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A Novel Differential Protection Scheme for the Generator

Zhu Jiajie, Tai Nengling,

Chen Chen, Senior Member, IEEE

Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Power Electrical Engineering, Shanghai, 200240

Abstract: This paper presents a new scheme to distinguish the internal fault or the external fault based on phaselet algorithm. For the generator ratio restraint differential protection, the restraint current is decreased owing to CT saturation caused by the external fault, which always results in the maloperation. In order to enhance the operating characteristic of the protection, generator differential

instantaneously [2]. However, this criterion relies on detecting the moments of fault occurring and differential current occurring. If CT saturates very quickly, it is difficult to detect the time difference. In order to avoid differential protection misoperation in case of the external fault, reference [3] proposes a method whose restraining current is produced based on the greater of the two currents. However, it will affect the sensitivity when the internal fault is occurred. This paper proposes a novel scheme for the differential protection. The simulation results show that the scheme can effectively prevent generator differential protection from mal-operation caused by the transient current resulted from CT saturation, and availably enhance the sensitivity of differential protection during internal fault.

protection will select different restraint currents according to the different fault current characteristics. According to that, the method for choosing the corresponding restraint currents is then introduced. The simulation results show that the scheme can effectively prevent the generator differential protection from maloperation caused by CT saturation, and availably enhance the sensitivity of the differential protection during the internal fault. Keywords: generator; differential protection; saturation; phaselet; restraint current
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I. INTRODUCTION To improve the reliability of the generator differential


protection, it is essential to stabilize the protection under these conditions. Two methods are commonly used in the field. One is biasing technique, where the relay setting is raised as the fault current increases. The other is a high impedance technique, where the relay impedance is with big value. Thus the current through the differential element is insufficient for the relay to operate. However, both of the methods mentioned above are not very satisfied in the field [1-3]. Studies have revealed that CT has linear region and saturation region. During linear region, CT will correctly transform the primary current. Therefore, there exists a time difference between the fault occurrence and the emergence of a false differential current even if a serious external fault occurs. However, this time difference never occurs for any internal fault even if subsequent CT saturation emerges. This time difference can be used as a criterion for the differential protection to operate

II. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION PRINCIPLE Typical operation criterion of differential protection can be expressed by the following equations:

& Differential current: I d = I1 & I 2 & Restraint current : I res = 0.5 I1 +& I 2
Operation criterion is as the follows:

1 2

I d > I op.0
I d > I op.0 + K res ( I res I res .0 )
Id

when I res I res.0 3 when I res > I res.0 4

K res

I op.0 Ires0 Ires

This paper is sponsored by National Natural Science Foundation of China (50577042)

Fig1 Setting of ratio restraint characteristic

1-4244-1298-6/07/$25.00 2007 IEEE.

& & Where, I1 and I 2 are the neutral and terminal current
phasors of the differential protection as shown in fig.2,

digital filter algorithm named as phaselet algorithm. Phaselet algorithm takes samples as partial sum of Fourier algorithm, it does not need integral half-wave data window [4]. Any size of data window samples could be used to calculate the phasor magnitude and phasor phase of raw signal. When using phaselet algorithm, it is supposed the input currents are sampled at N samples per cycle, and every phaselet has q samples, then each cycle has

& respectively. If I1 is inflow of the differential protection,


its direction is termed as the positive. Different with that,

& the direction of I 2 is defined as the positive when it is


outflow. I op .0 is the minimal operating current, I res .0 is the minimal restraint current, K res is the restraint

N / q phaselets. Real part and imaginary part of the p


phaselet are produced as the follows:
pq

Re a p =

coefficient. Setting of ratio restraint differential is depicted in Fig1.

k = p q q +1

X k cos

2k N 2k N

(5)

Im ap =
5 4 3 2 1
Incomplete differential protection

k = p q q +1

p q

X k sin

(6)

Where X k stands for the k sample of input signal. Phaselet algorithm is a process of weighted sum. Phaselet calculated by equation (5) and (6) could be transformed to traditional phasor multiplied by a coefficient matrix. External fault currents combined with large non-periodic component and harmonic components make CTs of generator protection to substantial saturation, which causes current of CT second side distortion. Because of the transient response differences of CT at the neutral and the terminal, big differential current will be produced. According to field tests, the fault transient current will not induce CTs to saturation immediately. However CT saturation will occur in 6 150ms after short circuit happened, and the deadline of saturation has relation to non-periodic component[3-6]. Based on this, 1/4 data window phaselet can reflect the fault character by the samples in 1/4 cycle after the fault happened. So 1/4 data window phaselet can effectively remove the influence of CT saturation. During severe external fault or internal fault, both the neutral-side current and the terminal-side current increase rapidly, which make CTs of generator protection to saturation. In order to prevent the misoperation of differential protection caused by CT saturation during external fault, reasonable big restraint current must be chosen. However, in order to enhance the sensitivity of differential protection during internal fault, smaller restraint current must be chosen. An effective way of optimizing performance of differential protection is to

Fig.2 Connection of generator incomplete differential protection

External fault currents always combine together with some DC components, which will induce CT to substantial saturation. Quite often, CT at the neutral and the terminal not only are with different characteristics and burden impedances, but also made by two different manufactures. As a result, the external faults, transform inrush current, or sudden changes in the load could result in CT saturation and misoperation of the differential protection. When the short-circuit fault with small numbers is occurred near the generator neutral, most of the three-phase

& windings are operating well. The terminal-side current I 2 & may have the characters of through current, that is I1 , & I 2 have the same directions. It will decrease the differential
protection operating current I d , and reduce the sensitivity of differential protection, sometime even reflect on the failure operation.

III. PHASELET UTILIZED IN GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION Since the mid 1990s, GE Company has proposed a novel

choose different reasonable restraint current according to different sort of faults. Phaselet algorithm is a preferable way to judge whether exterior fault or interior fault is occurred. During external fault, in the first 1/4 cycle after the fault happened, the fault transient current has not made CTs saturated. Thus the ratio between 1/4 data window phaselets of the neutral-side current and the terminal-side current is close to 100%. For the internal fault, in the first 1/4 cycle after the fault happened, the ratio between 1/4 data window phaselets of the neutral-side current and the terminal-side current is greatly different.

& & I 2 = sI p . Reference [2] proposes that when the load


of CTs is resistance, differential current between the neutral-side current and terminal-side current caused by CT saturation is biggest. Here the relation between angle difference and the transferring ratio can be described as

s = cos

and

differential

current

is:

& & & I d = I1 & I 2 = I p sI p = 1 s 2 pI n


So three kinds of restraint current are given by the following equations: (i)The restraint current:

IV. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT RESTRAINT CURRENTS Today ratio restraint differential current protection usually
chooses

I res1

& 0.5 I1 +& I 2

& & 0.5 I p + sI p

& I res = 0.5 I1 +& I 2


& I1 & I 2 cos
as the restraint

0.5 1 + 3s 2 pI n
The differential protection criterion can be described as:

or current.

I res =

1 s 2 pI n > 0.5K res 1 + 3s 2 pI n


and

Actually in theory, protection criterions of these two restraint current are equivalent, of course the operation characteristic is also same [7]. Choosing different restraint currents may get different operation characteristics. In this paper, three different kinds of restraint currents are compared. In order to discuss the operation characteristic,

s<

4 K res 2 3K res 2 + 4

(ii)The restraint current:

& & I res 2 = M ax I1 , & I 2 = I1 = pI n


The differential protection criterion can be described as:

& the differential current is I d = I1 & I 2 . And three


different restraint currents are:

1 s 2 pI n > K res pI n
(iii) The restraint current:

s < 1 K res 2

& I res1 = 0.5 I1 +& I 2


I res 2 I res 3

( & = M in ( I

& = M ax I1 , & I 2
1

, & I2

) )

& I res 3 = M in I1 , & I 2 = I 2 = spI n


The differential protection criterion can be described as:

1 s 2 pI n > K res spI n and s <

The protection criterion is chosen as: I d > K res I res . The three different operation characteristics during internal fault and external fault are described in subsection 4.1 and 4.2. 4.1 Ability of dealing with CT saturation In case of the external fault, suppose that terminal-side CT is saturated, while the neutral-side CT operates well. The
0 & neutral-side current is then: I1 = & I p = & pI n 0 , that is,

1 1 + K res 2

If 0 < K res < 1 , equation (7), (8), (9) can be represented

as

1 K res

4 K res 2 1 . This < < 2 3K res + 4 1 + K res 2

shows that during the external fault, compared with I res1 and

I res 3 ,

& I res 2 = M ax I1 , & I 2

is

better

for

the transferring ratio is difference is

s and transferring angle

preventing differential protection from misoperation. 3.2 Analysis of sensitivity during internal fault

The terminal-side current is given as:

With the internal fault, the neutral-side current and the terminal-side current are not equivalent. For the short circuit with small fault turns occurred near the generator represented as: 1 K res <

2 K res 1 < . This 2 + K res K res + 1

& neutral-side, I 2 may have the characters of through


& current. Suppose that the neutral-side current I1 = & I p & & & I p = pI n , then the terminal-side current I 2 can & & be described as I 2 = sI p , where s means the ratio

& shows that if I1 = & I p keep the stable situation, the


restraint current

& I res 3 = M in I1 , & I 2

is

more

sensitive than I res1 and I res 2 .

& & between outflow current I 2 and inflow current I1 ,

V. A NOVEL SCHEME OF GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION According to the above analysis, this paper proposes a
novel scheme of generator differential protection. This scheme is made up of three components, includes start up element, fault character discrimination and differential protection criterion. (i) Start up element In this paper, the fault contributed current is used to judge whether fault is occurred. In order to ensure good sensitivity when slight fault is occurred, the fault contributed differential current is also utilized. (ii) Fault character discrimination After fault is detected, the sampling data of the first 1/4 power system cycle is used to calculate 1/4 data window

& & means the angle difference between I 2 and I1 . It is


obvious that when

& = 0 , I1

& and I 2 have the same

& & direction. If the magnitudes of I1 and I 2 do not change,


differential current of protection is minimal. For the fault mentioned above, the differential current is given as:

& & & I d = I1 & I 2 = I p sI p = p (1 s ) I n . Three kinds of


restraint current are given by the following equations: (i)The restraint current:

& & & I res1 = 0.5 I1 +& I 2 = 0.5 I p + sI p = 0.5 p(1 + s ) I n


The differential protection criterion can be described as:

& & & & phaselets I1 , I 2 . If I1 & I 2 > k I1 , the internal fault

p (1 s ) I n > 0.5 K res p(1 + s ) I n


10 (ii)The restraint current:

and

s<

2 K res K res + 2

& & is likely to be occurred, if I1 & I 2 k I1 , maybe it is


an external fault. According to the experiment results, whether it is the internal fault or the external fault, short circuit current will not induce CTs saturation in 1/4 cycle after fault was occurred, so k may be set more sensitive. (iii) Differential protection criterion Full cycle fault data is used to calculate the fundamental

& & I res 2 = M ax I1 , & I 2 = I1 = pI n


The differential protection criterion can be described as:

p (1 s ) I n > K res pI n and


(iii)The restraint current:

s < 1 K res

& & phasors I1 and I 2 by phaselet algorithm. If it is the


internal fault, the restraint current can be chosen as

11

& & I res 3 = M in I1 , & I 2 = I 2 = spI n


The differential protection criterion can be described as:

& I res = M in I1 , & I 2 . Otherwise, the restraint current is

I res

( & = M ax ( I

) ,& I ) .
2

p (1 s ) I n > K res spI n

and s <

1 K res + 1

12

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS 6.1 Internal fault


In order to validate performance of the novel scheme for

If 0 < K res < 1 , equation (10), (11), (12) can be

the internal fault, internal fault simulation program for the generator of Three-Gorges Power Station is developed according to [8]. The main parameters of San Xia generator are given by the following equations: rated power protection K sen =

Id =1.4. It is confirmed that new K res1I res

scheme protection can ensure better sensitivity than the traditional differential protection for the internal fault.
I op

& 700 MW , rated voltage 20 kv , rated current I n =22.3 kA ,


power factor 0.9, the number of stator slot is 540, pole pairs 40, the number of parallel branch of every phase is 5, the number of series connection coils of every branch is 36. Incomplete differential protection is chosen to analyze the operation performance, and the neutral-side CT receives the current of branch 1 and 2. Operation characteristic of incomplete differential protection is set as fig.3. When short circuit with three turns in branch 1 is occurred, the neutral-side current and the terminal-side current are calculated by internal fault simulation program:

K res2=0.6

K res1=0.2 0.2In Ires In 2I n

Fig3 Operation characteristics of three-step ratio differential relay

5 & & I1 = ( I1a +& I 2 a ) = 27737.4 A 11.17 2

5.2 External fault In order to validate the performance of the novel scheme for the external fault, simulations for CT saturation during the external fault are performed with EMTP [2]. In this simulation, the worst condition is taken into consideration in this paper. That is, the neutral-side CT operates well, while the terminal-side CT is exposed to saturation. The current waves of the second side of CTs are depicted in Fig.4, in which i1 is the neutral-side current and i2 is the neutral-side current. The neutral-side current and the terminal-side current are calculated as:

& & & I 2 = I1a +& I 2 a + I 3a & + I 4 a& + I 5 a


= 22691.2 A 23.11
The 1/4 data window phaselets is given as:

& & I1 = 4690.2 A20.08 , I 2 = 5885 A29.15


According to the novel scheme of generator differential protection, the phaselet differential current is

& & I1 & I 2 = 1455.26 A > k I1


current is then:

(where k = 1 )

And internal fault is likely to be occurred, the restraint

& & I1 = 4.31I n 183.54 , I 2 = 2.9 I n 171.89 .


The 1/4 data window phaselets are then:

& I res = M in I1 , & I 2


The differential

) = 22691.2 A < 2 I
can be

current

described

as

& & I1 = 0.226 I n 140.0 I 2 = 0.223I n 150.2 . Here,


the rated current I n = 509.26 A . Operation characteristic of protection is set as Fig3.

& I d = I1 & I 2 = 7259.36 A , sensitivity of the new

Id differential protection K sen = = 1.6 > 1.5 . As a K res1I res


result, the new scheme of generator differential protection will operate sensitively. According to the traditional differential protection, the restraint current is:

& I res = 0.5 I1 +& I 2 = 25078.92 A < 2 I n , differential & current can be described as: I d = I1 & I 2 = 7259.36 A ,
sensitivity of traditional differential

Fig4 Current waveform of the second side of current transformer

According to the novel scheme, differential current based on phaselet can be described as:

& I res = M in I1 , & I 2

will be chosen.

& & & I1 & I 2 I1 & I 2 = 0.061I n < k I1 (where k = 1 ).


And external fault is likely to be occurred, the restraint

VIII. REFERENCES
[1] Protective Relays Application Guide. GEC Alsthorn Measurement Ltd., Balding Mansell plc, London& Wisbech, 1987. [2] Tai Nengling, Wu Hongxiao, Hou Zhijian. Influence of the Current Transformer Saturation on Unit-transverse Differential Protection and its Countermeasures. Automation of Electric Power Systems,2003,2720 [3] B Kasztenny, D Finney. New Algorithm For Generator Differential Protection. 2004 General Electric Multilin, Canada. [4] GE Industry Systems. L 90 Line Differential RelayUR Series Instruction Manual. 2004, 8-18-11 [5] X.h. Wang, Wang, W., and Wang, S. Research on internal faults of generators and their protection schemes in Three Gorges Hydro Power Station, IEEE Power Engineering Society 2000 Winter Meeting, Singapore,23-27 January 2000. [6] Working GroupJ11 of the Roatating Machinery Protection Subcommittee Power System Relaying Committee. Application of multifunction generator protection systems, IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, Vol.14, No.4,October, 1999,pp:1285-1293 [7] Ying Xianggen, Tai Nengling, Yang Shufu. The Application And Analysis Of The Differential Protection With The Product-Restraint Quantity. Proceedings of the CSEE,Vol.20, No.1,2000,pp:48-53. [8] Tai Nengling. Research on Advanced Principles of Protective Relays and Wavelet Analysis for Huge Turbo-Generators Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 2000

& current is then I res = Max I1 , & I 2


differential current can

) = 4.31I
be

. The

described

& as I d = I1 & I 2 = 1.58 I n . The sensitivity of new


differential protection:

1.58 I n I K sen = d = =0.88. I op (4.31 2) I n 0.6 + 0.2 I n + 0.2 I n


As a result, CT saturation cannot result in misoperation of the new scheme. According to the traditional differential protection, the differential current is I d = 1.58 I n , restraint

& current can be described as: I res = 0.5 I1 +& I 2 = 3.58 I n ,


sensitivity of traditional differential protection:

K sen

1.58I n I = d = =1.2. I op (3.58 2) I n 0.6 + 0.2 I n + 0.2 I n

Thus CT saturation may result in misoperation. According to that, it is confirmed that new scheme can ensure better security than traditional differential protection during external fault. VII. CONCLUSIONS A novel scheme of generator differential protection has been presented. According to experiment results, whether it is an internal fault or an external fault, the short circuit current would not make CT of generator protection to substantial saturation in the first 1/4 cycle after the fault was occurred. In this new scheme, 1/4 data window phaselet algorithm is utilized to judge whether an internal fault or an external fault is occurred. According to this, different restraint currents are chosen. If the external fault is likely to be occurred, in order to ensure the excellent

IX. BIOGRAPHY

Zhu Jiajie, received the Bachelor, in Electric Engineering from Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2004. Now, he is a graduated student of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Tai Nengling received the Bachelor, Master and PHD in Electric Engineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), in 1994, 1997 and 2000, respectively. Now, he is a professor of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

& security, restraint current I res = M ax I1 , & I 2


obtain the good sensitivity, restraint

will be

chosen. And if the internal fault is occurred, in order to current