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4

4.1

204

1)

2)

3)

4)

12
3

205

()

206

Mark

207

010
( 010
)

10

208

209

Tips

700
30-50%

1982

210

(
TENS)

(1-3)

Paracetamol(
)

(NSAIDs)

(4-7)

(Codeine)
(Tramado)

(8-10)

(Morphine)

(Fentanyl)
(Pethidine)

211

30001

212

1)

2)

213

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

5
6

214

4.2

Checklist

215

1.

2.

216

3.

4.

5.

6.

217

7.

8.

218

1.

219

2.

3.

220

4.
812

5.

221

4.3

222

(Relaxation Therapies)

1. (Relaxation Exercise)

2. (Meditation)

223

3. (Visual Imagery)

(Carl Simonton)

(Stephanie)

4. (Hypnosis)

224

5. (Massage & Aromatherapy)

(Cedarwood)
(Rosemary)

(Expressive therapies)

225

40

1. (Art therapy)

40

2. (Music Therapy)

40
1946
1950

226

3. (Journaling)

227

2007

228

(Cognitive Behavior Therapy)


20

(American
Psychological Association)

229

1. (Cognitive Restructuring)

230

2. (Distraction)

3.

4. (Thought Stopping)

231

(Graded Task Assignments)

3
4
5
6

232

4.4

233

2
3
4

6-11

1
3-4

3-5

1
1
3/4

2-4


3/4

2-3

2-3
1

21
2.5

1
8
1.5

8128

234

15-25%
50-75

1 = 8
1 = 7
1 =
6
1 = 6
1 = 2
11 = 2

235

80-90%

()

20-3025-35

40-50

3,500
500
250

236

() x 1.1

() x 30 ()

() x 25 ()

237

5%

238

239

240

ACE

1.

2. A

3. C

4. E

5. DNA

241

4.5

242

A.

B.

243

C.

244

245

5
6

246

4.6

1.

2.

247

3.

4.

248

5.

1.

2.

3.

249

4.

5.

6.

7.

250

251

3
4
5
6

252

253