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This little volume has been scanned and uploaded at the suggestion of the

late Iain Wotherspoon, of Martin's Book Shop in Campbeltown, whose
grand-mother wrote

SOUTHEND
THROUGH THE AGES
BY
K. JOHNSTON

CAMPBELTOWN : MARTIN, 14 Main Street

Printed by Civic Press, Ltd., 26 Civic Street, Glasgow, C.4.
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Some think this food grew on the sacred mistletoe plant, but whatever it was, it
SOUTHEND THROUGH THE AGES certainly was a boon and a blessing to the men and women of these days. The
woman was free from the thraldom of pots and pans and dishes, and the eternal
IN 81 A.D. Agricola himself explored the west during the fifth year of his question — ' What shall we have for dinner.' There was no need for the summons
command and beheld the blue, distant shore of Ireland. He had with him an " Come hame fast! The meat is wul," which was the call to the reapers more than
exiled Irish Chief. Agricola subdued ' unknown tribes ' and fortified that part of fifteen hundred years later in the strange lowland tongue.
Britain which looks towards Ireland."
We leave the darkness of that period with its few, faint stars and come into the
Some authors have supposed that the ' West' referred to was Kintyre, but others light of the second year of the sixth century, when we have reliable records of
are doubtful. Ptolemy, the Greek geographer, who wrote about the middle of the information for our guidance.
second century, indicates vaguely that the Romans knew Kintyre, but of that
there is no definite proof. There are four ancient Irish chronicles, the oldest of which that written by
Tighernac, Abbot of St. Ciaran's monastery at Clonmacnois in the eleventh
Tacitus, the historian and son-in-law of Agricola, says that where Agricola century, is the most important. These annals are written partly in Latin, partly in
pushed his conquests, ""Porches, baths and an elegant conviviality with temples the Erse language.
and schools were introduced with marvellous expedition," but there is no
certainty that such elegance has been seen by our forefathers in Kintyre. The first entry in Tighernac's annals regarding Scotland is that in 502 " Fergus
the Great, son of Ere, held a part of Britain with the Dalriadic nation and died
But let us suppose that Agricola did visit the 'Epidon akron' or Mull of Kintyre. there." Dalriada or Dalariada was a part of country round about Antrim and
He would see the same hills, valleys and streams; Sanda and little 'Eilean-nan- Down in Ireland. The Scots were a community in North Ireland, and then as now,
Coarach' (Sheep Island) stood there as now. He would hear the thunder of the the cry was for colonies and more colonies. As Kintyre was less than twelve
waves as they lashed themselves against the rocks of the Moil. It was the same in miles away it was a convenient settlement for emigrants. An ancient Irish tract
many aspects, and yet in others, how different. Instead of cultivated fields and states that "Three times fifty men were the emigrants that went forth with the
peaceful homesteads, there were swamps and thickets. Forest of birch and alder sons of Ere. Fergus had two brothers, Angus and Lorn, and after Ere died the new
and hazel, pathless and scarcely penetrable, extended in all directions. Deer, wild territory was divided among the three brothers. Fergus had Kintyre. The farm '
cats and wolves prowled around. Only a patch of ground, here and there, was TirFergus ' (the land of Fergus) is a link with him. The new settlement in Kintyre
tilled. had been named Dalriada with the same sentiment which has always induced
settlers to name their new townships with their hometown names. But the settlers
And what were the natives like? Did they answer to the description given of the were not allowed to settle calmly in their newly-acquired possessions.
Caledonians by one historian —" men with flaming hair and mighty limbs,
dwelling in wattled huts." Their boats were made of basket-work covered with The original occupants were not to be dispossessed without protesting
the skin of animals. Their arms were dirk, targe and a short spear which had at vigorously, and we read in the annals an account of the flight of the settlers
the handle a rattle to scare off an enemy's horse. before Bruid, son of Malcolm, King of the Cruithae.

Strong and hardy they must have been, for we read that a man could hide in a bog Then comes a long drawn out period of fighting when Picts and Scots engaged in
for days with only his head above the ground. Hunger had no terrors for him. He furious battles, and at times there were rival claimants to " sovereignty of the
had a mysterious food, a tiny portion of which would keep him alive for a long Scots."
time.

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In 622 a battle was fought somewhere in Kintyre (the battle of Ceann Delgor) peacefully the sea-rovers' "spears thundered and shafts were stained in blood."
and, as if connected with it there is a record regarding the death of Conan or
Conaig, son of King Aedan of " the golden swords." The mournful wailing note The island of Sanda is mentioned in the Hacon Saga. After his disastrous attack
comes down to us in the song of Bemudine "the learned." on the Scots in the Firth of Clyde, King Hakon sailed from Arran "thence to
Sandey, and so past the Mull of Kintyre to Gigha." Later Biorn " Krepp-hendi "
" (The resplendent billows of the sea, the sun that raised them is my grief, (the crook handed) exults King Hakon thus.
The storms were against Conan and his army;
The woman of the fair locks was in the Curach with Conan; "Wide o'er the low isle of Sandey
And there was great lamentation this day at Bili Tortan." The sovereign renowed bears his targes
Smoke from, the hamlets of Isla ascends;
In A.D. 719 the Kintyre men under the name of Gabran engaged in a sea fight And raised by the hosts of all potent king Fire upon fire enlarges.
with the people of Lorn in Glenfine. Beneath the sword edge in Satiris Southland
Low bowed the warriors sons to the ground,
"The King of Kintyre, Duncan and Selbac of Lorn were the two commanders and And next when the far famed victory giver
victory fell to the southern Dalriads. Swooped on the Manx men, their place was not found."

And so the wearisome warfare was waged for years and yet more years. It was The Hebrides were claimed by Norway in the eleventh century. An agreement
pathetic in its childishness and tragic in its wastefulness, as war always is. The was made between the Scottish king Malcolm Ceannmore (big head) and King
same spirit dominated the warmongers then as dominates them in our own time. Magnus of Norway, mat the latter was to nave the islands of Scotland which
meant all the land round which a helm carrying ship could pass, in the year 1098
At the close of the eighth century the scene changed considerably. The Magnus Barefoot set out on an expedition to Scotland, rie cast envious eyes on
"murdering Norsemen" appeared from over the sea in their sturdy galleys. These green Kintyre, and was determined to have it by hook or by crook. The Norse
marauders spared neither man nor woman, child nor beast. They sackecl writers tell us that "King Magnus brought his ships to the south of Satiri
monasteries, murdered the monks, tore down the Christian symbols and set up the (Kintyre). Then he had a small ship drawn across the ridges of Satiri"—between
worship of Thor and Odin. For over three centuries this slaughtering and the East and West Loch Tarbert. "The king sat in the poop and took hold of the
sacrilege was carried on. helm ball; and thus he gained possession of all the country on the larboard side."
By the stratagem Magnus "extorted; the peninsula."
In the early years of the invasion the native races united against the common foe,
and the last entry in the old annals relating to the Southern Dalriadic kings is that A Norse bard Snorro describes the triumphal procession "King Magnus wore on
Conal, son of (Tardg, was slaughtered in Cunntire (Kintyre). After him the his head a helmet, and carried on his arm a red shield emblazoned with a golden
records mention Kenneth McAlpin first king of all Scotland who died in 858. lion, in his belt was a sword of exceeding sharpness, the hilt of which was ivory
en wreathed with inlaid gold; in his hand was a javelin; and over his coat of mail
Many years elapsed, however, before the Scottish kings were safe initheir fell a short silken tunic of ruby colour embroidered with a lion of auric hue; and
sovereignty. The Scandinavians continued their visits of destruction, keeping all acknowledged that none could surpass him in dignity and beauty."
kings and people in a state of apprehension, as no one could tell what the future
held. We can imagine the scene and the mixed feelings and intense interest of the
natives, as Kintyre thus passed to the Crown of Norway.
Our interest in the Norse invasion is made greater by the fact that these shores
were landing places for the Vikings, and on the sands where our children play so

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RISE OF SOMARLED The possession of Argyll aroused the ire of the rival chiefs and then sent a
message to King Malcolm IV to the effect that Somarled was becoming too
During the Norsemen's harrying there had been, at various times, some ambitious aggressive. /The king sent an army under Gilchrist, Thane of Angus. Somarled
and enterprising person who managed to rise to the rank of King of the Isles, collected an army and "joining battle they fought fiercely on both sides until
independent of both Norway and Scotland. Their headquarters were at the Isle of night parted them," Somarled being the victor.
Man. (The names of these petty kings indicate Norse origin; viz.: Godred,
Magnus, Olaf and Reginald. Frequently the Norwegian kings had to make special Two or three years later the greed of the chieftain of the Isles led to trouble
visits to Scotland to subdue the rebellious underlords. Rival chieftains Contended between him and his brother-in-law, Godred, now King of Man. King Malcolm,
for kingship. The Fiongalls (fair strangers), the Dufgalls (dark strangers), Picts becoming tired of Somarled's avarice, sent an ultimatum stating that if the latter
and Scots, Irish and any foreigners joined in the scramble for territory and power, would give up all his territory on the mainland and become a subject of Scotland
like children, fighting for the pennies thrown on the street by wedding guests. he would be forgiven for his past offences. The isles he could keep, but not
This was the state of matters when half a century after the time of Magnus Argyll, and certainly not Kintyre. The cunning of King Magnus was neither
Barefoot the curtain rises on another scene in the history of Argyll. forgotten nor forgiven.

In a cave in the wild, mountainous region of Morven, we see the man who was This demand led to what we now term "a crisis." Somarled regarded the message
the progenitor of so many West Highland clans, and became a character of more as an insult, and said "he would lose all or possess all he had in the Highlands." A
than ordinary note. royal force was sent to settle the matter. Somarled collected an army, shipped it
to Greenock, where he left his galleys. The two armies met at Renfrew in
A description of him is given by the sennachy Hugh Macdonald. 'He was a well January, 1164.
tempered man, of shapely body, of a fair piercing eye, of middle stature and
quick discernment.' His name is Norse, Somarled (the summer soldier). It is The Ulster annals record the result in these simple words "On the Kalends of
probable his ancestry was a mixture of Celtic and Norse, his grandfather's and January Somarled McGill Adomnan and his son were slain. The greater part of
father's names being Celtic. his troops from Ireland, Kintyre, Inis-gall and Dublin also perished."

He lay brooding in the cave over his own and his father's misfortunes, In 1226 an agreement was drawn up between King Alexander III and Magnus IV
misfortunes due to the troublous state of the country. As it happened the Morven of Norway, regarding the sovereignty of Man and the' Isles. They were ceded to
men had a very real grievance against Olaf the Red, King of Man. They had no Scotland, the Orkneys being excepted. Under this treaty any subject of Norway
leader and could not get redress. At this particular time they were looking for a was to be free to choose whether he would leave the Isles or remain a Scottish
strong man to lead them. The hour had come and here was the man. Subject, ffhe Somarledians decided on the latter course.

Somarled agreed to lead them but only on condition that they would swear to In 1284 three great chieftains sat in thei Scottish Parliament which settled the
obey him as chief. They did so, and in a battle with the Danes, were victorious. crown on the Maid of Norway. Alexander of Lorn, son of Eion or John
This victory spurred on Somarled to further conquests. Some of the Argathelians MacDugal, Angus, son of Donald, and Allan, son of Ruari, all in direct descent
or Argyll men who opposed him, were subdued. from Somarled. These descendants from that time branched out under the names
of MacDonald, McDugall, MacRuari and others.
He was bent on securing not only Isle of Man and the Western Isles but as much
of Argyllshire as possible. His position was strengthened by his marriage to Robert the Bruce was befriended in Kintyre by Angus Oig MacDonald when the
Effrica, daughter of Olaf the Red. future king's fortunes were at a very low ebb. MacDugall of Lorn sided with
Comyn, and when Bruce triumphed he took all Alastair Ewinson MacDougall's

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possessions and gave them to the persons who had befriended him. Angus Oig forefathers' sword or some other sword signifying that his duty was to protect and
MacDonald was gifted with Mull, Coll, Tiree, Jura and other lands. He also defend his people."
received a share of Comyn's Lochaber estate.
The new Lord of the Isles feasted the people for a week after and gave "liberally
He died at Isla and was interred at Icolumbkille. Before his death he resigned his to the monks, poets, bards and musicians."
lands in Kintyre to King Robert who was somewhat anxious regarding the fate of
his western dominions, if these were left entirely in the hands of Sumarlidians. On top of the hillock to the West of Keil graveyard there are cut the impressions
The vacant property was then given to Robert, son of Walter, the High Stewart of of two right feet. These are usually referred to as "Columba's Footsteps." One,
Scotland, and the Princess Marjory Bruce. however, is of recent date: the other is the one in which the Chief of the Clan
would place his foot when taking the oath.
But, though the MacDonalds were displaced it was only for a short time. David II
on his accession, for political reasons restored to the MacDonalds not only The Clan; Ian Mhor MacDonald was the chief family in Kintyre at the end of the
Kintyre and the Isles which they formerly possessed but also gave them Morven, fifteenth century, either through its own cadets or those who represented other
Lochaber, Duror and Glencoe. branches of the Clan, such as the Macalasters of Loup and Tarbert, Maceacherns
of Killellan, Mackays of Ugadale, and MacNeills of Carskey, Gallochelly and
Reginald McRuari was given back Moidart, Knoydart, Arisaig and Morar, (Tirfergus, cadets of tthe Clan MacNeill of Gigha.
besides the Isles of Uist, Barra, Rum and Eigg.
In 1545 the four Marklands of the Mull of Kintyre and other lands in this parish,
John of Isla married Amie, a sister of Reginald, and when Reginald died leaving formed part of the barony of Bar, granted by Queen Mary to James Makconnyll
no heir, the two splendid heritages were united and the owner assumed the title of of Dunnyveg and Glennys (James MacDonald of Dunnyveg and the Glens).
"Lord of the Isles." He died in 1380 at his castle of Ardtonish in Morvern, and
was buried in lona " with great splendour by the ecclesiastics of the Isles, whose The rental of Kintyre and Isla in 1542 amounted to £1,663 4s: 8d. Scots money—
attachment he has obtained by liberal grants to the Church, and who evinced their equal to about £140 sterling. Rents were then paid in kind, meal, meat, marts,
gratitude by bestowing on him the appelation which tradition has handed down to mutton, cheese and poultry. The income of the MacDonalds from their Kintyre
our days of ' the good John of Isla.'" possessions was much larger than that from Isla and the Rhinns.

An interesting account is given by the MacDonald sennachy of the ceremony of THE MacNEILLS OF CARSKEY
proclaiming the Lords of the Isles.
In the appendix to the volume "Argyll's Highlands" there is mention of the
"The Bishop of Argyll, the Bishop of the Isles and seven priests were sometimes ancient family of MacNeills of Carskey. At Dunaverty they fought on the side of
present but a bishop was always present with the chieftains of the principal the Campbells but they were not always the enemies of the MacDonalds. On 18th
families. There was a square stone seven or eight feet long and the tract of a July, 1594, at Killeonane, Hector MacNeill of Carskey gave a Bond of Manrent
man's foot cut thereon upon which the ruler of the Isles stood denoting that he and Friendship on behalf of himself and his whole kith with surname and
should walk in the footsteps and uprightness of his predecessors, and that he was promised to be faithful fosters and foster fathers to the Right Honourable James
installed by jight in his possessions. He was clothed in a white habit to show that Mak Conil of Smerby, their foster maintainer, defender and master above any
he would baf a light to his people and maintain the true religion. Then he man, Angus Mak Conil excepted.
received a white rod in his hand intimating that he had power to rule not with
tyranny and partiality, but with discretion and sincerity. Next he was given his The document was signed by Ja. McConnal of Smerby and Hector MacNeill of
Carskey. Following these signatures comes a list of names — Liachlan Mor

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MacNeill, John McGillie, Galium Vic Neill, Donald McClery Vic Neill, culprit threw himself on the king's mercy and surrendered his earldom with all his
Mulmorlie McNeill and others " with our hands led on the pen." The document castles and lands of Knapdale and Kintyre.
finishes thus " I, Donald Dhu McNeill, son of Hugh McNeill, with my hand
touching the pen. John. Stewart, witness and writer." James IV had visited Kintyre on more than one occasion and in April, 1499, he
appointed Argyll to act as Royal Commissioner and Lieutenant over the Isles.
THE MacEACHRANS OF KILLELLAN
A member of the Campbell Clan had been made Constable of Tarbert Castle by
The MacEachrans are also mentioned in "Argyll's Highlands." They have been in Robert the Bruce but now the family began to spread southwards from their
Kintyre from the earliest times. The names means horse-lord. It is mentioned in original seat, and a large part of the Church patronage with the overlord rights
the Irish Annals—846 A.D. as Echthighern. passed to them.

"MacEachran of Killellan was killed at the taking of Dunaverty Castle in July, The branch families of the MacDonalds were still very numerous in Kintyre and
1647. According to local tradition he was buried with MacDonald of Sanda and with the coming of the Campbells trouble ensued. Greed and aggression,
Drain of Pennygowan in a tomb at Machribeg." resentment and revenge kept the peninsula in a state of turmoil until a halt was
called in 1513 when Scotland declared war on England. Clan quarrels were
THE CAMPBELLS forgotten for the moment. But, in the miserable time which followed Flodden, the
fighting was renewed with increased vigour.
In the thirteenth century the Campbells of Lochow held lands on the shores of
Loch Awe. Sir Nigel Campbell was. the companion of Bruce on one of the latter's The Campbells were on the side of the Crown. /The rebellious MacDonalds were
visits to Kintyre. Sir Nigel's devotion to the royal cause was very handsomely being rooted out. The latter struggled desperately to shake off the grip of their
rewarded, and from this time.the fortunes of the two great families, Campbells enemies, but without success. Their misfortune culminated in the failure of the
and MacDonalds progressed side by side. risings of Mar and the Chevalier.

The Lords of Lochow and the descendents of Somarled were decidedly DUNAVERTY
antagonistic to each other. Sir Nigel's father, Colin or Cailean Mor, had met his
death at the hands of the Lorn MacDougalls. Therefore, although fortune smiled On Dunaverty Rock there once stood a castle which was a famous stronghold of
on both, there were no congratulations extended to each other. the Macdonalds of Kintyre. The first mention of it in history is in a calendar of
Documents relating to Scotland 1108-1272.
Early in the fifteenth century Sir Duncan Campbell of Loch Awe, afterwards first
Lord Campbell, was accounted one of the most wealthy barons in Scotland. "Jan. 30th, 1251. The King, at the instance of Margaret, Queen of Scotland and
Colin, first Earl of Argyll, Sir Duncan's grandson, acquired by marriage the his daughter, pardons to Allan, son of Thomas, Earl of Atholl, of Scotland, the
extensive lordship of Lorn, and held for a long time the office of Chancellor of transgression charged against him in slaying some men of John Biset of Ireland,
Scotland. and taking from some Irish merchants six casks (dolid) of wine and some corn at
the siege and storm of the Castle of Dunaverdin."
When the MacDonalds fell away from their allegiance to the throne,v Argyll was
the person chosen-to execute a decree of outlawry against the last Lord of the When Bruce was a fugitive in Kintyre, Macdonald sheltered him in Dunaverty
Isles. M'acDonald was charged with high treason and complicity with Edward IV Castle. He was safely taken from there to Rathlin Island.
in a plot to overturn the Scottish throne. The decree was not carried out as the

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In 1647 General Leslie besieged the castle in which Angus Og Macdonald was wife visited Southend about a year before his death. On his wife's finger was a
with three hundred men. Leslie cut off the water supply and the garrison was ring given to the bride from Bute by Ranald Macdonald two hundred and seventy
forced to surrender. Every man was put to death with the exception of a James years before. In a conversation the visitor mentioned that although so many
Stewart of the Blackhall family of Renfrewshire. He asked leave first to read his Macdonalds had fled to Ireland before the massacre, Major Alister Macdonald, a
Bible. Stewart of Ard-voirlich was an officer under Leslie and he interceded on cousin of the rescued infant's grandfather made a brave effort to relieve the
behalf of his namesake. Leslie allowed James Stewart to . go free and "he lived to garrison at Dunaverty. He gathered an army from Islay and Antrim and fought a
be the ancestor of many respectable families in Kintyre." fierce battle with the Campbells on Brunerican sands about half a mile from the
Castle. His army was too .small to be effective as the Campbells vastly
One of the most interesting stories connected with the .siege is that of the escape outnumbered them.
of the infant son of Archibald Macdonald and his brave nurse, Flora
MacCambridge. She had fled from the castle with the almost naked child in her "DEEDS OF PEACE"
arms. As she ran she met Captain Campbell of Craignish who stopped her and
enquired whose child it was. She replied that it was her own. He seemed doubtful We turn with relief from those "Who count it glorious to subdue - By conquest
and remarked: "It has the eye of a Macdonald, but no matter, it wants clothing." far and wide" to the men who have attained good by means far different, "without
He cut off the tail of his belted plaid and gave it to her. Moreover he warned her ambition, war or violence; by deeds of peace, by wisdom eminent."
not to continue along the beach to Kilcolmkil lest she should meet Leslie, but to
go to a place higher up the Glen. She took the path he indicated and reached a Without ambition the early missionaries set out to jperform their deeds of peace.
cave afterwards known as "Mac-donald's cave," where the followers of the clan Regardless of kings and princes, death and danger, they kept to their self-imposed
kept her supplied with food until all danger was past. The infant thus spared was task the elevation of their fellow men. By their teachings and example they made
Ranald Macdonald. He grew up to be the husband of Anne Stewart, sister of the many converts and influenced the thoughts of their hearers into hitherto unknown
first Earl of Bute. channels. They fostered a love for the beautiful in nature and in art. In a song
which is said to have been composed by St. Columba we have word pictures
Tradition says that, after the massacre at Dunaverty, Argyll and Leslie literally which show appreciation of nature's charms. " The sound of the wind against the
waded in blood. elms; the joyous note of the blackbird as he claps his wings; the cooing of the
cuckoo from the tree on the brink of summer."
A story illustrating the hatred which existed between the Campbells and
Macdonalds, is that after the battle, Neill MacNeill of Carskey who sided with The spirit which appreciates is the spirit which will endeavour to preserve beauty
the Campbells, would not allow the Macdonalds to be buried in Keil, but insisted and peace.
that they should be interred in a field on the sea ishore. The place where Ranald
MacDonald's fattier and grandfather were buried is enclosed by a stone wall In the dedication of an old chapel on Sanda we find the name of St. Ninian, who
which was erected by the late Reverend Douglas MacDonald who inherited the was an apostle on the Scottish mainland, but it is to.the Irish Church that Kintyre
Sanda property. is indebted for the real beginnings of the Christian religion. St. Kiaran and St.
Columba were two of a band of saints who migrated to this district. St. Kiaran
As years passed the old hatreds died down and it happened tnat a daughter of tne lived in a cave three miles from Campbeltown, and St. Columba had his
Ranald Macdonald whose life was preserved in the cave, married Archibald headquarters at Kil-colomb cille—the cell of Columba. There are caves near the
MacNeill of Carskey. cemetery in which according to tradition, the Saint lived for a period and nearby
is a green rocky knoll where Columba stood when he addressed the congregation.
John Ranald Macdonald, who died about two years ago in Southern Rhodesia, The name of the knoll is Guala na pobuill, literally "the shoulder of the
was the last male representative of the ancient Macdonalds of Sanda. He and his

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congregation." There is a sacred spring of water bubbling out of the rock. The The number of chapels may seem to be superfluous, but they were dotted here
spring is called the Priests' or Holy Well. and there for the convenience of the people who came to worship as each felt
inclined.
The existing church was built prior to the year 1326 before which date it was
granted to the canons of Whithern by Patrick MacShillinges and Finlach his wife, In contrast to the super-abundance of religious buildings of those earlier days, in
the grant being confirmed by King Robert Bruce. The first church was probably the solitary parish church of post-Reformation time. In 1798 a church was built at
wattle walled. There are many interesting specimens of carved tombstones in the the request of Lowland farmers who, of course, could not be expected to
old graveyard of Keil. The following was the opinion of Captain White, author of understand a Gaelic service. It was poorly attended as the bulk of the residents in
"Archaeological Sketches in Kintyre," regarding the Western Scottish mediaeval the parish were Highlanders. The Lowlanders crossed from Ayrshire and
slabs. neighbouring counties about 1662, therefore a period of over a hundred and thirty
years elapsed before they had a church service which they could properly
"No existing type of monumental art is more entitled to notice—none bears more understand.
distinctive marks of independent local working out—and in its own peculiar
sense none surpasses it in the realm of pure artistic beauty." In 1823 the Rev. Donald Kelly took a census of the Parish of Southend and
ascertained that 139 persons could speak Gaelic better than English, while only
After the Reformation period there is a distinct change in the style of the 50 favoured the Lowland tongue. In 1833, there were probably as many children
Memorial stones. Carving on tombstones and on church buildings was forbidden in Kintyre learning Gaelic, as there are m the Highlands to-day.
and ugliness held sway.
There are remains of other chapels in Southend which are interesting to the Among other "deeds of peace" we must mention the erection of the Mull of
antiquarian. One is on the main road about four miles from the Mull. The name is Kintyre lighthouse. Work was begun on the structure in 1786 by Mr. Peter
unknown. That it is very ancient is evident by the fact that there is a well beside Stewart of Campbeltown. It was a tower of wood, and the materials had to be
it, generally a sign of great antiquity. carried on men's shoulders as there was no road over the hills. The reflecting
lamp came from Edinburgh and is at present in the Campbeltown Museum.
Nothing but the site can be pointed out of either the old church of St. Blaan or
Kilblaan; all traces of these having disappeared by the end of the seventeeth In 1820 the tower was replaced by one of stone with a copper-domed roof. The
century. The earliest notice of its existence is 1527, when Sir Morice MacNeill, engineer was Mr. Robert Stevenson, grand-uncle of Robert Louis Stevenson. The
its rector, died. The modern church which stands near is no older than 1774. St. father of Robert Louis Stevenson was also an engineer in the lighthouse service,
Blaan is said to have been a grandson of Aidan, a Dalriadic king who died in 606 and is said to have visited Campbeltown frequently with the lighthouse steamers.
A.D.
Sir Walter Scott was one of the Commissioners and it was on one of his tours of
There are many other chapels in Southend: one at Carrine which some say is inspection that he visited the Hebrides and garnered the local information for his
dedicated to St. Catherine, a martyr who lived in the reign of Emperor Maximus. poem " The Lord of the Isles."
Other authorities do not credit this assertion, and say that Carrine refers to Saint
Kiaran. Regarding the lighthouse keepers, Mr. William Smith, who wrote "Views of
Campbeltown" in 1835, states: "The present keeper, Mr. Harvie, has been about
Another interesting name is that of a chapel which stood a few miles to the north thirty-three years in charge of the lighthouse, and is very civil and and attentive
of the Mull. The name was Caidal Innean Coig Cailleach", "the resting place of to all strangers."
the five old women". These were nuns who had been driven out of Carrine in
Glenadale after the Reformation, finding a haven in Caidal Innean. This was Matthew Harvie, the second lighthouse keeper.. He had. reared a family

8
of thirteen and educated them* himself, as school could not be attended, on Kintyre and Islay. The house of Argyll devoted themselves to rooting out the old
account of there being no road. inhabitants and such as were known to favour the Macdonalds.

The assistant at that time was Thomas Train, grandfather of the Rev. Mr. Train, a The Rev. George Hill, in his work ' The Macdonells of Antrim" makes frequent
noted preacher who retired to Southend and was minister there in recent years. reference to this and in one passage says "There is proof how completely the old
native population of Cantyre has been swept off to make room for farmers and
Matthew Harvie's father was the first lightkeeper. He had farmed the fields shepherds, principally from Ayrshire and Renfrewshire, brought thence by
known as Harvie's acres and, continuing a custom of his forefathers, had kept a Argyll".
light burning all night in the kitchen window of Balleymoil Farmhouse to warn
the mariners of the dangerous rocks. Balleymoil Farmhouse is now the residence The Macdonalds of Kintyre are represented in the north of Ireland by descendants
of Mr. and Miss Todd, just below, "The Gap." of the famous "Coll Kiotach."

We cannot leave the Mull without mentioning the "Goings" or in Gaelic Between the years 1647 and 1666 Kintyre was ravaged by plague, and the toll
"Goinean." This is a footpath which traverses the face of a precipice near to and was so great that the land was almost desolated. It is said that during the worst
to the east of the lighthouse. It was the only path round the Mull, before the part of the scourge smoke issued from three houses only: Keil, Craig, and
lighthouse was erected. It is little broader than a sheep track and no support is Knockhanty.
afforded by the abrupt rising of the hill on one side, and the sheer precipice on
the other. It requires a sure foot and a strong head to cross it. Those who fled from the district thereby escaping, 'returned later and took
possession of their native places.'
A story is told of a Highlander who once crossed the Goinean at night and on
horseback. He had imbibed rather unwisely and moreover was sound asleep. The The following notes on old Celtic names in Kintyre extracted from MSS of the
horse carried the owner safely over and when the man awoke he was horrified Rev. Donald Kelly, M.A. Minister of the parish of Southend, are very interesting.
when he thought of what might have happened. In the poem "The Heir of Lorn" These notes-appeared in the "Campbeltown Courier."
the hero says:—
"The O'Mays, Lairds of Keil, who until lately were proprietors in the parish,
"I crossed the Goings straightbound giddy height; would appear in, the seventeenth century to have educated some of their sons for
Where wild fowls shriek and witches ride' by night. the church, for the Rev. Donald O'May, minister of Kilvivan and Kilmichael, is
The startled hare before me bounding ran, said to have been later a bishop; and his brother the Rev. Duncan O'May, minister
Up rose the grouse and whirring ptarmigan, of Kilcolmkeil and Kilblaan, who conformed to the Presbyterian establishment,
Till from you heathy hill beyond Carskey and was laird of Keil."
I watched the dying glories of the day."
In the Parish of Southend, of the old Celtic proprietors the O'Mays still retain
The population of Southend in 1755 was 1,391. In 1791: 1300. In 1821: 2,004. In their original name. Most of the others have changed their names. The
McO'Drains, who were lairds of Carrine and Drumavoulin are now called Drain.
1831: 2,120. In 1841: 1,598. In 1851: 1,406, and in 1881: 955. The effect of The last of these old lairds was Donald McO'Drain, one of the three officers who
emigration in the years 1850-55 is noticeable. lie buried at Machribeg. He was in the Wars of Montrose with Alister MacColla
Macdonald and is said to have been a brave and resolute officer.
These figures relate to the later emigration, but there has been a greater exodus
three centuries before. Antrim in the north of Ireland was largely peopled from Archibald Drain who lived in Dunglas during the Rev. Donald Kelly's

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incumbency there, was, according to the minister's MSS, decended from Donald There are those who think that the Clan O'Dinnie of Lochodh (now the Clan
Drain. Mr. Archibald Montgomery, schoolmaster in Campbeltown, is a grandson Campbell) may, like the McA'Chalies, be of Scandinavian origin. O'Dinnie
of this Archibald Drain of Dunglas. means Odin—"which is a Scandinavian name."

In the first valuation roll of Kintyre, the rental of Hugh McO'Shanaig's property While the Highlander has always been very hospitable to visitors, he resented the
of Lephinstrath is entered at £6 19s. 9d. One of this family the Rev. Malcolm influx of 'Low Country' settlers. Perhaps it was expecting too much of the native
M'O'Shanaig was minister of Kilcolmkeil and Kilblaan in 1630. The family left population that they should view with pleasure the best farm-lands in Kintyre,
Southend and took a farm in Arran, named Sliddery, and changed their name to occupied by 'incomers' brought over by the new owner. The settlers spoke an
Shannon. alien tongue and, moreover, regarded the Highlanders as partly savage. Each
looked oh the other with an unfriendly eye; even in deatfy the division was
Another race of the ancient lairds was the M'A'Chalies or in English MacSwan, continued. It is said that a portion of ground was added to Keil graveyard to meet
proprietors of Craigaig and Innan-beg, whose name, since English has become so the difficulty experienced by the 'strangers' in burying their dead. A little stream
common in Kintyre, has lapsed into Kelly. In the Presbyterian records the name divided the Highland from the Lowland portion, the former being on the eastern,
is spelt MacSwen, which seems to indicate Scandinavian origin, as the minister the latter on the western.
of Kilcolmonell, the Rev. Swen MacSwen and likewise the minister of Jura,
Colonsay and Gigha have their names spelt Macswen in the records. The For generations the two peoples kept to themselves, each marrying only among
Scandinavians use an 'e ' where we use an 'a.' their "ain folk." By and by when pride and prejudice weakened, the younger folks
met and "love levelled the barriers" Even when the older people were none too
It will be within the recollection of some living people that a change house, pleased. The stern old Highlanders had a contemptuous expression for the
named ' The Sign of the Swan ' kept by offspring of the mixed race 'siolls Ghall'—half breed, they called them.
a family named Kelly, existed for some time at the Old Quay Head at
Campbeltown. It would be tedious to enumerate the many other families which There is a prophecy regarding the Sioll Ghalls, which was uttered some centuries
had their names changed, but we may mention a few. before the Lowland occupation. "There is a tree in Southend growing out of a
circular space in the rock, and when the tree fills the space a great battle will be
The McFigans now call themselves Littleson. The O'Loynachan dropped the 0' fought on the west side of Campbeltown, near to Drumore, where a great
for a long time, but eventually became Lang. The McO'Stokers are now Stalkers. slaughter will take place, and the crows will drink human blood off a standing
The McO'Levechels are Carmichaels; O'Brolochan become Brody. There is a stone; then shall come to pass the saying 'Bidh na Sioll Ghall air dheirliadh's cha
flagstone in Kilcalmonell which is thought to cover the remains of the celebrated ghabhair ead a bhos no thol'—'The half Lowlander and the half Highlander will
Bishop O'Brolochan. be behind and will not be received on either side.' The tree has filled the circular
space and the standing stone was removed and did duty over the miller's burn for
Peter O'Brolochan, Bailie Colin Campbell from Mull, and John Campbell had the a considerable time. It was again removed owing to an alteration in the footpath.
Mull of Kintyre from 1780 until 1799. After their lease had run out, the Duke of It would seem, therefore, that the prophet had 'prophesied a false vision.'
Argyll ordered the Mull to be made into lots, when Robert Colville obtained
Glenanuilt and the two Borgadles. Carskey got Braelamountgomery and The clan wars have ceased long ago, the hatred of the Highlanders and
Bailevearhil. Archibald Campbell got Innan Dunan and Strone. George, Donald, Lowlanders has died out. We are advancing.
and William Campbell had Innean Beach. George afterwards had Innan
Goachallach, and Peter O'Brolochan and Thomas Train and Innan More and To keep the happy homesteads and the pleasant pastures in security, we hope that
Innan Beg. between the nations there will be "new bridged relations, bridges from man to
man, the whole round earth to span." And with this hope we leave Southend.

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