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N.T.P.C. BADARPUR, NEW DELHI FROM: 31st MAY to 6th July,2011
SUBMITTED TO: Mrs. RACHNA SINGH SUBMITTED BY: BK SUMIT MAHARAJA SURAJMAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (G.G.S.I.P.U) 3RD YEAR B.TECH ELECTRONIC AND COMMUNICATION
TABLE OF CONTENT
1. Certificate 2. Acknowledgement 3. Training at BTPS 4. Introduction
¨ NTPC ¨ Badarpur Thermal Power Station
5. Operation 6. Control & Instrumentation
¨ Manometer Lab ¨ Protection and interlock Lab ¨ Automation Lab ¨ Water Treatment Plant ¨ Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System ¨ Electronic Test Lab
7. Information Technolgy
About IT department HMS Project
This is to certify that BK SUMIT (Enroll no.0201502808)student of B.tech Electronics &Communication , IIIrd Year; M. S. I. T. Janakpuri, (G.G.S.I.P.U.) has successfully completed his industrial training at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi for eight week from 31st May to 6th July 2011. He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him.
Training Incharge BTPS/NTPC
With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Mrs. Rachna Singh for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS/NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training in charge of M.S.I.T , Janakpuri (G.G.S.I.P.U.) and all the faculty member of Electronics & Communication department for their effort of constant co-operation. Which have been significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.
This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS. and trainer manual provided by training department. 3. The specification & principles are at learned by me from the employee of each division of BTPS.Operation 2. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbooks. .Information Technology This six-week training was a very educational adventure for me. senior student report. It was really amazing to see the plant by your self and learn how electricity. Training at NTPC I was appointed to do eight-week training at this esteemed organization from 7th June to 17th July 2010.Control and instrumentation (C&I) 3. is produced. which is one of our daily requirements of life.In these eight weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were 1.
About NTPC NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. . With in a span of 31 years. with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. Domestic Banks. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. A public sector company. At present. Public and others hold the balance 10. Government of India holds 89.5%.5% of the total equity shares of the company and FIIs.
895 MW). Its providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. As on date the installed capacity of NTPC is 27.904 MW through its 15 coal based (22. NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd. construction and operation of power generating plants. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. In 1991. This JV Company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur (120 MW). The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c.P.955 MW) and 4 Joint Venture Projects (1. (SPSCL). eco . NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilisation. GAIL. NTPC also has 28.E. generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. Rourkela (120 MW) and Bhilai (74 MW).054 MW). 4.E. INTRODUCTION POWER GENERATION IN INDIA NTPC’s core business is engineering. (USAID). Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land.P.) has been established in NTPC with the assistance of United States Agency for International Development. Cenpeep is efficiency oriented. Indian Financial Institutions and Maharashtra SEB Co Ltd.33% stake in Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Limited (RGPPL) a joint venture company between NTPC. NTPC is committed to the environment. it set up Ash Utilization Division A "Centre for Power Efficiency and Environment Protection (C. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. 7 gas based (3. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants.
NTPC brought out a comprehensive document entitled "NTPC Environment Policy and Environment Management System". Amongst the guiding principles adopted in the document are company's proactive approach to environment. As a responsible corporate citizen.co. adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement. The policy also envisages efficient utilization of resources.in/infocus/socialcomm. NTPC has been placed under the 'Excellent category' (the best category) every year since the MOU system became operative. Environment Policy & Environment Management System Driven by its commitment for sustainable growth of power. Environment Management. optimum utilization of equipment. NTPC Environment Policy: As early as in November 1995. the company endeavors to improve the overall socio economic status Project Affected Persons. maintenance of ecological balance and a pristine environment has been of utmost importance to NTPC. The NEP 2006 has since been approved by the Union Cabinet in May 2006. NTPC was among the first Public Sector Enterprises to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Government in 198788. Harmony between man and environment is the essence of healthy life and growth.shtml _blank programmes. It has been taking various measures discussed below for mitigation of environment pollution due to power generation. Occupational Health and Safety Systems: NTPC has actively gone for adoption of best international practices on environment. NTPC has evolved a well defined environment management policy and sound environment practices for minimizing environmental impact arising out of setting up of power plants and preserving the natural ecology. Through its rehabilitation and reconstructionhttp://www. occupational health and safety areas. Therefore. National Environment Policy: At the national level.ntpc. NTPC is making constant efforts to improve the socioeconomic status of the people affected by its projects. The organization has pursued .friendly and econurturing initiative a symbol of NTPC's concern towards environmental protection and continued commitment to sustainable power development in India. the Ministry of Environment and Forests had prepared a draft Environment Policy (NEP) and the Ministry of Power along with NTPC actively participated in the deliberations of the draft NEP. thereby minimizing waste. maximizing ash utilization and providing green belt all around the plant for maintaining ecological balance.
all NTPC power stations have been certified for ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 by reputed national and international Certifying Agencies. NOX etc) into the atmosphere. various stateofthe art pollution control systems / devices as discussed below have been installed to control air and water pollution. This helps in . Cooling Towers: Cooling Towers have been provided for cooling the hot Condenser cooling water in closed cycle Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) Systems. The ash collected in the ESP’s is disposed to Ash Ponds in slurry form. Electrostatic Precipitators : The ash left behind after combustion of coal is arrested in high efficiency Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP’s) and particulate emission is controlled well within the stipulated norms. In order to ensure that NTPC comply with all the stipulated environment norms. by adopting best combustion practices. Flue Gas Stacks: Tall Flue Gas Stacks have been provided for wide dispersion of the gaseous emissions (SOX. As a result of pursuing these practices. Pollution Control systems: While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects. NOx emissions are controlled by provision of LowNOx Burners (dry or wet type) and in coal fired stations. DE & DS Systems: Dust Extraction (DE) and Dust Suppression (DS) systems have been installed in all coal fired power stations in NTPC to contain and extract the fugitive dust released in the Coal Handling Plant (CHP).the Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment System OHSAS 18001 at its different establishments. LowNOXBurners: In gas based NTPC power stations. Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits: In these Pits. coal dust and oil are removed from the effluents emanating from the Coal Handling Plant (CHP). Neutralisation Pits: Neutralisation pits have been provided in the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) for pH correction of the effluents before discharge into Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for further treatment and use. NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. coal yard and Fuel Oil Handling areas before discharge into ETP.
reduction in thermal pollution and conservation of fresh water. This helps in savings of fresh water requirements for transportation of ash from the plant. Vindhyachal. In the AWRS. Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES): Dry ash has much higher utilization potential in ashbased products (such as bricks. in a number of NTPC stations. Korba. Water Treatment Plant (WTP). service water drains etc. Talcher Thermal. Kahalgaon. Simhadri. Coal Handling Plant (CHP) effluent.g. Singrauli. DAES has been installed at Unchahar. the effluents are sent to the ETP for further treatment. After primary treatment at the source of their generation. Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System : The objective of industrial liquid effluent treatment plant (ETP) is to discharge lesser and cleaner effluent from the power plants to meet environmental regulations. Kahalgaon. concrete. Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) effluent. Ash Water Recycling System (AWRS) has been provided. The composite liquid effluent treatment plant has been designed to treat all liquid effluents which originate within the power station e. Ash in slurry form is discharged into the lagoons where ash particles get settled from the slurry and clear effluent water is discharged from the ash pond. The discharged effluents conform to standards specified by CPCB and the same is regularly monitored. Dadri. Ramagundam.). Portland pozzolana cement. aerated autoclaved concrete blocks. This has been envisaged for the first time in Asia which has resulted in progressive development of green belt besides far less requirement of land and less water requirement as compared to the wet ash disposal system. the effluent from ash pond is circulated back to the station for further ash sluicing to the ash pond. The scheme involves collection of various . as a proactive measure. Korba and Vindhyachal. Simhadri. Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal systems: Ash ponds have been provided at all coal based stations except Dadri where Dry Ash Disposal System has been provided. NTPC has set up a unique system for dry ash collection and disposal facility with Ash Mound formation. Ash Ponds have been divided into lagoons and provided with garlanding arrangements for change over of the ash slurry feed points for even filling of the pond and for effective settlement of the ash particles. Ash Water Recycling System: Further. Farakka. floor washings. The ash water recycling system has already been installed and is in operation at Ramagundam. At its Dadri Power Station. Talcher Kaniha and BTPS. Talcher Kaniha. etc. The scheme has helped stations to save huge quantity of fresh water required as makeup water for disposal of ash. Talcher Thermal. Rihand.
These plants have helped to control quality and quantity of the effluents discharged from the stations. . sludge drying beds. Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities : Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) sewage treatment facilities have been provided at all NTPC stations to take care of Sewage Effluent from Plant and township areas. Gas Collection Chambers etc have been provided to improve the effluent quality. look after various environmental issues of the individual station. NTPC has implemented such systems in a number of its power stations such as Ramagundam. Farakka. Singrauli. Environmental Reviews are carried out at all operating stations and remedial measures have been taken wherever necessary. Korba. Rihand. Environment Management and Ash Utilisation Groups established at each station. Ash Utilisation Group and Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection (CENPEEP) function from the Corporate Centre and initiate measures to mitigate the impact of power project implementation on the environment and preserve ecology in the vicinity of the projects. As a feedback and followup of these Environmental Reviews. a number of retrofit and upgradation measures have been undertaken at different stations. Vindhyachal. In a number of NTPC projects modern type STPs with Clarifloculators. Such periodic Environmental Reviews and extensive monitoring of the facilities carried out at all stations have helped in compliance with the environmental norms and timely renewal of the Air and Water Consents. At several stations. Jhanor Gandhar. Environment Reviews: To maintain constant vigil on environmental compliance. Mechanical Agitators. Simhadri. The effluent quality is monitored regularly and treated effluent conforming to the prescribed limit is discharged from the station. Faridabad. treated effluents of STPs are being used for horticulture purpose.effluents and their appropriate treatment centrally and recirculation of the treated effluent for various plant uses. Kahalgaon and Talcher Kaniha. The Environment Management Group. the company has constituted different groups at project. Kayamkulam. Environmental Institutional Setup : Realizing the importance of protection of the environment with speedy development of the power sector. regional and Corporate Centre level to carry out specific environment related functions.
fused lamps & tubes. BioMedical wastes get generated in power plant areas. metal scrap. The wastes generated are a number of solid and hazardous wastes like used oils & waste oils. oil & clarifier sludge. ewaste. rubber products.Up gradation & retrofitting of Pollution Control Systems: Waste Management Various types of wastes such as Municipal or domestic wastes. C&I wastes. canteen (biodegradable) wastes.). grease. electricial scrap. silica gel. paper. used photochemicals. hazardous wastes. plant hospital and the townships of projects. These wastes fall either under hazardous wastes category or nonhazardous wastes category as per classification given in Government of India’s notification on . fire resistant fluids etc. lead acid batteries. buidling material wastes. used resin. asbestos packing. empty cylinders (refillable). other lead bearing wastes (such as garkets etc. glass wool.
NTPC is conscious of its role in the national endeavour of mitigating energy poverty. heralding economic prosperity and thereby contributing towards India’s emergence as a major global economy.01. NTPC is committed to provide affordable and sustainable power in increasingly larger quantity.Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 (as amended on 06.05. this coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts.P.H. These plants can use lowgrade coals and have higher efficiency as compared to conventional plants. Advanced / Ecofriendly Technologies NTPC has gained expertise in operation and management of 200 MW and 500 MW Units installed at different Stations all over the country and is looking ahead for higher capacity Unit sizes with super critical steam parameters for higher efficiencies and for associated environmental gains. there is also growing awareness among all concerned to keep the pollution under control and preserve the health and quality of the natural environment in the vicinity of the power stations.2003). NTPC has initiated a technoeconomic study under USDOE / USAID for setting up a commercial scale demonstration power plant by using IGCC technology. Handling and management of these wastes in NTPC stations have been discussed below. Higher efficiency Combined Cycle Gas Power Plants are already under operation at all gasbased power projects in NTPC. ELECTRICITY FROM COAL Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C. . At Sipat. higher capacity Units of size of 660 MW and advanced Steam Generators employing super critical steam parameters have already been implemented as a green field project.2000 & 20. Coal is then transported to bowl mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form. With the massive expansion of power generation. Advanced clean coal technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) have higher efficiencies of the order of 45% as compared to about 38% for conventional plants.
Atmospheric air from F. a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating. The stationary and moving blades together.D fan. This fan takes atmospheric air. Some prefer to use the term ENERGY CENTER because such facilities convert forms of energy.This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold mixture P. where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall. Fuel gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines. which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F. These fuel gases heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. THERMAL POWER PLANT A Thermal Power Station comprises all of the equipment and a subsystem required to produce electricity by using a steam generating boiler fired with fossil fuels or befouls to drive an electrical generator. Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft. Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. However. gravitational potential energy or heat energy (derived from the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. like nuclear energy. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. POWER PLANT is the . Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum .A fan.
Threephase transmission line 3.most common term in the united state. Step up transformer 4. While POWER STATION prevails in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom. Typical diagram of a coal fired thermal power station 1. Coal pulverizer 15. Low pressure steam 6. Economizer 22. Coal hopper 14. Electrical Generator 5. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. Chemical plants. Such power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. Deaerator Feed water heater 12. Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent webbulb air temperature. Steam control valve 10. Air preheater 23. Induced draught (draft) fan 25. boiler steam drum 16. Cooling water pump 2. Bottom ash hoper 17. for example. Precipitator 24. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 9. Forced draught(draft) fan 19. Reheater 20. Combustion air intake 21. The tower vary in size from small rooftop units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 . Coal conveyor 13. Fuel gas stack The description of some of the components written above is described as follows: 1. Super heater 18. Surface condenser 8. power plants and building cooling. High pressure steam turbine 11. Boiler feed water pump 7.
an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents.000 volts. transformers: stepup” this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. or direct current system at the same voltage. the other two current are delayed in time by onethird and twothird of one cycle of the electrical current.meters in diameter. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. At the power station. giving a phase separation of onethird one cycle. or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. while larger ones are constructed on site. At the power station. The current are sinusoidal functions of time. the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phaseneutral voltage. Where the stepdown is 3 phase.e. industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants . The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase. The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forceddraft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants. the “household” voltage). In a three phase system.Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally. This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral . The primary use of large . three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30. 208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and . Taking one conductor as the reference. natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities . all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. petroleum refineries. Smaller towers are normally factory built. petrochemical and chemical plants. 2. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase. Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i. This delay between “phases” has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. two phase.
Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces. which produce electricity.Boiler feed water pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. .500. . These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. 3. water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their generators . The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in ‘Boilers’ or ‘steam generators’ as they are sometimes called.000 hp(1. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds. compressors and other shaft driven equipment .000. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. caused by pressure drop.As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator. the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. generally using electromagnetic induction.Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy.240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply. 4. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. which produces the electrical energy. Electrical power station use large stem turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the world’s electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. and have a 4pole generator rather than the more common 2pole one. to 2.
Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. 5. Steampowered pumps Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps. or both. Some pumps contain a twostage switch. which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. of course. to force the water into the boiler. to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steampowered feed water pump).pressure. Control valves Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature. the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased. In thermal plants. This is usually accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. no crankshaft was required. or its discharge is blocked). In either case.Construction and operation Feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. A means had to be provided.flow. Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar levelsensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered liquid level in the boiler is substantially increased. By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. its supply has been cut off or exhausted. the pump is activated. In this situation. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. trigger an alarm. the second stage will be triggered. the primary purpose of surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating). As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage. the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler.and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that . I f the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed. 6. though.the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end. the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler.
A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam. A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration boiler feed water tank. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility’s associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water). Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material. feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. hydraulic or pneumatic systems 7. Feed water heater A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to preheat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. Deaerator A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it noncorrosive. particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. ores etc. coal. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves the level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow.005 cm3/L) 8. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. In a steam power (usually modeled as a modified Ranking cycle). The pulleys are powered. such as grain. most deaerator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0. A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys. If operated properly. Pulverizer A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil . 9. condensate. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward.compares a “set point” to a “process variable” whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. with a continuous loop of material the conveyor Belt – that rotates about them. and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases.
Boiler. 11. and were widely adopted. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam. nonsuperheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the “hotter”water/and saturated –steam into steam drum. Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material. and so stationary steam engines including power stations. water level indicator and fuse plug. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the watertube boiler. economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids . or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. and heating. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. such as grain. The steam will reenter the furnace in through a super heater. Economizers Economizer. Super Heater A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. usually water. or in the UK economizer. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. coal. The pulleys are powered.fuel power plant. Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century. Made from highgrade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390’C and pressure well above 350psi (2. power plant. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom. Boiler Steam Drum Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. 10. The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. A steam drum is used in the company of a muddrum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the muddrum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve. ores etc. ventilating and air conditioning. to most steam vehicles. In boilers. 12.4MPa). up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil . are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption.
and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coalfired boiler application. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices. salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills. 14. Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. combustion in a boiler). today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes . ESP’s continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions. The original parallel plateWeighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed.fuel power plant Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. 13. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. Made from highgrade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390’C and pressure well above 350psi (2. As a consequence. and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. Air Preheater Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example. A steam drum is used in the company of a muddrum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the muddrum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack. including smoke from electricitygenerating utilities (coal and oil fired). It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the watertube boiler. The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. The steam will reenter the furnace in through a super heater. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture.4MPa). The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the “hotter”water/and saturated –steam into steam drum. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom. water level indicator and fuse plug. The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack.
restaurants . maximizing corona production. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall. Fuel gases are produced when coal. a vertical pipe. When the fuel gases exhausted from stoves. channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air. carbon mono oxide. natural gas.are attached . hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys. ovens. avoiding damage to the components. Fuel gas stack A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter. Transformer –rectifier systems apply voltages of 50100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide and water vapour as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESP’s to stay in operation for years at a time. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing. 15. oil. fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes. wood or any other large combustion device. so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. . nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides.
653 3.600 7.955 MW.347 7.035 6.294 MW as joint ventures with other organizations. Apart from this it has 4 other Coal and Gas Based Power Plants with power generating capacity of 2.480 5.400 814 25.6% in 199899 to 91.47% in 200809.294 30. The first step in this direction was taken by initiating investment in Koldam Hydro Electric Power Project (800 MW capacity) located on Satluj river in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh.209 GAS 2.OPERATION POWER GENERATION Currently NTPC owns 15 Coal Based Power Plants with a generating capacity of 24. and 7 Gas/Liquid Fuel Based Power Plants with a generating capacity of 3. NTPC has always been considerably above the national average.5.312 1. Regional spread of Generating Facilities REGION Northern Western Southern Eastern Joint Ventures TOTAL COAL 7.14% during the year 200809. The PLF has increased from 76.32% in 199899 to 92. On all these projects construction activities are in full swing.395 MW. Two other hydro projects under construction are Tapovan Vishnugad (600 MW capacity) and Loharinag Pala (520 MW capacity) in Uttarakhand.435 TOTAL 9. which compares favourably with international standards.644 Hydro Based Power Projects NTPC has increased thrust on hydro development for a balanced portfolio for long term sustainability. Performance In terms of operations.950 7.400 2.360 3.293 350 1. . The availability factor for coal based power stations has increased from 89.
39 81.7 130.11 170. electricity is generated and given as output by the generator.8 Factor 0405 0506 0607 159.5 118.60 80.OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF COAL BASED NTPC STATIONS Unit 9798 9899 9900 0001 0102 0203 0304 Generation BU 106. which is connected to a generator.20 89.09 BASIC FUNCTIONING In a thermal power plant. When the turbine turns.7 88.4 Availability % 85.8 81.1 83.43 91.06 88.51 87.16 PLF % 75.86 149.20 76. .8 88.67 87.2 140.54 89.1 133.88 188. which is then supplied to the consumers through high-voltage power lines.2 109.91 90.36 90.6 84.03 89. one of coal. oil or natural gas is used to heat the boiler to convert the water into steam.54 81. The steam is used to turn a turbine.
then the source is an open pond or river. 3) Steam Turbine: The steam generated in the boiler is sent through a steam . The increase in temperature helps in the transformation of water into steam. water is taken into the boiler through a water source. A furnace is used to heat the fuel and supply the heat produced to the boiler.Process of a Thermal Power Plant Detailed process of power generation in a thermal power plant: 1) Water intake: Firstly. then it is recycled and the same water is used over and over again. 2) Boiler heating: The boiler is heated with the help of oil. coal or natural gas. If water is scarce. If water is available in a plenty in the region.
2. there are various other monitoring systems and instruments in place to keep track of the functioning of all the devices. The steam passes through a manifold in the roof of the drum into the pendant super heater (19) where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly to around 200 bar and 540°C. Apart from this. The turbine has blades that rotate when high velocity steam flows across them. where it turns into steam. An economizer uses the heat from the exhaust gases to heat the feed water. There are basically two main units of a thermal power plant: 5. Water of a high purity flows vertically up the tube-lined walls of the boiler. An air pre-heater heats the air sent into the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency of the combustion process.turbine. 6) Ash collection system: There is a separate residue and ash collection system in place to collect all the waste materials from the combustion process and to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. 4) Generator: A generator is connected to the steam turbine. and is passed to the boiler drum. where steam is separated from any remaining water. . Coal is conveyed (14) from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill (16). This rotation of turbine blades is used to generate electricity. The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites.1. When the turbine rotates. This prevents any hazards from taking place in the plant. the generator produces electricity which is then passed on to the power distribution systems. Steam Turbine and Electric Generator We have discussed about the processes of electrical generation further. 5) Special mountings: There is some other equipment like the economizer and air pre-heater. Steam Generator or Boiler 5. A complete detailed description of two (except 2) units is given further. There it is mixed with preheated air (24) driven by the forced draught fan (20).
A steam governor valve (10) allows for both manual control of the turbine and automatic set-point . The steam is piped to the high pressure turbine (11). the first of a three-stage turbine process.sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red.
1MPa). and then in the economiser (23). before being pumped back to the condensor (8) in cooling water cycle. Here the steam is superheated to 1. The exiting steam. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns.000 °F (540 °C) to prepare it for the turbine. air preheater (APH). As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 3.1. and prewarmed. before being returned to the boiler drum. This is stepped up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically 250-500 kV) and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system (3). the steam drum. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. now a little above its boiling point.200 psi (22. Exhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan (26) through an electrostatic precipitator (25) and is then vented through the chimney stack (27). The reheated steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine (9). The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace.following. The three turbine sets are sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator (5) which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 20-25 kV). pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. . creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condensor chest. creating a highly visible plume of water vapour. is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the Cooling tower) in the condenser (8). and reduced in both pressure and temperature. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity.Steam Generator/Boiler The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. forming a large fireball at the center. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2. the chemical dosing equipment. first in a feed heater (13) powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set. The generator includes the economizer. where it condenses rapidly back into water. 5. and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. and from there passed directly to the low pressure turbine set (6). The cooling water from the condensor is sprayed inside a cooling tower (1).3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. The condensed water is then passed by a feed pump (7) through a deaerator (12). is returned to the boiler reheater (21). The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure.
boiler furnace. induced draft (ID) fan. fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. For units over about 210 MW capacity. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator Boiler Furnace and Steam Drum Once water inside the boiler or steam generator. As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. the steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum. fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan. . On some units of about 60 MW. APH. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. two boilers per unit may instead be provided.
either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger.The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The oil is usually heated to about 100°C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles. coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion. or other types of grinders. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverisers may be ball mills. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns. water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. The steam separators and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial start-up. rotating drum grinders. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces. In such cases. Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam. New Delhi Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. Fuel Firing System and Igniter System From the pulverized coal bin. Fuel Preparation System In coal-fired power stations. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. soot blowers. Boiler Side of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. To provide sufficient combustion . This process is known as natural circulation. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal.
fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose). Generally. the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan. continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. Air Path External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion. Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. At the furnace outlet and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace. Auxiliary Systems Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and. maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. For this. Hardness in the make-up . losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum.
For this purpose. A DM plant generally consists of cation. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i. there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long.. being very pure. the shaft has a number of bearings. Barring Gear (or Turning Gear) Barring gear is the term used for the mechanism provided for rotation of the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed (about one revolution per minute) after unit stoppages for any reason. This deflection is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing. Sometimes. When it stops completely. large diameter shaft. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. However. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. thus making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. . with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.. Once the unit is "tripped" (i. 5. Thus.e. anion and mixed bed exchangers. the vacuum side). The bearing shells. the turbine starts slowing or "coasting down". a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy. the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a Water Demineralising Treatment Plant (DM). The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. such as PVC. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. in which the shaft rotates. The DM water.e.2. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.Steam Turbine and Electric Generator The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. the turbine steam inlet valve is closed). are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated.water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation.
the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. . The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere. Therefore. unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly ο below 100 C where the vapour pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure. But this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause vibrations and damage the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted.The shaft therefore warps or bends by millionths of inches. the shaft is not permitted to come to a complete stop by a mechanism known as "turning gear" or "barring gear" that automatically takes over to rotate the unit at a preset low speed. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer. Thus leaks of noncondensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. lake or ocean. A Typical Water Cooled Condenser For best efficiency. then the barring gear must be kept in service until the temperatures of the casings and bearings are sufficiently low. only detectable by monitoring eccentricity meters. If the unit is shut down for major maintenance. or once-through water from a river. Condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. the condenser generally works under vacuum.
A typical water cooled condensor Feedwater Heater A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine.  This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle. Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibility’s involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feedwater heater. the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid. In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler. The heat content (btu) in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. .
it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. . The steam vapour picks up energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature.A Rankine cycle with a 2-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater Superheater As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine. The areas known as superheater and reheater.
power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater. domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feedwater storage tank. particularly corrosive ones. in order to avoid corrosion of the metal. If operated properly.Deaerator A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases. Boiler Feed Water Deaerator There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another. A deaerator typically includes a vertical. .005 cm3/L). most deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional trayed deaerator. Generally.
The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. Generator High Voltage System The generator voltage ranges from 10.5 kV bus system. This system requires special handling during start-up. generating at 10. In smaller units. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups. the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms.75kV and water is conductive. the governing control valves. a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 10. the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. the bearing and seal oil systems. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 15. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. Demineralised water of low conductivity is used. in an oil-sealed casing. a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system.Oil System An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator.5kV. an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Hydrogen gas cooling. The generator also uses water cooling.5 kV in smaller units to 15. .75 kV in larger units. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Generator Heat Dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. Thus. with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads.
However. turbine lube oil pumps. damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation. Battery Supplied Emergency Lighting & Communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power. and emergency lighting. communication systems. at times.Other Systems Monitoring and Alarm system Most of the power plant’s operational controls are automatic. the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range. to essential items such as the power plant's control systems. . Thus. when needed. This is essential for safe. manual intervention may be required.
whichever fuel is used. Just as the energy of wind turns the sail of the windmill. The finely produced coal mixed with preheated air is then blown into the boiler by a fan called primary air fan where it burns more like a gas than as a solid. The coal brought to the station by trains or by other means. The steam superheated in further tubes (superheaters) passes to turbine where it is discharged through the nozzle on the turbine blades. Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the generator. still in fine partical form is carried out of boilers to the precipitator as dust. The dust is then conveyed to water to disposal area or to bunker for sale while the clean flue gases are passed on through IP fans to be discharged through chimneys..ELECTRICITY GENERATION PROCESS (A BASIC OVERVIEW) HOW ELECTRICITY IS GENERATED? Thermal power station burns fuel and uses the resultant heat to raise steam which drives the TURBO GENERATOR. travels handling plant by conveyer belts.natural gas) or it may be fissionable. As coal is ground so finally the resultant ash is also a fine powder. called secondary air supply. The heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the many kilometers tubing which line the boiler walls. . which falls into ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. where electrodes charged with high voltage electricity trap it. travels from pulverizing mills. which is transformed by heat into staemat high temperature and pressure. Some of it binds together to form pumps. COAL TO STAEM Its other raw materials are air and water. The fuel may be ‘fossil’(coal. in the conventional domestic or industrial grate. by forced draft fan. which grind it as fine as the face powder of size upto 20 microns. the energy of steam striking the blade makes the turbine rotate. the objective is same to convert the mechanical energy into electricity by rotating a magnet inside a set of winding. Inside the tubes the boiler feed water. The rotor is housed inside the stator having heavy coils of the bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of magnetic field created by the rotor. with additional amount of air. Most of ash. The water-quenched ash from the bottom is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or sale.oil.
far purer than the water we drink (de-mineralized water). But. . that is.Thus it is rapidly changed back into water.Electricity passes from stator windings to step-up transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be transmited efficiently over lines of grid. The condenser contains many kilometers of tubing through which cold water is constantly pumped. otherwise it may damage the boiler tubes. The staem which has given up its heat energy is cahnged back into water in a condenser so that it is ready for re-use.bed. The staem passing around the tubes looses heat. but the boiler feed water must be absolutely pure. Cooling water is drawn from river. the two lots of water. the boiler feed and cooling water must never mix.
MANOMETRY LAB 2. ELECTRONICS TEST LAB 6.1 TRANSMITTERS : It is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids.1.CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION I was assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 10th June 2010 to 28th 2010 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. It gives an output of 420 mA dc.6. WATER TREATEMENT LAB 5. This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry.1.MANOMETRY LAB: 6. It has following labs: 1. PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB 3. its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified.1. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. AUTOMATION LAB 4. FURNACE SAFETY SUPERVISORY SYSTEM(FSSS) 6. 6. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe.2 MANOMETER: . all fall under this.
The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. When a fault occurs and any one of the tripping is satisfied a signal is sent to the relay.2.2. which trips the circuit. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. (b) Helical Type: for High pressure measurement.1 INTERLOCKING: It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. 6. which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit.1.3 BOURDEN PRESSURE GAUGE It’s an oval section tube. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. . For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions.2.2 FUSES: It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit. 6.2. Its one end is fixed.1. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 6. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE.PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB: 6. It is of 2 types: (a) Spiral type: for Low pressure measurement. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage. in U shape. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. It is filled with a liquid. phase angle and velocity. 6. current.1. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small.It’s a tube which is bent. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs.1 RELAY: It is a protective device.
C supply. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping.415 KV A. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT: For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D.b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. In consists of current carrying contacts.2.2. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. There are three types of MANUAL TRIP THERMAL TRIP SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP 6.C supply. one movable and other fixed. 2. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start.3 P ROTECTION AND INTERLOCK SYSTEM: 1.LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT: For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. . b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails. 6.2 MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER: They are used with combination of the control circuits to.
All the control instruments are excited by 24V supply (420mA) because voltage can be mathematically handled with ease therefore all control systems use voltage system for computation. (4) RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR): It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. AUTOMATION LAB : This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes.5. However. (2) ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR: This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems. the laws of electronic state that it can be any where between 12V and 35V in the plant. This is an important part in the plant. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. Another point is the universality of the supply. Earlier. 3. (3) THERMOCOUPLES : This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System. In this lab. also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just . pressure the control circuits can easily be designed with single chips having multiple applications. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. Once the measured is common i. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks.3 PYROMETER LAB (1) LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER: Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured.e. The latest technology is the use of ‘ETHERNET’ for control signals.
For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and preheater air along each of the feedermills. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. 4. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace.boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices). Transmitter converts mV to mA. 3.ELECTRONICS LAB: This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. 2. It gets a signal if parameter goes beyond limit. which threatens to blast it. to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes. ANNUNCIATION CARDS They are used to keep any parameter like temperature etc. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. integrated circuits. It is made up of mild steel. 5. Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. . within limits. FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB: This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. It extracts the magnetic portion. cards auto analyzers etc. It has a switching transistor connected to relay that helps in alerting the UCB.
It is widely used in applications where inexpensive static pressure measurements are needed. as shown schematically below. Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gages For Switches pressure swithes are used and they can be used for digital means of monitoring as swith being ON is referred as high and being OFF is as low. All the monitored data is converted to either Current or Voltage parameter. The Plant standard for current and voltage are as under • Voltage : 0 – 10 Volts range • Current : 4 – 20 milliAmperes We use 4mA as the lower value so as to check for disturbances and wire breaks. Accuracy of such systems is very high . ACCURACY : + . . A typical Bourdon tube contains a curved tube that is open to external pressure input on one end and is coupled mechanically to an indicating needle on the other end.1 % The whole system used is SCADA based.0.PRESSURE MONITORING Pressure can be monitored by three types of basic mechanisms Switches Gauges Transmitter type For gauges we use Bourden tubes : The Bourdon Tube is a non liquid pressure measurement device.
Programmable Logic Circuits ( PLCs) are used in the process as they are the heardt of Instrumentation . Thermocoupkle selection depends upon two factors: Temperature Range Accuracy Required . Start Level low Level High pump Stop HL switch Pressure in line LL switch Pressure Electricity AN D High level Electricity OR Electricity BASIC PRESSURE CONTROL MECHANISM TEMPERATURE MONITORING We can use Thernocouples or RTDs for temperature monitoring Normally RTDs are used for low temperatures.
causing some measurable effect. The float is shaped so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. with spheres and spherical ellipses being the most common. which measure flow rate by allowing the cross sectional area the fluid travels through to vary. owing to its popularity. It is inexpensive and. Sensitivity is approximately 41 µV/°C. FLOW MEASUREMENT Flow measurement does not signify much and is measured just for metering purposes and for monitoring the processes ROTAMETERS: A Rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. RTDs are also used but not in protection systems due to vibrational errors.5 0C ) Pt1000 : 0 0C . They are available in the −200 °C to +1200 °C range. so the float rises.1000Ω Pt1000 is used for higher accuracy The gauges used for Temperature measurements are mercury filled Temperature gauges. For Analog measurements we can use the following methods : Flowmeters . with a float inside that is pushed up by flow and pulled down by gravity. So that if R changes then the Voltage also changes RTDs used in Industries are Pt100 and Pt1000 Pt100 : 0 0C – 100 Ω ( 1 Ω = 2. At a higher flow rate more area (between the float and the tube) is needed to accommodate the flow. available in a wide variety of probes. It is occasionally misspelled as 'rotometer'. We pass a constant curre t through the RTD. A rotameter consists of a tapered tube. For Analog medium thermocouples are used And for Digital medium Switches are used which are basically mercury switches. typically made of glass. This allows you to tell if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is not. Floats are made in many different shapes. For Digital measurements Flap system is used.Normally used Thermocouple is K Type Thermocouple: Chromel (Nickel-Chromium Alloy) / Alumel (Nickel-Aluminium Alloy) This is the most commonly used general purpose thermocouple. It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters.
Valves are used in a variety of applications including industrial. Turbine type are the simplest of all. closing. using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible fluids (such as the approximation of a water jet). Venurimeters / Orifice meters Turbines Massflow meters ( oil level ) Ultrasonic Flow meters Magnetic Flowmeter ( water level ) Selection of flow meter depends upon the purpose . military. And we know that rate of flow is given by: Flow = k √ (D. VENTURIMETERS : Referring to the diagram. the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction would be given by (ρ/2)(v22 . slurries. CONTROL VALVES A valve is a device that regulates the flow of substances (either gases. Valves are technically pipe fittings. residential.v12). but usually are discussed separately. transportation. accuracy and liquid to be measured so different types of meters used. or partially obstructing various passageways. Plumbing valves are the most obvious in . or liquids) by opening. commercial. fluidized solids.P) Where DP is Differential Presure or the Pressure Drop. They work on the principle that on each rotation of the turbine a pulse is generated and that pulse is counted to get the flow rate.
They are : • Pneumatic Valves – they are air or gas controlled which is compressed to turn or move them • Hydraulic valves – they utilize oil in place of Air as oil has better compression • Motorised valves – these valves are controlled by electric motors FURNACE SAFEGUARD SUPERVISORY SYSTEM FSSS is also called as Burner Management System (BMS). If the handle is turned a quarter of a full turn (90°) between operating positions. it takes the charge from 110kv and this spark is brought in front of the oil guns. and plug valves are often quarter-turn valves. ball valves. but many more are used. the valve is called a quarter-turn valve. this is to evacuate or burn the HSD. The 210 MW boilers are direct type boilers (which mean that HSD is in direct contact with coal) firing takes place from the corner. There is a 5 minute delay cycle before igniting. Main objective of FSSS is to ensure safety of the boiler. like in Otto cycle engines driven by a camshaft. So there are basically three types of valves that are used in power industries besides the handle valves.everyday life. This method is known as PURGING. Thus it is also known as corner type boiler. Valves can also be controlled by devices called actuators attached to the stem. or hydraulic actuators which are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or water. IGNITER SYSTEM Igniter system is an automatic system. Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the valve stem. That’s why it’s called front and rear type boiler. where they play a major role in engine cycle control. they are mainly used for safety purposes in steam engines and domestic heating or cooking appliances. . The 95 MW boilers are indirect type boilers. Others are used in a controlled way. Some valves are driven by pressure only. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric motor or solenoid. It is a microprocessor based programmable logic controller of proven design incorporating all protection facilities required for such system. Butterfly valves. pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure. Fire takes place in front and in rear side. which spray aerated HSD on the coal for coal combustion.
Development.WAN etc) 3. 1. Printers. When pressure is applied. It involves operation and maintenance of more than 15. Manual valves (tap) 2. 4.000 equipments.PRESSURE SWITCH Pressure switches are the devices that make or break a circuit. Implementation & Support for Local Applications 2. Support to users for ERP & modules to supplement ERP. Hydraulic valve INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY I was assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 30th June 2010 to 17th July 2010 1. Customization & Implementation support for BTPS Applications to other projects. apart from Human Resources & Finance. Time delay can also be included in sensing the pressure with the help of pressure valves. Motorized valves (actuator) – works on motor action 3. Procurement & Maintenance of IT Infrastructure ( PCs. There are about 40. IT Role & Responsibilities @ BTPS I T Applications (BCOMIT) @ BTPS Power Generation is a complex business. Pneumatic valve (actuator) _ works due to pressure of compressed air 4. the switch under the switch gets pressed which is attached to a relay that makes or break the circuit.000 different materials and spares required for smooth operation of power plant apart from coal which is a major raw material. Servers & Network LAN. In today’s. .
Cost effective I T Infrastructure. At BTPS.e. it is important to maintain high availability of the Power Plant at lower cost to survive and maintain profitability. T/S & Training Management System 9 Office Automation & Communication System 10 ESamadhan complaints monitoring system Some of the above applications replaced by ERP. Machines. BCOMIT@BTPS Provides Online up to minute information and transaction ability. Rapid response & change capability. Empowering People with decision support system. Automation of routine activities. Interface. Information captured once at source. for efficient power plant management. 1 Maintenance Management System 2 Materials Management System 3 Financial Accounting System. in house Development & Implementation of an Integrated Suite of Online Applications BCOMIT on Oracle database. Pass Word & Role based secured access. BTPS Applications BCOMIT Highlights 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Single Login screen for all systems. of all business processes. It provides for Effective management of basic resources. Benefits of IT Innovations @ BTPS 1 Operations Important & critical parameters of Power Plant operation are monitored . to manage following business processes. Information Technology has been used extensively for effective management of various business processes and resources. i. 7 Hospital Management System 8 HR. 4 Contracts Management System 5 Operations & ABT Monitoring System 6 Coal Monitoring & Accounting System.U. Materials & Money.competitive environment. G. Major Innovation in this direction has been. Easy information retrieval & search facility. Men.
resulting in tremendous reduction in paper communication and cost. . Availability of coal stock status online. Online load analysis & Generation values are monitored to have optimum load balance of various units. IT Infrastructure selection After detail analysis and survey. Ordering on actual need basis (just in time). 2 Maintenance Better control over maintenance cost by way of online information available through the system. Standardization of defects and repair codes for easy filling of Work Order Card. This involved understanding various business processes. modified maintenance strategy of Preventive. linked to Equipment. Detection of duplicate and obsolete items. auto mail and BTPS website. Materials Material Planning and Procurement system streamlined. ealerts. Equipment spares planning are streamlined by way of Annual requirement. Meritorial operation practicing enabled. Oracle 9i RDBMS on Intel Unix Platform with IDS as front end development tool was chosen. was taken up in house. Concept to Implementation of IT Innovations @ BTPS 1. as it is latest and cost effective technology. information is available instantly to all and all time.online to enable effective control on operation of various equipments and reduce down time. 3 4 Office Automation and Communication With implementation of eDesk/ebroadcast. standardization of material description and specification. Cleaning and Weeding of redundant data. Vendor wise. 2. resulting in reduction in Administrative lead Time. This further reduces lead time and Inventory carrying. resulting in overall system improvement and functionalities. procurement on Annual Rate Contract basis enabled through the system. reduction in demurrages paid to railways. Auxiliary power consumption monitored and controlled.Based on failure analysis and equipment history. for future analysis. Application Development Design and development of New Applications. interaction with user groups of various department. Further. Predictive and Risk Based maintenance is implemented. defining computerization needs.
ABT & Operation Performance Monitoring System (With Frequency trend analysis) .3. Anurakshan @ BTPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Work Order Card registration for PM. Old historical data is valuable for reporting. Training For effective implementation and utilization of new IT Applications. Daily Plant Meeting and CHP Meeting minutes generated online. Standardization of defects & repair codes. Young Computer Professionals were deployed for short period to provide on the table training to users on need basis to supplement IT department efforts. Implementation of Applications Various Online Applications as mentioned above were developed tested and implemented in phased manner over a period of time. BD & OH. This was managed with support of management. Analysis of repeated equipment failure for corrective action. Permit to Work Issue. Interface with Materials Management System & CMS for WOC cost. development and trial of the applications. 4. considering company policies and procedures. Intel LAN Server with Oracle 9i RDBMS software and Pentium IV Computers were procured and deployed in various departments of BTPS to provide appropriate IT Infrastructure. Everybody from Operator to General Manager was covered. Equipment history with detailed WOC feedback available. Any innovation involves major change over and disturbance during transition phase. major thrust was given on training and retraining. Closure of WOC with detailed feedback. Data Migration Data Migration from old legacy systems of various departments was a major exercise for effective implementation of new systems. commitment and expertise of IT team and cooperation of users. 5. 6. Overview of Online Applications at BTPS Maintenance Management system. It was handled effectively by IT team in association with users. Procurement of Hardware & Software. analysis and decision support system. All PCs were connected in Plant wide Local area Network using cost effective technology. Trends of defects priority wise /department wise for a period.
Coal Accounting System (CAS) 1 Online uploading of Wagon wise Weight from Wagon Tipplers. coal accounting and MIS reports generated from the system. Earning Card available online. 4 Performance Management analysis & evaluation system. 2 Status of Income Tax Details. 3 Coal and Rail Freight bill payments accounting & reconciliation. Accrued Interest. Leave. . Preparation of Tender Documents and approvals. 3 Fund Flow Statements & other Reports for day to day functioning. Transactions effect visible in provisional pay slip. 4 Tariff Summary. Issue of LOI. First site in NTPC. with independent initiative of Development & Implementation of new Oracle based integrated online Applications. 4 Bank Reconciliation. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 1 Computerized Attendance recording system.1 2 3 4 5 Materials & Contract Management System (CMS) Initiation and approval of Contract Proposal. Bids Evaluation and preparation of CS. Sub ledgers and schedules from vouchers. Preparation of MB and processing of Bills. FINANANCIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (FAS) 1 Proactive Payroll Process. LOA and Approvals. PF slip. This has been appreciated by NTPC higher management. 5 Automatic maintenance of Trial Balance. 2 Employee database to record/ update information of employees 3 Township/Quarter management system. REWARDS & RECOGNITION Badarpur has achieved unique distinction of being. 2 Linkage of Coal Bills to GRS Weight. GL. with in house effort.
7. . making BTPS highly Information enabled Plant. Automation of routine activities 8. Conclusion: The BTPS IT has come a long way to leading position in IT enablement among NTPC power stations. Easy information retrieval/search facilities. Graphical user interface. Success Factor In house development using latest technology. 10. easy navigation. 9. IT Vision realized. Information captured once at source. 4.BTPS Received Golden Peacock award for IT Innovation in 2004. Rapid change/response capability. Single login screen through comit@btps. BTPC COMPUTER SOFTWARE HIGHLIGHTS 1. Password and roll based secured access. Oracle 9i based integrated online system. Data flow through seamless System Interface. to support management initiatives and meet user requirements. 5. IT Team & Users). effective change management. 6. 2. training & using synergized force of People of BTPS (Management. Adoption of Best Practices : BTPS IT strives to provide value added services and features thru best practices. 3. MIS for information management decisions.
IT PROJECT HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .
patient will go to the pathology lab or pharmacy respectively and where they will ask for his id and add the bill to his account and at the despatch he will be provided the bill including all the facilities provided to him . . It should be designed to provide functionality as explained below: • Work Scheduling Assigning nurses to doctors and doctors to patients • Admissions/Registrations Admitting and registering patients. The system should stand alone in the nature. Software should work as follow .when patient enter into the hospital so he should be registered at the reception desk than he will be provided an registration id using this he will make the appointment and get the OPD or IPD card on which the patient details and the allotted staff/doctor details are mentioned after that doctor will write the test and medicines.PROBLEM STATEMENT Software has to be developed for automating the manual Hospital Management System (HMS).patient will pay the bill and in return will get the receipt.updating and deleting the staff from the database. • Department Management Planning and coordinating the management of different department like Pathology. assigning the patients to appropriate wards • Patient Care Monitoring patients while they are in the hospital • Staff Management Monitoring and organizing the data related to staff like editing . • Payroll Management Monitoring and manipulating the salary of the Staff/Doctor. Pharmacy and etc.
They should not consider any requirements statements. will be used to define the scope of the system. The intended audience includes all stakeholders in the potential system.3 HMS Definitions. The intentions of the system are to reduce over-time pay and increase the number of patients that can be treated accurately. Please note that only the requirements that appear in this document or a future revision. nurses. and Abbreviations Hospital Management System an account of patients Report .1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to describe all the requirements for the Hospital Patient Management System (HPMS). The hospital management and its team members should use this document and its revisions as the primary means to communicate confirmed requirements to the development team. surgeons and developers. and the types of medication required for each patient. 1. however. Acronyms. The development team expects many face-to-face conversations that will undoubtedly be about requirements and ideas for requirements.2 Scope The proposed software product is the Hospital Patient Management System (HPMS). Doctors must make rounds to pick up patients’ treatment cards in order to know whether they have cases to treat or not. the following: administrative staff. These include. the patients in the different wards. but are not necessarily limited to. Developers should consult this document and its revisions as the only source of requirements for the project. Nurses who are in direct contact with the patients will use the system to keep track of available beds.HOSPITAL PATIENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION 1. Requirements statements in this document are both functional and nonfunctional. The system will be used to assign doctors to patients in designated wards as need arises. Introduction 1. doctors. Doctors will also use the system to keep track of the patients assigned to them. It is too slow and cannot provide updated lists of patients within a reasonable timeframe. 1. written or verbal as valid until they appear in this document or its revision. The current system in use is a paper-based system.
which comprise the domain model. general constraints. These include a general description of the product. analyzed and refined them.4 References No formal documents have been referenced in this document. The objective of this document therefore is to formally describe the system’s high level requirements including functional requirements. Section 3 presents the detail requirements. 1. 1.OPD IPD Database Logon ID Password Registration ID SRS Pharmacy Pathology lab out patient department in patient department collection of information in a structured form a user identification number to enter the system a word that enables one to gain admission into the system Patient Identification number Software Requirements specification from where medicines and surgical instruments are purchased different human body test takes place here like xray. .5 Overview This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is the requirements work product that formally specifies Hospital Patient Management System (HPMS). Picture 1 shows an overview of the Hospital Patient Management System and the relationships between requirements. Various techniques were used to elicit the requirements and we have identified your needs. non-functional requirements and business rules and constraints. user characteristics. This model demonstrates the development team's understanding of the business domain and serves to maximize the team's ability to build a system that truly does support the business. and any assumptions for this system. The detail structure of this document is organized as follows: Section 2 of this document provides an overview of the business domain that the proposed Hospital Patient Management System (HPMS) will support. It includes the results of both business analysis and systems analysis efforts.
8Ghz processor ( Amd/intel ) 256 MB ram .2. (vii) A screen will be provided for data entry operators from where he/she can control all the info about patients .1 Product Perspective This Hospital Patient Management System is a self-contained system that manages activities of the hospital as staff assignment. Appropriate drivers are installed and printer is connected. General Description 2. (ii) Support for Printer ( Inkjet / Laser ) i.e. (ii) There will be a screen for capturing and displaying information regarding availability and occupancy of rooms. 3. (vi) A screen is provided for creating new appointments . edit existing appointments or just for watching the doctors’ schedule. 1. operations scheduling. personnel management and administrative issues. medical bill . Access to different screen will be available based upon role of the user. Various stakeholders are involved in the hospital system. Hardware Interface (i) Screen resolution of at least 1024 X 768 required for proper viewing of screens. rooms and staff. The links provided on the screen can be used by receptionist for allotting a new room to a patient while admission. (iv) Cashier will be provided with a screen. doctor fees etc. Later information regarding patients’ remaining dues etc. can be updated from same. password and role Will be provided. System Interface None 2. (iii) There will be a screen for capturing and displaying information regarding availability of Doctors. User Interface (i) A login screen for entering the username. Higher resolutions will not pose any problem . (iii) Minimum system requirements: 1. from where he/she can get all the information regarding patients’ due balances.
Software Interfaces (i) Any windows base OS ( Windows 7 /vista/xp and older ) (ii) MS access 2007 as the DBMS. the patient is put on a waiting list until a bed becomes available. Recommended system requirements: 2 Ghz processor ( Amd/intel ) 384 MB ram 400 MB free space for installation 20 GB free space for proper database management. b) If there is no bed. (iv) Can run on standalone or network connected system 4 . (iii) Visual basic 7 for coding/developing the software/ 5. his/her Personal Health Number (PHN) is entered into the computer. Patient check out. Communication interfaces Working internet connection required to back up the database on Web cloud and to for facilitating inter branches communication. the administrative staff shall delete his PHN from the system and the just evacuated bed is included in available-beds list. Otherwise a new Personal Health Number is given to this patient. . There are two possible circumstances: a) If there is a bed then the patient will be sent to the bed to wait for the doctor to come. The patient’s information such as date of birth. the front-desk staff checks to see if the patient is already registered with the hospital. . If a patient checks out.2 Product Functions The system functions can be described as follows: Registration: When a patient is admitted. address and telephone number is also entered into computer system. 2. If he is. Consultation: The patient goes to consultation-desk to explain his/her condition so that the consulting nurse can determine what kind of ward and bed should be assigned to him/her.400 MB free space for installation 20 GB free space for proper database management.
It prints out all the information on who has used which bed. They are responsible for patient’s check-in or notification of appropriate people (e.g. Some users may have to be trained on using the system. Nurses: All nurses have post-secondary education in nursing.3 User Characteristics The system will be used in the hospital. They are responsible for all of the scheduling and updating day/night employee shifts. It uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The administrators. The existing Telecommunication infrastructure is based on IEEE100802. Every staff has some basic computer training. 2. nurses and front-desk staff will be the main users. notify administrator or nurse when an event occurs).Report Generation: The system generates reports on the following information: patients. 2. otherwise putting patients on the waiting list. Nurses in wards will use the HPMS to check their patient list. Doctors will use the HPMS to check their patient’s list.3 standards and the system must conform to this standard using category 5 cables for networking The system must be user-friendly . Consulting nurses to whom patients give short descriptions of their conditions are also responsible for assigning patients to appropriate wards if the beds are available. when and the doctor that is taking care of a given patient as well as expected medical expenses. Some nurses are computer literate. Given the condition that not all the users are computer-literate. Administrators in the wards are responsible for assigning doctors and nurses to patients. Some have further specialized training and are computer literate. Front-desk staff: They all have general reception and secretarial duties. Doctors: All doctors have a medical degree. The system is also designed to be user-friendly.4 General Constraints The system must be delivered by May 1st 2010. Every administrator has basic computer training. bed availability and staff schedules after every six hours. doctors. Administrators: They all have post-secondary education relating to general business administration practices.
it will allow user to access different screens based upon the user role. It is assumed that the Hospital will have enough trained staff to take care of the system 3.various fields are: o User id o Password o Role Home Page: This page contains explanation about the Hospital achievements.1 User interfaces The following screens will be provided: Login screen: This will be the first screen that will be displayed.5 Assumptions and Dependencies It is assumed that one hundred IBM compatible computers will be available before the system is installed and tested. Specific Requirements This section contains the software requirements to a level of details sufficient to enable designers to design the system and testers to test that system 3. infrastructure and various awards.2. Patient registration screen: Various fields available on this screen are o Personel information o Contact information o Registration id Doctor scheduling screen: Various fields available on this screen are o Department name o Doctor name o Doctor id Inpatient daily repot screen: Various fields available on this screen are o Patient information o Doctor name .1 External interface requirements 3.1.
3 Portability The application will be easily portable on any window based system that has MS access 2000 installed.4.4 Software system attributes 3.o Bed no.4.user will have to enter correct user name. o prescription salary information screen: Various fields available on this screen are o personel information o id o basic salary o gross salary Staff information screen: Various fields available on this screen are o personel information o id o education qualification o department 3.3 Design constraints None 3. 3. Regestration 3 Department allocation/doctor appointment . 3. Login 2.5 Other requirements None Usecases To defie the system functionalities.2 Performance requirement None 3.we can view the system as a collection of following use cases 1.1 Security The application will be password protected. 3. It will be easy to incorporate new requirements in the individual modules.2 Maintainability The application will be designed in a maintainable manner.4. password and role.
Cashier . Information System 7. Payroll 7. Check Appointments 5. Staff/Nurses 4. Records System 6. Pharmacy 10. Receptionist 2. Bill manupilation From the problemdescription. Update Staff 8. Doctors 3. Patient 5. Enquiry 6. Pathology 9.we can see the system has following actors: 1.4.
OPD & IPD Doctor ENQUIRY Patient PHARMACY & PATHOLOGY Record system Staff / Nurse BILLING STAFF MANAGEMANT Cashier PAYROLL ...USE CASE DIAGRAM Receptionist LOGIN REGESTRATION Information system(mainta.
record system.report generaton) record system(add staff) This use case check the person is a Doctor/Staff and handles various activities such as draw Salary and give Salary.information system.the user is logged into the system.doctor.. • Precondition None • Postcondition If use case is successful. A unique ID is generated for each patient after registration. This helps in implementing customer relationship m anagement and also maintains medical history of the . REGISTRATION • Introduction This use case documents the procedure for monitoring information about patients and handles patient’s query.staff .Use case description 1.otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor enter his/her user id and password o The actor enters user id and password o The system validate the user id and passwoed and check for his/her privileges o The use case ends • Special requirements None • Related use case None 2. • Actors Receptionist. LOGIN • introduction This usecase documents theprocedure for logging into the hospital management system based on user privileges receptionist(admission.prescribe test) information system(patient info.doctor appointment.test appointment) doctor (draw salary.ward status.
Patient. • Postcondition If use case is successful.the patient is regestered.otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o Receptionist ask for the details o Fill up the registration form o System generate the registration id o Generate the OPD/IPD card • Special requirements None • Related use case None 3. • Precondition Receptionist should logged into the system.the patient will get the appointment. • Actors Receptionist.patient. when the ID is generated the patient receives the Appointment time & number from the Receptionist and accordingly visit the doctor. • Postcondition If use case is successful.otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor enter his/her registration id o Patient specify the doctor or the disease o System will appoint the date for the patient o The use case ends . DOCTOR APPOINTMENTS • Introduction This Module Deals with. • Actors Receptionist..Patient • Precondition Receptionist should logged into the system.
• Postcondition If use case is successful. ENQUIRY • Introduction • Actors This use case documents the procedure for making the enquiry about the doctor/staff or the patient. Receptionist. doctor.otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor enter the id o System will compare this with the existing id’s o If there found any match than it will show the details o The use case ends o None • Special requirements • Related use case None 5. • Postcondition If use case is successful. Receptionist. PAYROLL • Introduction • Actors This Module checks whether the person is a Doctor/Staff and draws salary based on the information. staff and other hospital personal • Precondition Operator should logged into the system.• Special requirements None • Related use case • None 4.the user will draw the salary to his . doctor. record system and information system • Precondition Operator should logged into the system.the user is logged into the system.
• Actors Record system • Precondition Operator should logged into the system • Postcondition If use case is successful. PATHOLOGY • Introduction This module help in maintaining the record about the test and pass it to . UPDATE STAFF • Introduction This Module handles the activities such as adding Doctor/Staff information into the database.otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor enter information o The actor enters role and id additionaly o The system update the database o The use case ends • Special requirements None • Related use case None 7.account.otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor enter his/her user id o The actor enters user id o The system validate the user id and draw the salary o The use case ends • Special requirements None • Related use case None 6.the staff information is updated succesfully.
PHARMACY • Introduction The Pharmacy Module deal with the Retail Sale of medicines to OPD patients and Issue of medicines to the In-patients in the hospital. the systemwill maintain the record easily. enter the patient id o The system will generate the report o The system will pass the bill to bill department o The use case ends • Special requirements None • Related use case None 8.the bill department. online drug prescription. otherwise system state is unchanged • Postcondition • Basic flow This use case starts when actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor. This module is closely linked to the Billing Module and In-patient Module.the system will generate the report successfully. Its function includes. enter the patient id o The system will update the database o The system will pass the bill to bill department . consumables and sutures. inventory management and billing of drugs. • Precondition Operator should be logged in to the system If use case is successful. • Actors Operator. otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor. All the drugs required by the patient can be indented from the various sub stores operator • Actors • Precondition Operator should be logged in to the system • Postcondition If use case is successful.
enter the patient id o The system will generate the bill o The system will receive the cash and make the reciept o The use case ends • Special requirements None • Related use case None .the system will generate the bill and receipt sussecfully. The entries for billing are automatically transferred to the patient bill by the respective departments. The services are charged as per the category/panel/package applicable. • Actors operator • Precondition Operator should be logged in to the system • Postcondition If use case is successful.otherwise system state is unchanged • Basic flow This use case startswhen actor wishes to log into the system o The system request the actor. BILL MANUPILATION • Introduction Indoor billing module has a supervisory role.o The use case ends • Special requirements None • Related use case None 9. which provide the service.
CLASS DIAGRAM: LOGIN DETAILS user_id user_name password user_role add() delete() update() REGESTRATION or PATIENT DETAILS assign_regestration_id() prepare_opd_card() prepare_ipd_doc() PERSONEL INFORMATION name date of birth father_name gender age ENQUIRY DETAIL role name person_id display_details() CONTACT DETAILS address city state country mobile_no email_id STAFF DETAILS role add() update() delete() PHARMACY DETAILS patient_id ipd_bill() opd_bill() vendor_detail() item_record() BILLING patient_id payment_collection() reciept() final_bills() PATHOLOGY LAB patient_id generate_report() make_bill() opname2() PAYROLL role name person_id draw_salary() opname2() .
get login data 5.enter user_id and pass word 2.s ubm it details 3.error or s uc c es s m s g.SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS LOGIN : US E R LO G IN DE TA ILS LOG IN CHE C K E R LOG IN DE TA ILS 1. 4.c hec k login .
REGISTRATION : P a tie n t : R e c e p t io n is t R E G E S TR A T IO N FORM P R E P A R E ID 1 .g ive p e rs o n a l d e t a ils s u b m it p e rs o n a l d e t a ils s u b m it id t o p a tie n t g e n e ra te p a tie n t id s u b m it c o n t a c t d e t a ils g ive c o n ta c t d e t a ils .
DEPARTMENT ALLOCATION : P atient : R ec eptionis t R E G E S TR A TIO N FORM P R E P A R E ID 1 .give pers on al deta ils s ubm it pe rs onal de tails s ubm it id to p atien t g en erate patient id s ub m it c ont ac t d et ails give c onta c t d et ails .
ENQUIRY : USER LOGIN ENQUIRY : ENQUIRY DETAIL 1.enter the details 4.login 2.error msg or show details 3.check the details .
PAYROLL : USER LOGIN : LOGIN DETAILS PAYROLL login submit details check details draw salary .
. ..UPDATE STAFF : US E R LO GIN : LO G IN DE TA ILS login S TA F F M A NA G E M E NT DA TA B A S E : S TA F F DE TA ILS s ubm it details and role return id s tore details and genera.
: PATHOLOGY LAB
show his id and requirement submit the detail add bill to his account
sub the reptort
: PHARMACY DETAILS
show his id and requirement sumit the details check for the availability show error msg. add bill to his account
: P atient s how his id s bm it bill t o us er
: US E R
: B ILLIN G
s ubm t t he details
s ubm it b ill us ing c as h or c redit c ard is s uing the rec ipt generae bill
Takes Appointm ent
Takes Treatm ent
Undergo lab Tests& Buy Medicines
RECPTIONIST Takes Details os patient Checks availabilty of doctor gives appointm ent gives bill takes bill am ount .
DOCTOR Diagonise patient Gives Treatm ent Prescribes Medicines & tests Cures the patient .
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