This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
:
Visit our
companion site
http://www.vulcanhammer.org
this document downloaded from
vulcanhammer.net
Since 1997, your complete
online resource for
information geotecnical
engineering and deep
foundations:
The Wave Equation Page for
Piling
Online books on all aspects of
soil mechanics, foundations and
marine construction
Free general engineering and
geotechnical software
And much more...
All of the information, data and computer software
(“information”) presented on this web site is for general
information only. While every effort will be made to insure
its accuracy, this information should not be used or relied on
for any specifc application without independent, competent
professional examination and verifcation of its accuracy,
suitability and applicability by a licensed professional. Anyone
making use of this information does so at his or her own risk
and assumes any and all liability resulting from such use.
The entire risk as to quality or usability of the information
contained within is with the reader. In no event will this web
page or webmaster be held liable, nor does this web page
or its webmaster provide insurance against liability, for
any damages including lost profts, lost savings or any
other incidental or consequential damages arising from
the use or inability to use the information contained
within.
This site is not an offcial site of PrenticeHall,
Pile Buck, the University of Tennessee at
Chattanooga, or Vulcan Foundation
Equipment. All references to sources of
software, equipment, parts, service
or repairs do not constitute an
endorsement.
ENCE 3610
Soil
Mechanics
Retaining Walls
Lateral Earth Pressure Theory
Retaining Walls
Elevation changes are an
unavoidable part of site
development
They can result either
from changes in the land
elevation or a land/water
boundary
They are dealt with in one
of two ways:
Earth slopes
(unreinforced and
reinforced)
Retaining Walls
Retaining Walls
Necessary in situations where
gradual transitions either take
up too much space or are
impractical for other reasons
Retaining walls are analysed
for both resistance to
overturning and structural
integrity
Two categories of retaining
walls
Gravity Walls (Masonry,
Stone, Gabion, etc.)
InSitu Walls (Sheet Piling,
cast insitu, etc.)
Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient and
Conditions of Lateral Earth Pressure
Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient K
K = lateral earth pressure coefficient
σ
x
’ = horizontal effective stress
σ
z
’ = vertical effective stress
Ratio of resultant horizontal stress to applied
vertical stress
Similar to Poisson’s Ratio for elastic materials
z
x
K
o
o
'
'
=
Conditions of Lateral Earth Pressure
Coefficient
AtRest Condition
Condition where wall
movement is zero or
“minimal”
Ideal condition of wall,
but seldom achieved in
reality
Active Condition
Condition where wall
moves away from the
backfill
The lower state of
lateral earth pressure
Passive Condition
Condition where wall
moves toward the
backfill
The higher state of
lateral earth pressure
Effect of Wall Movement
Mohr’s Circle and
Lateral Earth
Pressures
=
z
'
x
' =
Wall Movements Necessary to
Achieve Active or Passive States
At Rest Lateral Earth Pressure
Coefficient K
o
Jaky’s Equation
Modified for
Overconsolidated Soils
Applicable only when
ground surface is level
In spite of theoretical
weaknesses, Jaky’s
equation is as good an
estimate of the coefficient
of lateral earth pressure
as we have
Relationship of
Poisson’s Ratio with At
Rest Lateral Earth
Pressure Coefficient
o sin 1÷ =
o
K
( )
o
o
sin
sin 1 OCR K
o
÷ =
2 tan
1 tan
1
1 2
1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
=
o
o
v
v
v
o
v
v
o
K
(Normally Consolidated Soils)
Purely
cohesionless
soils only
Example of At Rest Wall Pressure
Given
Retaining Wall as
Shown
Find
P
o,
from At Rest
Conditions
At Rest Pressure Example
Compute at rest earth pressure coefficient
Compute Effective Wall Force
(valid for all theories)
( ) 5 . 0 30 sin 1
sin 1
= ° ÷ =
÷ =
o
o
K
K o
' 67 . 6
3
20
12 000 , 12
2
5 . 0 20 120
2
2 2
1 1
= =
= =
× ×
= =
h
ft
kips
ft
lbs
K z
b
P
o o
¸
Earth Pressure Theories
Rankine Earth Pressure Equations
Level Backfills
Development of Active Earth
Pressure
Example of Rankine Active Wall
Pressure
Given
Retaining Wall as
Shown
Find
P
A,
from Active
Conditions
Rankine Active Pressure Example
Compute active
earth pressure
coefficient
Compute Effective
Wall Force
ft
kips
K z
b
P
K
K
a o
A
A
8
2
3
1
20 120
2
3
1
2
30
45 tan
2
45 tan
2
2
1 1
2
2
=
× ×
= =
=

.

\

°
÷ ° =

.

\

÷ ° =
¸
o
Development of Passive Earth Pressure
Rankine Passive Pressure Example
Rankine Passive Pressure Example
Compute passive
earth pressure
coefficient
Compute Effective
Wall Force
ft
kips
K z
b
P
K
K
P o
P
P
72
2
3 20 120
2
3
2
30
45 tan
2
45 tan
2 2
1 1
2
2
=
× ×
= =
=

.

\

°
+ ° =

.

\

+ ° =
¸
o
Summary of Rankine and At Rest
Wall Pressures
72,000 lbs.
12,000 lbs.
8000 lbs.
Rankine Theory with Inclined
Backfills
Rankine Coefficients with Inclined
Backfills
Inclined and level backfill equations are identical when β = 0
Groundwater Effects
Steps to properly compute horizontal stresses
including groundwater effects:
Compute total vertical stress
Compute effective vertical stress by removing
groundwater effect through submerged unit
weight; plot on P
o
diagram
Compute effective horizontal stress by
multiplying effective vertical stress by K
Compute total horizontal stress by directly
adding effect of groundwater unit weight to
effective horizontal stress
Development
of Lateral
Earth
Pressure and
Groundwater
Effects
Unbalanced!
Walls with Cohesive Backfill
Retaining walls should generally have
cohesionless backfill, but in some cases
cohesive backfill is unavoidable
Cohesive soils present the following weaknesses
as backfill:
Poor drainage
Creep
Expansiveness
Most lateral earth pressure theory was first
developed for purely cohesionless soils (c = 0)
and has been extended to cohesive soils
afterward
Theory of
Cohesive
Soils
Active Case
(Overburden
driving)
Passive Case
(Wall Driving)
p
K =

.

\

+ =
÷
+
2 4
tan
sin 1
sin 1
2
o t
o
o
a
K =

.

\

÷ =
+
÷
2 4
tan
sin 1
sin 1
2
o t
o
o
Rankine Pressures with Cohesion
(Level Backfill)
Active
Passive
Overburden Driving
Wall Driving
p p vo
p
K c K
K
2
2 4
tan
1
2
+
'
=

.

\

+ =
o o
o t
a a vo
a
K c K
K
2
2 4
tan
3
2
÷
'
=

.

\

÷ =
o o
o t
Comments on Rankine Equations
Valid if wallsoil friction is
not taken in to account
Do not take into
consideration soil above
critical height Z
o
Do not take into
consideration sloping
walls
For practical problems,
should use equations as
they appear in the book
a
o
K
c
Z
¸
2
=
Coulomb Theory
Typical
Values of
Wall
Friction
Example of Coulomb Theory
Given
Wall as shown
above
Find
K
A
K
P
P
A
P
P
Solution for Coulomb Earth
Pressures
Compute Coulomb Active
Pressure
K
A
= 0.3465
Compute Total Wall
Force
P
A
= 8316 lb/ft of wall
Compute Coulomb
Passive Pressure
K
P
= 4.0196
Compute Total Wall
Force
P
A
= 96,470 lb/ft of wall
Terzaghi Model
Assumes log
spiral failure
surface behind
wall
Requires use of
suitable chart for
K
A
and K
P
Effects of
Surface
Loading
Questions
ENCE 3610 Soil Mechanics
Retaining Walls Lateral Earth Pressure Theory
Retaining Walls
Elevation changes are an
unavoidable part of site development They can result either from changes in the land elevation or a land/water boundary They are dealt with in one of two ways:
Earth slopes (unreinforced and reinforced) Retaining Walls
Retaining Walls Necessary in situations where gradual transitions either take up too much space or are impractical for other reasons Retaining walls are analysed for both resistance to overturning and structural integrity Two categories of retaining walls Gravity Walls (Masonry, Stone, Gabion, etc.) InSitu Walls (Sheet Piling, cast insitu, etc.)
Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient and Conditions of Lateral Earth Pressure Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient K K = lateral earth pressure coefficient σx’ = horizontal effective stress σz’ = vertical effective stress Ratio of resultant horizontal stress to applied vertical stress Similar to Poisson’s Ratio for elastic materials x K z .
but seldom achieved in reality Active Condition Condition where wall moves away from the backfill The lower state of lateral earth pressure Passive Condition Condition where wall moves toward the backfill The higher state of lateral earth pressure .Conditions of Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient AtRest Condition Condition where wall movement is zero or “minimal” Ideal condition of wall.
Effect of Wall Movement .
Mohr’s Circle and Lateral Earth Pressures x '= = z ' .
Wall Movements Necessary to Achieve Active or Passive States .
Jaky’s equation is as good an estimate of the coefficient of lateral earth pressure as we have 1 2 1 1 tan 1 tan 2 Ko Purely cohesionless soils only .At Rest Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient Ko Jaky’s Equation K o 1 sin sin Relationship of Modified for Overconsolidated Soils Poisson’s Ratio with AtRest Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient (Normally Consolidated Soils) K o 1 sin OCR Applicable only when ground surface is level In spite of theoretical weaknesses.
Example of At Rest Wall Pressure Given Find Retaining Wall as Shown Po. from At Rest Conditions .
5 lbs 12 kips 12.000 ft ft b 2 2 20 h 6.5 Compute Effective Wall Force K o 1 sin Po z K o 120 20 0.67' 3 2 1 1 2 (valid for all theories) .At Rest Pressure Example Compute at rest earth pressure coefficient K o 1 sin 30 0.
Earth Pressure Theories .
Rankine Earth Pressure Equations Level Backfills .
Development of Active Earth Pressure .
from Active Conditions .Example of Rankine Active Wall Pressure Given Find Retaining Wall as Shown PA.
Rankine Active Pressure Example K A tan 45 2 30 1 2 K A tan 45 Compute Effective 2 3 Wall Force 2 2 120 20 1 Po 1 z1 K a 3 8 kips ft b 2 2 Compute active earth pressure coefficient 2 .
Development of Passive Earth Pressure .
Rankine Passive Pressure Example .
Rankine Passive Pressure Example Compute passive earth pressure coefficient Compute Effective Wall Force 2 1 1 K P tan 45 2 30 2 K P tan 45 3 2 2 2 Po z K P 120 20 3 kips 72 ft b 2 2 .
000 lbs.Summary of Rankine and At Rest Wall Pressures 72. 12. 8000 lbs. .000 lbs.
Rankine Theory with Inclined Backfills .
Rankine Coefficients with Inclined Backfills Inclined and level backfill equations are identical when β = 0 .
Groundwater Effects Steps to properly compute horizontal stresses including groundwater effects: Compute total vertical stress Compute effective vertical stress by removing groundwater effect through submerged unit weight. plot on Po diagram Compute effective horizontal stress by multiplying effective vertical stress by K Compute total horizontal stress by directly adding effect of groundwater unit weight to effective horizontal stress .
Unbalanced! Development of Lateral Earth Pressure and Groundwater Effects .
Walls with Cohesive Backfill Retaining walls should generally have cohesionless backfill. but in some cases cohesive backfill is unavoidable Cohesive soils present the following weaknesses as backfill: Poor drainage Creep Expansiveness Most lateral earth pressure theory was first developed for purely cohesionless soils (c = 0) and has been extended to cohesive soils afterward .
Theory of Cohesive Soils 1 sin 2 tan K p 1 sin 4 2 Passive Case (Wall Driving) Active Case (Overburden driving) 1 sin 2 tan K a 1 sin 4 2 .
Rankine Pressures with Cohesion (Level Backfill) Active 2 K a tan 4 2 3 vo K a 2c K a K p tan 4 2 1 vo K p 2c K p 2 Overburden Driving Passive Wall Driving .
should use equations as they appear in the book .Comments on Rankine Equations Valid if wallsoil friction is 2c Zo Ka not taken in to account Do not take into consideration soil above critical height Zo Do not take into consideration sloping walls For practical problems.
Coulomb Theory .
Typical Values of Wall Friction .
Example of Coulomb Theory Given Find Wall as shown above KA KP PA PP .
Solution for Coulomb Earth Pressures Compute Coulomb Active Compute Coulomb Pressure Passive Pressure KA = 0.3465 KP = 4.470 lb/ft of wall .0196 Compute Total Wall Compute Total Wall Force Force PA = 8316 lb/ft of wall PA = 96.
Terzaghi Model Assumes log spiral failure surface behind wall Requires use of suitable chart for KA and KP .
Effects of Surface Loading .
Questions .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.