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Basic Theory Of Vibration
Simple Spring Mass System Max Acc Mim Vel
Neutral Position Lower Position
Max Vel Mim Acc
Max Acc Mim Vel
It follows sine curve.
Displacement
Upper Limit
Time Waveform
Heavy Spot
+
Amplitud e
0
Tim e

Rotation 1 revolution 3600 cycles per minute 60 cycles per second One times turning speed
3600 RPM 60 Hz 1 Order
= = =
Frequency & Amplitude
Frequency:
How many times oscillation is occurring for a given time period? Units: Cycles Per Sec or Hertz, CPM
Amplitude:
It is the magnitude of vibration signal. Units: Micron, MM/Sec, g’s or M/Sec2
Amplitude .How much is it vibrating? Size (severity) of the problem.Physical Significance Of Vibration Characteristics Frequency .How is it vibrating? Cause of the vibration.What is vibrating? Source of the vibration. . Phase Angle .
Frequency Measurement 60 RPM = 1 Rev / s = 1 Hz .
Inch/sec (RMS or Peak) 3. Velocity : Rate of change of displacement. Unit : Microns(pp). Displacement : The distance a structure moves or vibrates from its reference or rest position. Unit : MM/Sec. Unit : M/Sec2. The greater the rate of change of velocity the greater the forces (F=ma) on the machines. g’s (RMS) .Amplitude Measurement 1. Inch/sec2 . It is the measure of the speed at which the mass is vibrating during its oscillation. mils(pp) 2. Acceleration : It is the rate of change of velocity.
A B C a t b t c t .
+ a v t d .
Physical Significance Of Vibration Amplitude Displacement : Velocity : Stress Indicator Fatigue Indicator Force Indicator Acceleration : .
& Acc.001 ACCELERATION VELOCITY 60 600 600060000 600 000 FREQUENCY CPM .1 . Vel.When To Use Disp..? VIBRATION SENSITIVITY DISPLACEMENT 10 1 .01 .
What Is The Advantage Of Using Velocity? Flat frequency range compared to displacement & acceleration. Velocity is the best indicator of vibration severity. . Almost all machines generate fault frequency between 600CPM to 60KCPM Velocity indicates fatigue.
a 2a 0.707 a 0.Scales Of Amplitude Peak RMS Peak Peak to Peak RMS Average  Peak to Peak Av.637 a .
Acceleration .Vibration Transducers Produces electrical signal of vibratory motion Proximity Probe .Displacement Velocity Probe Accelerometer .Velocity .
Proximity Probe .
000 CPM . Measures relative displacement between the bearing housing(probe tip) and the rotating shaft.Permanently installed on large machines with sleeve bearings. Called Eddy Current Probe Frequency range 0 to 60.
Velocity Probe .
complex and expensive.Oldest of all. It is heavy. Frequency response from 600CPM to 60. Self generating and needs no conditioning electronics. Produces signal proportional to velocity.000CPM Temperature sensitive .
Accelerometer .
Extremely linear amplitude sense.Produces signal proportional to acceleration of seismic mass. Large Frequency range Smaller in size .
Time Waveform Heavy Spot + Amplitud e 0 Tim e  Rotation 1 revolution 3600 cycles per minute 60 cycles per second One times turning speed 3600 RPM 60 Hz 1 Order = = = .
Time Waveform + Amplitud e 0 Tim e  1000 RPM 1 revolution = Vibration occurs 4 times per revolution = Vibration occurs at 4000 cycles per = 4000 CPM 4 blades 4 X 1000 RPM minute .
Time Waveform + Amplitude 0 Tim e 12 tooth gear  1 revolution 1000 RPM 12 teeth are meshing every revolution of the gear 12 x 1000 RPM = vibration occurs at 12.000 cpm = 200 Hz .000 cycles per minute = 12.
Time Waveform + 0 + 0 Time Time + 0  Time .
.Time Waveform + 0 Time  Time Waveform contains all the different frequencies mixed together.
Time Waveform Example of a time waveform .
Signal Acquisition Transducer Waveform Amplitude Time Overall Energy FFT Spectrum Amplitude Frequency .
Fast Fourier Transform Separates individual frequencies Detects how much vibration at each frequency .Frequency Domain FFT .
FFT Signal Processing Amplitude Tim e Amplitude Tim e .
Frequency Domain + 0  Time 1 x Frequen cy + 0  Time 4 x Frequen cy + 0  Time 12 x Frequen cy .
A Typical FFT Spectrum Many distinct peaks .
A Typical FFT Spectrum Specific peaks typically correlate to Specific machine faults Related to machine speed .
Phase .
.What Is Phase? Phase is a measure of relative time difference between two sine waves.
Provides information how one part of a machine is vibrating compared to other. Bent Shaft. Structural Weakness. Mechanical Looseness. Electrical motor defect. 5. Cocked bearing. Gear defects. Confirmatory tool for problems like1. Soft Foot. . Resonance. Eccentric Rotor. 6. Unbalance 2. 4. Misalignment 3. No correlation with Bearing defects.Importance Of Phase Phase is a relative measurement.
.How Phase Angle Is Measured? The Phase Angle is the angle (in degrees) the shaft travels from the start of data collection to when the sensor experiences maximum positive force. the phase angle is 90° if the sensor experiences its maximum positive force at 90° after data collection was initiated by the tachometer. For example.
Diagnosing Machine Faults Unbalance Misalignment General looseness or wear Bearing defects Gear defects Belt defects Electrical Faults Journal Bearing Faults Resonance .
Unbalance .
What is unbalance? The force created by a rotating body when its center of mass is offset from its center of rotation Center of Mass = Center of Rotation Heavy Spot Center of Mass Rotation Center of Shaft .
Causes of unbalance Improper assembly Material Buildup Wear Broken or missing parts .
especially looseness .Characteristics of unbalance High radial peaks at 1X shaft RPM Low axial vibration at 1X shaft RPM Low harmonics of shaft RPM 1X RPM sinusoidal pattern in the time waveform Can cause other faults to appear.
Unbalance Imbalance typically appears at the turning speed of the machine Imbalance .
04 Hz Order: 1.010 Spec: .390 .Unbalance Radial vibration at 1X shaft RPM is much more significant than in the axial direction Freq: 60.
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