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wignidan: `alJiris tyveTa portretebi: stalinizmis istoriidan hainrih biolis fondi Tbilisi 2008

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akmolinskis banaki samSoblos moRalateTa colebisaTvis ( alJiri ) istoriuli cnoba arseni roginski aleqsandr danieli

Tema@`qali banakSi~ _ yovelTvis tragikulia, tragikulia Tavisi arsiT. SemTxveviTi araa, rom sabanako memuaristikis yvelaze mkafio da yvelaze saSineli furclebi qalis kalmiTaa dawerili: evgenia ginzburgis `rTuli marSruti~, ekaterina olickaias `Cemi mogonebebi~, nadeJda surovcevas, olga adamovasliozbergis, xava voloviCis, ada voitolovskaias da sxvaTa aTobiT memuari. kolimis, vorkutis, norilskisa da taiSetis qalebis mier da maTze dawerili gulagis yvelaze Rirebuli da yvelaze STambeWdavi damowmebaa. da mainc, TviT `qalTa TemaSi~ yaragandis banakis istorias gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs. swored aq, 1938 wels, 26-e SromiTi dasaxlebis bazaze akmolinskis qalTa specganyofileba gaixsna, `gulagis arqipelagis~ sami kunZulidan erT-erTi, sadac xelisuflebas isini Cahyavda, vinc Tavisi patimrobis vada miiRo, rogorc `smow-ma~ _ `samSoblos moRalatis ojaxis wevrma~. danarCeni ori banaki, sadac 1937-38 wlebSi `moRalateTa colebs~ gzavnidnen, mordveTSi da tomskSi iyo ganlagebuli. akmolinskeli patimari qalebi TavianT kunZuls erTmaneTTan saubrisas naxevradxumrobiT moixseniebdnen egzotikuri sityviT alJir _ akmolinskis samSoblos moRalateTa colebis banaki.

prevenciuli dapatimrebebi, proskripciebi, mZevloba da `krugovaia poruka~, koleqtiuri pasuxismgeblobis principi, represiebi ama Tu im jgufisTvis mikuTvnebulobis niSniT _ bolSevikTa yvela es iuridiuli novatoroba (ufro zustad, kargad gaxsenebuli Zveli gamocdileba, kacobriobis istoriis

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barbarosul epoqaTa memkvidreoba) sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirvelive Tveebidan daedo safuZvlad politikur represiebs. 1918-1920 wlebSi `kontrrevolucionerTa~ mSoblebs, colebs, Svilebs apatimrebdnen. iZulebiT samuSaoze gzavnidnen, sakoncentracio banakebSi amwyvdevdnen, xvretdnen. maSinac da samoqalaqo omis damTavrebis Semdegac apatimrebdnen da aseve xvretdnen, banakebSi gzavnidnen glexTa ajanyebebis monawileTa naTesavebs. `kontrrevoluciur elementTa~ ojaxis wevrebis devna epizodurad mTeli 1920-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi xdeboda. ojaxebis winaaRmdeg represiebs TiTqmis centraluri adgili uWiravs koleqtivizaciis istoriaSic. rogorc cnobilia, `kulakebi~ sam kategoriad iyvnen dayofili. isini, vinc xelisuflebam pirvel kategorias, anu `kontrrevoluciur aqtivs~ miakuTvna, daapatimres da Semdeg daxvrites an banakebSi gagzavnes. maTi ojaxebi ki `kavSiris CrdiloeT raionebSi~ unda gaegzavnaT. es sabWoTa istoriaSi, represirebulTa ojaxis wevrebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli yvelaze masobrivi operacia iyo. mas dapatimrebul glexTa asiaTasobiT naTesavi emsxverpla.1 1934 wels sabWoTa kanonmdeblobaSi Cndeba termini `[samSoblos] moRalatis ojaxis wevri~. ssrk cak-is 8 ivnisis dadgenilebiT isjebodnen sazRvargareT gaqceul samxedro mosamsaxureTa ojaxebi. imis mixedviT (gamomZiebelTa azriT), icodnen Tu ara gaqceulTa gegmebis Sesaxeb, ojaxis wevrebs sjidnen banakiT 5-dan 10 wlamde an cimbirSi gadasaxlebiT 5 wliT2. `yofilTa~ (Tavadaznaurobis, sasuliero da msxvili burJuaziis wridan gamosulTa) ojaxebis gasaxleba leningradidan 1935 wels, `antisabWoTa elementebis~ ojaxTa deportaciebi dasavleT ukrainidan, dasavleT belorusiidan, baltiispireTidan 1939-1941 wlebSi, moRalateTa (namdvil da arcTu ise) ojaxebis dapatimrebebi da gadasaxlebebi omis wlebSi da omis Semdgom, baltiispireTisa da dasavleT ukrainis nacionaluri winaaRmdegobis monawileTa ojaxebis omisSemdgomi gadasaxlebebi _ es CamonaTvali SeiZleba kidec Seivsos da kidec gagrZeldes. 1937 wlis ivlisis pirvel ricxvebSi miRebul iqna gadawyvetilebebi, romlebmac gansazRvres teroris mravali aTasi momavali msxverplis bedi. maTgan
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rac Seexeba meore da mesame kategoriis gankulakebulT, aq represia imTaviTve mimarTuli iyo mTeli glexuri meurneobis winaaRmdeg.gankulakebul mamas da meuRles Semdeg ki ar miayolebdnen xolme col-Svils, aramed asaxlebdnen mTel ojaxs, rogorc aseTs. 2 zogierT smows 1937-38 wlebSi dapatimrebis mizezad dakiTxvaze ganumartavdnen, rom maTze axla vrceldeboda kanoni ardabrunebulTa ojaxebis Sesaxeb. ix. M .., ...1998. .77.

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mTavaria _ politbiuros 2 ivlisis dadgenileba antisabWoTa elementebis Sesaxeb, romelmac startis niSani misca didi teroris epoqis yvelaze masStabur operacias. am gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze ivlisis bolosTvis momzaddeba Sinsaxkomis // saxelganTqmuli operatiuli brZaneba # 00447 (kulakuri brZaneba), romlis Tanaxmadac specialurad Seqmnili _-s sameulebi 1937 wlis 5 agvistodan 1938 wlis Sua noembramde gaasamarTleben aranakleb 800 aTasi adamianisa, maTgan naxevars daxvretas miusjian3. rogorc Cans, swored ivlisis am pirvel dReebSi moxda Semobruneba gegmebSic xalxis mterTa ojaxebisTvis momzadebuli xvedris Sesaxeb. 1937 wlis 3 ivliss maTi Semdgomi dapatimrebis mizniT kulakTa aRricxvis Catarebis moTxovnis depeSasTan erTad eJovma Tavis qveSevrdomebs ori gankarguleba gaugzavna. pirveli moiTxovda ssrk-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro kolegiis mier gasamarTlebulTa ojaxebis ukve dawyebuli gasaxlebis droebiT SeCerebas. pirdapir iyo miTiTebuli droebiTi SeCerebis mizezic: es ojaxebi uaxloes xanebSi damwyvdeuli iqnebian specialur banakebSi. meore gankarguleba daegzavna -s yvela ufross: a.w. ivlisisaTvis warmomidgineT im pirTa yvela ojaxis siebi, romlebic 1934 wlis pirveli dekembris Semdgom iqnen gasamarTlebulni uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro kolegiis mier pirveli, meore da mesame kategoriiT, agreTve, sasamarTloTa speckolegiebis mier gasamarTlebulTa socialurad saSiSi ojaxebis siebi. siebSi mieTiTos: 1) ojaxis gasamarTlebuli ufrosis gvari, saxeli, mamis saxeli, romeli kategoriiT aris gasamarTlebuli; 2) gasamarTlebulis ojaxis wevrTa gvarebi, saxelebi, mamis saxelebi, agreTve maTi asaki, sad da ra Tanamdebobaze muSaoben an romel saswavlo dawesebulebaSi swavloben. ojaxis SemadgenlobaSi CaiTvalos: coli, qmari, Svilebi, agreTve, maT kmayofaze myofi da maTTan erTad mcxovrebi mama, deda, Zmebi da debi. es ojaxebi uaxloes xanebSi moTavsdebian specialur banakebSi.
1937 wlis agvistodan moyolebuli, gamoscems kidev ramdenime specialur brZanebas e.w. nacionaluri operaciebis Catarebis Sesaxeb, romelTa Sedegad 1937-38 wlebis teroris msxverplTa ricxvi TiTqmis 350 aTasiT gaizarda. dasaxelebuli cifrebi eyrdnoba 1937-38 w.w. politikuri represiebis statistikis Seswavlis Sedegebs; kvleva Caatara memorialis TanamSromelTa jgufma.
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Tqvengan siebis miRebis Semdeg miTiTebas am ojaxebis banakebSi gagzavnis wesis Sesaxeb mogawvdiT damatebiT. eJovi4 . dabolos, imave dRes, 1937 wlis 3 ivliss dasavleT cimbiris mxaris -s ufrosis mironovisa da yazaxeTis Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisris zalinis saxelze moskovidan gaigzavna kidev erTi Sifrotelegrama, romelic dagegmili operaciis mniSvnelovan detalebs Seicavda. mas xels awerda gulagis ufrosi m. bermani, magram ueWvelia, rom gankarguleba, romelic masSia gawerili, eJovisgan momdinareobs: uaxloes xanebSi gasamarTldebian da gansakuTrebiT gaZlierebuli reJimis pirobebSi unda izolirdnen daxvretil trockistTa da memarjveneTa ojaxebi, daaxloebiT 6-7 aTasi adamiani, upiratesad qalebi da moxucTa umniSvnelo raodenoba. maTTan erTad gaigzavnebian skolamdeli asakis bavSvebi. am kontingentis mosavlelad aucilebelia ori sakoncentracio banakis organizeba daaxloebiT sam aTas kacze, mkacri reJimiT, gaZlierebuli dacviT (mxolod Tavisufal daqiravebulTagan), rac gamoricxavs gaqcevebs, aucilebeli SemoRobviT mavTulxlarTiT an RobiT, sayaraulo koSkebiT da msgavsi rameebiT, kontingenti gamoyenebuli unda iyos samuSaoze banakis SigniT. vinaidan aucilebelia am banakebis swrafad Seqmna, yvelaze mizanSewonilad mimaCnia maTi organizeba narimSi da yaragandaSi arsebuli SromiTi dasaxlebebis bazaze; pirvel rigSiGunda gamoyenebul iqnas Tavisufali an is nawilobriv Sesaxlebuli Senobebi, romlebic swrafad SeiZleba gamoTavisufldes iq myof gadasaxlebulTa sxvagan gadaadgilebis Sedegad. gTavazobT, swrafad daamuSaoT narimSi da yazaxeTSi sakoncentracio banakebis organizebis sakiTxi, TiToeuli _ sam aTas kacze.5 bermanis depeSa _ pirveli dokumentia, romelsac pirdapiri da uSualo kavSiri aqvs alJiris SeqmnasTan.

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am depeSebSi bevri ram bundovani rCeboda: banakebSi yvela gasamarTlebulis ojaxebi gaigzavneboda Tu mxolod maTi ojaxebi, visac daxvreta hqonda misjili, axali represiebi mxolod trockistTa da memarjveneTa ojaxebs unda Sexeboda Tu amas safuZvlad aRebulia saxeldobr samxedro kolegiis mier gasamarTlebis principi (braldebis Semadgenlobisgan damoukideblad) edo, ra unda eqnaT sxva organoTa mier gasamarTlebulTa ojaxebsTvis. cxadi mxolod erTia _ 1937 wlis
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rf-s ufs-s centraluri arqivi, .3., .4., .147., .315. iqve, furceli 310-311

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ivlisisaTvis msjavrdebulTa ojaxis wevrebis mniSvnelovani nawilis mimarT gasaxleba represiis arasakmaris zomad miiCnies da gadawyvites misis banakebSi gamomwyvdeviT Canacvleba.

samSoblos moRalateTa colebis winaaRmdeg momavali operaciis konturebi sabolood kidev ori dRis Semdeg gamoikveTa _ 1937 wlis 5 ivliss politbiurom daadgina: 1. miRebul iqnes Sinsaxkomis winadadeba 5-8 wliT banakebSi gamwesebis Sesaxeb samSoblos moRalateTa, memarjvene-trockistuli jaSuSur-diversiuli organizaciis wevrTa yvela colisa,warmodgenili siis mixedviT. 2. winadadeba mieces Sinsaxkoms, moawyos amisaTvis banakebi narimis mxareSi da yazaxeTis turgais raionSi. specialuri

3. samomavlod dadgindes wesi, romlis mixedviTac gamovlenil samSoblos moRalateTa, memarjvene-trockist jaSuSTa yvela coli daeqvemdebareba banakSi gamwesebas aranakleb 5-8 wliT. 4. msjavrdebis Semdeg darCenili 15 wlamde asakis yveli oboli bavSvi ayvanil iqnas saxelmwifos kmayofaze, rac Seexeba 15 welze meti asakis bavSvebs, maTi sakiTxebi gadawydes individualurad. 5. Sinsaxkoms winadadeba mieces ganaTavson bavSvebi respublikebis ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatTa sabavSvo saxlebisa da daxuruli internatebis arsebul qselSi. yvela bavSvi unda ganTavsdes qalaqebSi, garda moskovisa, leningradisa, kievisa, Tbilisisa, minskisa, zRvispira da sazRvrispira qalaqebisa6.

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1937 wlis 5 ivlisis Semdeg SinsaxkomSi daiwyo gaZlierebuli mzadeba momavali operaciisaTvis.
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dadgenilebis fototipuri gamocema ix.: sazogadoeba memorialis mmarTvelobis sainformacio biuletenSi seqtemberi, 1999, #12. gv. 18. agreTve: gulagis bavSvebi, 1918-1956,Sedgenili s.s.vilenskisa da sxvaTa mier. moskovi, 2002.gv. 229-230. aqve unda aRvniSnoT,rom am wignSi warmodgenilia dokumentTa didi korpusi bavSvebis _ smow-ebis Sesaxeb.

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aRiricxa dapatimrebulTa da msjavrdebulTa ojaxebis yvela wevri. monacemebi igzavneboda moskovSi, sadac maT Sinsaxkomis centraluri aparatis aRricxvisa da statistikis ganyofilebis TanamSromlebi amuSavebdnen. miwermowera mimdinareobda ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatTan sabavSvo saxlebSi adgilebis momzadebis Sesaxeb, FfarTovdeboda Sinsaxkomis bavSvTa mimRebgamanawileblebis qseli. grZeldeboda qalTa banakebis mosawyobad Sesaferisi adgilebis Zebna. sabolood, 1937 wlis 15 agvistos gamoica ssrk Sinsaxkomis brZaneba # 00486. Tu imave wlis 5 ivlisis politbiuros lapidaruli gadawyvetileba SeiZleba CaiTvalos dokumentad, romelic inicirebas ukeTebs Sinsaxkomis operacias samSoblos moRalateTa colebis winaaRmdeg, es mravalgverdiani brZaneba iyo dokumenti, romelic am operaciis dawvrilebiT reglamentacias warmoadgenda. es dokumenti ukanasknel wlebSi araerTxel gamoqveynda,7 amitom mivuTiTebT mis mxolod sam yvelaze mniSvnelovan debulebas. pirvel yovlisa, am brZanebis Tanaxmad, dapatimrebas eqvemdebarebodnen imaTi colebi, visac 1936 wlis 1 agvistodan miesaja daxvreta, cixe an banaki uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro kolegiis an samxedro tribunalebis mier memarjvenetrockistul jaSuSur-diversiul organizaciebSi saqmianobis gamo. meorec _ SemdgomSi evalebodaT momavalSi gamovlenil samSoblos moRalateTa, memarjvene-trockist jaSuSTa yvela coli dapatimrebul iqnes qmrebTan erTad. mesamec _ gansazRvruli iyo ganaCenTa gaformebis meqanizmi _ Sinsaxkomis sagangebo TaTbiri da patimrobis vada _ aranakleb 5-8 weli. ssrk

dabolos _ yvelaze arsebiTi _ politbiuros gadawyvetilebis kvaldakval brZaneba eZRvneba saxeldobr colebs da Svilebs, da ara zogadad ojaxis wevrebs, rogorc es Sinsaxkomis ufro adrindel dokumentebSia. Tumca, daviwyebuli arc msjavrdebulTa sxva kategoriebis naTesavebi arian. magram zomebi, romlebic Sinsaxkomis organoebma am kategoriebis mimarT unda miiRon, bevrad ufro individualizebulia. ase, msjavrdebulTa yofili colebi dapatimrebas mxolod im SemTxvevaSi eqvemdebarebian, Tu isini monawileobdnen msjavrdebulis kontrrevoluciur saqmianobaSi, malavdnen an icodnen mainc amis Sesaxeb da ar daabezRes. 15 welze meti asakis bavSvebic aseve mxolod maSin
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pirvelad gamoqveynda: memorial-aspeqti. 1993, #2/3, n.g. oxotinis publ. ix. agreTve: gulagis bavSvebi. 1918-1956 , moskovi,2002 gv. 234-238.

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eqvemdebarebodnen dapatimrebas, roca maT cnobdnen socialurad saSiSad da antisabWoTa qmedebis Cadenis SemZled. am SemTxvevaSi maTi saqmeebi, iseve, rogorc dapatimrebul colTa saqmeebi, gansaxilvelad sagangebo TaTbirs () gadaecemoda. marTalia, msjavrdebuli Svilebi SeiZleba ara marto banakSi an Sroma-gasworebis koloniaSi gaegzavnaT, aramed gaemwesebinaT gansakuTrebuli reJimis sabavSvo saxlebSi. dabolos, unda SevniSnoT, rom brZanebis Tanaxmad, orsuli qalebis, mZime avadmyofebis, meZuZurebis, agreTve xnieri colebis dapatimreba droebiT unda gadadebuliyo. Tumca, brZanebis sxva adgilas maTi Semdgomi bedis Sesaxeb mkafiod aris naTqvami: samSoblos moRalateTa msjavrdebuli colebi, romlebic ar iyvnen dapatimrebuli avadmyofobis an avadmyofi bavSvebis yolis gamo, gamojanmrTelebisTanave dapatimrdebian da gaigzavnebian banakSi. samSoblos moRalateTa meZuZuri colebi ganaCenis gamotanisTanave dapatimrdebian da cixeSi Segzavnis gareSe igzavnebian uSualod banakSi. aseve unda moeqceT xnier msjavrdebul colebs. brZanebis mniSvnelovani nawili eTmoba dedis dapatimrebis Semdeg umeTvalyureod darCenil bavSvebs. Cvilebi erTidan sam wlamde igzavnebodnen jandacvis saxalxo komisariatis bagebSi da sabavSvo saxlebSi, bavSvebi 3-dan 15 wlamde _ ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatis sabavSvo saxlebSi. amasTanave, specialurad iyo miTiTebuli, rom Tu darCenili oblebis TavianT srul kmayofaze ayvanas sxva naTesavebi (ararepresirebuli) moindomeben _ amas ar SeewinaaRmdegoT.

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stalinis TvalsazrisiT qalebi, romlebic represirdebodnen # 00486 brZanebis CarCoebSi, mxolod xalxis mtrebis colebi ar iyvnen. isini iyvnen colebi mTavari mtrebisa: trockist-buxarinel SeTqmulTa _ partiul da sabWoTa moRvaweTa, mrewvelobis xelmZRvanelTa, gamoCenil samxedroTa, kulturis moRvaweTa8 . Tanamedrove enaze rom vTqvaT, elitis colebi iyvnen. swored im
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gagaxsenebT, rom represirebulTa am kategoriis bedis gansazRvraSi stalini piradad monawileobda. 1937-38 wlebSi, manam, sanam saqme samxedro kolegias gaegzavneboda xolme, igi (Tavis uaxloes garemocvasTan erTad, Cveulebriv _ molotovTan, voroSilovTan, kaganoviCTan, JdanovTan erTad) aTvalierebda da vizas aZlevda momaval msjavrdebulTa Sinsaxkomis mier warmodgenil siebs. amis Semdeg samxedro kolegias isRa rCeboda, Tavisi gadawyvetilebiT beWedi daesva faqtobrivad ukve gamotanili ganaCenisaTvis (80%-ze met SemTxvevaSi _ daxvreta). xolo 1937 wlis agvistodan, operaciis dawyebis Semdeg, Sinsaxkomis #00486 brZanebis Tanaxmad

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elitisa, romelic sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirvel or aTwleulSi Camoyalibda da romelsac stalini (ara mTlianad, rasakvirvelia, aramed mis mniSvnelovan nawils) 30-iani wlebis Sua periodisaTvis ganixilavda an rogorc balasts, an rogorc mudmiv wyaros SeTqmulebebisa swored am xelisuflebis an piradad mis winaaRmdeg. saukunis dasawyisis revolucioner-iatakqveSelTa ojaxur yofaze dakvirvebis sakuTari gamocdileba hkarnaxobda: yofil TanamebrZolTa da momxreTa _ rogorc xnierTa, ise axalgazrdaTa _ colebi TavianTi qmrebis mxares unda yofiliyvnen. beladis logikiT es sulac ar niSnavda imas, rom isini pirdapir exmarebodnen maT kontrrevoluciur saqmianobaSi. magram icodnen amis Sesaxeb, ar SeiZleboda, rom ar scodnodaT. da es codna, SesaZloa TanagrZnobac, aqcevda am qalebs TavianTi qmrebis Tanamoazreebad mis TvalSi. swored am juris warmodgenebi daedo safuZvlad represiebs colebis winaaRmdeg. samSoblos moRalateTa colebis dapatimrebebi 1937 wlis 15 agvistos Semdeg maSinve daiwyo. Cveulebriv, colebs qmrebze ramdenime dRiT, kviriT da TviT gvianac ki apatimrebdnen, radgan colisTvis ganaCenis gamotana mxolod qmris gasamarTlebis Semdeg SeeZloT. sagangebo TaTbiris dadgenilebebSi braldebis nacvlad figurirebs formula rogorc samSoblos moRalatis ojaxis wevri, zogjer ki pirdapir abreviatura _ smow () . xandaxan dapatimrebul smow-Ta ricxvSi xvdebodnen agreTve msjavrdebulTa debi da mSoblebi. cnobilia SemTxvevebi, roca erT banakSi (maT

samxedro kolegiis mier qmrisTvis gamotanil ganaCens avtomaturad mosdevda sagangebo TaTbiris () ganaCeni colisTvis. ise, rom gadaWarbebuli ar iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom colebisTvis ganaCeni arsebiTad imave adamianebs gamohqondaT, romlebmac sikvdili miusajes maT qmrebs, radgan faqtobrivad isev da isev stalinuri siebisaken migviTiTebdnen. stalinuri siebi (maTSi 40 000-ze meti saxelia) gamoqveynebulia eleqtronuli saxiT sazogadoeba memorialis mier. ix. kompaqt-diski: dasaxvretTa stalinuri siebi, moskovi,memorial-rgolebi, 2002.

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Soris alJirSic) erTdroulad imyofebodnen deda da qaliSvili _ orive, rogorc smow-i. 1937 wlis oqtomberSi sarepresio colTa kontingenti mkveTrad gafarTovda. eJovis specialuri gankargulebiT # 00486 brZaneba gavrcelda maT colebzec, vinc dapatimrebuli iyo polonuri xaziT, Semdeg rumineli da germaneli jaSuSebis colebze da xarbinelebis colebze ( _ CineTaRmosavleTis rkinigzis _ manjuriidan dabrunebuli yofili TanamSromlebi, romelTac bralad edebodaT jaSuSoba iaponiis sasargeblod). 1938 wlis Semodgomaze mkafiod gamoikveTa kursi 1937 wlis zafxulSi dawyebuli masobrivi operaciebis Semcirebisken. 1938 wlis oqtomberSi gauqmda # 00486 brZanebis 36-e punqti _ xalxis mtrebis colebis qmrebTan erTdroulad dapatimrebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb. TviT brZaneba Zalas inarCunebda kidev xuTi kviris ganmavlobaSi. sabolood gauqmda 1938 wlis 26 noembers.

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sul ramdeni qali iqna gagzavnili banakebSi 1937-38 wlebSi, rogorc samSoblos moRalatis ojaxis wevri? zusti cifri CvenTvis ucnobia9. misi aRdgena SeiZleba mxolod sagangebo TaTbiris ( ) oqmebis mixedviT, romlebic samwuxarod CvenTvis jer kidev miuwvdomelia. garkveul orientirad SeiZleba gamogvadges monacemebi zemoT naxsenebi baraTisa, romelic 1938 wlis 5 oqtombriT aris daTariRebuli. masSi Sinsaxkomis xelmZRvaneloba stalins atyobinebs, rom # 00486 brZanebis safuZvelze sul arasruli monacemebiT represirebulia dapatimrebul moRalateTa 18 000-ze meti coli, maT Soris _ moskovidan 3 000ze meti da leningradidan daaxloebiT 1 50010 .
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ojaxis wevrTa mimarT represiis SesaZleblobebi marto #00486 brZanebiT ar iyo uzrunvelyofili.aseT SesaZleblobebs iZleoda, magaliTad, zemoT naxsenebi kulakuri brZaneba. igi Seicavda punqts, romlis Tanaxmadac represirebulis ojaxis srulwlovani wevrebi SeiZleba gagzavniliyvnen SromiT dasaxlebebSi an banakebSi, Tu maT xelewifebaT aqtiuri antisabWoTa qmedebebi an yovel SemTxvevaSi, unda gasaxlebuliyvnen reJimuli qalaqebidan da sasazRvro teritoriebidan. 10 ufb-s centraluri arqivi. .3, .5, . 79, . 281. vfiqrobT, rom represirebuli colebis aq dasaxelebuli ricxvi ar aris Semcirebuli. ufro gviandel dokumentSi, Sinsaxkomis pirveli specganyofilebis ufrosis _ petrovis 1939 wlis noembris raportSi berias saxelze, romelic eZRvneba konfiskebuli qonebis problemebs, dasaxelebulia ufro mcire ricxvi _ 12,5 aTasi. magram dokumentis konteqstidan ar Cans, es ricxvi #00486 brZanebiT msjavrdebul yvela cols moicavs, Tu mxolod maT, visTanac konfiskacia Catarda (ix. iqve. . 6, . 839, . 71-73). SeiZleba gagvikvirdes, Tu msjavrdebuli colebis ricxvs SevadarebT uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro kolegiis ricxvobriv SedegebTan (tribunalebiT msjavrdebulTa saerTo ricxvi gacilebiT naklebi iyo), 1936 wlis 1 oqtombridan 1938 wlis 1 noembramde ussk-m (uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro komisia) da misma gamsvlelma sesiebma msjavri dasdes 39 745 adamians. am Seusabamobas ramdenime

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ufro zustia monacemebi CamorTmeul bavSvebze. Sinsaxkomis administraciul-sameurneo sammarTveloSi, romelic ganagebda am bavSvebis ganawilebas sabavSvo dawesebulebebSi, mkacri aRricxva mimdinareobda. Semonaxuli Sidauwyebrivi da uwyebaTaSorisi mimoweridan vigebT ara marto maT raodenobas, aramed imasac, rom # 00486 brZanebis mixedviT Catarebuli mTeli operacia nawilobriv gegmiuri xasiaTisa iyo. jer kidev operaciis dawyebamde eJovi dawvrilebiT atyobinebda stalins momavali CamorTmevebis Sesaxeb: saorientacio gaTvlebiT pirveli kategoriis bavSvebi iqnebian 5 000-mde suli11 . Semdeg is werda: bavSvebis ganTavsebas ise vapirebT, rom ramdenime mSoblis Svilebi erTi qalaqidan, romlebic dakavSirebuli arian saerTo nacnobobiT an naTesaobiT, ver moxvdnen erTsa da imave sabavSvo saxlSi. amasTanave, rogorc wesi, erT olqSi mcxovrebi bavSvebi aucileblad iqnebian gadayvanili sxva olqis sabavSvo saxlebSi12 . magram CamosarTmev bavSvTa raodenoba gacilebiT meti aRmoCnda. 1937 wlis 27 noembers eJovi atyobinebs saxkomsabWos Tavmjdomares molotovs: skkp(b) ck-s gadawyvetilebis Sesrulebis Sesabamisad [igulisxmeba politbiuros 1937 wlis 5 ivlisis dadgenileba _ a.r.], operaciis dawyebidan a.w. 20 noembramde moskovsa da mTel kavSirSi Sinsaxkomma ganaTlebis saxkomis bavSvTa saxlebSi gagzavna da moawyo 5 862 suli _ represirebuli mSoblebis Svilebi. gansaTavsebeli bavSvebis adre navaraudevi raodenoba (5 000) gadaWarbebulia. operaciis bolomde ivaraudeba kidev 10 000-mde bavSvis CamorTmeva. am mimarTvis pasuxad 1937 wlis 19 dekembers saxkomsabWom daadgina, rom ruseTis federaciis, ukrainis, yazaxeTisa da belorusiis ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatebs daevaloT sabavSvo saxlebSi gamoyon damatebiTi 10 000 adgili. Tumca, es adgilebic ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi. 1938 wlis 4 agvistos Sinsaxkomis Tavmjdomaris moadgile Jukovski (Tanamdebobrivad kurirebda Sinsaxkomis administraciul- sameurneo sammarTvelos
mizezi aqvs. pirvel yovlisa, ussk da tribunalebi asamarTlebdnen ara mxolod memarjvene trockist jaSuSebsa da diversantebs, aramed braldebulTa ufro farTo wres, Sesabamisad, am organoebis mier msjavrdebulTa yvela coli ar eqvemdebareboda dapatimrebas, rogorc smow-i. meorec: dapatimrebuli qmrebis bevri coli 1937-38 wkebSi msjavrdebuli iyo damoukidebeli braldebebiT _ zusti statistika, samwuxarod, ucnobia. da bolos, memuaristikis Tanaxmad, colebis arc Tu mcire raodenobam moaxerxa mimalva, damalva qmris dapatimrebis Semdeg, qveynis sxva raionSi gamgzavrebiT, an naTesavebTan an megobrebTan gadasvliT imave qalaqSi, sadac qmari daapatimres. 11 iqve; . 4, . 79, . 85 . pirveli kategoriis xseneba, albaT, afiqsirebs brZanebis momzadebis Sualedur stadias _ ideas _ dapatimrdnen da msjavri daedoT mxolod daxvretilTa colebs. Sesabamisad igegmeboda bavSvTa saxlebSi mxolod im bavSvebis gagzavna, romlebic gasamarTlebuli iyvnen pirveli kategoriiT. 15 wlamde asakis aseTi bavSvebi 1937 wlis ivnisSi kavSiris masStabiT aRiricxa daaxloebiT 3 800 suli (ix. iqve: . 2166, . 249). SegaxsenebT, rom maT ricxvSi imaTi Svilebic Sediodnen, vinc 1934 wlis pirveli dekembris Semdeg daixvrita. 12 es debuleba Sevida #00486 brZanebaSi, romlis 27-e punqtSi naTqvamia, rom erTsa da imave bavSvTa saxlSi ar unda moxvdnen bavSvebi, romlebic dakavSirebuli arian erTmaneTTan naTesaurad an nacnobobiT. 1937 wlis 20 seqtembers es debuleba Serbilda: eJovma neba darTo ..... gaigzavnon erTsa da imave bavSvTa saxlSi bavSvebi, dakavSirebulni naTesaurad, Tu maT amis piradi survili aqvT (ix. iqve: . 10, . 12 ).

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_ ) swerda saxkomsabWos saqmeTa mmarTvels petruniCevs: :skkp(b) ck-s gadawyvetilebis Sesrulebis mizniT ssrk Sinsaxkomma a.w. 10 ivlisisaTvis mokavSire respublikaTa ganaTlebis saxkomatebis bavSvTa saxlebSi moawyo represirebul mSobelTa 17 355 bavSvi. ssrk Sinsaxkomis varaudiT saWiro iqneba CamorTmeuli da ganTavsebuli iyos kidev 5 000-mde bavSvi. Txovna ruseTis federaciisa da ukrainis bavSvTa saxlebSi damatebiTi 5 000 adgilis gamoyofis Sesaxeb dakmayofilda13 . 1937-38 wlebis Semajamebeli cifrebi Sinsaxkomis administraciulsameurneo sammarTvelos ( ) ufrosma sumbaTovma Seatyobina baraTiT berias saxelze: Sinsaxkomis 1937 wlis # 00486 brZanebiT Sinsaxkomis administraciulsameurneo sammarTvelos mieca gansakuTrebuli davaleba xalxis mtrebis Svilebis CamorTmevisa da am bavSvebis ganTavsebisa bavSvTa dawesebulebebSi an sameurveod naTesavebisTvis gadacemis Sesaxeb. 1937 wlis 15 agvistodan aqamde administraciul-sameurneo sammarTvelos mier Catarebulia Semdegi samuSao: sul kavSirSi CamorTmeulia bavSvebi 25 342 suli. aqedan: a) ganaTlebis saxkomisariatis bavSvTa saxlebSi da adgilobriv bagebSi 22 427 suli aqedan moskovisaSi 1 909 suli b) sameurveod gadaecaT da dedebs daubrundaT 2 915 suli14 . es cifrebi sruliad sandod gamoiyureba, magram namdvilad arasrulia. maTSi ar Sedian 15 welze meti asakis Svilebi, romlebic CaiTvalnen socialurad saSiSebad, dapatimrdnen da msjavri daedoT. Cven Zalian cota saxeli viciT sul ramdenime aTeuli. sinamdvileSi msjavrdebuli Svilebi bevrad metni iyvnen. aq ar aris monacemebi arc represirebuli mSoblebis sxva 15-17 wlis Svilebze, romlebsac ar aRmoaCndaT naTesavebi, romlebic isurvebdnen TavianT ojaxebSi maT wayvanas. maT saSualo skolis damTavrebamde bavSvTa saxlebSi gzavnidnen an iZulebiT awyobdnen samuSaoze. magram 15 welze meti asakis bavSvebis bavSvTa saxlebSi gagzavnasac da maT SromiT mowyobasac axorcielebdnen Sinsaxkomis adgilobrivi sammarTveloebi ssrk Sinsaxkomis administraciul-

13 14

ix. iqve: . 5, . 69, . 186. iqve: . 6, . 839, . 35.

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sameurneo sammarTvelos monawileobis gareSe, amitom statistikaSi es monacemebi ar aisaxa. ar arsebobs monacemebi arc im ufrosi Tu umcrosi asakis bavSvebze, romlebic naTesavebma mSoblebis dapatimrebisTanave waiyvanes (zogjer ukve bavSvTa gamanawileblebidan), Sinsaxkomis organoebSi meurveobis oficialuri gaformebis gareSe. ar aris aRricxuli arc mravali SemTxveva, roca TviT bavSvebma SeZles Tavi aeridebinaT CamorTmevisaTvis, sakuTari riskis fasad gaemgzavrnen naTesavebTan (zogjer Soreuli mogzaurobiT, saidumlod Caiparnen sxva qalaqebsa da regionebSi) an, ubralod, upatronoTa rigebi Seavses. Sinsaxkomis administraciul-sameurneo sammarTvelos ufrosis baraTSi ar aris cnobebi arc im ZuZuTa bavSvebze, romlebic dedebs Tan mihyavdaT banakebSi, arc patimrobaSi gaCenil bavSvebze (miuxedavad fexmZimeTa dapatimrebis akrZalvis arsebobisa # 00486 brZanebaSi, es wesi mudmivad irRveoda). magram saqme cifrebSi ki ar aris, aramed ucilobel faqtSi _ # 00486 brZanebiT operacia mimarTuli iyo ara marto xalxis mtrebis colebis, aramed maTi Svilebis winaaRmdegac. da rodesac Cven vcdilobT am brZanebis msxverplTa saerTo ricxvis gamoTvlas, aucilebelia, rom saboloo cifrebSi isinic CavrToT. Csir-ebs, romlebsac sabanako vadebi hqondaT misjili, uflebebi sareabilitacio procesis dasawyisSive aRudgines _ 1950-ian wlebSi. 2003 wels ruseTis federaciaSi bolos da bolos sakanonmdeblo wesiT CaiTvalnen politikuri represiebis msxverplad Svilebi, romlebic CamoarTves mSoblebs an didi xniT moswyvites maT, moswyvites mSobliur adgilebs; romlebmac gaiares Sinsaxkomis bavSvTa gamanawileblebi da saxlebi; romlebic mravali weli imyofebodnen uSiSroebis organoTa marad fxizeli zedamxedvelobis qveS.

Csir-ebis pirveli etapebi banakebisken 1937 wlis seqtemberSi daiZra. 1937 wlis ivlisSi gaica brZaneba, rom qalebisTvis Seqmniliyo ori specialuri banaki dasavleT cimbirsa da yazaxeTSi. magram operaciis dasawyisisTvis maTi momzadeba ver moeswro. amitom, # 00486 brZanebaSi patimarTa gasagzavnad miTiTebuli iyo temnikovis Sroma-gasworebis banaki, romelic dislocirebuli iyo arc Tu Sors moskovidan _ mordveTSi.

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1937 wlis seqtemberSi aq organizebuli iyo pirveli specialuri ganyofileba daetia temlagSi qalTaTvis _ samSoblos moRalateTa ojaxis wevrTaTvis. Tumca mas ar SeeZlo gagzavnili yvela smow-i. rogorc iqna, 1938 wlis dasawyisSi gaixsna specganyofileba akmolinskSi, romelic Sedioda yaragandis Sgb-s () struqturaSi. misi Seqmnis nebarTva gulagma jer kidev seqtembris dasawyisSi gasca15 . Semdegi oTxi Tve mosamzadebel samuSaoebze daixarja, Tanac moskovi mudmivad aCqarebda karlags16 . 1938 wlis 10 ianvridan moyolebuli, daiwyo etapebis Camosvla. akmolinskis specganyofileba swrafad ivseboda17 da naxevari wlis ganmavlobaSi ise gadaitena, rom karlagis xelmZRvaneloba iZulebuli gaxda, patimari colebis morigi etapebi jer droebiT gadaenawilebina sxva sabanako ganyofilebebSi, xolo SemodgomisaTvis Seeqmna kidev erTi specialuri ganyofileba smow-ebisaTvis _ spaskisa. cnobebis mixedviT, 1939 wlis Sua ricxvebSi alJir-Si imyofeboda 4 400-ze meti qali _ smow-i. banakis arsebobis pirveli weliwadnaxevari yvelaze Zneli iyo patimarTaTvis. siviwrove, mZime, uCveulo yofa, auwyobeli warmoeba, yvelaferi es, speckontingentisaTvis dadgenili mkacri izolaciis reJimTan erTad, maT cxovrebas gansakuTrebulad mtanjvels xdida. da mTeli am drois ganmavlobaSi alJir-i ganixileboda ara rogorc ubralod banaki smow-ebisaTvis, aramed rogorc maTgan ~yvelaze saSiSTa gamomwyvdevis adgili18 . mxolod 1939 wlis
15

ix. gulag-is ufrosis plineris depeSa yazaxeTis ssr SinsaxkomSi 9.09.37 TariRiT: akmolinskis #26 SromiTi dasaxlebis bazaze sakoncentracio banakis organizebaze Tanaxma var. <.........> daaproeqteT barakebis mSenebloba (rf-s ufs-s centraluri arqivi.. 3, . 4, . 2246, .566). 16 ix., mag., gulag-is ufrosis moadgilis leoniukis depeSa alma-ataSi 13.11.37 TariRiT: gTxovT, SematyobinoT, rogor midis sakoncentracio banakis mSenebloba akmolinskSi, rodis ramdeni saTavsi iqneba mzad, rodis iqneba SesaZlebeli msjavrdebulTa iq gagzavna; ivaraudeba, rom sakoncentracio banaki gamoyenebuli iqneba sagangebo TaTbiris mier gasamarTlebuli qalebis _ samSoblos moRalateTa ojaxis wevrebis mosaTavseblad(ix.. 2254, . 749). ix. agreTve misi depeSa yaragandaSi 17.12.37 TariRiT: midepeSeT msjavrdebulTa miRebisa da ganTavsebisaTvis akmolinskis specganyofilebis momzadebis msvlelobis Sesaxeb, agreTve, sadgur akmolinskSi mimRebi punqtis organizebis Sesaxeb <........>. gaiTvaliswineT, rom dekembris bolos daiwyeba patimarTa Camoyvana (ix. iqve; . 2259, . 599). 17 a.r. kukuSkinas monacemebiT mxolod pirveli ori kviris ganmavlobaSi banakSi 8 etapi Camovida moskovidan, orenburgidan, irkutskidan, rostovidan, kalugidan, orSidan ( .. : . , 2002. . 73). . a.r. kukuSkinas _ yazaxeTis finansur-ekonomikuri universitetis pedagogisa da istoriulsaganmanaTleblo sazogadoeba memorial-yaragandas Tavmjdomaris naSromSi Tavmoyrili da ganzogadebulia mniSvnelovani faqtobrivi masala, kerZod, yaragandis Sroma-gasworebis banakis ( ) arqividan. zogierTi cnoba, romelic Cven mogvaqvs winamdebare statiaSi, da romelic exeba akmolinskis specganyofilebis funqcionirebas, Cvens mier swored am naSromidan aris aRebuli. 18 ix. Sinsaxkomisris moadgilis Jukovskis miTiTeba Soreuli aRmosavleTis mxaris Sinsaxkomis sammarTvelosadmi () 23.07.38 TariRiT: xalxis mtrebis colebi,romlebic eqvemdebarebian sagangebo TaTbirze ganxilvas, gagzavneT karlagSi. garda gansakuTrebulad saSiSebisa, romlebic

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maisSi, mxolod naxevari wlis Semdeg mas mere, rac gareT damTavrda samSoblos moRalateTa colebis mimarT mimarTuli operacia, gamoica gulag-is brZaneba, romlis Sesasrulebladac zafxul-Semodgomis ganmavlobaSi temlagis, siblagis da karlagis ganyofilebebi, sadac koncentrirebuli iyvnen smow-ebi, specreJimidan saerTo sabanako reJimze gadaiyvanes. es moaswavebda ramdenime principul cvlilebas alJir-is patimarTa cxovrebaSi. maTgan mTavari iyo, rom qalebs neba daerToT manamde akrZaluli mimowerisa gare samyarosTan. mxolod axla Seityo mravalma maTganma TavianTi qmrebis bedis Sesaxeb, an ra mouvida maT Svilebs. agreTve darTes amanaTebis miRebis neba, moixsna akrZalva specialistebis specialobis mixedviT gamoyenebis Sesaxeb da a.S. saerTo-sabanako reJimze gadasvla kerZod imas niSnavda, rom smow-ebi aRar warmoadgenen speckontingents, romelic sxva patimrebisagan mkacrad unda yofiliyo izolirebuli. axla SeiZleboda maTi gaerTianeba sxva sabanako kontingentebTan, gadayvana sxva sabanako punqtebSi, warmoebis an reJimisaTvis saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi _ sxva banakebSi. aman sakmaod swrafad gamoiwvia smow-ebis tomskis banakis daSla; iqidan qalebis umetesi nawili gadaiyvanes siblagis # 1 Sroma-gasworebis koloniaSi sadgur iaiaSi, smow-ebis ramdenime etapi gadatenili temlagidan gaigzavna sxva banakebSi, magaliTad, kareliaSi, segeJis tyeqimqaRaldkombinatis mSeneblobaze (mravali maTgani Semdeg iqidan karlagSi iqna gadayvanili. TviT karlagSi likvidirda cota xniT adre Seqmnili spaskis ganyofileba, xolo smow-ebi ganawildnen banakis sxva ganyofilebebs Soris (mniSvnelovani niwili dolinkaSi moxvda). daiwyo agreTve smow-ebis gadayvana karlagidan sxva banakebSi _ solikamskis celuloza-qaRaldis kombinatis mSeneblobaze, krasnoiarskis Sroma-gasworebis banakSi da a.S. akmolinskis specganyofileba 1939 wlis miwuruls sabolood Seerwya karlags (manamde is karlagis struqturaSi formalurad Sedioda, ZiriTadad ki uSualod gulags eqvemdebareboda) da daerqva karlagis me-17 ganyofileba. Tumca, omis dawyebamde is jer kidev inarCunebda Tavdapirvel specifikas, rCeboda ra, pirvel yovlisa, swored smow-ebis Tavmoyris adgilad. aq daiwyes im qalebisa da kacebis moTavseba, romlebic msjavrdebuli iyvnen sxva kontrrevoluciuri danaSaulebisaTvis, zogjer ki sisxlis samarTlis muxlebis mixedviT. Tanamedrove mkvlevris azriT _ 40-iani wlebis dasawyisisaTvis akmolinskis ganyofileba gaxda Sereuli da sul ufro emsgavseboda karlagis sxva ganyofilebebs19 .

gagzavneTcalke akmolinskis specganyofilebaSi (rf-s ufs-s centraluri arqivi . .3, . 4, . 87, . 181). 19 a.r. kukuSkina. cit. naSromi.gv. 90. ix. agreTve gv. 83-85 da sxva.

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akmolinskis banakis patimar-qalTa cxovrebas eZRvneba bevri, ukve gamoqveynebuli da Tavisi gamomcemlis momlodine, memuaruli teqsti20 . maTSi dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili barakebic, mwiri ulufac, Sromac _ lerwmis Wra, sasoflo-sameurneo samuSaoebi, samkervalo warmoeba. iqvea aRwerili agreTve banakSi Camoyvanili an iq gaCenili bavSvebis bedi, aRwerilia sabanako CvilTa saxlebi. banakis qalTa mogonebebis TiTqmis gamWoli Temaa _ bavSvebTan ganSorebuli dedebis tanjva, warmatebuli an warumatebeli cdebi mimoweris saSualebiT im BbavSvebis Zebnisa, romlebic bavSvTa saxlebSi iyvnen moTavsebuli an _ rac arc Tu iSviaTad xdeboda _ sulac sadRac gaqrnen, daikargnen teroris oromtrialSi. kidev erTi Temaa _ ganTavisuflebis Semdeg SvilebTan nanatri Sexvedrebi, romlebic arc Tu iSviaTad tragediad iqceoda xolme. da bolos, cxovreba TavisuflebaSi xalxis mtris damRiT. yvela am Temas Cven axla ar SevexebiT. isini TiTo-orola gverds ki ara, calke wignebs imsaxureben. # 00486 brZanebiT msjavrdebul qalebs vadebi unda damTavrebodaT 194243 an 1945-46 wlebSi. Tumca, droulad arc erTi maTgani ar gauTavisuflebiaT.21 omis pirvelsave dRes, 1941 wlis 22 ivniss gamoica specialuri direqtiva, romelic krZalavda banakebidan kontrrevolucionerebis, banditebis, recidivistebis da sxva saSiSi damnaSaveebis ganTavisuflebas. Semdeg wels gamoica axali direqtivebi, romlebic im smow-ebis ganTavisuflebis nebas iZleoda, romlebsac patimrobis vada daumTavrdaT. magram Tavisufleba, romelsac isini iRebdnen, metad pirobiTi iyo, radgan direqtiva iuwyeboda: sasjelis vadamoxdili ganTavisuflebulebi datovebul unda iqnan samuSaod Sinsaxkomis banakebSi, rogorc Tavisuflad daqiravebulni, gamgzavrebis uflebis gareSe, omis damTavrebamde banak-mSeneblobebis samuSaoTa raionebTan mimagrebiT. aseT ganTavisuflebulebs, rogorc wesi, pasportebs ar aZlevdnen, sakmarisad Tvlidnen mxolod banakis cnobas. garda amisa, nabrZanebi iyo maTi moTavseba calkeul sabanako punqtebSi, sadac zonis mavTulxlarTebi unda moxsniliyo,
ix.,mag., .. .... .: -, 1998; .. : . _-- : .-. . - 1991. - . \ .: . . . . , . , 2003. : 19201950- . \ . .-. - () : , 2002. ( . . .). rac Seexeba memuaruli xasiaTis gamouqveynebel teqstebs, mxolod sazogadoeba memorialis (moskovi) arqivSi inaxeba ramdenime mogoneba, miZRvnili alJir-isadmi: m.l. ancisisa, a.f. barina-Silovasi, i.i.verJenskaiasi, r.l. volinskaiasi, m.m. goldbergisa, o.m. kuCumovasi, g.a. semionovasi da sxvaTa. ix., agreTve a.d. saxarovis saxelobis centris da muzeumis (moskovi) da istoriul-literaturuli sazogadoeba dabrunebis (moskovi) saarqivo koleqciebi. 21 garda imaTi, visac sagangebo TaTbirma ratomRac 3-wliani vada ganusazRvra. Tu es vada omis dawyebamde mTavrdeboda,maSin maT, ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, droulad uSvebdnen. garda amisa, qalTa Zalian mcire nawili ganTavisuflda banakidan saqmis gadasinjvis Sedegad 1939-1940 wlebSi. amasTan, zogierT maTgans banakis vada Seecvala gadasaxlebiT.sul 1939-41 wlebSi karlagidan ganTavisuflda iq myof qalTa _ smow-Ta daaxloebiT 5%.
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vagonis tipis narebiT gawyobil barakebSi. Tumca, Tu amgvarad ganTavisuflebuli invalidebis, moxucebis, bavSviani qalebis banakebSi samuSaod gamoyeneba SeuZlebeli iyo, banakis ufross ufleba hqonda, Tavisi Sexedulebisamebr gaeTavisuflebina isini saerTo safuZvelze. amasTanave, masve hqonda ufleba, sulac ar gaeTavisuflebina patimari da daeyovnebina banakSi omis damTavrebamde, Tu is uaryofiTad xasiaTdeboda. amgvarad, bevri qalisaTvis, romelsac vada omis wlebSi umTavrdeboda, ganTavisufleba mxolod formaluri iyo, faqtobrivad es sxvas arafers niSnavda, garda zonis gareT gadabargebisa. isini sabolood mxolod 1946 wlis maisis Semdeg gaaTavisufles. amasTanave, yvela gaTavisuflebulis pasportSi miTiTebuli iyo Caweris SezRudva reJimul adgilebSi22 . es imas niSnavda, rom ganTavisuflebuli qali-smow-ebis umetesobas ar SeeZlo mSobliur qalaqebSi dabruneba. sul 1938-46 wlebSi karlagSi sasjeli moixada daaxloebiT 6 500 qalmasmow-ma. maTgan 4 500-ze metma gamoiara alJiri _ erT-erTi umsxvilesi (Tu yvelaze msxvili ara) sabWoTa qalTa banaki. * * *

amJamad yazaxeTis respublikis mraval qalaqsa da dasaxlebaSi aRmarTulia sabWoTa epoqis politikuri represiebis msxverplTa memorialuri kompleqsebi, monumentebi, samaxsovro niSnebi. axal dedaqalaqSi _ astanaSi (yofili akmolinski) _ msxverplTa ZeglTan miaqvT yvavilebi, maxloblad rgaven xeebs. malinovkaSi _ ase ewodeba axla yofil SromiT dasaxlebas # 26 _ dgas alJir-is patimarTa Zegli. odesRac maTi xeliT darguli alvis xeebis xeivanSi ganTavsebulia stendebi saxelebiT da mogonebaTa fragmentebiT; kulturis saxlSi Seqmnilia alJir-is muzeumi. im adgilas, sadac gardacvlil patimrebs marxavdnen, aRmarTulia simboluri saflavis qvebi _ qristianuli da muslimanuri23. yovel wels xsovnisa da mwuxarebis dRes aq Camodian im qalTa naTesavebi, romlebic odesRac patimrobas akmolinskis banakSi ixdidnen. Camodian TviTon yofili patimrebic. isini ukve sul cotaniRa arian darCenilni.

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ix. direqtivebi, miTiTebebi da brZanebebi banakebidan ganTavisuflebis Sewyvetisa da ganaxlebis Sesaxeb 22.06.1941, 29.04.1942, 7.05.1942, 24.06.1946 daTariRebiT,sakanonmdeblo da normatiuli aqtebis krebulSi politikuri represiebis msxverplTa represirebisa da reabilitaciis Sesaxeb. Seadgina e.a.zaicevma. moskovi, 1993, gv. 158-166. 23 SeuZlebelia ar aRiniSnos, rom es yvelaferi _ Zeglic, stendebic, muzeumic, memorialuri saflavis qvebic _ Seiqmna da moqmedebs adgilobrivi sabWiTa meurneobis direqtoris i.i. Sarfis mudmivi TanadgomiT. Zegli daidga jer kidev 1989 wels, roca ssrk-s bevr regionSi amaze seriozulad arc ki laparakobdnen.