# ANI653 DIGITAL CONTROL ENGINEERING

1) What are the time domain specifications needed to design a control
system
The time domain specifications needed to design a control system are
1. Rise time 4. Damping ratio
2. Peak overshoot 5. Natural frequency of oscillation
3. Settling time
2) Write the necessary frequency domain specifications for design of a control
system
The frequency domain specifications required to design a control system
are
1. Phase margin
2. Gain margin
3. Resonant peak
4. Bandwidth
3) What are the two methods of designing a control system
The two methods of designing a control system are design using root locus
and design using bode plot.
In design using root locus, the system is designed to satisfy the specified
time domain specifications. In design using bode plot, the system is designed to
satisfy the specified frequency specifications.
4) What is the compensation?
The compensation is the design procedure in which the system behaviour
is altered to meet the desired specifications, by introducing the additional device
called compensator.
5) What is the compensator? What are the different types of compensator
A device inserted to the system from the purpose of satisfying the
specifications is called compensator.
The different types of compensators are lag compensator, lead
6) What are the two types of compensation schemes?
The two types of compensator schemes employed in control system are
series compensation and feedback or parallel compensation.
7) What is series compensation?
The series compensation is a design procedure in which the compensator
is introduced in series with plant to alter the system behaviour and to provide
satisfactory performance.
The block diagram of series compensation scheme is shown in fig

R(s) C(s)

Fig: Series compensation

G
c
(s) = transfer function of series compensator
G(s) = open loop transfer function of the plant.
H(s) = feedback path transfer function.
8) What is feedback compensation?
The feedback compensation is a design procedure in which the
compensator is introduced in the feedback path so as to meet the desired
specification. It is also called parallel compensation.
The block diagram of feedback compensation scheme is shown in figure

R(s)
C(s)

Fig: feedback compensation
G
c
(s) G(s)

H(s)
+
-
+
-
G
1
(s)
+
-
G
2
(s)
G
c
(s)
H(s)

G
c
(s) = transfer function of feedback compensator
G
1
(s), G
2
(s) = open loop transfer function of the component of the plant.
H(s) = feedback path transfer function.
9) What is lag compensation?
The lag compensation is the design procedure in which the lag
compensator is introduced in the system so as to meet the desired specifications.
10) What is the lag compensator? Give an example.
A compensator having the characteristics of a lag network is called lag
compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag compensator, then in steady
state the output will have a phase lag with respect to input.
An electric lag compensator can be realized by a R-C network. The R-C
network shown in fig is an example of lag compensator.

Fig: lag compensator

11) What is the transfer function of lag compensator and draw its pole-zero
plot?
Transfer function of Gc(s) =
lag compensator

the lag compensator has a pole at s = -1/and a zero at s = -1/T. Since >1 and
T>0, the pole of lag compensator is nearer to origin. The pole-zero plot of lag
compensator is shown in fig

Fig: pole-zero plot of lag compensator

12) What are the characteristic of lag compensation? When the lag compensation is
employed?
The lag compensation improved the steady state performance; reduce the
bandwidth and increasing the rise time. If the pole introduced by the compensator
is not cancelled by a zero in the system and then the lag compensator increases
the order of the system by one.
When a system is stable and does not satisfies the performance
specifications then lag compensation can be employed so that the system is
redesigned to satisfy the performance specifications.

13) When maximum phase lag occurs in lag compensator? Give the expression for
maximum lag angle and the corresponding frequency.
The maximum phase lag occurs at the geometric mean of two corner
frequencies of the lag compensator.
Maximum lag phase angle,
m
=tan-1(1-ß)/2\ß
Frequency corresponding to
m
, w
m
= w
c1
w
c2
= 1/T 1/ ßT= 1/(T ß)

The lead compensation is a design procedure in which a lead compensator
is introduce in the system so as to meet the desired specifications.

15) What is lead compensator? Given an example.
A compensator having the characteristics of a lead network is called lead
compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lead compensator, then in
steady state the output will have a phase lead with respect to input.

An electric lead compensator can be realized by a R-C network. The R-C
network shown in fig is an example of lead compensator.

16) What is the transfer function of lead compensator and draw its pole-zero
plot?
Transfer function of Gc(s) =
lag compensator
the lag compensator has a pole at s = - and a zero at s = -1/T. Since
>1 and T>0, the pole of lag compensator is nearer to origin. The pole-zero
plot of lag compensator is shown in fig

Fig: pole-zero plot of lead compensator

17) What are the characteristic of lead compensation? When the lead compensation is
employed?
The lead compensation increasing the bandwidth and improved the speed
of performance. It also reduces peak overshoot. If the pole introduced by the
compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system and then the lead
compensator increases the order of the system by one.
18) When maximum phase lead occurs in lead compensator? Give the expression for
maximum lead angle and the corresponding frequency.
The maximum phase lead occurs at the geometric mean of two corner
Maximum lead phase angle, m =tan-1(1-ß)/2\ß
Frequency corresponding tom , wm = wc1wc2 = 1/T 1/ ßT= 1/T ß

The lag-lead compensation is a design procedure in which a lag
compensator is introduce in the system so as to meet the desired specifications.

20) What is lag-lead compensator? Given an example.
A compensator having the characteristics of a lag-lead network is called
lag-lead compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag-lead compensator,
then in steady state the output will have a phase lag and lead with respect to input
but in different frequency region.
An electric lag-lead compensator can be realized by a R-C network. The
R-C network shown in fig is an example of lag-lead compensator.

21) What is the transfer function of lag compensator and draw its pole-zero plot?

Transfer function of Gc(s) =
lag compensator

Fig: pole-zero plot of lag-lead compensator

compensation is employed?
compensation. The lag compensation improved the steady state performance and
decreases the bandwidth. The lead compensation increases the bandwidth and
improved the speed of performance. It also reduces peak overshoot.
If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the
system and then the lag-lead compensator increases the order of the system by
two.

23) What is the P-controller and what are its characteristics?
The proportional controller is a device that produces an output signal
which is proportional to the input signal.
The proportional controller improves the steady state tracking accuracy,
disturbance signal rejection and relative stability. It also decreases the sensitivity
of the system to parameter variation.

24) What is the PI-controller and what are its effect on system performance?
The PI-controller is a device that produces the output signal consisting of
two terms-one proportional to the input signal and the other proportional to the
integral to the input signal.
The introduction of PI-controller in the system reduces the steady state
error and increases the order and type number of the system by one.

25) What is the transfer function of PI-controller?
Transfer function of PI-controller Gc(s) = Kp+ Ki/s = Kp(s+Ki/Kp)/s

26) What is the PD-controller and what are its effect on system performance?
The PD-controller is a device that produces the output signal consisting of
two terms-one proportional to the input signal and the other proportional to the
derivative to the input signal.
The PD-controller increasing the damping of the system which results in
reducing the peak overshoot.

27) What is the transfer function of PD-controller?

Transfer function of PD-controller Gc(s) = Kp+ Kds = Kd(s+Kp/Kd)

28) What is the PID controller and what are its effect on system performance?
The PID controller is a device that produces the output signal consisting of
three terms-one proportional to the input signal another one proportional to the
integral to the input signal and the third one proportional to the derivative to the
input signal.
The PID controller stabilizes the gain, reduces the steady state error and
the peak overshoot.
29) What is the transfer function of PID-controller?

Transfer function of PID-controller Gc(s) = Kp+ Ki/s + Kds = (Kds2+Kps +Ki)/s

30) What is the feedback compensator?
The feedback compensation is a design procedure in which the
compensator is placed in an internal feedback path around one or more
components of the forward path so as to meet the desired specifications.
31) Draw the block diagram of a feedback compensator scheme?
The block diagram of the popular feedback scheme employed in two the
control system is shown in fig

R(s) C(s)

Fig: Feedback compensator scheme
+
-
K
A

+
-
G(s)
H(s)
Here, H(s) = transfer function of feedback compensator
K
A
= A parameter to adjust the velocity error constant of the
system

32) What is the disadvantage in rate feedback and how it is eliminated?
The disadvantage in rate feedback is that the system velocity error
constant K
V
is reduced. This undesirable effect can be eliminated by reducing the
feedback signal in the low frequencies by introducing a high pass filter in cascade
with rate device as shown in fig
R(s) C(s)

H(s)

High pass filter Rate device

Fig: Feedback compensator with high pass filter in cascade with rate device

33. What is sampled data control system?

When the signal or information at any or some points in a system is in the form of
discrete pulses, then the system is called discrete data system or sampled data system.

34. When is the control system called?

The control system becomes a sampled data system in any one of the following
situations.
• When a digital computer or microprocessor is employed as a part of the
control loop.
• When the control components are used on time sharing basis.
• When the control signals are transmitted by pulse modulation.
• When the output or input of a component in the system is digital or discrete
signal.

35. Draw the block diagram of a sampled data control system?

+
-
K
A

+
-
G(s)
sT/(1+sT) K
t
s

e(t) – error signal(analog)
f(kT) – Digital error signal
u(t) – Control signal (analog),
g(kT) - Digital control signal.

36. Distinguish between discrete time systems and continuous time systems.

Discrete time systems

Continuous time systems

I. Devices or algorithms that can
process discrete-time signals.

II. The input and output signals
are digital or discrete.

Devices that process analog
signals.

The input or output variables are
analog or continuous time signals.

i. Systems are highly accurate, fast and flexible.

ii. Use of time sharing concept of digital computer results in economical
cost and space.

iii. Digital transducers used in the system have better resolution.

iv. The digital components are less affected by noise,non-linearities and
transmission errors of noisy channel.

i. Conversion of analog signals to discrete-time signals and
reconstruction introduce noise and errors in the signal.

ii. Additional filters have to be introduced in the system if the
component of the system does not have adequate filtering
characteristics.

38. What is a digital controller?

A digital controller is a device introduced in the control system to modify
the error signal for better control action. The digital controller can be a special purpose
computer or a general –purpose computer or it is constructed using non-programmable
digital devices.
39. Compare the analog and digital controller.

Analog controller

Digital controller

1. Complex
2. Costlier than digital controller.
3. Slow acting
4. Non-programmable.
5. Separate controller should be
employed for each signal.

Simple
Less costly than analog controller.
Fast acting.
Programmable.
A single controller can be used to control
more than one signal on time shared
basis.

40. What are the advantages of digital controllers?

1. The digital controllers can perform large and complex computation with
any desired degree of accuracy.
2. The digital controllers are easily programmable and are hence versatile.
3. Digital controllers have better resolution.

41. Explain the terms sampling and sampler.

• Sampling is a process in which the continuous-time signal is converted
into a discrete-time signal by taking samples of the continuous-time signal at
discrete time instants.

• Sampler is a device which performs the process of sampling.

42. What is periodic sampling?

The periodic sampling is a sampling process in which the discrete-time
signal or sequence is obtained by taking samples of continuous-time signal periodically
or uniformly at intervals of T seconds. Here T is called ‘sampling period’ and 1/T=F
s
is
called ‘sampling frequency’.

43. State (Shannon’s) sampling theorem.

Sampling theorem states that a band limited continuous-time signal with
highest frequency f
m
hertz can be uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the
sampling rate F
s
is greater than or equal to 2f
m
samples per second.

44. What is meant by quantization?

The process of converting a discrete-time continuous valued signal into a
discrete-time discrete valued signal is called quantization. In quantization the value of
each signal sample is represented by a value selected from a finite set of possible values
called quantization levels.

45. What is coding?

The coding is the process of representing each discrete value by an n-bit binary
sequence (or code or number).

46. What are hold circuits?

Hold circuits are devices used to convert discrete time signals to continuous time signals.

47. What is zero-order hold?

The zero-order hold is a hold circuit in which the signal is reconstructed such
that the value of reconstructed signal for a sampling period is same as the value of last

48. What is first-order hold?

The first-order hold is a hold circuit in which the last two signal samples
(current and previous sample) are used to reconstruct the signal for the current sampling
period. The reconstructed signal will be a straight line in a sampling period, whose slope
is determined by the current and previous sample.

49. Define acquisition time.

• In analog-to-digital conversion process, the acquisition time is defined as the total
time required for obtaining a signal sample and the time for quantizing and coding.
• It is also called conversion time.

50. Define settling time.

In digital-to-analog conversion process, the settling time is defined as the time
required for the output of the DAC to reach and remain within a given fraction of the
final value, after application of input code word.
51. What is “Hold mode droop”?

The changes in signal voltage level in the hold circuits during hold mode or
hold period is called hold mode droop.

52. What are the problems encountered in a practical hold circuit?

The problems encountered in a practical hold circuit are

1. Errors in the periodicity of sampling process.
2. Non-linear variations in the duration of sampling aperture.
3. Droop in the voltage held during conversion.

53. How are the high frequency noise signals in the reconstructed signal eliminated?

The high frequency noise signals introduced by hold circuits in the
reconstructed signal are easily filtered out by the various elements of the control system,
because, the control system is basically a low pass filter.

54. Define one-sided and two-sided z-transform.

The z-transform (two-sided z-transform) of a discrete sequence, f(k) is defined as the
power series,

·
F(z) = Z{f(k)} = L f(k)z
-k
.
k=-·

where z is a complex variable.

The notation z{f(k)} is used to denote z-transform of f(k).

The one-sided z-transform of f(k) is defined as the power series,

·
F(z) = Z{f(k)} = L f(k)z
-k
.
k= 0

where z is a complex variable.

55. What is region of convergence (ROC)?

• The z-transform of a discrete sequence is an infinite power series, hence the
z-transform exists only for those values of z for which the series converges.
• If F (z) is z-transform of f (k) then the ROC of F (z) is the set of all values of z, for
which F (z) attains a finite value.

Note:

The infinite geometric series sum formula is

·
L C
k
= 1/

1-C; where 1C1
.
k=0

The finite geometric series sum formula is

M-1
L C
k
= C
M
-1/C-1; when C = 1
.
k=0

= M ; when C = 1

56. State the initial value theorem and final value theorem with regard to z-transform.

Initial value theorem:

If f (k) is causal and stable and F (z) exists with z =1 included in the ROC, then the
initial value theorem is given by,

f(0) = Lt F(z) ;where F(z) = Z{f(k)}

z ÷ ·

Final value theorem:

If f(k) is causal and stable and F(z) exists with z =1 included in the ROC, then the
final value theorem is given by,

f (·) = = Lt (1-z
-1
) F(z) ; where F(z) = Z{f(k)}

z ÷ 1

57. Find the z-transform of i) Unit step signal. ii) a
k
iii)e
-akT

i) Unit step signal

The unit step signal, u (k) = 1 for k>=0
The z-transform of u (k) = Z {u (k)}

·

= L z
-k

.
k= 0

=z/ (z-1)
ii) a
k

·
Z {a
k}
= L a
k
z
-k

.
k= 0

·
= L (a z
-1
)
k

.
k= 0

= 1/ (1-az
-1
)
=z/ (z-a)

iii) e
-akt

·
Z {e
-aKt}
= L e
-akT
z
-k

.
k= 0

·
= L (e
-aT
z
-1
)
k

.
k= 0

=1/ (1-e
-aT
z
-1
)
=z/ (z-e
-aT
)

58. What are the different methods available for inverse z-transform?

1. Direct evaluation by contour integration (or) complex inversion integral.
2. Partial fraction expansion.
3. Power series expansion.

59. What is linear discrete-time system?

• A discrete time system is a device or algorithm that operates on a discrete-time signal
called the input or excitation, according to some well-defined rule, to produce another
discrete-time signal called the output or the response of the system.
• A discrete time system is linear if it obeys the principle of superposition and it is time
invariant if its input-output relationship does not change with time.

60. How is the output of an LDS related to impulse response?

The output or response of an LDS is given by convolution of the input r(k) with
the impulse response h(k) of the system. It is expressed as,
C (k) = r (k)
*
h (k)

61. What is the equivalent representation of pulse sampler with ZOH?

62. Sketch the frequency response curve of ZOH device.

ZOH

f(
f
rs
(t) P
T
(t)
Fig.1.Pulse sampler with ZOH

(1-e
-sT
)/s
f(t)
o
T
(t)
f
rs
(t)

Fig.2.Equivalent representation of pulse sampler with ZOH

ZOH
f(t)

63. When can the Z-transform of the system be directly obtained from s-domain transfer

function?
When the input to the system is an impulse sampled signal, the z-transfer
function can be directly obtained from by taking z-transform of the s-domain transfer

function .

64. How is the s-plane mapped onto z-plane? (or) What is the relation between s and z
domain?
2a/e
s
0 e
s 2
e
s 3
e
s

e
Fig 1. Magnitude response of ZOH device.
0
e
s 2
e
s
e
-a
Fig.2.Phase response of ZOH device
The transformation s=(1/T)ln z maps the s-plane into the z-plane.Every
section of je axis of length Ne
s
of s-plane maps into the unit circle in the anti-clockwise
direction, where N is an integer and e
s
is sampling frequency.Every strip in s-plane of
width e
s,
maps into the interior of the unit circle.The is shown in figure.

65. What is the stability criterion for sampled data control system?

The stability criterion for sampled data control system states that the system is
stable if all the poles of the z-transfer function of the system lie inside the unit circle in z-
plane.

66. What are the methods available for stability analysis of sampled data control systems?

1. Jury’s stability test
2. Bilinear transformation.
3. Root locus technique.

67. What are the necessary conditions to be satisfied for the stability of the system?

Let F (z) be the characteristic equation of the system.

Now, the necessary conditions to be satisfied for the stability of the system are,

F (1) > 0 and (-1)
n
F (-1) > 0.

68. How many rows are formed in the Jury’s table and what are the sufficient conditions
to be checked from this table for stability?

The Jury’s table consists of (2n-1) rows, where n is the order of the system.

je
o

je
s/2

-je
s/2

s-plane

A strip of s-plane
with width
s
Unit
circle
Im z
Re z - 1 1
Fig. Mapping of s-plane onto z-plane

From the table (n-1) conditions are checked for ascertaining sufficiency. They are,

| a
0
| < | a
n
|

| b
0
| > | b
n-1
|

| c
0
| > | c
n-2
|
.
.
.
.
| r
0
| > | r
2
|

69. What are the advantages of state space analysis?
It can be performed with initial conditions. The variables used to represent
the system can be any variables in the system.

70. What are the drawbacks in transfer function model analysis?
It is defined under zero initial conditions. It is applicable to linear time
invariant systems. It is restricted to signal input and output systems.

71. What is state and state variable?
The state is the condition of a system at any time instant. A set of variables
which describes the state of the system at any time instant are called state variables.

72. What is state diagram?
The pictorial representation of the state model of the system is called state diagram.

73. What are phase variables?
The phase variables are defined as those particular state variables which are
obtained from one of the system variable and its derivatives. Usually the variable used is
the system output and the remaining state variables are the derivatives of the output.

74. What is bush form or companion form of state model?
Here the system matrix A has all 1’s in the upper off diagonal and its last row is
comprised of the negative of the coefficients of the original differential equation and all
other elements are zero.

75. What is canonical form of state model?
The system matrix is a diagonal matrix.

76. State the z plane specifications.
Stability,
Transient accuracy,
Disturbance rejection,
Insensitivity
Robustness
77. State the c locus in the z plane.
It is a logarithmic spiral in the z plane.

78. Explain the mapping of s plane patterns on the z plane.
In the z plane, the closed loop poles must lie on the constant c zeta spiral to
satisfy peak overshoot requirement, also the poles must lie on constant e
n
curve to satisfy
speed of response requirement. The intersection of the two curves provides the preferred
pole locations and the design aim is to make the root locus to pass through these
locations.

79. Define bandwidth.
It is the frequency at which amplitude ratio has dropped to
1/\2 times its zero frequency value.

80. State the causes of control system design with high gain feedback.
Good disturbance signal rejection
Low sensitivity to process parameter variations

81. State the factors limiting the high gain.
Instability problems, measurement noise appears unattenuated in the controlled
output.

82. What is prewarping?
The frequency distortion or warping results in a nonlinear relationship between
any 2 frequencies. Hence to compensate the idea is to adjust the critical frequencies in the
design. This is called as prewarping.

83. What type of system is referred to as dead beat control system?
The system reaches its steady state value of unity in minimum time (two
sampling periods) and there is no ripple in between the sampling instants. This
type of response is called as dead beat control systems.

84. What is ringing poles?
The poles near z=-1 are often referred as ringing poles.

85. What is the advantage of microcontroller over microprocessor?
In microcontroller all the peripherals such as RAM, ROM, embedded are inbuilt
whereas in microprocessor separately all the components can be added.

86. What is a finite word length effect?
Effects based on finite precision representation of numbers in digital systems.

87. State the causes of finite word length.
Errors due to quantization, errors due to filter co-efficient,
Errors based on to rounding the point multiplications.
88. What is a limit cycle?
A periodic oscillation in a nonlinear system is called a limit cycle.

89. Mention the two different approaches for the design of digital algorithms.
Discretization of analog design
Direct digital design

90. Define the recursive realizing of digital system.
The current output sample is a function of past outputs and present and past input
samples. This type of digital system is called infinite impulse response IIR system.

91. What is nonrecursive realization of digital system?
The current output sample is a function of present and past values of the input. The
impulse response of the digital system is limited to a finite number of samples defined
over a finite range of time intervals. This type of digital system is called as finite
impulse response FIR system.

92. State noninteracting controllers.
If the derivative and integral modes operate independently of each other (although
proportional gain affects all the 3 modes) is called noninteracting controllers.

93. What are the functions in the digital temperature control system?
Sampling of temperature signal at an appropriate rate.
Transfer of the measurement signal into the computer
Comparison of the measured temperature with a stored desired temperature to form
an error signal
Transfer of the output signal through the interface to the power control unit.

94. What is an encoder?
The encoder maps each quantized sample value into a digital word.

95. Mention the operations performed in A/D converter?
Sampling, quantization and coding.

96. Define resolution.
The smallest change in the input signal that will produce a change in the output
signal.

97. What type of sampling is commonly used in digital control system?
Uniform sampling i.e., sample values of the analog signals are extracted at
equally spaced sampling instants.
98.What is a decoder?
The decoder maps each digital word into a sample value of signal in discrete time
form.

99. Mention the operations performed in a D/A converter.
Decoding , zero order hold

100. State the basic discrete time signals.
Unit sample sequence, unit step sequence and sinusoidal sequence.

The two types of compensator schemes employed in control system are series compensation and feedback or parallel compensation. 7) What is series compensation? The series compensation is a design procedure in which the compensator is introduced in series with plant to alter the system behaviour and to provide satisfactory performance. The block diagram of series compensation scheme is shown in fig + -

R(s)

Gc(s)

G(s)

C(s)

H(s) Fig: Series compensation

Gc(s) = transfer function of series compensator G(s) = open loop transfer function of the plant. H(s) = feedback path transfer function.
8) What is feedback compensation? The feedback compensation is a design procedure in which the compensator is introduced in the feedback path so as to meet the desired specification. It is also called parallel compensation. The block diagram of feedback compensation scheme is shown in figure + -

R(s)

G1(s)

+ -

G2(s) C(s) Gc(s)

H(s) Fig: feedback compensation

If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag compensator. An electric lag compensator can be realized by a R-C network. Since >1 and T>0. The pole-zero plot of lag .Gc(s) = transfer function of feedback compensator G1(s). then in steady state the output will have a phase lag with respect to input. A compensator having the characteristics of a lag network is called lag compensator. The R-C network shown in fig is an example of lag compensator. H(s) = feedback path transfer function. Fig: lag compensator 11) What is the transfer function of lag compensator and draw its pole-zero plot? Transfer function of Gc(s) = lag compensator the lag compensator has a pole at s = -1/ compensator is shown in fig and a zero at s = -1/T. the pole of lag compensator is nearer to origin. 10) What is the lag compensator? Give an example. 9) What is lag compensation? The lag compensation is the design procedure in which the lag compensator is introduced in the system so as to meet the desired specifications. G2(s) = open loop transfer function of the component of the plant.

. When a system is stable and does not satisfies the performance specifications then lag compensation can be employed so that the system is redesigned to satisfy the performance specifications. Maximum lag phase angle. The maximum phase lag occurs at the geometric mean of two corner frequencies of the lag compensator. wm = What is lead compensation? The lead compensation is a design procedure in which a lead compensator is introduce in the system so as to meet the desired specifications. m =tan-1(1-ß)/2 ß wc1wc2 = 1/T 1/ ßT= 1/(T ß) Frequency corresponding to 14) m . If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system and then the lag compensator increases the order of the system by one. 13) When maximum phase lag occurs in lag compensator? Give the expression for maximum lag angle and the corresponding frequency.Fig: pole-zero plot of lag compensator 12) What are the characteristic of lag compensation? When the lag compensation is employed? The lag compensation improved the steady state performance. reduce the bandwidth and increasing the rise time.

15) What is lead compensator? Given an example. then in steady state the output will have a phase lead with respect to input. Fig: Electric lead compensator 16) What is the transfer function of lead compensator and draw its pole-zero plot? Transfer function of Gc(s) = lag compensator the lag compensator has a pole at s = and a zero at s = -1/T. An electric lead compensator can be realized by a R-C network. The pole-zero plot of lag compensator is shown in fig . Since >1 and T>0. The R-C network shown in fig is an example of lead compensator. A compensator having the characteristics of a lead network is called lead compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lead compensator. the pole of lag compensator is nearer to origin.

Fig: Electric lag-lead compensator 21) What is the transfer function of lag compensator and draw its pole-zero plot? Transfer function of Gc(s) = lag compensator Fig: pole-zero plot of lag-lead compensator 22) What are the characteristic of lag-lead compensation? When the lag-lead compensation is employed? . The R-C network shown in fig is an example of lag-lead compensator. An electric lag-lead compensator can be realized by a R-C network.then in steady state the output will have a phase lag and lead with respect to input but in different frequency region.

The proportional controller improves the steady state tracking accuracy. It also decreases the sensitivity of the system to parameter variation. The lead compensation increases the bandwidth and improved the speed of performance. The lag compensation improved the steady state performance and decreases the bandwidth. It also reduces peak overshoot. If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system and then the lag-lead compensator increases the order of the system by two. The PD-controller increasing the damping of the system which results in reducing the peak overshoot. disturbance signal rejection and relative stability. 23) What is the P-controller and what are its characteristics? The proportional controller is a device that produces an output signal which is proportional to the input signal.The lag-lead compensation has the characteristic of both lag lead compensation. . The introduction of PI-controller in the system reduces the steady state error and increases the order and type number of the system by one. 25) What is the transfer function of PI-controller? Transfer function of PI-controller Gc(s) = Kp+ Ki/s = Kp(s+Ki/Kp)/s 26) What is the PD-controller and what are its effect on system performance? The PD-controller is a device that produces the output signal consisting of two terms-one proportional to the input signal and the other proportional to the derivative to the input signal. 24) What is the PI-controller and what are its effect on system performance? The PI-controller is a device that produces the output signal consisting of two terms-one proportional to the input signal and the other proportional to the integral to the input signal.

31) Draw the block diagram of a feedback compensator scheme? The block diagram of the popular feedback scheme employed in two the control system is shown in fig KA G(s) R(s) + - + - C(s) H(s) Fig: Feedback compensator scheme . reduces the steady state error and the peak overshoot. The PID controller stabilizes the gain. 29) What is the transfer function of PID-controller? Transfer function of PID-controller Gc(s) = Kp+ Ki/s + Kds = (Kds2+Kps +Ki)/s 30) What is the feedback compensator? The feedback compensation is a design procedure in which the compensator is placed in an internal feedback path around one or more components of the forward path so as to meet the desired specifications.27) What is the transfer function of PD-controller? Transfer function of PD-controller Gc(s) = Kp+ Kds = Kd(s+Kp/Kd) 28) What is the PID controller and what are its effect on system performance? The PID controller is a device that produces the output signal consisting of three terms-one proportional to the input signal another one proportional to the integral to the input signal and the third one proportional to the derivative to the input signal.

When is the control system called? The control system becomes a sampled data system in any one of the following situations. then the system is called discrete data system or sampled data system. This undesirable effect can be eliminated by reducing the feedback signal in the low frequencies by introducing a high pass filter in cascade with rate device as shown in fig R(s) + C(s) KA + H(s) G(s) sT/(1+sT) High pass filter Kts Rate device Fig: Feedback compensator with high pass filter in cascade with rate device 33. H(s) = transfer function of feedback compensator KA = A parameter to adjust the velocity error constant of the system 32) What is the disadvantage in rate feedback and how it is eliminated? The disadvantage in rate feedback is that the system velocity error constant KV is reduced. • When the control signals are transmitted by pulse modulation. What is sampled data control system? When the signal or information at any or some points in a system is in the form of discrete pulses.Here. 35. • When the control components are used on time sharing basis. Draw the block diagram of a sampled data control system? . 34. • When the output or input of a component in the system is digital or discrete signal. • When a digital computer or microprocessor is employed as a part of the control loop.

The input and output signals The input or output variables are are digital or discrete. Discrete time systems Continuous time systems that process analog I. Advantages: i. iii. g(kT) . ii. Digital transducers used in the system have better resolution. Distinguish between discrete time systems and continuous time systems. fast and flexible. analog or continuous time signals. 37. II. Use of time sharing concept of digital computer results in economical cost and space. signals. Systems are highly accurate. . 36.e(t) – error signal(analog) f(kT) – Digital error signal u(t) – Control signal (analog). Write the advantages and disadvantages of sampled data control system. Devices or algorithms that can Devices process discrete-time signals.Digital control signal.

Compare the analog and digital controller. A single controller can be used to control more than one signal on time shared basis. 5. The digital components are less affected by noise. Complex Costlier than digital controller. ii. 3. Slow acting Non-programmable. 39. The digital controllers are easily programmable and are hence versatile. 2. Disadvantages: i. Separate controller should be employed for each signal.iv.non-linearities and transmission errors of noisy channel. 2. Analog controller Digital controller 1. Simple Less costly than analog controller. 38. The digital controller can be a special purpose computer or a general –purpose computer or it is constructed using non-programmable digital devices. Fast acting. Digital controllers have better resolution. Additional filters have to be introduced in the system if the component of the system does not have adequate filtering characteristics. 40. What is a digital controller? A digital controller is a device introduced in the control system to modify the error signal for better control action. Programmable. The digital controllers can perform large and complex computation with any desired degree of accuracy. . Conversion of analog signals to discrete-time signals and reconstruction introduce noise and errors in the signal. 4. What are the advantages of digital controllers? 1. 3.

Here T is called ‘sampling period’ and 1/T=Fs is called ‘sampling frequency’. State (Shannon’s) sampling theorem. Sampling theorem states that a band limited continuous-time signal with highest frequency fm hertz can be uniquely recovered from its samples provided that the sampling rate Fs is greater than or equal to 2fm samples per second. Explain the terms sampling and sampler. Sampler is a device which performs the process of sampling. 47. What is meant by quantization? The process of converting a discrete-time continuous valued signal into a discrete-time discrete valued signal is called quantization. What is zero-order hold? The zero-order hold is a hold circuit in which the signal is reconstructed such that the value of reconstructed signal for a sampling period is same as the value of last received sample. 46. What is coding? The coding is the process of representing each discrete value by an n-bit binary sequence (or code or number). 45.41. In quantization the value of each signal sample is represented by a value selected from a finite set of possible values called quantization levels. 44. • Sampling is a process in which the continuous-time signal is converted into a discrete-time signal by taking samples of the continuous-time signal at discrete time instants. 43. What is periodic sampling? The periodic sampling is a sampling process in which the discrete-time signal or sequence is obtained by taking samples of continuous-time signal periodically or uniformly at intervals of T seconds. • 42. What are hold circuits? Hold circuits are devices used to convert discrete time signals to continuous time signals. .

51. 49. It is also called conversion time. Errors in the periodicity of sampling process. • • In analog-to-digital conversion process. How are the high frequency noise signals in the reconstructed signal eliminated? The high frequency noise signals introduced by hold circuits in the reconstructed signal are easily filtered out by the various elements of the control system. What are the problems encountered in a practical hold circuit? The problems encountered in a practical hold circuit are 1. after application of input code word. 54. 52. What is “Hold mode droop”? The changes in signal voltage level in the hold circuits during hold mode or hold period is called hold mode droop. 2. the control system is basically a low pass filter. The reconstructed signal will be a straight line in a sampling period. whose slope is determined by the current and previous sample. f(k) is defined as the power series. Non-linear variations in the duration of sampling aperture. Droop in the voltage held during conversion. k=- . In digital-to-analog conversion process. Define one-sided and two-sided z-transform. The z-transform (two-sided z-transform) of a discrete sequence. because. the settling time is defined as the time required for the output of the DAC to reach and remain within a given fraction of the final value.48. Define settling time. F(z) = Z{f(k)} = f(k)z-k . What is first-order hold? The first-order hold is a hold circuit in which the last two signal samples (current and previous sample) are used to reconstruct the signal for the current sampling period. 3. 53. Define acquisition time. the acquisition time is defined as the total time required for obtaining a signal sample and the time for quantizing and coding. 50.

where F(z) = Z{f(k)} z . Note: The infinite geometric series sum formula is Ck = 1/ 1-C. Initial value theorem: If f (k) is causal and stable and F (z) exists with z =1 included in the ROC. f(0) = Lt F(z) . State the initial value theorem and final value theorem with regard to z-transform. 55. F(z) = Z{f(k)} = f(k)z-k . when C =M 1 . hence the z-transform exists only for those values of z for which the series converges. What is region of convergence (ROC)? • • The z-transform of a discrete sequence is an infinite power series. If F (z) is z-transform of f (k) then the ROC of F (z) is the set of all values of z. k=0 The finite geometric series sum formula is M-1 . then the initial value theorem is given by. The notation z{f(k)} is used to denote z-transform of f(k). where C . k= 0 where z is a complex variable. The one-sided z-transform of f(k) is defined as the power series. for which F (z) attains a finite value. when C = 1 56.where z is a complex variable. k=0 Ck = CM-1/C-1.

)a . Direct evaluation by contour integration (or) complex inversion integral. Power series expansion. ) ak )e-akT The unit step signal. What are the different methods available for inverse z-transform? 1. u (k) = 1 for k>=0 The z-transform of u (k) = Z {u (k)} . k = k= 0 z-k =z/ (z-1) Z {ak} = = k= 0 ak z-k (a z-1) k k= 0 = 1/ (1-az-1) =z/ (z-a) ) e-akt . . Find the z-transform of ) Unit step signal ) Unit step signal. 2. f ( ) = = Lt (1-z-1) F(z) .Final value theorem: If f(k) is causal and stable and F(z) exists with z =1 included in the ROC. Partial fraction expansion. 3. Z {e-aKt} = = k= 0 e-akT z-k k= 0 (e-aT z-1) k =1/ (1-e-aTz-1) =z/ (z-e-aT) 58. where F(z) = Z{f(k)} z 1 57. . . then the final value theorem is given by.

It is expressed as. . What is the equivalent representation of pulse sampler with ZOH? f(t) f( PT(t) ZOH frs(t) Fig.1.Pulse sampler with ZOH T(t) f(t) (1-e )/s -sT frs(t) Fig. How is the output of an LDS related to impulse response? The output or response of an LDS is given by convolution of the input r(k) with the impulse response h(k) of the system. A discrete time system is linear if it obeys the principle of superposition and it is time invariant if its input-output relationship does not change with time.59. according to some well-defined rule. C (k) = r (k) * h (k) 61. 60. Sketch the frequency response curve of ZOH device.Equivalent representation of pulse sampler with ZOH 62. What is linear discrete-time system? • • A discrete time system is a device or algorithm that operates on a discrete-time signal called the input or excitation.2. to produce another discrete-time signal called the output or the response of the system.

Phase response of ZOH device 63. Magnitude response of ZOH device. 64. s 2 s 0 - Fig. the z-transfer function can be directly obtained from by taking z-transform of the s-domain transfer function .2 / s 0 s 2 s 3 s Fig 1. How is the s-plane mapped onto z-plane? (or) What is the relation between s and z domain? .2. When can the Z-transform of the system be directly obtained from s-domain transfer function? When the input to the system is an impulse sampled signal.

What are the methods available for stability analysis of sampled data control systems? 1. Bilinear transformation. Mapping of s-plane onto z-plane 65. Jury’s stability test 2. maps into the interior of the unit circle. Root locus technique. . 3. where N is an integer and s is sampling frequency. 66. What are the necessary conditions to be satisfied for the stability of the system? Let F (z) be the characteristic equation of the system. F (1) > 0 and (-1)n F (-1) > 0.The is shown in figure. A strip of s-plane with width s j j s/2 Im z s-plane Unit circle -1 -j s/2 1 Re z Fig. How many rows are formed in the Jury’s table and what are the sufficient conditions to be checked from this table for stability? The Jury’s table consists of (2n-1) rows. 68.Every strip in s-plane of width s.The transformation s=(1/T)ln z maps the s-plane into the z-plane. 67. Now. where n is the order of the system.Every section of j axis of length N s of s-plane maps into the unit circle in the anti-clockwise direction. What is the stability criterion for sampled data control system? The stability criterion for sampled data control system states that the system is stable if all the poles of the z-transfer function of the system lie inside the unit circle in zplane. the necessary conditions to be satisfied for the stability of the system are.

What is state and state variable? The state is the condition of a system at any time instant. What is canonical form of state model? The system matrix is a diagonal matrix. 74. Stability. 73. State the z plane specifications. Disturbance rejection. 71. Steady state accuracy. A set of variables which describes the state of the system at any time instant are called state variables. The variables used to represent the system can be any variables in the system. . 70. | a0 | < | an | | b0 | > | bn-1 | | c0 | > | cn-2 | . 72. What are phase variables? The phase variables are defined as those particular state variables which are obtained from one of the system variable and its derivatives. What are the advantages of state space analysis? It can be performed with initial conditions. Transient accuracy. It is restricted to signal input and output systems. What is bush form or companion form of state model? Here the system matrix A has all 1’s in the upper off diagonal and its last row is comprised of the negative of the coefficients of the original differential equation and all other elements are zero. It is applicable to linear time invariant systems. They are. 76. . 75. | r0 | > | r2 | 69. What are the drawbacks in transfer function model analysis? It is defined under zero initial conditions. . Usually the variable used is the system output and the remaining state variables are the derivatives of the output. .From the table (n-1) conditions are checked for ascertaining sufficiency. What is state diagram? The pictorial representation of the state model of the system is called state diagram.

This is called as prewarping. . This type of response is called as dead beat control systems. Good steady state tracking accuracy Good disturbance signal rejection Low sensitivity to process parameter variations 81.Insensitivity Robustness 77. What is ringing poles? The poles near z=-1 are often referred as ringing poles. embedded are inbuilt whereas in microprocessor separately all the components can be added. What is prewarping? The frequency distortion or warping results in a nonlinear relationship between any 2 frequencies. State the causes of control system design with high gain feedback. 84. What type of system is referred to as dead beat control system? The system reaches its steady state value of unity in minimum time (two sampling periods) and there is no ripple in between the sampling instants. measurement noise appears unattenuated in the controlled output. Instability problems. Explain the mapping of s plane patterns on the z plane. What is a finite word length effect? Effects based on finite precision representation of numbers in digital systems. 83. State the locus in the z plane. 87. 80. Hence to compensate the idea is to adjust the critical frequencies in the design. 79. It is a logarithmic spiral in the z plane. Define bandwidth. the closed loop poles must lie on the constant zeta spiral to satisfy peak overshoot requirement. State the factors limiting the high gain. 82. State the causes of finite word length. ROM. It is the frequency at which amplitude ratio has dropped to 1/ 2 times its zero frequency value. What is the advantage of microcontroller over microprocessor? In microcontroller all the peripherals such as RAM. The intersection of the two curves provides the preferred pole locations and the design aim is to make the root locus to pass through these locations. 85. In the z plane. 86. 78. also the poles must lie on constant n curve to satisfy speed of response requirement.

errors due to filter co-efficient. sample values of the analog signals are extracted at equally spaced sampling instants.What is a decoder? The decoder maps each digital word into a sample value of signal in discrete time form. What are the functions in the digital temperature control system? Sampling of temperature signal at an appropriate rate. quantization and coding. Mention the two different approaches for the design of digital algorithms. 95. 93. Mention the operations performed in A/D converter? Sampling.Errors due to quantization. 97. Transfer of the measurement signal into the computer Comparison of the measured temperature with a stored desired temperature to form an error signal Transfer of the output signal through the interface to the power control unit. If the derivative and integral modes operate independently of each other (although proportional gain affects all the 3 modes) is called noninteracting controllers. Define the recursive realizing of digital system. 89. What type of sampling is commonly used in digital control system? Uniform sampling i.. The current output sample is a function of past outputs and present and past input samples. Define resolution. . What is a limit cycle? A periodic oscillation in a nonlinear system is called a limit cycle. 98. 96. The smallest change in the input signal that will produce a change in the output signal. This type of digital system is called as finite impulse response FIR system. State noninteracting controllers. 91.e. What is nonrecursive realization of digital system? The current output sample is a function of present and past values of the input. The impulse response of the digital system is limited to a finite number of samples defined over a finite range of time intervals. 92. What is an encoder? The encoder maps each quantized sample value into a digital word. This type of digital system is called infinite impulse response IIR system. 94. Errors based on to rounding the point multiplications. Discretization of analog design Direct digital design 90. 88.

Mention the operations performed in a D/A converter. zero order hold 100. unit step sequence and sinusoidal sequence. . Unit sample sequence. Decoding . State the basic discrete time signals.99.