physical aspect. it is necessary to organize activities according to a number of categories: 1)the literary trend the text belongs to Students should be given the characteristic elements of the main literary trends. in point of values. construct meaning from it or discuss their ideas with each other. should be taught to identify different types of plot (the frame-story. cinema/jazz technique. or other aspects of plot-building. Classicism. too. As an initial activity. modernism) 2)the literary genre the text can belong to ( Is it a poem/play/novel/short story?) 3)plot and suspense The first concern must be to focus the students‘ attention on the skeleton of the plot structure. The most important stages in the activity with the text are: recognition. rising action.a time for students to guess and predict The teacher builds up the students‘ interest by offering them information about the writer. code of behaviour. so that they could easily recognize the one the text under focus belongs to (Romanticism. The aim is for the students to react to the work. A model reading (if the text is not too long) can be offered. attitudes. Students should discuss the elements of the plot (exposition. It will be valuable if they can provide textual evidence to support their views. the chronological or disrupted plot. Later activities can be based on the students‘ offering personal reactions. levels of the plot). such as: flashbacks. the literary trend he belongs to. He also builds up interest in the work and gets students to anticipate what they will read about or listen to. the play –within-theplay. This is followed by some questions on the surface level.
classroom. students should be introduced to such concepts as: point of view as opinion. kinetic. 8)the language and style The teacher and the students seek to uncover the methods by which the writer communicates his own attitudes towards the unfolding story. hyperbole. symbols (death. personification. their participation : dynamic or static. to help escape into the inner/outer world. numbers. Students need to get sensitive to the way in which a writer makes certain objects or events symbolic of a whole range of thinking and feeling that is built up throughout the text. decay. lexical and syntactical repetition. etc. to illuminate character. life. shadow. sea. places. Besides these. metaphors. personifications. symbolic. Besides this. fictional. good/evil. syntactical parallelism and contrast. civilization/nature. escape.Students should also be taught to identify enumeration. omniscient and selective omniscient point of view. power. gradation (from inside to outside or the other way round. weather. or to help escape into another space or time. allusions. they should analyse the role the setting has: to create atmosphere. Besides these. river. subjective narration and objective narration. paradoxes. grotesgue. They should also discuss on the use of the semantic relations between words. length of sentences. sarcasm satire. semi-fictional. the use of irony. The students should be helped to understand the metaphorical use of language. victory/ defeat. knight. author‘s voice and the character‘s/poetic voice. season. Students should be helped to identify and discuss: significant choices of language (concrete or abstract). place. sleep. the role they play: main characters or secondary characters. order/chaos. the use of humour and of the different types of images (visual. observer narration or dramatic monologue. caloric. ellipsis. gradation of chromatic elements). interior monologue. from a static picture to a dynamic one. naturalistic. 6)the point of view The main problems to be discussed here are connected with the difference between such concepts as: 1st person narrative and 3rd person narrative. or: the theme of communication. etc. wild nature/urban). assonance. open/closed. social status or code of behaviour. Students will be helped to recognize such major themes as: love/hatred. supernatural. 7)the setting Students should be trained to recognize and analyse both the elements of the setting (time. One possible activity is to give a long inventory of possible themes and ask the students to select the prime themes of the text or to rank the themes in order of relevance to the text. 53 . diary narration. physical environment) and the types of setting (realistic. which is one of the most effective ways of communicating thoughts and emotions. passing of time. Students need also to be helped to find out the artistic devices used: epithets. connotations.). multiple point of view. 5)major themes The aim of this activity is to identify the central themes of the story and establish the importance that each individual reader will attach to them. hidden meanings. regeneration. Students should be helped to identify. auditory. characters should be analysed taking into consideration their physical aspect. the use of alliteration. associations. their development during the vents: round or flat characters. similes. silence. detached autobiography. tactile).
There can be used several types of activities: a)language type activities: -recording of words and lines -putting lines in the correct order -matching -translation -cloze-type exercise (in which all verbs or adjectives are removed) -substitution of words b)analytical/content type activities: -looking at and analysis of the title -discussing points that attract attention (words.identification of the organisation of the text. Creative writing can become part of the follow-up work in literature. phrases. It is the stage in which the literary work becomes a springboard for the development of students‘ own ideas. punctuation or layout) -grouping words thematically -answering questions -comparing poems -constructing poems following the given example -commenting on likes and dislikes c)creative type activities: -changing words (using synonyms and antonyms) -writing own lines -writing the poem in the form of a letter or dialogue -translating -performing The teacher must also stress on the idea that there exist several types of approaching a literary text: -the textual approach . be in favour or against an expressed idea. the possibility exists that the individual student will interpret the text in a different way. students should be encouraged to criticize each other‘s efforts. orally or in written form. to contradict each other. its structure. images. descriptions or poems. the analysis of the incipit and the ending -the thematic approach . reacting to vocabulary. The activity can be done individually or in groups. there can be an open class discussion. etc. vocabulary. After writing short narratives.allegory or irony. He must encourage students refer to the work as much as possible and find evidence in it to support the ideas. Thus. 9)reader‘s response Though a writer clearly has certain intentions regarding the way in which the discourse of a text will be understood by the reader. d)creativity This is the last step in the classroom activity. After group-work. syntax. characteristics of the author`s style. The teacher should allow students to express their ideas and thoughts freely. The same practical and participatory approach can be applied to the introduction of poetry. the processes of induction and production would be closely linked.
they are able to find out similarities and differences. architecture. the peoples‘ life style.4. This means that the teaching of cultural content should be integrated with the teaching of language patters and lexicon. The dialogues chosen by the teacher and acted by students should reflect the students‘ level of proficiency. The study of a foreign language enables an individual to develop his cultural understanding of that language. Beginning with mid 60s. The language used during this type of exercise. The third type of meaning involves values. Once practised. geographical aspects of the English-speaking world. and at the same time. and according to their age and interests. their literature. dance. skills and cognitive abilities to enable them to establish links with other cultures and represent their own culture to others. the dialogues may become subject for analysis. considering that a language is embedded in the culture of a people. Language and culture are thus inseparable. and students have the possibility to compare and contrast them with their own realities. Most new textbooks are culture-bound. According to Fries14 . should be natural and comprehensible. dialogues are considered to be an excellent vehicle for introducing cultural items and pattern of behaviour. Cultural awareness is meant to provide students with the necessary knowledge. the learning of one of them cannot be done without the learning of the other. their customs and traditions as well as the important issues of the contemporary world.the analysis of the words which become support for the idea expressed -the technical approach . developing their spirit of curiosity and inquiry. this represents the essence of cultural awareness. V. The students bring their own culture in the communication process with the foreign culture. they admitted the importance of culture in language pedagogy.Classroom activities At the beginning level. structural meaning and sociocultural meaning. in reading a foreign language test. as well as the situations under discussion.Developing cultural awareness Before the 60s linguists restricted their attention to the formal aspects of language.the relationships between the character and the point of view. it promotes his personal culture through contact with great minds and literature. we extract three levels of meaning: lexical meaning. art. reflecting the totality of beliefs and sentiments of the speech community. base on the students‘ experience. They offer information and present-day realities about Britain and the English speaking world.-the linguistic approach . formal/informal interchange between the interlocutors. This awareness is helped by the presentation of authentic written and spoken texts including information about the history of Britain. between character and feeling/action -the stylistic approach V. The particular aspects which can be easily analysed are: greeting.3. between character and the plot. 55 . contrasting them with the native culture of the students. the teacher should explain the cultural aspects which are particular to native speakers of English. attitudes and beliefs of the speech community. music.
As the students gain more proficiency in the language. because observation alone may mislead students. the stages. preparation which can be of two types: a long-term preparation a short-term preparation. articles from newspapers and magazines. culture should be taught through the medium of language. LESSON PLANNING Aims 1)to raise trainees‘ awareness regarding the importance of lesson planning in the process of teaching language 2)to help students identify objectives of each type of lesson 3)to guide students in the process of establishing stages and activities for different types of lessons Objectives 1)the trainees will be able to establish by themselves the objectives. the use of dialogues and visuals should be replaced by factual and expository materials. albums. Lesson planning means taking into consideration what to do with the students during the time they are in the classroom. maps. the teacher should offer explanation regarding the cultural content. VI. of the material to be taught. Another way of providing cultural knowledge is by using pictures. expressing farewell. methods and procedures of a lesson 2)the trainees will be able to evaluate different types of lesson plans and choose the most suitable one for a particular situation Contents VI. Types of lesson plans Task VI. so that to illustrate the main aspect of cultural behaviour.1. General considerations Success in teaching is directly proportional to the care of preparation of the lesson.1.2. the study of literature is the one which help students get their cultural understanding. At the advanced level. A textbook comprising short stories. should be used for classroom instruction. ways of proving attention to what is said. General considerations VI. Task Establish three objectives of lessons introducing literary texts. enabling them to do something new .ways of showing politeness. ways of expressing agrrement/disagreement/acceptance/refusal/surprise/anger/joy/happiness. the strategy of teaching should be also changed. poems. slides. Their selection should be well done.
what the teacher has planned may not be appropriate for that class on that particular day. supplement the book by providing additional practice) -not to prepare too much or too rigidly (a plan for the lesson helps. find the words which need explanation) -not to let the book dictate (he can change the order of the material presented. enough material for each group/pair/individual) -to prepare any textbook material he intends to use (establish its order. The lesson plan should be a working document used for guidance. does what he says he is going to do and treats students consistently and fairly. S (1995): Teaching Practice Handbook. the shape. Here are some of the problems the teacher must have in view when preparing the lesson and the material he has to teach: -to decide clearly what he is going to teach (to have a clear idea about the purpose of the activity) . R.”4 Variety and flexibility are the two principles which stand at the basis of a good lesson planning.60 57 . Not to forget that the teacher “gains respect if he is punctual. specific and concrete. Against the statement of aims. Serious consideration should be given to who the students are. The statement of aims must be clear. Flexibility is to be noticed when dealing with the plan in the classroom. indications of clear staging are very important. the lesson -information about the language to be used: vocabulary/grammar/communicative areas 4 Gower.with the language. choose fit exercises. the class. Layout. This is why it should be clear and easy to read. balance and pace of the lesson must be judged. their age. not an extensive plan) -to prepare the aids (make sure that they are properly working) -not to ignore the practical difficulties (the teacher should be conscious of each and every student as an individual. well prepared for the lesson. with his own needs and level of knowledge) -not to forget that a good lesson has a beginning. The main components of a lesson plan are: -the introductory part – including: the name of the teacher. the date. D. the textbook. a middle part and an end (a short introduction is needed. the number of students in the classroom. to remind students of what happened last time and say what he is going to do. Phillips. the grade. returns homework promptly. Heinemann. p. Walters. For a number of reasons. the flexible teacher will be able to change the plan in such a situation. Variety means involving students in a number of different types of activities and introducing them to a wide selection of materials. omit particular items. the unit. as well as a few words about what will happen next time). a brief summary is needed. highlighting of key points. Oxford. but it should be just a general framework. it also means planning so that learning is interesting and not monotonous. their level in English.to have in view the seating in the classroom so that the activities should be performed in an effective way -to make sure he has the necessary material (and also. they should refer exclusively to the lesson in hand. at the end of the lesson.
indefiniteness) -understand/express relations between parts of the text through lexical/grammatical cohesion devices (reference. Students listen for all words related to… -function aims: Students learn how to…(greet. Students reply to letters written to each other… -vocabulary aims: Students match pictures of…with…. Students listen to…and… -pronunciation aims: Students identify the difference between… -reviewing aims: Students revise the vocabulary about…. cause. reason. properties of language -understand explicitly/implicitly stated information -express information explicitly -express opinions and suggestions -understand socio-cultural elements of everyday life -be aware of mentalities and attitudes typical for the cultural space -understand specific images and symbols -interpret a text . Students learn how to express…/show… -skill aims: Students write…. Students share opinions Students reach consensus… about…. complain. apologize). Students revise descriptions of… -group dynamic aims: Students discuss about…. comparison. location. appropriate techniques and the materials needed to achieve the objectives within the time available (the number of objectives depends on the number of stages in the class. definiteness. the objectives are written in terms of skills and in terms of language) Types of aims: -topic aims: Students read/discuss about… -grammar aims: Students practise/discuss the difference/similarity between… -communication aims: Students talk about…. Types of objectives: a)cognitive objectives: -discriminate/articulate sounds in isolated words and in context -understand and react adequately to simple/complex questions and statements -produce questions and answers -interpret meaning of text -express themselves in free writing -order information -recognize/manipulate the script of the language -understand/produce intonation patterns as used in different types of clauses -understand/express conceptual meaning (quantity. time and place indicators. time. connectors) -become aware and show understanding of the forms.-the aims and objectives -they will help the teacher choose useful activities.
Other specific aims are: -to create expectations about language -to offer learners a reason to listen/read/speak/write -to get learners communicating about the topic -to create a relaxed atmosphere. a report on… -write a letter/report/advertisement/journal/diary page -understand messages in non-standard language -participate in debates and negociations -present projects b)affective objectives: -making the students confident in the ability to use the language -using English while playing -having fun -stimulating students‘ imagination and creativity -creating interest in the topic of… -to foster learner independence and cooperative learning Much attention should be also given to the choice of the warm-up activities. by giving background information -to provide links between different stages of the lesson These types of activities are often called “pre-skills “activities. some are content-based. Their choice is influenced by the type of task the teacher is teaching.-integrate data in a text with own experience or knowledge of the world -deduce the meaning of unfamiliar items through contextual clues -use basic reference skills -skim to obtain a general impression of the text -scan to locate specifically required information -transcode information in speech or writing tables. disagreeing. Some are short. others are language-based. diagrams -understand/express equivalence of meaning within the same style -initiate in discourse (eliciting. refusing) -correct what is wrong or false -reformulate ideas expressed orally or in written form -terminate a discourse -read to confirm expectations -study relevant words -prepare a description of…. whose general aim is to help students learn better. proper for studying -to draw attention to something important which is going to be discussed -to introduce learners to the topic. because they prepare -students for language skills work. VI.2. others are longer. informing) -introduce a new topic or point of view -respond in different situations (agreeing. graphs.Types of lesson plans 59 . accepting.
3. Materials: Activity 1 Aims: . 4. 5.of students: Grade: Textbook: Unit: Lesson: =========================================================== Lesson aims: 1. 2.A Teacher‘s name: Date: Class: Level: Class size: Topic: Approach: Objectives: Teaching aids: Procedure: Stage / T‘s activity&lg /Ss‘s activity &lg / Interaction / Skills / Time /Purpose B. Teacher‘s name: Date: Class: No.
3... 2. Activity 3 …………………………. Activity 4 …………………………. 5 Activity 2 Aim: Procedure: 1.(offered by Jeremy Harmer15) Description of the class – Level: Recent work: Objectives: Contents: Objective 1 Timing: Context (what the students have to discuss about): Activity (what the teacher and the students do): Aids: Language: Possible problems: Objective 2 Timing: Context: Activity: Aids: Language: Possible problems Objective 3 61 .Procedure: 1. 4.. 3. 4. Activity 5 …………………………. Homework: Next lesson: Interaction Timing Interaction Timing C. 2.
…………………………….CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Aims 1)to introduce trainees to the problems concerned with classroom management 2)to help trainees get familiar with the main aspects which make a class successful Objectives 1)the trainees will be able to adapt to school conditions and raise awareness of teacher`s role 2)trainees will be able to apply principles of group/pair/lockstep work 3)trainees will be able to deal with disruptive behaviour 4)trainees will be able to use English appropriately for social interaction and class management Contents VII. lay-out (seating) -lesson stages -pacing of activities -lesson cohesion -transitions from activity to activity -individual/pair/group or class work -supporting materials .1.1. that is the teacher being able to organize all aspects of the classroom: -organization of the classroom. Objective 4 …………………………….. Field of investigation Success in the teaching process is very much ensured by class management.Field of investigation Task VII. Objective 5 …………………………… Additional possibilities: Task Devise a lesson plan on a topic included into one of the new textbooks (no matter the grade or level) VII.
give students a reason to listen. the effective teacher5 is the one who displays professional and humaine features: . the teacher should know hoe to create a productive learning environment. what they are going to talk or write about. read. 7 63 . classrooms have fix desks. Seating is also important. It is better to be arranged in such a way that it should offer students the best possibilities of working in pairs. Macmillan. positive feedback. is honest and approachable. neat and orderly in appearance. shows respect. Before knowing how to introduce communicative activities. One important prerequisite for learning is discipline and order.-discipline in the classroom -exploitation of unexpected or unplanned occurrences 1. Besides these. This starts with the way in which it looks like: clean. empathisez with students` problems. how they should attract attention when they want to talk. when organizing any activity. Harmer16): a) the teacher as organizer – this is considered to be the most important and difficult role. or groups thus creating a co-operative atmosphere and maximizing student practice. has a good sense of humour. does not complicate things unnecessarily. conventions and routines are important factors in creating a productive working environment. inspires confidence. . meant to create expectations about language. the students should be taught how to move into different activities. London. pictures. gives clear. because it represents one of the teacher‘s greatest allies. his instructions must be very clear and he should always check if students have understood correctly what they have to do Jeremy Harmer believes that the organization of an activity must include three stages: -the lead-in . Jim (1998): Learning Teaching. 2.he knows his subject.The role of the teacher Generally speaking. p. graphs and charts. is well-organized.Organisation of the classroom The way in which the classroom itself is organized has a very important role. etc. In the classroom the teacher has to play many roles (according to J. The way in which the blackboard looks like is also of great importance.really listens to his students. speak or write and stirs their interest in the new topic -the instruction – the students are told exactly what they should do -the initiation – the teacher initiates the activity after checking comprehension of instructions 5 Scrivener. trusts people. they should know the routines for collecting written work.which is considered an introduction to the subject. but whenever it has movable chairs. paces lesson well. the teacher should tell the students what exactly they have to do: the tasks they have to perform. Generally. it offers students visual input and allows the teacher to illustrate with words. is patient.
. .be easily accessible. the learner`s attention is low -if you have papers to distribute and a large class.The teacher should also know how to provide links between different stages of a lesson and how to organize the pairs or groups for different activities. Monitoring implies attention given to how well the students are working individually or in groups. Heinemann. Assessment can 6 Gower.quickly check (involves going round the class. S (1995): Teaching Practice Handbook. he controls what his students do every minute.prepare more than you need (to have “reserve” activity ready in case of extra time) -note in advance which components you will sacrifice if you find with too little time -keep a watch/clock easily visible. p. give instructions and make sure these are understood before proper work b)the teacher as a controller When having such a role. what language they use. do not try to give every paper yourself to every student. students should be told in advance how much time they are allotted. . offering encouragement . ask them to take one and pass the rest on -if you are doing group work. some of the groups are either on the verge of finishing the activity or a long way behind or unless the group requires help. he controls when they speak and how much they do that. Phillips. Penny Ur17 offers some hints for lesson management: . Give correction or gather data for feedback d)the teacher as assessor The teacher assesses the students‘ work. to judge time -do not leave the giving of homework to the last minute when generally. R. Walters. Monitoring individuals means making sure that everyone has enough to do . during which the teacher does a lot of talking.49 .provide encouragement. The whole class activity becomes a teachercentred activity. checking group activities and making sure they understand what they are supposed to do). The teacher should be flexible in forcing time limits. c) the teacher as monitor This role may be considered as opposed to that of a controller. . When organizing an activity. the teacher is in complete charge of the classroom. D. being discreet in approaching the student (not too loud or disruptive). and so on.don`t interrupt unless the group misunderstood what it supposed to do.stand back (after setting the activities the teacher should allow a short time for the students to get on with it).spread your attention 9the teacher should pay attention to everything that is going on ) . their performance in language. The teacher helps his students to accomplish their tasks and manifest freely in all activities. Oxford. Monitoring groups also takes in view some methodological considerations:6 .
the kind of questions the teacher asks. Feedback is the information that the teacher gives to his students about their spoken or written performance. because too much talking time deprives students of the opportunity to speak. if he wants to keep everyone awake and busy. A teacher who always sits is unlikely to have a successful teaching or to create a pleasant atmosphere. to stand or walk. the teacher points out what they have done successfully and what errors they made. because students (especially those at the back of the classroom) feel free and try to do something else. he just offers the students the chance to practise with someone speaking better than them g)the teacher as a resource . So. but not to distraction (especially when students need much concentration on their tasks). whenever they are confused or they are at a loss.Teacher talking time (TTT) “Good” teacher talk means little teacher talk. through. A teacher who is mobile and walks around the classroom has more chances to have a successful lesson: he has greater control on the class. has to resort to the technique of questioning.during activities. he should be always ready to help them whenever the case is. it increases or decreases student involvement. for example. f)the teacher as participant . Harmer) e)the teacher as prompter During their activity. confident and eager to communicate.the one who offers input to students. he can help students with different tasks and thus students feel more confident. too much moving is not recommended. the speech modifications he makes when talking to students or the way he reacts to students errors.be of two types: correction and feedback. and at the same time. the teacher can be a partner to his students. Besides this. Interest in teacher talk has shifted from a concern with quantity towards a concern with quality: more emphasis is given to how effectively the teacher is to facilitate learning and promote communicative interaction in the classroom. A teacher should feel and learn from experience when to sit. 65 . students need to be encouraged by the teacher. 4. As a prompter. how accurate they have been” (J. Teaching space Where teachers sit or stand during a lesson is very important. but prefers standing in front of the classroom. so that students can feel free. h)the teacher as tutor – offers guidance and advice. disruptive behaviour may be encouraged. on condition that he does not dominate but give his students freedom to express. the teacher gives them encouragement. especially when students are engaged in self-study or doing project work 3. the teacher should move around the classroom. he makes suggestions about how students may continue one activity. A teacher who is not mobile. Anyway. It can be of two types: content feedback – which is “an assessment of how well the students performed the activity as an activity rather than a language exercise” and form feedback – which tells the students “How well they have performed linguistically.
etc. A fix and insistent look may sometimes make students lose confidence and forget everything they learned and knew. Teacher talking time can be analysed vs student talking time (STT). Since this is essential for language acquisition. According to Gower7.Teacher talk is now generally recognized as a potentially valuable source of comprehensible input for the students. 7. The teacher should look into his students‘ eyes while he is explaining something. The simulation activities and role-play are efficient activities that can be used. Heinemann. His look must be encouraging. appreciation. feelings and attitudes. setting up activities. 6. or when one student has a disruptive behaviour.The role of the student The teacher must have in view that each student is a highly individual human being. presenting. arms can be used to indicate the intonation patterns (rising or falling). “the balance between TT and STT depends on the type of lesson and activities involved and on the level of the students”. offers authentic listening for students and a good model for new language. but all students come to lessons with expectations. the teacher should look at his students and let them know that they are being watched but never suffocated with his present and critical eye. thus. This happens in the classroom. too. giving instructions or feedback. thus conveying his attitude to what students are saying. Thus. Phillips. So. he can indicate interest or lack of interest. checking. Oxford. Eye contact It is very important for the teacher to know when to keep distant and not to invade his students‘ intimacy and when to come close to them. it helps classroom management. gestures and general body language in order to convey the message. Apart from the words he uses. modeling language. S (1995): Teaching Practice Handbook. the teacher uses his body language. disapproval. the teacher can vary his intonation and stress. p. approval. a raised finger can indicate “attention” and so on. TTT has got some advantages strictly connected with: the possibility for students to learn from it.Body language It is known that in face to face interaction the speaker can use a whole range of facial expressions. The teacher has to help students maintain their positive motivation by making it possible for them to satisfy goals that they consider 7 Gower. One disadvantage may be that the students are not given maximum opportunity to talk 5. 33 . Walters. Besides this. clarifying. supporting and friendly. encouragement. a smile encourages students. The teacher must also teach his students how to use the body language in order to express their thoughts. offer his help and talk to them as if they were his partners. getting teacher to reduce the amount of his talk would necessarily be in the interest of the students. teachers talk more when providing language input. each may have a different learning style. Students learn in different ways and at different rates. R. D. when one student answers to his question. Each student has developed different strategies for learning.
)18: -questions of literal comprehension – the answers are directly and explicitly available in the text.Classroom interaction Humanistic techniques concentrate on interaction. 8. The emphasis is on relaxation. they are essential preliminaries to work on the text -questions involving reorganization or reinterpretation – require the students to obtain literal information from various parts of the text and put it together. they help students consider the text as a whole -questions of inference – they oblige the students to consider what is implied in the text. There can be distinct types of teacher questioning: -closed-ended teacher questioning – only on “right” response gets approved -open-ended teacher questioning – there are a number of possible “right” answers so that more students answer each question -referential questioning – the teacher asks the class something to which he does not know the answer -“display” questioning – the teacher simply checks if the student knows the answer.C. During the class activities there might be several types of interaction: TT – teacher talk. students work in small groups on tasks that entail interaction PW – pair work. students work in pairs on tasks that entail interaction IW – individual work. the student answers ST – students initiates. that is focus not on the objective of teaching. there is no initiative on the part of the student who is silent TS – teacher initiates. or to reinterpret information. checks comprehension There can be distinguished several types of questions (Nuttall. the teacher answers SS – full-class interaction. for the shaping of students‘ behaviour towards the course objectives. the teacher walks around monitoring and assisting where necessary Questioning is a universally used activation technique in teaching. on the human factor in the classroom. encouragement and group dynamics within the class. but not explicitly stated -questions of evaluation – they involve the students in making a considered judgement about the text -questions of personal response – the answer to them depends on the reader of the text 67 . the teacher gives a task and student works on it independently. the students debate a topic or do a language task as a class.important. He has to plan different types of activities (group-learning activities and for individual instruction). the teacher may intervene occasionally to stimulate participation or to monitor GW – group work. but on the process of achieving that objective. it is the main way of interacting with students.
the signal for stopping -process – the teacher`s job is to go from group to group. monitor and gives help if necessary -ending – the activity should have either a time limit or stop while the students are still enjoying it. so that they have the chance to interact 8 Gower. listening to an evaluating suggestion. pooling ideas on the board. Walters. The teacher may vary activities and their technique. the teacher.seating arrangement (students prefer to sit by and work together with their friends) . having foreseen the language which is needed. the teacher lets the students know the arrangements for stopping: the time limit.58 . Some guidelines for ordering the components of a lesson could be: -put the most difficult task first and more structured and controlled ones later -have quieter activities before lively ones -pull the class together at the beginning and the end -end on a positive note Group work organization includes: -presentation – the teacher gives instructions. Oxford. S (1995): Teaching Practice Handbook. p. change the order of items in activities or the number of people involved in activities. he can change speed. he describes the tasks assigned. Phillips. has now a preliminary appropriate grammar or vocabulary . D.changing pairs and students in groups frequently. Heinemann. knowledge or skill -to get students to be active in learning -to stimulate thinking -to encourage self-expression -to direct attention to the topic under discussion An effective questioning is the one which elicits fairly prompt.giving students the possibility to know each other`s names . may have different forms: giving the right solution. This can be done by8 . R. change order of activities. relevant and full responses.Questioning has different reasons: -to get students engaged with the language material actively through speech -to find out something from students -to check or test understanding. or just beginning to flag -feedback – has as its main objective the appreciation of the effort that has been invested and its results. it usually takes place in the context of full-class interaction after the end of the group work. motivated.making use of group and pair work . displaying the materials the groups have produced. It is necessary that the teacher should encourage the spirit of interdependence in the classroom. modality.
10.giving students responsibility for other members of the group . skip some parts. he is the main source of information and knowledge. it leaves students little chance to practise or to talk (the teacher initiates all the language exchange in the class).Student groupings One traditional situation in classroom activity is the lockstep. needs and interest -students can work at different aspects of the same task -students can work on tasks that can be carried out at a variety of levels Pair work increases the amount of student practice. develops the capacity of working independently of the teacher and develops responsibility. the student works at his/her own pace. the activity may have advantages: the whole class work together.with a variety of people . he has several choices: speed-up a little bit.allowing students to take turns while answering 9. just as pair work increases the amount of student talking time. this view of teaching is contrasted with exploratory learning in which the emphasis is on the process by which students are able to make ideas of their own. This is always referred as the “transmission “ mode of education. The activity has certain disadvantages. if good and weak students are put together in the same group. have some supplementary material for students. a good selection of the material in terms of difficulty is important. It allows for different learning styles and helps keeping students‘ attention by varying the pace of the lesson. Another type of activity is the individual work. When the material is too difficult.encouraging students to be supportive with each other (even when offering corrections) . doing the same type of activity. In order to get the best of it. sharing of ideas. the stages and the pace of the lesson. the teacher should slow down a little. so it becomes boring for the first category. The advantages are: it increases student participation and language use. students concentrate on the activity and the teacher is sure that everyone works and can hear his instructions clearly.encouraging students to interact with each other . synthesising and evaluating together. A varied lesson is interesting and pleasant.Pacing of activities Interaction assures that students are involved actively. in the same rhythm and pace. When the material is too easy. repeat the necessary part. and encourages student cooperation. The teacher controls everything: the content. Yet. Group work. the pace established by the teacher is usually too slow for the good students and too fast for the weak ones. Individual work can be provided in various ways: -students can work on different tasks according to their level. Timing and pacing activities should be one of the teachers‘ main concerns. gives students opportunities to communicate with each other. so that students understand the problems under discussion. It is the class grouping where all the students are working with the teacher. this means an advantage for the weak 69 . but frustrating for the second one. share responsibility. In such type of activity. analysing.
especially when working with children and adolescents. on condition that the other members of the group are supportive and create a cooperative atmosphere. Both pair and group work are dynamic activities. be ready to give help whenever needed. which lead to a pleasant and relaxed atmosphere. the task of the teacher is a little bit more difficult than usual. learning about . Large classes are generally to be found at secondary level. Teachers often worry about noise and indiscipline when having these two types of activities. the teacher should move around the class.ones. this means: -starting and stopping when the teacher tells them to -switching quickly from one activity to another -working quietly -listening carefully to instructions During pair and group work.Dealing with large classes Ideally. They also worry about too much use of mother tongue. he could cope with it if he gets to know his students very well (learning their names. The most important problems that teachers must have in view when having such activities are: -the selection of group members -to make sure that all the students in groups know what is expected from them -the size of the group -to ensure supportive atmosphere Managing pair and group work aims at students adjusting to such work. Whenever dealing with such classes there appear some problems that a teacher must have in view. 11. language classes should not have more than a dozen students or so: large enough to provide diversity and student interaction and small enough to give students plenty of opportunity to participate and to get individual attention. Rob Nolasco and Lois Arthur19 consider that some of these problems might include: -coping with the noise -persuading the class to use English as much as possible (especially when they work in pairs or groups) -managing the introduction and setting up activities -monitoring the work of individuals within the class -impossibility to provide the necessary duplicated materials -the existence of mixed abilities -individual student-teacher attention is minimized -students opportunities to speak are lessened In such cases.
or as a full class -mode and skill – activities may be based on the written or the spoken language. read) 71 . use clear instructions.their likes and dislikes. making them work at different aspects of the same task. putting good and weak students in the same group. staged. about their hobbies. feelings. while the others work on something else -introducing new approaches: a project work. attitudes). Students do not learn a language at the same rate. lists of words to learn. try to make each student feel important. brief and easy to follow. pages from other textbooks or magazines -using open-ended questions -rethinking traditional activities: trying to set up an activity only for one group. optimize the use of pair and group work. for example -organizing a good feedback: letting them know what they have done wrong and giving them advice on improving their performance There may be different ways of varying a lesson: -tempo – activities may be brisk and fast-moving (as guessing games) or slow and reflective (as reading literature and responding in writing -organization – the learners may work on their own at individualized tasks. write) or receive (listen. within these they may vary as to whether the learners are asked to produce (speak. working on tasks that can be carried out at a variety of levels -adapting the system of questioning: allocating easy questions to the less able or confident. The problems that might appear in such mixedability classes include: -preventing bright students from getting bored or the weak students from being left behind -avoidance of aiming at the average students to the exclusion of the others who also need stimulus and help -controlling students who disrupt the lesson Managing such situations means: -getting individualization by offering students work on different tasks according to their level. giving students different tasks in the same group -motivating the students by the tasks and activities chosen -building up of a series of tasks which can be given to students who finish earlier: games and puzzles. increases students‘ responsibility and involvement.He must create a productive environment (an atmosphere of motivation and cooperation). use peer feedback and evaluation in written work when appropriate. and more difficult ones to better students -adopting a good policy regarding the formation of groups: at times. get students to do as much interactive work as possible. needs and interest. interests. in pairs/groups. comic strips. This means that in large classes the teacher has to cope with not only different levels of linguistic expertise but different levels of intelligence and motivation as well.
Harmer20 identifies: the teacher.-difficulty – easy. by different procedures: -trying to identify the source of the problem rather than treating symptoms being firm but warm in dealing with variances to his expectations -changing the student‘s seat -giving the student/students extra responsibility -changing the activity -praising students after any positive behaviour and well accomplished task . The personality of the teacher has much to say as regards the ability to control a student or a group of students with disruptive behaviour. He considers that the teacher -should not go to the class unprepared -should state clearly to students what his expectations regarding their behaviour in class -should not be inconsistent -should not issue threats -should not raise his voice -should not give boring classes -should not be unfair -should not have a negative attitude to learning -should gain the respect of all students He also considers that among the reasons why students behave badly are: -the time of the day when they have that particular lesson -their attitude regarding the class. Among the reasons for discipline problems J. In order to avoid such problems. the students and the institution. requiring concentration and effort ones -topic – may change from activity to activity -mood – light and fun-based activities may alternate with serious and profound ones -activity – some activities may enliven and excite learners (debates) while others have the effect of calming them down (dictations) -active –passive – students may be activated in a way that encourages their own initiative or they may only be required to do as they are told 12. and get them under control. the teacher and the subject to be studied -the students‘ desire to be noticed -two‘s company – the fact that they encourage each other in their disruptive behaviour It is also very important that the institution should have a good recognized system for dealing with problem classes and students. The teacher should act immediately. Dealing with disruptive students There are moments in the classroom when the teacher is faces problems of discipline. non-demanding activities may alternate with difficult.
A good rapport is ensured by: -interest shown in each student as a person -feedback offered on each student‘ progress -value on what students think and say -balance between praise and criticism -getting rid of stress in the classroom -promoting learner autonomy 73 . This depends first on the rapport he establishes with his students.13.Creating a positive classroom climate In order to get a successful lesson. the teacher should create a positive classroom climate: stimulating. a relationship built on trust and respect. energizing and supportive.
animals. the classroom itself and certain kinds of visual instructional material develop and sustain motivation.) -the flannel board (a piece of low-cost flannel. clarity. The teacher`s most widely used and most valuable tool in the classroom is the blackboard. means of transportation. the teacher can also use: -realia -charts/picture files – containing types of illustrations: pictures of persons and single objects. a positive attitude towards English. pictures/cutouts of various items can be stuck or pinned) -the pocket chart (can be made by simply stapling four or five narrow strips of heavy paper or cardboard to a large sheet so as to form pockets into which cards bearing individual words and punctuation marks can be placed) -the slip chart (the frame is made of heavy poster board. producing at the same time. When using aids of any kind in the classroom. handling. if the teacher showed imagination and creativity in selection or devising of materials. glued on or simply laid over. pinned to. phrases and the key words to be used) -mock-ups ( dummy telephones. lightweight poster board on which are printed the sentences. Any aid should become integral to the lesson. pictures of people engaged in various activities (pictures can be arranged in categories: furniture.14. It can be used successfully when -introducing a dialogue (the teacher sketches stick figures on the blackboard and points to whoever is speaking) -introducing expressions (for example. Aids are generally used to support the teaching points. fruit. people. vegetables. etc. audibility and suitability must be considered in relation to the particular lesson and the learners being taught. Aids and materials Attitude. Aids facilitate learning and make it more enjoyable. a blackboard. expressions connected with time can be introduced by drawing a clock or listing hours appropriate to each greeting) -drawing maps/diagrams/charts/tables -drawing time lines -testing grammar structures -writing the new vocabulary -writing questions/multiple choice items/matching expressions/summaries to ensure comprehension -writing model sentences in guided writing besides the blackboard. menus made simple and easy to read) -catalogues and magazines . motivation and interest of the learner are factors of crucial importance in determining achievement in language learning. it becomes relevant and effective for the class and objective only if its sequencing is logical. plants. on it. the use of them. with the right edge left open to receive the slip charts –that is. size. clocks constructed out of playwood and endowed with movable hands. The teacher`s attitude towards the students.
certain basic rules must be observed: the visual aid should be directly relevant to a specific teaching object. discovery techniques. is aware of his needs and of what he wants to achieve through language learning. it should be a convincing representation of the actual object. and easy to use and manipulate. Developing student autonomy Recent studies show that learning is successful only when students take responsibility for their own learning. simple. in the area of vocabulary. cognitive. 15. functions. graphic. opinion gap or personalization -authenticity in task design and language that give students the feeling of reality and usefulness -using open-ended and freer tasks which are more stimulating by involving several possible answers of different degrees of predictability 2)developing students` linguistic strategies: -use of procedures such as. compensation and transfer strategies -developing personal and family values -developing artistic taste and creativity 4)developing students` cognitive strategies by: -note-taking -grouping -analysing -summarizing -skimming/scanning -matching -deducing -selecting 75 . the feature which makes students become active individuals in their own social context. The teacher can do this by: 1)enhancing students` intrinsec motivation by: -the syllabus which takes into consideration students` affective. language awareness activities. The teacher should try and develop student autonomy. it should be of suitable size for teaching. grammar. discourse and translation 3)developing students` cultural and social strategies -awareness (of self and others)raising activities -personalization activities -developing assertiveness and confidence -developing personal responsible behaviour -developing comparing. attitudinal skills and characteristics -using a variety of topics and tasks -using such exercises as: info gap. without any help. The independent and autonomous learner is the one who wants to learn.-the OHP -cassette recorder and cassettes -tape recorder -language films No matter the aids and materials the teacher may use. guessing meaning from the context.
Walters.demonstrate. .40 . perform. OUP. . p. Heinemann. R. Phillips and Walters9 recommendations are: . Oxford.be decisive (make students learn to recognize a cue for instructions). Task 1)Outline some of the advantages of using visual support materials 2)What are some of the basic principles behind pair-work activities? 3)Write 5 reasons for asking questions in the language class VIII. Phillips.-transferring 5)developing students` metacognitive strategies: -developing ability to plan. D. .use simple language and short expressions. 2000) 16. Gower. S (1995): Teaching Practice Handbook. .attract the students` attention (everyone should listen and watch to the teacher). organize and evaluate activities -helping students acquire research skills -helping students self-evaluate and plan their self-study -helping students develop the faculty of critical thinking (adapted from The Methodology of Pathway to English.be consistent (the same set of words from the same instruction).break the instruction down. Giving effective instructions An important role in the classroom is plas the instructions which are given.EVALUATION AND TESTING Aims 1)to develop trainees` ability to evaluate students` performance 2)to help trainees adapt and design teaching and testing materials appropriate to their students` needs and teaching contexts Objectives 1)the trainees will be able to use appropriate techniques to evaluate and assess student performer 9 Gower. .
Evaluation Evaluation means gathering information about a class or an individual in order to form a judgement.Testing VIII. they are strictly connected with three factors: the evaluator.Error correction Task VIII. this happens because evaluation is always related either to a norm. The first type compares students‘ performances. different errors may appear. or at the end of the school year. It aims at ranking of students according to their results. it has in view either one important part of the course. the one who is evaluated and the instrument of evaluation.3. The problem of evaluation is one important field of research in psychology.Evaluation VIII.2)the trainees will be able to self-evaluate through critical reflection 3)the trainees will be able to design tests appropriate to the teaching contexts Contents VIII. its main functions are considered to be: -offering the students a clear picture of their progress in language the students‘ stimulation to improve their activity -the orderly classification of students according to their performance -the formation and the development of students‘ capacity to appreciate and to selfappreciate objectively Evaluation can be cumulative and formative/continuous. it consists in the feedback given for the students and the teacher. The verbal appreciation consists in the teacher‘s use of some expressions of the type: “Good”/”Good work”/ “ All right”/ “ Good answer”/ “There can be noticed much 77 . the teacher and the students‘ parents -the criterion of validity – the results must be valid -the criterion of frequency When evaluating. One of the major problems of evaluation is the fact that it is relative. written papers. The classical methods of evaluation include daily observation. A good evaluation has some characteristics or criteria: -the criterion of feedback – any evaluation must be an immediate feedback -the criterion of information – the results of evaluation offer good information for the students.1. or to objectives. or the whole. verbal appreciation. and it is made at the end of the semester.1. appreciation with marks and tests. The second type consists in comparing the obtained results of one student with the established objectives. because it is connected with different personalities in different situations.2. practical papers.
it must be given in a pleasant environment -the instructional aspect – concerned with the relationship of the test to the course. effort and resources. they represent teaching devices and if they are well designed. when students are helped to fix their knowledge. etc. they are also means of assessing the students` performance in the language.progress/ improvement in your work”/ “I do appreciate your progress in English”. this is what is meant by reliability. It is used when the students‘ works are checked. Language testing has four fundamental aspects: -the evaluative aspect – a good test is supposed to measure accurately and consistently what has or has not been learned. or whenever changes are noticed in their work. the teacher should not be influenced by the marks obtained at other subjects -after giving a mark. an important feature of this relationship is how testing influences the mode of teaching by providing insights into the learning process Each test has a format and a content and it is based on procedures and activities.2. VIII.Testing Testing and teaching are closely interrelated. the results should be compared with the results obtained from any other similar test. even though the tests in question were taken by different groups at different times -the practical aspect – a good test is expected to provide as much information as is required with the minimum expenditure of time. behaviour and attitude towards the learning process. a good test is by definition reliable. A test gives a score that is assumed to define the level of knowledge of the one who takes it. gain additional confidence. for purposes of awarding a qualification or for selection and placement -prediction of future progress -measurement of the value of teaching methods and procedures -diagnosis of individual or group[ difficulties -measurement of aptitude So. as well as what he has to do in order to get better results) The appreciation must have as a result the growing of the students‘ trust in their possibilities. there can be mentioned: -assessment of attainment. according to their function tests may be: -class progress tests – designed to measure the exact extent to which the students have mastered the material taught in the classroom. Tests are devices used to reinforce learning and motivate the student. Among the functions of tests. the teacher should explain to the student why he/she has got it (the student has to know exactly what it was expected from him. stimulate learning and reinforce what has been taught . when students work to build up skills. Evaluation with marks must have in view certain criteria: -the marks should be objective -they must reflect the students‘ exact level of knowledge -when giving marks. they encourage students to perform well. what he knew and what he did not.
etc. all proficiency tests have in common the fact that they are not based on courses that candidates may have previously taken -aptitude tests – assessing proficiency in language for language use. such a test would have criterion-related validity -construct validity – if it can be demonstrated that the test measures just the ability which it is supposed to measure -face validity – if it looks as if it measures what it is supposed to measure In order to increase reliability of a test. preserve candidates anonymity. a test is necessarily a sample of that content -criterion-related validity – to be noticed if a test agrees with an independent assessment of the test-taker`s ability. provide a detailed scoring key for the test. they tell the teacher whether or not an individual is proficient enough in language. they predict the student`s probable strength and weakness in learning a foreign language (assesses aptitude for language learning) -diagnostic tests – pointing out the area in which a student requires more concentrated teaching and study. insure that tests are well laid out and legible. use multiple. the following must be taken in view: have enough test items. A test should also be objective. what/how teachers teach. they predict probable success or failure in certain kinds of language study. they are rather carried out for groups of students rather than for individuals: if several students in the group make a certain error. for example. reliability means that the test is fit to be trusted or relied on (has dependable score). provide clear and explicit instructions. what/how learners learn. the teacher will note it and then plan appropriate remedial teaching A good test should have two characteristics: to be valid and to be reliable. no test is able to encompass everything a student has learned. they are not concerned with measuring not general attainment but specific skills. in order to perform certain tasks. thus. must be made up of items testing knowledge or control grammar).reliability is the consistency with which a test measures something. they discover the learning difficulties. error recognition tasks or sentence completion tasks. provide uniform and non-distracting conditions for administration. if a teacher opinion independently corroborates test results. the attitude to the content and method of teaching/learning as well as the 79 . structures. There are different kinds of validity: -content validity – a test has content validity if its content is a representative sample of the language skills. they may include dictation. an objective test is the one which will be scored the same by any grader. these tests may be standardized or teacher-made (most annual school examinations take the form of achievement tests) -proficiency tests – assessing what has been learned of a known or unknown syllabus. under similar conditions. with which it is meant to be concerned (a grammar test. they assess knowledge and skills learned over a short period of time and taught directly in school.-achievement tests – assessing what has been learned of a known syllabus. it has been observed that a test may influence teaching/learning. Validity means that the test measures accurately what it is meant/intended to measure. The term backwash denotes the effect of testing on teaching and learning. try to use items which permit objective scoring. with a similar group of test-takers. write unambiguous items. independent scoring. they are established by the teacher and include tasks which require students to recall information they were expected to commit to memory. a reliable test will give the same results each time it is used.
Consequently. etc) in a way which a fluent or native speaker of the language regards as showing faulty or incomplete learning. a grammatical item.degree and depth of teaching and learning. Errors should be treated as a way of learning the language. teachers should concentrate more on techniques for dealing with errors. On the other hand there can be mentioned the theory supported by the representatives of the Communicative Approach. learners are trying things out. from direct into indirect speech) -finish the structures exercises -rephrasing (students may be given the word(s) with which to begin the new sentence. or feedback. Chudron22 . testing out their knowledge and skills in learning the language. helping learners by correcting them can be a way “of giving information. a speech act. who view learners‘ errors as being natural and inevitable in the process of learning. Edge23 considers language errors as “learning steps” that we can learn from. considers that learners making mistakes should be viewed as positive. Teachers should not view mistakes as negative.Error correction Error correction in the process of learning a foreign language has concerned language teachers and methodologists for many years. In the field of methodology there have been two major schools of thought concerning error correction. The attitude towards the learner‘s error has been reconsidered under the influence of the latest studies concerning language learning and acquisition. making mistakes is nothing but a part of their language-learning development. as a consequence. for example to check vocabulary: -finding the odd word in a series of related words -multiple choice exercise -answering questions -cloze tests When checking grammar. from active into passive. just when it will support their learning” Some linguists differentiate between an error and a mistake. A great variety of activities and tests can be used. On the one hand there has been established that “ the occurrence of errors is merely a sign of the present inadequacy of our teaching techniques” (Corder21).3. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics offers the following definitions: 1)error : (in the speech or writing of a second or foreign language learner). the following exercises are usually chosen: -multiple choice activities -gap filling -transformations (from affirmative into negative or interrogative. on representative of such a theory. language mistakes must be interpreted as signs that learners are learning something. or be given no support at all -matching VIII. Errors are classified according to: . the use of a linguistic item (a word. to your students.
In the case of a mistake. which are agent nouns formed by adding -er to the simple form of the verb) Correction: new explanation of the problem . carelessness. (overgeneralization that present continuous is always used when reference is made to a continuous action in the present) Correction: insistence on the exceptions from the rule. or where intended meaning and structure are not clear to the teacher Errors can have different causes: 1)L1 interference: She is busy. an error results from incomplete knowledge. they can also be global or local. errors can be: developmental. checking the dictionary 3)Overgeneralization: I am seeing* the plane in the sky. either from their mother tongue or from what they know of English. As a conclusion. the learner does not know the correct form and cannot produce it at that particular stage of learning. errors can show evidence of learning even though at that stage they are getting something wrong. or some other aspect of performance. (for the language which has the same item for injure and wound) Correction: contrastive re-examination of the grammar problem in the two languages and more exercises to practise it in English 2)False analogy: My uncle is a fisher. the learner knows the correct form but he has temporarily forgotten it.* (analogy with other words. Edge distinguishes between: -slips of the tongue/pen – which a learner can self-correct -errors – which a student cannot correct by himself. and the class is familiar with that form -attempts – where students have no idea how to structure what they want to mean. but where it is clear which form the student wanted to use. such as teacher. fatigue. Learners can be applying rules. interlingual or intralingual. isn‘t it?* (from a mother tongue which has a fix question-tag form) Lots of people were wounded* in the car crash.-vocabulary (lexical error) -pronunciation (phonological error) -grammar (syntactic error) -misunderstanding of a speaker‘s intention or meaning (interpretative error) -production of the wrong communicative effect (pragmatic error) Seen from another point of view. worker. 2)mistake: (made by the learner when writing or speaking) – caused by lack of attention. the learner can probably correct it. on the categories of verbs which 81 .
There are several techniques of error correction: teacher‘s correction. (ignorance of the sequence of tenses in conditional clauses) Correction: new explanation of the rules. (overlearning of present continuous. (confusion from learning both items at the same time) Correction: discrimination by examples and practice between the two verbs which create confusion. he would have told it to me. It‘s for mowing the lawn.(failure to discriminate between the ling and the short sound: i:/I They were to* noisy. self-correction. (failure to realize the difference between too/to) Correction: more pronunciation exercises which might help them discriminate between sounds 8)Confusion between items: A man has robbed* my bike. I‘m sure. as well as more practice 6)Incomplete learning: Will you borrow* me your dictionary? (incomplete learning – the fact that in English there exist two verbs: to borrow and to lend) Correction: more examples which are based on the use of the verbs to lend and to borrow She make *a cake every weekend. as a result of intense drilling) Correction: insistence on the cases in which the rule does not apply 5)Ignorance of the rule: When I will arrive *at the railway station.) Correction: explanation of the structure to be used when showing purpose 4)Overlearning of the rule: She has gone* there this morning. . (overlearning of the rule that present perfect is used for recent past) He is hearing* the noise. (incomplete learning of the form of the present tense IIIrd person singular) Correction: new presentation of the rule.(ignorance of the rule governing the time clauses with future reference in English) If he knew *it. (overgeneralization of the rule: for+-ing as in: It‘s for cutting bread.cannot be used in progressive form I‘m going to that shop for buying* a new blouse. followed by more practice which contrasts the IIIrd person singular to all the other persons 7)Failure to discriminate between forms: They leave* in a new house. I‘ll call you. if needed.
drawing the student‘s attention by questioning. Students will benefit most if they can be guided towards a process of correcting themselves. If they are not simple slips. perhaps lasting for 15-20 minutes. original cassette recordings) backchaining – the technique for helping students say a difficult sentence . Where errors are slips of the tongue or lapses . answer specific questions. by it in smaller parts and practicing by saying the respective piecesbackwash – the effect of testing on teaching and learning body language – non-verbal communication (eye contact. or the teacher can offer the correct version. postures brainstorm – to collect together knowledge/information/ideas on a topic buzz groups – a form of group activity in which groups of students have a brief discussion to generate ideas. etc.peer-correction. facial expression. things that the teacher aims will be done/achieved during an activity or lessonauthentic materials – texts from real-life sources (magazine articles. gestures. Whenever the student is unable to selfcorrect. Task Design a test in order to assess your students` knowledge of a particular grammar problem GLOSSARY accuracy – the ability to produce language in a grammatically correct way (to formulate grammatically correct sentences) acquisition – the process by which the person “picks up language “ from here and there and proves knowledge of it (language is not “studied” systematically) activity. the teacher ‘s facial expressions or the teacher making different gestures. the 83 .a short task which is part of a lesson. case study – a group activity which uses the data offered by a real “case” or typical situation choral repetition – students repeat an example together 9as a group or whole class) class work – any form of learning activity in which the whole class works together classroom management – the way a teacher organizes his classroom and learners. the teacher can call another student to provide the correction. a single exercise or game. students will be able to supply the correct form. etc affective – influencing or influenced by emotions aims – the behavioural objectives of a lesson. errors can provide a learning opportunity.
pictures. limiting the students` use of language (drills.pairwork in which students talk privately in twos. the general understanding . abbreviate: CAL content-based – focusing on a content area controlled practice – the type of practice in which the role of the teacher is that of a controller. all the students in the class work simultaneously cloze procedure – an exercises with regularly –spaced gaps to be filled communicative activity – an activity whose main aim is communication computer assisted learning – a method of learning which involves the use of specially designed computer programmes. it involves students in very controlled oral practice EFL – acronym for English as a Foreign Language. rather than providing them with “right” answers feedback – information that is given to learners about their spoken or written performance fluency – the ability to produce language easily. one/more members of each group move over and join one of the other groups. thus sharing ides cued practice – practice in which the language used by students represent a response to a given cue offered by the teacher (or another student). to communicate quickly but not necessarily with grammatical correctness gist – the main idea or message of an oral or written text. the role of in a country where English is not a language of communication elicitation – a technique using different questions and answers. Cues can be words.moment-by-moment decisions and actions concerning the organization of the classroom and the activites to be performed closed pairwork . questions to be answered. after some time. sentences to be completed) creative practice – the type of practice in which students are allowed to use the language with almost no control from the part of the teacher (or very little one) cross-over groups – a form of group activity in which the class is divided into groups which have a discussion. actions deductive learning – students are taught rules and specific information about a language problem and they are expected to apply the rules when they use the language drill – a technique that is commonly used in practicing sounds or sentence patterns. who helps the group to find their own answers. by means of which the teacher gets information/ideas/opinions from learners evaluation – gathering information about a class or an individual in order to form a judgement facilitator – an assistant or a guide for a group.
writing) together intensive reading – type of reading that is done at a slower pace. learning styles. from which they can learn integrated skills – all of the language skills (listening. sometimes with rereading of all or part of the text. needs. so he has to communicate to “close the gap” information inductive learning – students are offered examples of language and they are helped to establish rules (students induce rules from their own experience in language use) transfer activity – an activity where a learner has to move information from one place to another (example: to complete a table according to information on a map) input – language which learners experience in a lesson. but by being exposed to it in natural situations.an activity which involves re-ordering a mixed text to find its correct order. not learning it consciously.global listening/reading – listening or reading for a general understanding of the whole text group dynamics – the way a group of people interacts with each other group work – any form of learning activity which is done by groups of learners working together guided practice – practice which is based on a framework established by the teacher and students are allowed to make some limited choices humanistic activities – teaching techniques which emphasize the whole person and acceptance of his/her individual values and emotions icebreaker – an activity that is meant to help students and teacher get to know each other at the beginning of a course inference – a guess about something from a text. often contrasted with language learning. lives and/or values of the learners learner talking time – the amount a learner talks during a lesson learning strategy – a process or technique which a learner uses to help himself to learn a 85 . which involves a conscious knowledge of the language (example: grammatical rules) learner-based activity – an activity in which learners supply personally relevant information or help create materials learner-centred teaching – learning situations where information and ideas are brought together to the class by learners and used as learn ing material and which are concerned with the interests. it helps learners to see the connections between parts of a written text language acquisition – “picking up” a language. reading. reading between the lines information gap – an activity in which a learner knows something that another learner does not know. speaking. feeling. students pay attention to details and try to get a thorpugh understanding of the text interaction – patterns of communication (verbal and non-verbal) between people jigsaw reading .
by doing) lesson pace – rhythm of the lesson method – the procedures and techniques characteristic of teaching micro-teaching –a teaching situation which has been reduced in some way. the teacher also checks that an activity is going according to a plan monitoring – learners are considered to monitor their language when they are consciously following the spoken or written language they are producing objective – intended student achievements in a lesson observation – gathering information together by watching a class. low intermediate. is a reading strategy) learning style –the way a particular learner learns something (by watching. high-intermediate) monitor –one role of the teacher in the classroom. mind map – a diagram which supposedly represents the brain or the mind. feelings) open pairwork – pairwork in which two students exchange language across the classroom with the other students listening peer teaching – classroom teaching in which one student (trainee) teaches another or others perceptual language learning – a learning style related to the senses (auditory learning style. Usually one trainee teaches a short activity to his/her classmates. often used in a training situation to concentrate on one particular aspect of a trainee‘s teaching. speaking in pairs/groups which are constantly being formed and reformed. suggestions. often in a random fashion mixed-ability class – a group of learners whose proficiency levels span a range (highbeginning. the teacher listens to the students and compares what is being said to what is intended. in order to describe what is happening open-ended questioning – technique of questioning where the answer is not automatically predicted (the answer expresses the student‘s opinions. topics are clustered on the page together as they are believed to be collected in the brain mingle activity – an activity during which students move around. visual learning style) personalize – to make an example of language of interest to an individual student or fit an individual situation pictogram – a drawing of a word which represents that word .language ( looking at a photograph above a newspaper article before reading it.
and followed by oral/written presentation to their peers pyramid group – a form of group activity in which the class is divided into groups. after some time. explained. pairs of groups are joined together and continue the discussion. but they offer different solutions productive skills – learners are required to produce the language by speaking and writing project work – a kind of task-based activity which involves extended amount of independent work (often outside class time) either by an individual student or a group of students. by introducing new language or topic problem-solving activity – an activity where learners have to solve a problem. analyzing) which make up the general receptive skill of listening or reading task – another word for a short classroom activity. Sometimes called a snowball group. divided into sections like pie slices. something that students are asked to do tapescript –the transcription of a tape-recorded text. 87 . useful for displaying the relationship of parts to each other and to the whole presentation – the introduction of new items (the stage in which the meaning of the item is illustrated. the procedure is repeated until there is only one group.pie chart – a circular graph. scanning. skimming. items of clothing. the students may all start from the same point. refers to listening and reading role-play – a communicative activity in which learners talk to each other in different character roles. demonstrated) pre-teach – to prepare learners for an activity. etc. dialogue.a role-play where you play yourself in a given situation skimming – a technique in the development of reading skills where a text is read in order to find its general idea staging a lesson – organizing the lesson into parts that follow a logical order stage – one distinct part of the lesson STT – student talking time subskills – skills or techniques (such as predicting. items of food. comprising the whole class. without producing it. realia – things from real life which are brought into the classroom and used as aids (photographs. a form of simulation in which the participants adopt certain roles or parts scanning – a technique in the development of reading skills where a text is read in order to find specific information simulation . etc) receptive skills – learners are receiving language and processing it.
London 20)Harmer. 16)Harmer.(1970): Limba engleza contemporana. p.(1982): Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. 21)Corder. it is expected that all the members of the group will contribute something to the completion of the task. p. A.L. C.R. Newbury House 4)Littlewood.H. P. J.Heineman 9)Doff.(1963): Linguistics and Reading.(1989): Mistakes and Correction.C.cit.(1990): Language Learning Strategies:What Every teacher Should Know.6 11)Harmer (1993):op.(1981): How Do I Teach Reading?. (1981): Communicative Language Teaching. (1993): op. ELTS. J. p. OUP. & Arthur.P. C. Lexicologie. Rinehart & Winston.). R.C. New York 15)Harmer. Longman .(1988): Second language Classroom.L.20 22)Chaudron.(1967): The Significance of Learner`s Errors.(1996): Teach English.(1974): Les rites d`interaction. Les Editions de Minuit. (1993): op.R. Balan.R.cit.cit. NOTES 1)Harmer. 17)Ur.(1996): A Course in Language Teaching. J.30 6)Goffman.(1982): op. 12)Levitchi.S.(1988): Large Classes. John Willy & Sons 8)Nuttall. CUP. p. Didactica so pedagogica.L. Paris 7)Aukerman. Communication no. Pergamon 3)Oxford.W.E.(1982): Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.(1970): op.cit 19)Nolasco. J.J.C.teacher talking time –the amount of time a teacher talks during the lesson teaching space – the area that the teacher uses in the classroom while teaching transcript – a written record of what happens in a classroom transition – the way the teacher makes a link between two separate parts of a lesson TTT – teacher talking time visual aids – name given to any type of visual support to learners in the learning/ teaching process. CUP 18)Nuttal. offered at any given stage of the lesson warm-up/warmer – an activity done at the beginning of a lesson meant to warm up the atmosphere workshop – a kind of task-based group activity which involves the completion of certain specified task. Bucuresti 13)Levitchi. CUP 10)Achim. in Richards (ed.(1993): The Practice of English Language Teaching.(1975): Logique et conversation. Ed. cit.15 2)Krashen.D. Longman. CUP 5)Grice. & others (2000): The Methodology to Pathway to English.(1993): op.134 23)Edge.cit.C. Macmillan.S. 14)Fries.A.
R.(1987): Effective Class Management.(1987): Techniques for Classroom Interaction. M.BIBLIOGRAPHY Achim. D.(1990): Communicative Language Testing White. (1983): The Practice of English Language Teaching.(1988): Process Writing.& Green C. short texts 89 . Cambridge Ur. (1986): Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching Nunan. C. Cambridge University Press Harmer.. (1988): Classroom Testing. C. (1998): Tasks for Teacher Education. S. P. CUP Tanner. Cambridge University Press Ur. P. J. D. (1986): Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. OUP Byrne. Longman Heaton. Longman Wright. A. A.. Longman Krashen. Larsen-Freeman.R &others(2000): The Methodology of Pathway to English. Heinemann Richards. (1992): Reading. Cambridge Doff. P. S. Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. (1988): Grammar Practice Activities. Longman Collie. J. Oxford University Press Weir. Cambridge University Press Ur. C. (1996): A Course in Language Teaching Ur. Balan. words and utterances -produce questions and answers -make simple descriptions and reports -participate in games and activities involving simple communication 3)reading: -read short texts aloud or silently -global and selective understanding 4)writing: -copy words. (1982): Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice Hall Nuttal. J. (1986): Teaching Listening Comprehension.(1987): Literature in the Language Classroom. J. T. (1982): Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. (1988): Teach English. Edinburgh Underwood. Cambridge University Press Wallace.(1987): Roles of Teachers and Learners.sentences. (1981): Discussions that Work.(1991): Language Teaching Methodology. Oxford University Press Appendix 1 Objectives for Learners A)primary school 1)listening: -identify sounds/words isolated and in context -identify segments of utterances/intonational contours -understand and react adequately to simple questions/statements -global/selective understanding 2)speaking: -produce specific sounds. R. D.& Slater. P.
from context (inference) -be aware of the connections between sentences/paragraphs 4)writing: -semiguided writing with/without audio-visual prompt/clues -transformation of texts (summarize and develop) 5)cross-cultural objectives: -understand specific images and symbols -use representative elements of the behaviour code accepted in the respective cultural space C)secondary school 1)listening: -understand details -understand messages in non-standard language -information transfer -grasp the specificity of a literary discourse -understand the socio-communicative context of speech 2)speaking: .-fill in short texts -write short dictations -guided writing 5)cross-cultural objectives: -understand certain socio-cultural elements of everyday life (similarities and differences) B)lower-secondary school 1)listening: -understand speaker`s attitude and the relation between them -deduce unknown elements from context -order information 2)speaking: -initiate and sustain a conversation -make detailed oral descriptions and reports -make simple narrations -express opinions and suggestions -make assumptions 3)reading: -understand a text in detail -deduce elements that are known or mentioned.
-adapt speech to context -participate in debates and negotiations -make speeches on certain subject-matter -present projects 3)reading: -identify author`s attitude and tone of text -reading assisted by reference books -interpret meaning of texts -information transfer 4)writing: -free writing -take notes -translate -write functional texts 5)cross-cultural objectives: -be aware of mentalities and attitudes typical for the respective cultural space (comparative approach) -acquire information specific to the respective cultural space (intercultural perspective) (1998. AGM. Constanta 28-31May) Appendix 2 Activity Types and Procedures in the classroom -analysing -adapting -adding/completing -answering to side questions to a text -brainstorming -classifying -comparing -concept questions -completing sentences -completing charts/tables/diagrams -cloze (gap-filling) -comprehension questions -creative writing -defining -detecting mistakes -discovering word meaning from the context -discriminating sounds/word-stress/sentence-stress -describing pictures -dialogue -debate -drills 91 .
pictures with words -making own questions/titles to paragraphs/text/lists/plans/tasks -mediating techniques (finding the Romanian/English version of words) -narrating -ordering/reordering (chronologically/according to importance) -paraphrasing -producing sounds/word-stress/sentence-stress -prediction (+ tick the truth) -process writing -problem solving -project-work -ranking -rearranging -rephrasing -reporting dialogue -raising awareness activities -reproducing sounds/word-stress/sentence-stress -role play -reading + making notes -reading for details/for gist -selecting -sorting into sets -sentence completion -story telling -skimming/scanning a text -sequencing -self-evaluation -true/false exercise -transformation -taking/giving interviews -text interpretation/appreciation/translation -word webs -working with dictionary . picture to picture. text to charts/graphs) -jumbled words/sentences/paragraphs -jigsaw reading -labelling pictures -linking paragraphs by link words -listening for gist/specific info/for details -listening + taking notes -listing -matching words/pictures/paragraphs with titles.-evaluating -finding out (names/things/facts/attitudes/feelings) -games -introspecting/reflecting -improving (giving suggestions about…) -insert sentences/omit sentences in a text -information transfer (text to text.
-writing after a model Appendix 3 Objectives of TP 1)to provide experience in classroom teaching 2)to apply instruction from theory courses 3)to provide opportunities to observe master teachers 4)to give feedback on teaching techniques 5)to develop awareness of personal teaching style 6)to develop lesson planning skills 7)to develop ability to select/adapt materials 8)to become familiar with specific methods (from Richards and Crookes.927) Appendix 4 Classroom observation When doing classroom observation. the level and the particular students timing -anticipation of teaching difficulties -anticipation of learners` difficulty -preparation of materials 3)General class management -organization of physical resources -giving of instructions -rearrangement of seating when necessary -presentation and practice techniques: meaningful. TESOL Quarterly 22/1. apppropriate -handling change of activities -pace of the lesson -change of groupings 93 . motivating. clarity of diction -self-awareness: ability to pick up one`s own mistakes and correct them -experience: flexibility and degree of confidence 2)Preparation and lesson plan -clarity and appropriateness of aims/objectives -balance and variety of activities -clarity of procedures -suitability of materials and methods for the class. speed. 1988 . The Practicum in TESOL. contextualised -indication of stages of the lesson -questioning/elicitation: graded. directed. the following are to be taken into account: 1)Personal qualities of the teacher: -personality/presence/general style -ability to establish/maintain rapport -voice: audibility.
feedback -class control: ability to maintain discipline/deal with problem students -ability to adapt/improvise. pair. gestures -encouragement. writing -ability to handle complex integration of the four skills 7)Sensitivity to students -control of language to level of class -responding appropriately to students` difficulties -responding appropriately to factors which may affect students` motivation and learning -encouragement of students -involvement of and attention to individuals . group. in order to deal with the unexpected -achievement of aims -giving homework 4)Use of techniques -use of appropriate techniques in order to introduce new material -use of appropriate techniques to review material previously taught -motivation and involvement of students -giving of explanation -relating material to one another -sufficient variety in techniques -appropriate sequencing of controlled and less controlled activities -appropriate balancing of teacher-learner and learner-learner interaction -preparation for communicative interaction -balance between fluency and accuracy -checking understanding 5)Questioning techniques -grading of questions to suit the level of students -appropriate distribution of questions among the students -formulation of questions -use of variety of questions -encouraging students to answer and ask questions -acceptance of answers 6)Skills -ability to foster better listening.-use of aids -checking understanding -variety of techniques -balance of class. eye contact. speaking. facial expressions. praise. individual activities -appropriate teacher movement -skills development. reading. integration of skills -creativity -ability to encourage learner autonomy -body language.
8)Error correction -awareness of students` errors -appropriate treatment of students` errors 9)Using the board -visibility -clear layout -new langauge highlighted effectively -overuse/underuse of it 95 .