Project Study Report

On
Training Undertaken At


TitIed
JOB SATISFACTION

Submitted in partiaI fuIfiIIment for the
Award of degree of
Master of Business Administration





Submitted by: Submitted to
KAJAL MR. RAMESH YADAV
MBA 2
nd
year HR MANAGER





ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



No matter how ones tries to limit ones feeling to bind in words, they
cannot prove to a true measure of what is felt. ASHOK LEYLAND
LTD. was my wonderful experience. Ìt offered me an insight into the
working of industry. The experience Ì had there was something which
no book can replace, be it the interactions with the staff or the training
sessions.

This project entitled "WeIfare Activities in Ashok LeyIand" is an out
come of my summer training. Ì would like to express my sincere
gratitude and deep regards to Mr. A.K. Chopra (Manufacturing
manager Alwar), Ramesh Yadav (Divisional Manager H.R.) ),
Bhupendra Kumar & Danish Ali Khan (ass. manager) for allowing me
to take my training in Ashok Leyland and giving me this opportunity to
learn through this project. Ì would like to profoundly thank employees
of related department for extending his full support and guiding me in
this endeavor. My sincere thanks to the various department heads for
explaining the process.








PREFACE


The Ashok Leyland is one oI the Iastest growing names in the Iield oI heavy
vehicles products driven by their commitment Ior quality, their products and
services are rated and accepted as one oI the best.

The main obiective oI the Ashok Leyland is customer satisIaction by continuous
improvement in Men, Machine, Methods, Materials and environment and
achieving zero deIects Ior total customer satisIaction.

The Ashok Leyland was registered in 1950 by a group oI eminent and experienced
entrepreneurs with a vision to provide heavy vehicles products oI superior quality
and all possible ranges at most competitive prices.

The Ashok Leyland is having an ISO 9002 and 14001 certiIicate.

The current Turn over oI the Ashok Leyland is about 83.047millions (Rs.)
It is always desirable by the management to know the perception and the new
segment iI any to Ioray to increase the consumer base and business eventually.
I am thankIul to the management Ior assigning such a challenging proiect to me.







COMPANY PROFILE

ASHOK LEYLAND:--

An Introduction

The origin oI Ashok Leyland can be traced to he urge Ior selI-reliance,
Ielt by independence India. Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, India`s Iirst prime
minister persuaded Mr. Raghunandan Saran, an industrialist, to enter
automotive manuIacture. In 1948, Ashok motors was set up in what
was then Madras, destiny and name changed soon with equity
participation by British Leyland and Ashok Leyland commenced
manuIacture oI commercial vehicles in 1950. Since then Ashok Leyland
has been a maior presence in India`s commercial vehicle industry with
tradition oI technological leadership, achieved through tie-ups with
international technology leaders and through vigorous in house R&D.

Access to international technology enabled the company to set a
tradition to be Iirst with technology. Be it Iull air brakes, power steering
or rear engine busses, Ashok Leyland pioneered all these concepts,
responding to the operating conditions and practices in the country. The
company made its vehicles strong over engineering them extra metallic
muscles. Designing durables products that make economic sense to the
consumer, using appropriate technology


became the design philosophy oI the company which in turn has molded
consumer attitudes and the brand personality.
In 1987, the overseas holding by land Rover Leyland International
Holdings
limited (LRLIH) was taken over by a ioint venture between the Hinduia
Group, the Non-Resident Indian transnational group and IVECO Ilat
SPA, part oI the Ilat Group and Europe`s leading truck manuIacturer.

The blueprint prepared Ior the Iuture reIlected the global ambitious oI the
company, captured in Iour words: Global Standards, Global Market. This was at a
time when liberalization was not yet in the air. Buoyed by the backing oI two
international giants, Ashok Leyland embarked on a maior product and process up
gradation to match world-class standards oI technology.

In the iourney towards global standards oI quality Ashok Leyland reached a
maior milestone in 1993 when it became the Iirst in India`s automobile history
to win the ISO 9002 certiIication came in


1994 and ISO 14001 certiIication Ior all vehicle manuIacturing units in 2002.
The year 1994 was also the year, when international technology changed the way
India perceived trucks. A new breed oI world-class trucks- technologically superior
and eco-Iriendly rolled out





On India perceived trucks. A new breed oI world-class trucks technologically
superior and eco-Iriendly-rolled out on Indian roads Irom our state-oI-the-art
manuIacturing plant at Hosur,
near Bangalore. `Cargo` brought with it, a new set oI values and
Unmatched beneIits, ushering in a revolution.


CURRENT STATUS;

Ashok Leyland is a technology leader in the commercial vehicle sector oI India.
The history oI the company has been punctuated by a number oI technology
innovation, which have since become industry norms. It was the first to introduce
multi-axle trucks. full air brakes and a host oI innovations like the rear engine
and articulated buses in India. In 1997. the company launched the country`s
first CNG bus and 2002. developed the first hybrid electric vehicle.

The company has also maintained its proIitable track record Ior 60 years. The
annual turnover of the company was USD 1.4 BILLION in 2008-09.Selling
54.431 medium and heavy vehicle in 2008-0. Ashok Leyland is India`s largest
exporter oI medium and heavy duty trucks out oI India. It also one oI the largest
private sector employers in India
with about 12,000 employees working in 6 Iactories and oIIices spread over the
length and breadth oI India.
The company has increased its rated capacity to 105,000 vehicle per


annum.also Iurther investment plans including putting up two new plants
one in uttarakhand in north India and bus body building unit in middle east Asia
are Iast a Ioot. It already has a sizable presence in AIrican countries like Nigeria,
Ghana, Egypt and South AIrica.

One company acquired Czech republic based Avia`s truck business. The newly
acquired company has named Avia Ashok Leyland motors s.r.o. This gives
Ashok Leyland a Ioothold in the highly competitive European truck market. The
Hinduja group also bought out IVECO`S indirect stake in Ashok Leyland in
2007.the promoter shareholding now stands at 51°.

HISTORY

Ashok Leyland was urge Ior selI-reliance industry Ielt by independent
India`s Iirst Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, persuaded Mr.
Raghunandan Charan, an industrialist to enter automotive manuIacture. In
1948 Ashok Motors was setup in what was than Madras, Ior the assembly oI
Austin Cars. AIter that in 1955 the company`s name and luck changed by
Equity participation by British company Leyland and Ashok Motors gat a
new brand 'ASHOK LEYLAND¨ the manuIacture oI commercial vehicle
industry. With a convention oI technological leadership achieved by tie-ups
and collaboration with international technology leading organization and
through enthusiastic in house research and development it setup it`s
existence in Indian and Ioreign market


Admittance to global technology and equipment enabled the company to set
Iirst with technology in Iull air brakes Power steering, Rear- engine buses
etc. Ashok Leyland pioneered all these concepts. Responding to the
operating conditions and practices in the country, the company made its
vehicles strong over engineering them with extra metallic-muscles.

Ashok Leyland vehicles have built repute Ior reliability and austerity. The
5,00,000 vehicles we have put on the roads have considerably eased the
additional pressure placed on road transportation in independent India.

Ashok Leyland`s busses are used by the India`s Iour Ior out oI 5 most
populated states as their state transportation corporation vehicles. Some oI
them like double-decker and vestibule buses are unique models Irom
ASHOK LEYLAND

Tailor made Ior high- density routes. The company`s products are inherent
to Indian lives. Ashok Leyland dominates in city passenger`s transportation
with specialized high capacity buses such as double-decker and vestibule
bus Ior which the company is the only Indian source.

Ashok Leyland supplies a host oI modern special purpose vehicles to India`s
deIense sector. This includes stallion 4x4s, Iorming the backbone oI the Indian
army`s logistics operations, now being assembled within the deIense sector
through a technology transIer agreement. The stallions leIt an indelible mark Ior
reliability during the kargil conIlict. When India and Pakistan opened their


common gate at Wagaha, Ashok Leyland buses were the choice Ior this prestigious
cross border passenger service.

Ashok Leyland has maintained its technological leadership even as it oIIers the
most comprehensive range oI model conIigurations in its class, oIIering the
customer the closest Iit with his unique requirements. A pioneer in alternate Iuels,
Ashok Leyland made India`s Iirst CNG powered bus in 1997. In 2002, India
entered another Irontier technology when Ashok Leyland developed India`s Iirst
Hybrid electric bus in a partnership with the Government sector.

In 1987, the overseas holding by Land Rover Leyland international holdings
Limited was taken over by a ioint venture between the Hinduia Group, the non-
resident Indian transport group and IVECO.(since July 2006, the Hinduia Group is
100° holder oI LRLIH)

In the iourney towards global standards oI quality, Ashok Leyland reached a maior
milestone in 1993, when it becomes the Iirst Indian automobile history to win ISO-
9002 CertiIication. The more comprehensive ISO 9001 CertiIication came in 1994,
QS-9000 in 1998 and ISO-14001 CertiIication Ior all vehicles manuIacturing
unites in 2002. It has also become the Iirst Indian auto-company to receive the
latest ISO/TS-16949 corporate CertiIication (in July, 06), which is speciIic to the
auto industry.



MILESTONES OF COMPANY:

Ìntroduce full air brakes
1966 Launched double-decker bus
1967 Offered power steering in commercial vehicles
1979 Ìntroduced multi-axle trucks
1980 Ìntroduced the international concept of integral bus
with air suspension
1981 Ìntroduced vestibule bus
1992 Won self certification status for defence supplies
1993 Received ÌSO 9002
1997 Ìndia's first CNG powered bus joined the BEST fleet
2001 Received ÌSO 14001 certification for all manufacturing
units
2002 Launched hybrid electric vehicle










Achievements
O Eight out of ten metro state transport buses in Ìndia are from Ashok
Leyland. At60 million passengers a day, Ashok Leyland buses carry
more people than the entire Ìndian rail network.
O Ashok Leyland has a near 98.5% market share in the Marine Diesel
Engines Markets in Ìndia.
O Ìn 2002, all the vehicle-manufacturing units of Ashok Leyland were
ÌSO 14001 certified with Environmental Management System.
O The company has six manufacturing locations in Ìndia:
4 Encore, Chennai
4 Hosur, Thamilnadu(3 plants)
4 Alwar, Rajasthan
4 Bandana, Maharashtra

The total covered space at these six pIants exceeds 450,000 sq m and
together employs over 11,500 personnel.
O Last Financial year (2006-2007) the company sold a record 83,101
vehicles which is an all time high considering the past sales
history of Ashok Leyland.
O Ìt is one of the leading Brands in Ìndia and most easily recognizable
one.

O The company is setting up a new Plant in the North Ìndian state of
Uttarakhand at Pant Nagar at an investment outlay of Rs. 1200
crores. This plant is expected to go on stream in the year 2008. The
Plant will have a capacity to produce around 40,000 commercial
vehicles and is expected to cater mainly to the North Ìndian market
taking advantage of the excise duty and other tax concession The
company has signed an agreement with Ras Al Khaimah Ìnvestment
Authority (RAKÌA) in UAE for setting up a new manufacturing base in
the Middle East.
O The company also announced that it may set up a manufacturing
base in South Africa













AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTS OF ASHOK LEYLAND


School bus - Stag (ÌCV)

Bus (MDV) - Viking Cheetah, Viking Super, Falcon

Double Decker bus - Vestibule bus

Rear-engine bus - Panther, Cruiser, Enviro

Luxury bus - Luxury, Foton

CNG bus - Viking, Viking Super, Lynx, 4.2 &
4.9

Multi- axle vehicle - Taurus 6x4 taurus 6x2 tusker super6x2
2516,2514,2214

Haulage - Comet, comet Gold, bison, tusker
supper
1512,1614, Beaver, hippo

Tipper - Comet, bison, Taurus, cargo 759, cargo
909, Cargo1614,
Hippo- Tipper, 2516

Dumper - ALRD20 dumper

Tractor - Comet, tusker turbo, Beaver, hippo, rhino,
4018, 4921

CV/ÌCV - Cargo 759, Cargo 909, Cargo 100 .12

Fire Fighter - Comet gold 4x2, YAK 4x4, hmv 6x6, RAT
6x6, LRV
4x4, TFF 4x2







INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZATION


The Head-office of Ashok Leyland is in Chennai, Ìndia. And the
Hinduja Group owns the company. Mr. Parmanand D. Hinduja (1901-
2001) was the founder of Hinduja Group.

VISION:-

Be among the top Ìndian corporations acknowledged nationality and
internationality for:-
Excellence in quality of its products.
Excellence in customers focus and service.
MISSION:-
Be a leader in the business of commercial vehicles, excelling in
technology, quality and value to customers fully supported by
customer service of the highest order and meeting international
environmental and safety standards.

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::-
--
Ashok Leyland started manufacturing of commercial vehicle in 1955,
with technology from and equity participation by Leyland
Motors ltd, U.K.



Ìn 1987 the Hinduja group gained a controlling interest in Ashok
Leyland and its associate companies when it acquired the U.K. ÷
based land Rover Leyland international holdings ltd, jointly with
ÌVECO. (since july 2006 the Hinduja group is 100% holder of LRLÌH).
Complementing its in-house R&D efforts are technologi-cal
collaborations with world leaders like Hino motors and ZF for
Contemporary aggregates to maintain the vital innards of its high
performing products.

The latest technology acquisition is for the manufacture of the high
powered 'J' Series engines, from Hino motors Japan. Ìt is a time-
ly tie-up coinciding with the development of modern highways and
the anticipated marked need for higher powered, higher productivi-
ty vehicles in the higher tonnage segments.

Ashok Leyland has few manufacturing plants the main plant at
Ennore near Chennai, two plants at Hosur- Ì and Hosur-ÌÌ,
along
With a press shop the assembly plants at Alwar and Bhandara
The
total covered space at these six plants exceeds 450,000 sq.m.
and
together employ over 11,500 per



PRODUCTION PLANT

Ashok Leyland has six manuIacturing plants the mother plant at Ennore near Chennai, two
plants at Hosur (called Hosur I and Hosur II, along with a Press hop), the assembly plants at
Alwar and Bhandara. The total covered space at these six plants exceeds 4,50,000 sqm and
together employ over 11,500 personnel.




















O ENNORE
O HOSUR I
O HOSUR II
O HOSUR II A
O BHANDARA
O ALWAR






A BRIEF



Ashok Leyland, Alwar Plant is one of the PRODUCTÌON
unit of Ashok Leyland Ltd. Alwar city is situated in west-north of
Rajasthan and is very near to Delhi, the Capital of Ìndia. Alwar comes
in NCR (National Capital region) also. Ìt is located at M.Ì.A. (Matsya
Ìndustrial Area) Alwar.
This plant was established in 1982 and has completed its
25years successfully. This plant is known for its high production. Ìt is
basically an assembly plant where the chassis is assembled.
Ashok Leyland, Alwar is world's largest CNG Vehicle's
Producing Plant. CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is used as an
alternate fuel to diesel and very less pollution of CNG vehicles is less
than even EURO-ÌV Vehicles which is known for its lesser pollution
value.
The total covered area of Alwar plant is 352 acres. And the
fencing is done in around 161 acres of area. The plant comprises of 3
shops called Shop-Ì, shop- ÌÌ and Shop-V. The plant has three gates,
one main gate, one for entering the goods-carries and the third the
products going out of the plant for sale

There is an administrative office, one P&A Department block,
department-offices, a medical center, a canteen, a news-paper
reading room and library, a training center and systems department,
RSO yard. And the construction is going on for new stores.

ALWAR UNIT

Alwar is a strategic town in Rajasthan Midway between Delhi and Jaipur.
O Part of National Capital Region (NCR).
O 170 kms from Delhi and 150 kms from Jaipur.
O Alwar unit is situated at Matsya Ìndustrial Area (M.Ì.A.), which is 18
km away from the city on old Alwar-Delhi road

PLANT DETAILS

O The plant was inaugurated on 22-8-1982.
O The total land area is 352.09 acres.
O Fenced area is 161.52 acres









SHOPS

There are three shops 140*1000=140000 sq.mt each

Shop 1 - Assembly activity
Shop 2 - Material Storage (proposed line)
Shop 5 - RSO yard & refurnishing work

TRAINING CENTRE

The Alwar training center has been recognized equivalent to Ìndustrial
Training Ìnstitute (Ì.T.Ì.) by the government of Rajasthan. The unit has got
a training center for the purpose of imparting training to its employees.



INTRODUCTION OF
ASHOK LEYLAND ALWAR PLANT

PLANT DETAILS:
The plant was inaugurated on 22.08.1982
The total land area is 352.09 acres
Fenced area is 161.52 acres

SHOPES:
Shops: 140x100 meter ÷ 14000 sq mt each
Shop office area:
274.5 sq meters in each shop
Shop No. 1: Assembly activity
Shop No. 2: Sales Yard, Non-moving materials, scrap
materials
Shop No. 5: RSO Yard & re-furbishing work

TRAINING CENTER
Workshop area
1350 sq meter being used by service promotion for
training & display models.

MAIN ADMN. BLOCK
Office space of 297 sq meter
Manufacturing Managers offices
Finance Department
Purchase Department
Systems Department
Reception & office services





PERSONAL & ADMINSTRATIVE BLOCK
Total space-428 sq meters
Personal department
Medical center

PLANTS:-
O ENNORE
O HOSUR-Ì
O HOSUR-ÌÌ
O HOSUR-ÌÌa
O BHANDARA
O ALWAR

T TR RA AI IN NI IN NG G C CE EN NT TR RE E: :

The Alwar training centre has been recognized Equivalent to
industrial training centre (ÌTÌ) by the government Of Rajasthan. The
unit has got a training center for the purpose of improving training to
its employees. .






P PR RO OD DU UC CT TI IV VI IT TY Y: :

Alwar unit is a benchmark for efficiency in its chosen activity namely
chassis production. Alwar unit contributes around 20% of the total
production and vision on contributing around 27%. Presently 25
chassis per day on a single shift is assembled 50 chassis can be
produced in two shifts.



V VA AR RI IO OU US S D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT TS S A AN ND D T TH HE EI IR R F FU UN NC CT TI IO ON N; ;


1 1. . P PR RO OD DU UC CT TI IO ON N D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

This department plays a vital role.

O To product the planned volume as per predetermined model ÷
mix in right quality and at optimum cost.
O To plan and monitor the system so as to lead an efficient
production process.
O To control all the cost parameters like materials consumption
power & fuel, idle time.
O Over time and absenteeism.
O

To maintain and promote industrial harmony in respect of matters
relating to manufacturing active



2 2. . Q QU UA AL LI IT TY Y C CO ON NT TR RO OL L D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

T Th he e q qu ua al li it ty y d de ep pa ar rt tm me en nt t a at t A Al lw wa ar r i im mp pl le em me en nt ts s a an nd d m ma ai in nt ta ai in ns s t th he e q qu ua al li it ty y
s st ta an nd da ar rd ds s a an nd d s sy ys st te em m. . P Pr re es sc cr ri ib be ed d b by y t th he e c ce en nt tr ra al l q qu ua al li it ty y c co on nt tr ro ol l
d de ep pa ar rt tm me en nt t t th he e m ma ai in n f fu un nc ct ti io on n o of f t th hi is s d de ep pa ar rt ts s- -- -m me en nt t a ar re e a as s f fo ol ll lo ow ws s. .
O O A An na al ly yz zi in ng g o of f a al ll l n no on n c co on nf fo or rm mi in ng g p pr ro od du uc ct ts s a an nd d c co oo or rd di in n- -a at ti in ng g
c co or rr re ec ct ti iv ve e/ / p pr re ev ve en nt ti iv ve e a ac ct ti io on n. .
O O T To o i in nv ve es st ti ig ga at te e t th he e c cu us st to om me er rs s c co om mp pl la ai in nt t a an nd d f fo ol ll lo ow w u up p a ac ct ti io on n. .
O O T To o f fi in ne ed d t th he e c ca al li ib be er r o of f g ga au ug ge es s a an nd d i in ns st tr ru um me en nt ts s. .
O O Ì Ìd de en nt ti if fy yi in ng g a an nd d i im mp pl le em me en nt ti in ng g o of f a ap pp pl li ic ca ab bl le e q qu ua al li it ty y p pr ro o- -c ce ed du ur re es s. .



. . M MA AT TE ER RI IA AL L D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

O O T Th hi is s d de ep pa ar rt tm me en nt t i is s e en ng ga ag ge e i in n r re ec ce ei ip pt t a an nd d d di is sp pa at tc ch h o of f
m ma at te er ri ia al ls s f fr ro om m a an n t to o o ot th he er r u un ni it ts s. .
O O P Pl la an nn ni in ng g a an nd d p pr ro oc cu ur re em me en nt t o of f b bo ou ug gh ht t o ou ut t f fi in ni is sh he ed d
c co om mp po on ne en nt t, , t to oo ol ls s a an nd d c co on ns su um ma ab bl le e i it te em ms s. .


O O P Pr ro op pe er r h ha an nd dl li in ng g s st to or ra ag ge e a an nd d i is ss su ue e o of f c co om mp po on ne en nt t. .
M Mo on ni it to or r v ve en nd do or r p pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce es s i in n t te er rm ms s o of f q qu ua al li it ty y a an nd d
r re eg gu ul la ar ri it ty y o of f s su up pp pl l y y. .
O O Ì Ìd de en nt ti if fy yi in ng g t th he e s su up pp pl ly y s so ou ur rc ce es s a an nd d n ne eg go ot ti ia at te e t te er rm ms s o of f s su up pp pl ly y
o of f o on n g go oi in ng g b ba as si is s. .
O O F Fo ol ll lo ow w u up p m ma at te er ri ia al ls s a ag ga ai in ns st t p pr ro od du uc ct ti io on n r re eq qu ui ir re em me en nt t f fr ro om m
o ot th he er r u un ni it ts s o of f A As sh ho ok k L Le ey yl la an nd d. .



4 4. . P PU UR RC CH HA AS SE E D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

O O T To o p pl la ac ce e t th he e o or rd de er r a ac cc co or rd di in ng g t to o t th he e r re eq qu ui ir re em me en nt ts s o of f t th he e
p pr ro od du uc ct ti io on n. .
O O T To o p pl la ac ce e t th he e o or rd de er r o of f t th he e m ma at te er ri ia al ls s r re eq qu ui ir re ed d b by y d di if ff fe er re en nt t
d de ep pa ar rt tm me en nt t o of f t th he e o or rg ga an ni iz za at ti io on n. .
O O T To o m ma ak ke e t th he e c co om mp pa ar ra at ti iv ve e s st ta at te em me en nt ts s a an nd d s se el le ec ct t t th he e o on ne e w wh hi ic ch h
i is s a ap pp pr ro op pr ri ia at te e a ac cc co or rd di in ng g t to o t th he e r re eq qu ui ir re em me en nt t. .
O O T Th he e s st tr ra at te eg gi ic c s so ou ur rc ci in ng g d de ep pa ar rt tm me en nt t d de ec ci id de es s t th he e v ve en nd do or rs s f fo or r t th he e
p pa ar rt t; ; C Ch he en nn na ai i ( (h he ea ad d o of ff fi ic ce e) ) a an nd d e ev ve er ry y u un ni it t c ca an n p pl la ac ce e t th he e o or rd de er r
t to o t th he e v ve en nd do or r o on nl ly y. .





5 5. . S SY YS ST TE EM M D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

O This department is also called as the Ashok Leyland
information management system.
O Maintain the hardware system and software problem of
organization.
O Making the link among the all department of the organization
by interlink system.
O To maintain the link through hardware a software to head office
(Chennai) and other unit of the organization.



. . P PR RO OD DU UC CT TI IO ON N S SE ER RV VI IC CE E D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

O O This plant engineering including preventive and break down
maintenance of equipments. .
O Selection processes and processing equipments including
jigs, fixtures, and gauges in consultation with project
planning.
O To procure machinery spares.
O To design and implement preventive maintenance on
equipments.



. . F FI IN NA AN NC CE E D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

O Material accounting involving accounting of good. Goods
received and issued to the production and production and
payment to suppliers.
O Basic data on the product cost at various stages and
assist in cost control.
O Finance activities relating to employees i.e. payroll various
deduction, staff welfare.
All accounting activities relating to the operation of the units and reporting
to the various operating hears on performance versus plan.
O Reporting to the corporate finance for the purpose of
consolidation of accounts and for budgetary control.



8 8. . P PE ER RS SO ON NA AL L A AN ND D A AD DM MI IN NI IS ST TR RA AT TI IO ON N D DE EP PA AR RT TM ME EN NT T

Following are the main functions of this department.

O Recruitment
O Manpower planning
O Training
O Welfare Activities
O Rules of Discipline

This department is responsible for implementing appropriate
recruitment, selection and placement procedures in respect of all union-zed
categories of employee. Ìt also selects suitable manpower form The various
agencies such as employment exchanges institute open Market etc. All
welfare activities like canteen service, provides etc.


INTODUCTION OF HR DEPARTMENT



ÌNTRODUCTÌON:

The HR/Personnel manager must be fair and firm, tactful and
resource-full, sympathetic and considerate, knowledgeable about
labor law, have a broad social outlook and have competence and
confidence. Academic qualification will also be desirable. This quality
will make him successful in his profession.

Ìn ASHOK LEYLAND must have set policies, define procedure and
well define principle relate to its personnel. These contribute to the
effectiveness, continuity and stability of an organization.






FUNCTÌONS OF HR ÌN ASHOK LEYLAND:-

1. Legal compliance 5.Training
& Development
2. Benefit 6. Appraisal
3. Human Research Planning 7.
Compensation
4. Employee















MISSION GEMBA

ENHANCING EMPLOYEES FOR WORLD CLASS GLOBALISED
RFORMANCE


VISION:

Achieving leadership in the domestic commercial vehicle markets
and a significant presence in the world market by 2014 through
transport solutions by enhancing the employ for their excellent work
to promote them to do their best for the goal of organization.
Ìt's playful part of the company. Ìt is totally based on the
potential of the employee how can they do more, higher productivity
can be generated, how efficiently & effectively do their job. Ìf any
employee renders his service for a new invention or a way by which
the production, quality standard or any other standards can grow
rapidly. Then the employee is awarded by the senior officers or
respective head of Mission Gemba.
The main emphasis is on the increase of the potential of the
employee. Motivate them through learning's, self-respect, honestly,
handwork etc. have to become the essential part of an employee


working in the essential part of an employee working in the
organization.
Ìt creates a positive psychological effect in the mind of
employee. Ìf he perform just different job, respective with a aspect of
development of the company, he is being awarded and the same
employee works with a difference in the company with more
advantageous style.
Ìt gives an environment of a friendly and competitive school,
which helps employee and organization to achieving their ambitions.
GEMBA is a Japanese word, which means "SHOP FLOOR¨. Ìt
provides quality assurance, fastest delivery and least cost to
customers by
Offering appropriate products and services.
Adopting lean manufacturing systems & practices
through employee empowerment and participation.


Benchmarking products, processes and people against best in the
industry.
Ìn processing of this plan every day all permanent workers,
engineers, managers mount up on the GEMBA floor and discuss their
problem and solution with each other.



PROJECT-IMPLEMENTATION OF 5-S


INTRODUCTION:
Good housekeeping is the foundation for and first step towards
Quality Achievement in a manufacturing Organization. Ìt boosts
Employee morale and inspires customer confidence.
1. Good envoirment has a strong influence on the people
and the quality of product they produce.
2. A customer visiting the plant sees in a quality work place
a guarantee for the product quality.
3. Good Housekeeping helps to eliminate waste by
identifying non-value added activities such as searching
for tools, over production etc.
4. Housekeeping reflects management's general attitude
towards work in the organization.

GOOD HOUSEKEEPÌNG ÌS SÌMPLY THE BASÌC TO A BETTER
WORKPLACE&TO:
-Reduce cost of product& services.
-Achieve Discipline in manufacturing.
-Bring improvement in quality & production.
5-S Are Actually Five Japanese Worlds: SEIRI, SEITION, SEISO,
SEIKETSU
HIERARACHY OF ASHOK LEYLAND
H.O.D. - Head of department.
Senior Executive.
Executive.
Junior Executive.


FUNCTIONS OF EACH LEVEL OF HIERARCHY

1. Head of the department- control, power of signing,
power of order and appraisal filling.
2. Senior executive- fulfillment of order given by H.O.D.
. Executives- payment of workers, payroll, filling of TDS, filling
of time office and ESÌ statutory liabilities.


THREE DIMENSIONS OF GROWTH







1. CAPACITY EXPANSION 2. GLOBALIZATION
3. DIVERSIFICATION




1.CAPACITY EXPANSION :-

From under 30,000 vehicles in 2001-02, to over 83,000 vehicles in 2006-
07, Ashok Leyland's operations have gained in size, supported by phased
capacity expansion. One
significant feature of this expansion phase has been that capacities have
been added with incremental investments coupled with de-bottle necking
and improved productivity and efficiencies.
Looking beyond the current slowdown and confident of growing with
the industry , the company is on course to enhance production capacity from
the present 84,000 vehicles : 50,000 vehicle \ capacity will be created in
existing units this fiscal , with another 50,000 by
2010 at the green field Uttarakhand facility.
This expansion programme has been drawn up in line with the
company's vision to consolidate presence in the domestic market.
Ìt also reflects the vision of the Hinduja Group for the Company ÷ and
the Group's total, unstinted support to actualize it.







2.GLOBALIZATION:-
Globalization breaks the traditional barriers of national boundaries and
Allows the most competitive value addition, thus rewarding and
Enhancing efficiencies. The first major step in that direction was the
Acquisition of the Truck Business Unit of AVÌA, since renamed AVÌA
Ashok Leyland Motors (AALM). At the Ras Ai Khaimah bus assembly
Unit, activities are scheduled to commence by the current financial
Year.

The strengths of the Company in terms of its close and longstanding
Business relationship with Ìndia's auto component sector have been
Canalized into the Component Business Group, for sourcing out of
Ìndia, to Europe, the Middle East and the North American after market
Sector.
Even as we pursue global markets, the Company has been
Benefiting through global sourcing. To gain from the significant cost
Benefits in sourcing components and materials from China, an office
Has been set up in Shanghai.

.DIVERSIFICATION:-

Ashok Leyland and its associate companies and businesses, collectively,
Are seeking to broaden the scope of operations in their traditional
Domains, increasingly occupying adjacent domains. The high potential
of the automotive sector and opportunities from globalization converge
to offer tremendous opportunities as never before.

TECNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Nissan Ashok LeyIand TechnoIogies Pvt. Ltd., the technoIogy
deveIopment:
The company has recently announced a joint venture with Japanese auto
giant Nissan (RenauIt Nissan Group) which will share a common
manufacturing facility in Chennai, Ìndia. The shareholding structures of the
three joint ventures are as under:
O Ashok Leyland Nissan Vehicles Pvt. Ltd., the vehicle manufacturing
company will be owned 51% by Ashok Leyland and 49% by Nissan
O Nissan Ashok Leyland Powertrain Pvt. Ltd., the powertrain
manufacturing company will be owned 51% by Nissan and 49% by
Ashok Leyland
O Nissan Ashok Leyland Technologies Pvt. Ltd., the technology
development company will be owned 50:50 by the two partners.
R&D
WorId-cIass TechnoIogy
To offer world-class technology that is relevant and affordable to the Ìndian
customer is the philosophy that drives R&D at Ashok Leyland. Over the
years, this philosophy has been translated time and again into products
that seamlessly integrate international technology with local needs. "The
role of R&D is central in fulfilling the company-wide commitment to total
customer satisfaction" states Mr. R. Seshasayee, Managing Director, and

adds that the increased infrastructural and financial support expresses the
company's determination to become self-reliant in R&D.
VaIue to the Customer
The immediate R&D priorities are to pro-actively address safety and
environmental issues, harness and adopt technologies that provide value to
the customer in an atmosphere enabling creativity and innovation.
Powering those who "engineer tomorrows" with an enabling infrastructure
has been top priority for the company.
Test Tracks
But their R&D is not confined within walls. Ìt extends to the test tracks as
well. Rigorous tests are carried out under stringent simulated conditions
that replicate the most treacherous landscapes.
Vehicle ruggedness and longevity are a prime customer concern, as they
directly impact earnings. Ever conscious of this, Ashok Leyland makes
extensive use of a modern CAD set-up, a comprehensive test track facility
(where cobble-stones are calibrated and reset periodically), accelerated
fatigue testing rigs and rigorous durability testing facilities. Together they
ensure that there is a constant improvement in the life and on-road
performance of every make of Ashok Leyland vehicle to hit the roads.
Safety, durability, through their R&D efforts
Innovations
Ashok Leyland product development successes have come from a keen
sense of anticipation and attentiveness. The company initiated research
into alternative fuels well before legislative debate had even begun


CETIFICATION AND REWARD OBTAINED


ÌSO 9002: 1987 1993 Ennore & Hosur unit
-1
ÌSO 9001: 1994 1994 Ennore, Hosur unit-
1 & 2, Bhandara,
Alwar & Corporate
function

QS 9000: 1998 1998 Ennore, Hosur unit-
1& 2/CPPS,
Bhandara, Alwar &
Corporate function

ÌSO 9001: 2000 2003 Ennore, Hosur unit-
1& 2, Bhandara,
Alwar & Corporate
function
ÌSO 14001: 1996 2001 Ennore
ÌSO 14001: 1996 2002 Ennore , Hosur unit-
1 & 2 & CPPS
ÌSO 14001: 1996 2003 Ennore , Hosur unit -
1 & 2 & CPPS ,
Alwar & Bhandara
BS 7799-2: 2002 2005 Ìnformation security
management
system for Ennore
data center
ÌSO/ TS- 16949-2002 2006 Ennore, Hosur unit-1
& 2/ CPPS,
Bhandara, Alwar &
Corporate function

















POLICIES OF THE COMPANY


QuaIity poIicy

Ashok Leyland is committed to achieve customer satisfaction by
anticipating and delivering superior value to the customer in relation to their
own business through the products and services offered by the company
and to comply with statutory requirement. Towards this the quality policy of
Ashok Leyland is to make continuous improvements in the processes that
constitute the quality management system to make them more robust ant to
enhance their effectiveness and efficiency in achieving stated objective
leading to:-
Superior products manufactured by the company as also services
offered by the company.
Maximum use of employee's potential to contribute to quality and
environment, by progressive up gradation of their knowledge and
skills as appropriate to their functions.
Seamless involvement from vendors and dealers in the mission of
the company to address customer changing needs and protection
of the environment.
Ìt is mandatory on the part of every employee of Ashok Leyland to
understand, implement and maintain the quality policy of the
company and to implement the procedures incorporated in this
manual and other associated quality system documents issued by


the manufacturing units and corporate functional divisions on the
basis of guidelines in this manual.

EnvironmentaI poIicy

Any type of activity that is performed or any type of product that is
manufactured had an effect on the surrounding or environment.
At Ashok Leyland are committed to preserving the environmental
through a comprehensive environmental policy and productive approach in
planning and executing our manufacturing and service activities.
We are concerned about the earth our children will inherit that's why we
make sure our vehicles consume less fuel and pollute less. This concern is
reflected in the manufacturing systems, the various processes energy
conservation measure and conscious greening indicate of the company.
A system is employed to control or minimize the adverse impact on
the environment is environmental management system (EMS).

Objective of Ashok Leyland Environmental policy are:-
To adhere to all applicable environment legislation and regulations
To adopt pollution preventive techniques in design and
manufacturing of our products.
To conserve all such resources such as power, water, oil, gas,
compressed air etc. & optimizes their usage through scientific
methods.
To provide a clean working environment to our employees,
contractors and neighbors.


Commit to comply with all relevant legal and other requirements.
Continuously strive to minimize waste generation by all possible ways
and to reuse and recycle the same through a time bound action plan
Things done to protect the environment and achieve the goal of the
policy:-
Conserving natural resources like wood , coal , petroleum products
Avoiding wastage water at plant area
Switching off the idle engine, motors, pump & lights
Avoiding spilling oil , grease, paints on the floor
Do not through oil into drain
By planting many trees inside the company area)


Safety and HeaIth PoIicy

Intension & commitment of the top management
Ashok Leyland affirms that all its employees irrespective of the
rank need to be safe guarded against any person injuries or
damage to the properties during working period. That the
management recognises the principle that accident prevention
contributes in the long run progress and development of the
organisation.




Ashok Leyland is committed to:-
Ìmplementing all practical safety measures like safe working and
environmental condition.
Carrying out a systematic critical appraisal of all potential hazards
involving personal, plant services and operating methods.
Following strictly safety rules and regulations incorporated in the
factories act and rules.
Maintaining safe and healthy working environment at all working
places conductive to the success of the management safety
programs in the long run.
Ìmplementing safe and health education programmes for employee
with specific emphasis on creating safety and health awareness.
Welcoming useful and constructive suggestions and ideas in regard
to safety and health.








CORPORATE PHILOSPHY, GOVERENCE , SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Corporate phiIosophy

They believe that their impressive strides in the marketplace stem in equal
parts from their proactive approach and their customers' unstinting support,
earned the only way they know: by giving their customers the most
appropriate transport solutions for each of their applications, and by
backing them up with consultancy, finance, driver training and a responsive
after-market network. They are conscious of the fact that vehicles are more
than just a means of transporting people and goods; they understand that
they have a deep and far-reaching impact on society, the national economy
and the environment.
They have, therefore, always endeavoured to engineer products and
systems that promote progress on all these fronts. They firmly believe that
this honest approach will make the Ashok Leyland marquee the symbol of
the very best in transportation, today and tomorrow.
The five AL vaIues are
Ìnternational
Speedy
Value creator
Ìnnovative
Ethical

Corporate Governance:

The Board of Directors and the Management of Ashok Leyland are
committed to the enhancement of shareholder value.


through sound business decisions, prudent financial management
and high standards of ethics throughout the organization
by ensuring transparency and professionalism in all decisions and
transactions and
achieving excellence in Corporate Governance by conforming to,
and exceeding wherever possible, the prevalent mandatory
guidelines on Corporate Governance and by regularly reviewing the
Board processes and the Management systems for further
improvement
The company has adopted a Code of Conduct for the members of the
Board and senior management, who have all affirmed in writing their
adherence to this Code.

Ombudsman

Another significant step has been the appointment of an Ombudsman to
deal with any references, complaints or grievances about the Company, its
employees or its dealings.

Ìf the suppliers, employees or customers have any suggestions on

governance issues or grievances or complaints on Ashok Leyland's
practices - inclusive of its executives in various functions - which they feel
ought to be raised with the Ombudsman and not with the usual channels of
business, they may do so.

Ìt is advised that the regular business dealings should be through the usual
business functional channels. The Ombudsman will not deal with them
under normal circumstances.

The Ombudsman is Mr.T. AnanthaNarayanan, a former Executive Director
of the Company, with an excellent understanding of Ashok Leyland as an
organization and its functioning, having been with the company for nearly
30 years.









Corporate sociaI responsibiIity
Ashok Leyland believes in providing every employee an opportunity to
stretch beyond the call of routine work and to realise the spirit of its
corporate mantra: "They can because they care.¨ Employees are given an
opportunity to volunteer for any one of its social initiatives. Their volunteers
believe that amazing things can happen when people come together for a
cause. They drive their outreach programmes and most of their CSR
initiatives. As part of their CSR efforts, the Company also initiated "payroll
contribution to a worthy cause¨ to help the marginalised and the vulnerable.
Under this programme an employee contributes an amount of his/her
salary to one of the five social organisations identified by the Company.

Their partners
Ìn all their CSR efforts, they also partner with government agencies, local
communities, NGOs and academic institutions to enhance their strengths
and help us leverage their expertise, reach and resources.









Community outreach
The Company is involved in the construction and renovation of
community halls, government/private schools, drilling public bore
wells, erecting bus shelters and putting up streetlights around its
manufacturing units. These development initiatives are undertaken by
a Community Development Scheme supported and managed by
representatives from the Management and the Union.
Their manufacturing units have conducted over hundred medical,
blood donation and HÌV awareness camps to benefit people residing
in the neighbouring areas.
Career guidance for high school students, skill development for
unemployed youth and vocational training for women of self help
groups around their manufacturing units have been organised with
the help of specialists in the respective fields..
Ashok Leyland imparts computer training to economically deprived
students in Hosur at the Company's Management Development
Centre. The selected students are put through a carefully designed 4-
module session and certified on successful completion of the course.
A batch of 25 students is selected every month and the programme
aims to cover 300 students every year. Ashok Leyland operates 'Fun
Bus' - offering a day's free outing for the economically and socially
deprived children including children who are


)ob satisfaction


ob satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her iob. The
happier people are within their iob, the more satisIied they are said to be. Job
satisIaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design
aims to enhance iob satisIaction and perIormance, methods include iob rotation,
iob enlargement and iob enrichment. Other inIluences on satisIaction include the
management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and
autonomous work groups. Job satisIaction is a very important attribute which is
Irequently measured by organizations. The most common way oI measurement is
the use oI rating scales where employees report their reactions to their iobs.
Questions relate to rate oI pay, work responsibilities, variety oI tasks, promotional
opportunities the work itselI and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no
questions while others ask to rate satisIaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not
at all satisIied" and 5 represents "extremely satisIied").

D¢finitions
Job satisIaction has been deIined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting Irom
the appraisal oI one`s iob;
|1|
an aIIective reaction to one`s iob;
|2|
and an attitude
towards one`s iob.
|3|
Weiss (2002) has argued that iob satisIaction is an attitude but
points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the obiects oI cognitive
evaluation which are aIIect (emotion), belieIs and behaviours.
|4|
This deIinition
suggests that we Iorm attitudes towards our iobs by taking into account our
Ieelings, our belieIs, and our
History
One oI the biggest preludes to the study oI iob satisIaction was the Hawthorne
studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo oI the
Harvard Business School, sought to Iind the eIIects oI various conditions (most
notably illumination) on workers` productivity. These studies ultimately showed
that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the
Hawthorne EIIect). It was later Iound that this increase resulted, not Irom the new
conditions, but Irom the knowledge oI being observed. This Iinding provided
strong evidence that people work Ior purposes other than pay, which paved the
way Ior researchers to investigate other Iactors in iob satisIaction.
ScientiIic management (aka Taylorism) also had a signiIicant impact on the study
oI iob satisIaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor`s 1911 book, Principles oI ScientiIic
Management, argued that there was a single best way to perIorm any given work
task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies,

causing a shiIt Irom skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern
approach oI assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use oI scientiIic
management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were
Iorced to work at a Iaster pace. However, workers became exhausted and
dissatisIied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding iob
satisIaction. It should also be noted that the work oI W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott,
and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone Ior Taylor`s work.
Some argue that Maslow`s hierarchy oI needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the
Ioundation Ior iob satisIaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to
satisIy Iive speciIic needs in liIe physiological needs, saIety needs, social needs,
selI-esteem needs, and selI-actualization. This model served as a good basis Irom
which early researchers could develop iob satisIaction theories.
Job satisIaction can also be seen within the broader context oI the range oI issues
which aIIect an individual's experience oI work, or their quality oI working liIe.
Job satisIaction can be understood in terms oI its relationships with other key
Iactors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work
interIace, and working conditions.


Mod¢ls of job satisfaction
Affect Theory
Edwin A. Locke`s Range oI AIIect Theory (1976) is arguably the most Iamous iob
satisIaction model. The main premise oI this theory is that satisIaction is
determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a iob and what one has in
a iob. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given Iacet oI work
(e.g. the degree oI autonomy in a position) moderates how satisIied/dissatisIied one
becomes when expectations are/aren`t met. When a person values a particular Iacet
oI a iob, his satisIaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when
expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to
one who doesn`t value that Iacet. To illustrate, iI Employee A values autonomy in
the workplace and Employee B is indiIIerent about autonomy, then Employee A
would be more satisIied in a position that oIIers a high degree oI autonomy and
less satisIied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B.
This theory also states that too much oI a particular Iacet will produce stronger
Ieelings oI dissatisIaction the more a worker values that Iacet.
DispositionaI Theory
Another well-known iob satisIaction theory is the Dispositional Theory
Template:JacksonApril 2007. It is a very general theory that suggests that people
have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level
oI satisIaction, regardless oI one`s iob. This approach became a notable

explanation oI iob satisIaction in light oI evidence that iob satisIaction tends to be
stable over time and across careers and iobs. Research also indicates that identical
twins have similar levels oI iob satisIaction.
A signiIicant model that narrowed the scope oI the Dispositional Theory was the
Core SelI-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge
argued that there are Iour Core SelI-evaluations that determine one`s disposition
towards iob satisIaction: selI-esteem, general selI-eIIicacy, locus oI control, and
neuroticism. This model states that higher levels oI selI-esteem (the value one
places on his/her selI) and general selI-eIIicacy (the belieI in one`s own
competence) lead to higher work satisIaction. Having an internal locus oI control
(believing one has control over her\his own liIe, as opposed to outside Iorces
having control) leads to higher iob satisIaction. Finally, lower levels oI neuroticism
lead to higher iob satisIaction
|citation needed|
.
Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)
Frederick Herzberg`s Two Iactor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene
Theory) attempts to explain satisIaction and motivation in the workplace
|5|
This
theory states that satisIaction and dissatisIaction are driven by diIIerent Iactors
motivation and hygiene Iactors, respectively. An employee`s motivation to work is
continually related to iob satisIaction oI a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as
an inner Iorce that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals
(Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p.133). Motivating Iactors are those aspects oI the
iob that make people want to perIorm, and provide people with satisIaction, Ior
example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These

motivating Iactors are considered to be intrinsic to the iob, or the work carried
out.
|5|
Hygiene Iactors include aspects oI the working environment such as pay,
company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.
|5|

While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research, researchers have been
unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham
suggesting that Hertzberg's original Iormulation oI the model may have been a
methodological artiIact.
|5|
Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual
diIIerences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner
to changes in motivating/hygiene Iactors.
|5|
Finally, the model has been criticised
in that it does not speciIy how motivating/hygiene Iactors are to be measured.
|5|

Job Characteristics ModeI
Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used
as a Iramework to study how particular iob characteristics impact on iob outcomes,
including iob satisIaction. The model states that there are Iive core iob
characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task signiIicance, autonomy, and
Ieedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced
meaningIulness, experienced responsibility Ior outcomes, and knowledge oI the
actual results), in turn inIluencing work outcomes (iob satisIaction, absenteeism,
work motivation, etc.).
|6|
The Iive core iob characteristics can be combined to Iorm
a motivating potential score (MPS) Ior a iob, which can be used as an index oI how
likely a iob is to aIIect an employee's attitudes and behaviors----. A meta-analysis
oI studies that assess the Iramework oI the model provides some support Ior the
validity oI the JCM.
|7|
gg

Communication Uv¢rload and Communication Und¢rload
One oI the most important aspects oI an individual`s work in a modern
organization concerns the management oI communication demands that he or she
encounters on the iob (Krayer, K. J., & Westbrook, L., p. 85). Demands can be
characterized as a communication load, which reIers to 'the rate and complexity oI
communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time Irame
(Faraca, Monge, & Russel, 1977).¨ Individuals in an organization can experience
communication over-load and communication under- load which can aIIect their
level oI iob satisIaction. Communication overload can occur when 'an individual
receives too many messages in a short period oI time which can result in
unprocessed inIormation or when an individual Iaces more complex messages that
are more diIIicult to process (Farace, Monge, & Russel, 1997).¨ Due to this
process, 'given an individual`s style oI work and motivation to complete a task,
when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition oI
overload (Krayer, K. J., & Westbrook, L., p. 86) which can be positively or
negatively related to iob satisIaction. In comparison, communication under load
can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individual`s ability to
process them (Farace, Monge, & Russel, 1997).¨ According to the ideas oI
communication over-load and under-load, iI an individual does not receive enough

input on the iob or is unsuccessIul in processing these inputs, the individual is
more likely to become dissatisIied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which
leads to a low level oI iob satisIaction.

M¢asuring job satisfaction
There are many methods Ior measuring iob satisIaction. By Iar, the most common
method Ior collecting data regarding iob satisIaction is the Likert scale (named
aIter Rensis Likert). Other less common methods oI Ior gauging iob satisIaction
include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and
Iorced choice answers. This data is typically collected using an Enterprise
Feedback Management (EFM) system.
The ob Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a
speciIic questionnaire oI iob satisIaction that has been widely used. It measures
one`s satisIaction in Iive Iacets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities,
coworkers, supervision, and the work itselI. The scale is simple, participants
answer either yes, no, or can`t decide (indicated by ?`) in response to whether
given statements accurately describe one`s iob.
The ob in General Index is an overall measurement oI iob satisIaction. It is an
improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI Iocuses too much on
individual Iacets and not enough on work satisIaction in general.
Other iob satisIaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota SatisIaction
Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job SatisIaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The
MSQ measures iob satisIaction in 20 Iacets and has a long Iorm with 100 questions
(Iive items Irom each Iacet) and a short Iorm with 20 questions (one item Irom
each Iacet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine Iacets oI iob
satisIaction. Finally, the Faces Scale oI iob satisIaction, one oI the Iirst scales used

widely, measured overall iob satisIaction with iust one item which participants
respond to by choosing a Iace.
Sup¢rior-Subordinat¢ Communication
Superior-subordinate communication is an important inIluence on iob satisIaction
in the workplace. The way in which subordinate`s perceive a supervisor`s behavior
can positively or negatively inIluence iob satisIaction. Communication behavior
such as Iacial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is
crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship (Teven, p. 156). Nonverbal
messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression
Iormation, deception, attraction, social inIluence, and emotional expression
(Burgoon, Buller, & Woodall, 1996). Nonverbal immediacy Irom the supervisor
helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting iob
satisIaction. The manner in which supervisors communicate their subordinates may
be more important than the verbal content (Teven, p. 156). Individuals who dislike
and think negatively about their supervisor are less willing to communicate or have
motivation to work where as individuals who like and think positively oI their
supervisor are more likely to communicate and are satisIied with their iob and
work environment. The relationship oI a subordinate with their supervisor is a very
important aspect in the workplace. ThereIore, a supervisor who uses nonverbal
immediacy, Iriendliness, and open communication lines is more willing to receive
positive Ieedback and high iob satisIaction Irom a subordinate where as a
supervisor who is antisocial, unIriendly, and unwilling to communicate will
naturally receive negative Ieedback and very low iob satisIaction Irom their
subordinate`s in the workplace.. motions ÷÷ Mood and emotions while working are

the raw materials which cumulate to Iorm the aIIective element oI iob satisIaction.
(Weiss and Cropanzano, 1996).
|8|
Moods tend to be longer lasting but oIten weaker
states oI uncertain origin, while emotions are oIten more intense, short-lived and
have a clear obiect or cause.
There is some evidence in the literature that state moods are related to overall iob
satisIaction.
|9||10|
Positive and negative emotions were also Iound to be
signiIicantly related to overall iob satisIaction
|11|

Frequency oI experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor oI overall
iob satisIaction than will intensity oI positive emotion when it is experienced.
|11|

Emotion regulation and emotion labor are also related to iob satisIaction. Emotion
work (or emotion management) reIers to various eIIorts to manage emotional states
and displays. Emotion regulation includes all oI the conscious and unconscious
eIIorts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components Although early
studies oI the consequences oI emotional labor emphasized its harmIul eIIects on
workers, studies oI workers in a variety oI occupations suggest that the
consequences oI emotional labor are not uniIormly negative.
|12|

It was Iound that suppression oI unpleasant emotions decreases iob satisIaction and
the ampliIication oI pleasant emotions increases iob satisIaction.
|13|
The
understanding oI how emotion regulation relates to iob satisIaction concerns two
models:
1. emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state oI discrepancy
between public displays oI emotions and internal experiences oI
emotions,
|14||15|
that oIten Iollows the process oI emotion
2.
3. regulation.Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional
exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low iob satisIaction.
|16||17|

4. Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers`
emotion regulation might beget responses Irom others during interpersonal
encounters that subsequently impact their own iob satisIaction. For example:
The accumulation oI Iavorable responses to displays oI pleasant emotions
might positively aIIect iob satisIaction
|13|
.
perIormance oI emotional labor that produces desired outcomes could
increase iob satisIaction.
R¢lationsbips and practical implications
Job SatisIaction can be an important indicator oI how employees Ieel about their
iobs and a predictor oI work behaviours such as organizational citizenship,
|18|

absenteeism,
|19|
and turnover.
|20|
Further, iob satisIaction can partially mediate the
relationship oI personality variables and deviant work behaviors.
|21|

One common research Iinding is that iob satisIaction is correlated with liIe
satisIaction.
|22|
This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisIied
with liIe tend to be satisIied with their iob and people who are satisIied with their
iob tend to be satisIied with liIe. However, some research has Iound that iob
satisIaction is not signiIicantly related to liIe satisIaction when other variables such
as nonwork satisIaction and core selI-evaluations are taken into account.
|23|

An important Iinding Ior organizations to note is that iob satisIaction has a rather
tenuous correlation to productivity on the iob. This is a vital piece oI inIormation
to researchers and businesses, as the idea that satisIaction and iob perIormance are
directly related to one another is oIten cited in the media and in some non-

academic management literature. A recent meta-analysis Iound an average
uncorrected correlation between iob satisIaction and productivity to be r÷.18; the
average true correlation, corrected Ior research artiIacts and unreliability, was
r÷.30.
|24|
Further, the meta-analysis Iound that the relationship between satisIaction
and perIormance can be moderated by iob complexity, such that Ior high-
complexity iobs the correlation between satisIaction and perIormance is higher
(p÷.52) than Ior iobs oI low to moderate complexity (p÷.29). Job SatisIaction also
high relationship with intention to quit. It is Iound in many research that Job
SatisIaction can lead to Intention to Stay / Quit in an organization (Kim et al.,
1996). Recent research has also shown that Intention to Quit can have eIIect like
poor perIormance orientation, organizational deviance, and poor organizational
citizenship behaviours (Krishnan, Sandeep., and Singh., Maniari, 2010).In short,
the relationship oI satisIaction to productivity is not necessarily straightIorward
and can be inIluenced by a number oI other work-related constructs, and the notion
that "a happy worker is a productive worker" should not be the Ioundation oI
organizational decision-making.
With regard to iob perIormance, employee personality may be more important than
iob satisIaction.
|25|
The link between iob satisIaction and perIormance is thought to
be a spurious relationship; instead, both satisIaction and perIormance are the result
oI personality.




FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION

What is it that makes people Ieel satisIied with their iob? A Management
Consultant namely Roy Walters aIter having spent years on studying iob
satisIaction and productivity has developed a SatisIaction Potential checklist which
contains nine characteristics that deIine truly satisIying iob. Hence, look out Ior
these characteristics and iI you don't see them in your job it is better to seriously
search Ior another iob.

O 1he [ob lsnƌL monoLonousţ buL allows emplovees Lo chanae
pace wlLh varvlna LasksŦ

O The iob does not waste a person's time and eIIort. It has been
planned in such a way that it can be done without exerting
energy uselessly.

O mplovees are free Lo plan Lhelr ork Lhe wav Lhev can do lL
mosL effecLlvelv Ŧ

O mplovees belleve Lhev have a reasonable dearee of auLhorlLv
over how Lhelr ork should be doneŦ

O mplovees belleve Lhev have adequaLe opporLunlLles for
lndlvldual arowLh and recoanlLlonŦ


O Employees don't Ieel too closely supervised, over-instructed or
rigidly controlled.

O mplovees donƌL feel Loo closelv supervlsedţ overŴlnsLrucLed or
rlaldlv conLrolledŦ

O mplovees see Lhelr [ob as an lnLearal parL of Lhe whole
companv and each emplovee ls LreaLed as an lndlvldualţ noL
merelv a coa ln Lhe wheelŦ

O
O The answer to the question, "How am I doing?" comes Irom the
iob itselI. Thus, employees can correct their own errors and
improve their techniques.

O Superiors oIIer Ieedback without causing embarrassment.

In other words, iI any employee has to truly enioy his iob and give his best Ior the
organization the superior has to ensure that the task given to him is not
monotonous, routine, mundane and design it in such a way that he utilizes his
energy to his optimum level and still Ieel Iresh, plan his work the way he considers
doing it best, give him reasonable degree oI authority, responsibility and Ireedom
to perIorm the way he would like to start and complete with the iob, which will
give him opportunities Ior growth, development, recognition and status, ensure that
he doesn't Ieel closely supervised, treat him as an integral part oI the organization,
give him the Ireedom and autonomy to improve upon their techniques and oIIer



FACILITIES PR0vIBEB BY ASB0K

LEYLANB T0 TBEIR ENPL0YEE-


Medical facilities

Ashok Leyland provided medical facility to their employees and their family company
provides a clinic for the employee in the campus. All the medical facilities and all
emergency services are provided in this clinic. All types of drugs are also available for
the employee of the company at free of cost. Company also provided first aid boxes in
all the departments and shopes.

Ambulance facility for 24hrs available in the company.
Company also provided medical facility for the employee's family. Company conduct
regular heath checkup.

Cunteen fuclllty

Ashok Leyland provided a big canteen for their employees. Canteen provided to
employees breakfast and two times food daily. Canteen provided tea two times in a day
morning and evening at 2.20 RS at cost per day.
Company provided equal canteen facility for all level of employees.



UNÌFORM

Company provided two pair of uniform to all permanent employees
Two sets of summer uniform including one pair of shoes and shocks every alternative
year
Company also provided 1kg soap in a month to their permanent and temporary
employees both.


Education
Company conduct educational program for the employee's children. Company provided
coaching classes for the students of 10
th
and 12
th
stranded. Company also organizes
prize distribution function. Ìn this function company give prizes to the students who got
good percentage for motivating him.









FACTS AND FINDINGS

Ashoka Leyland is services are provided within the establishment. These include
latrines and urinals, washing and bathing facilities, crèches, rest shelters, canteens,
uniforms, medical aid, library etc. Ashoka Leyland Actually providing the welfare
facilities in Different areas of Alwar. All Welfare facilities are providing regularly.
Ambulance facility for 24hrs available in the company. Company conduct educational
program for the employee's children. Company provided coaching classes for the
students of 10
th
and 12
th
stranded. Company also organizes prize distribution function.
Ìn this function company give prizes to the students who got good percentage for
motivating him. Company conducts hobby classes for women and girls. Ìn these Class
Company runs many creative activities. Ìt is depends on the demand of women and
girls. Company also conducts yoga class for welfare of employees, their family and
society. The C.S.R. (Corporate Social Responsibility) is involved in Different type of
Scoial Responsibilities.

Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we
do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are.

- CHÌEF SEATTLE, 1855













ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

1. EmpIoyee Joining this organization:-






INTERPETATION:-
ÌN ASHOK LEYLAND employee are joining the company many reason like: culture,
working environment, company reputation, pay scale& any other reason. Each employee
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
n
o
.

o
f

p
e
r
s
o
n
Culture working
Environment
any other
categories
join this organisation
Series2
Series1
Categories
Culture
company
reputation
working
Environment pay scale any other
No. of person% 10 85 60 75 30
. Satisfied with WeIfare Activities in this Organization:-







INTERPRETATION:
90% employees are satisfied with welfare activities in this company. 10% employee is not
satisfied. So in this company development activities are better.



Position
Yes No
No. of person%
90% 10%
Satisfied with weIfare
Yes
No

4. ComfortabIe with the company poIicies:-






INTERPRETATION:
95% employees are comfortable with Companies policy in this company. 5% employees
are not satisfied. So in this company policy is better. Every employee is adopted these
policies.


Company PoIicies
Yes
No
Yes
No
Position Yes No
No. of person% 95% 5%
5. The company motivates the empIoyee:-





INTERPRETATION:
The employee are motivate in different type of motivating factors in this company. Like:
reward, job rotation etc. in different proportion.


EmpIoyee Motivate by Company
Reward
Promotion policy
Training
Job Rotation
Any other
All Above
Categories
Reward
Promotion
policy Training
Job
Rotation
Any
other
All
Above
No of person% 75% 60% 2% 10% 5% 40%
. Satisfied with DeveIopment Activities in this Organization:-









INTERPRETATION:
90% employee are satisfied with development activities in this company. 10% employee
are not satisfied . so in this company development activities are better.

Satisfied with deveIovement
Yes
No
Position
Yes No
No. of person%
90% 10%

SWOT ANALYSIS




A detailed performance analysis sets the stage for conducting a SWOT analysis. SWOT
analysis is an abbreviation for strength, weakness; opportunities, and threats, SWOT
analysis is an important tool for auditing the overall strategic positions of a business and
its environment. Once key strategic issues have been identified, they feed into business
objectives, particularly marketing objectives. SWOT analysis can be used in conjunction
with other tools for audit and analysis.

Strength and weakness are internal factors. Strength could be a firm's specialist
marketing expertise. A weakness could be the lack of anew product.

Opportunities and threats are external factors. An opportunity could be a developing
distribution channel such as the internet, or changing consumer lifestyle that potentially
increase demand for a company's products. A threat could be a new competitor in an
important existing market or a technological change that makes existing products
potentially obsolete.

The external factor, environment be it the macro environment, customer or competitor
groups, is contently in a state of flux. A change by itself is neither an opportunity nor a
threat. Ìt only becomes so, in relation to an organization strength or weakness. What
may represent an opportunity for a particular firm? May infact pose a serious threat to
the survival of yet another firm in the industry. For instance deregulation of the telecom
industry was an opportunity for private sector firms, which had the monetary and
managerial resources to leverage this opportunity. Existing public sector units saw this
threat, as it meant the end of their protected monopolies.


SWOT analysis can be very subjective--- two people rarely come-up with the same
version of a SWOT analysis even when given the same information about the same
business and its environment. Accordingly, SWOT analysis is best used as a guide and
not a prescription. Adding and weighing criteria to each factor increase the validity of the
analysis.






AREAS TO CONSIDER:-

Strength:-
Technical skills, strong brands, distribution channels, customer loyalty, high
customer retention, scale, organization work culture, employee satisfaction and
retention.


Weakness:-
Absence of skills critical to the industry, weak access to distribution
channels, low customer retention are just some of them.



Strength incIudes:-
O Cost advantages.
O Financial resources.
O Customer's loyalty.
O Modern product facility.
O Patents.

Weakness incIudes:-
O Narrow product line.
O Lack of management depth / skills.
O Weak market image.
O By cost operation due to high labor cost.
O Ìn adequate financial capabilities.

Opportunities incIudes:-
O Add new product line.
O Enter in new market.
O Ìntroduce a new capability.
O Acquire firm/company with needed technology.

Threats include:-
O Shifting the budget tastes or preferences.
O Entry of new rivals or competitors.
O Unfavorable government policies.






INFERENCE




As the analysis shows that the company is having capabilities to complete on
the basis of technology available, qualified manpower. They have good market potential
and resources in their hand also.


SWOT analysis helps the company to evaluate itself on the present grounds and
gives them an idea for future prospects by removing their weakness and strengthening
their opportunities.


SWOT analysis is very essential for any type of organization, it helps knowing the
competitive situations regarding the relevant product of the concern.


At last we can say that SWOT analysis is very useful in getting the desired
objectives of any concern and surviving the competitive market.


























CONCLUSION

By offering economical means of movement for people and goods, the
commercial vehicle industry plays an indispensable role in every economic
activity and developmental process. The Ìndian commercial vehicle industry
has set for itself a challenging road map of technology up gradation in line
with accelerated emission norms, aimed at improving the quality of air.
Ashok Leyland has led with innovations in alternate fuels besides offering
fuel-efficient engines that are at once economical and environment friendly.
Along with product technology, manufacturing processes have the
potential to make a difference. As a resources-intensive industry that
consumes large quantities of steel, power, water and oil, a reduction in the
consumption of these resources would not only help in environmental
preservation, but also contribute directly to the balance sheet.
Towards this end, Ashok Leyland has been adopting clean and lean
manufacturing processes at all manufacturing locations, while also
monitoring and guiding suppliers in establishing Environmental Management
Systems. This first ever report on sustainability from the Company will be a
springboard for scaling up programmes for resource conservation,
environmental protection as also such actions with societal impact as are
expected of a responsible corporate citizen.










BIBLIOGRAPHY

websites

www.ashokleyland.com
www.google.co.in.
www.ashely.com

ManuaIs


Magazines of ashok Leyland
Ashley news
Gemba times
Ashok patrika
Company¨s report and document
Articles of ashok Leyland

Books
Research methodology(c.r. Kothari)
Human Resources Development - T.N. Chabbra
Human Resources Development - V.S.P. Rao (Text and Cases)
Human Resource Management - Ashwathapa, K.


























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