Centrifugal compressor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Centrifugal compressors, sometimes referred to as radial compressors, are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery.[1] The idealized compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure rise by adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow of fluid through the rotor or impeller. This kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in potential energy/static pressure by slowing the flow through a diffuser. Imagine a simple case where flow passes through a straight pipe to enter centrifugal compressor. The simple flow is straight, uniform and has no swirl. As the flow continues to pass into and through the centrifugal impeller, the impeller forces the flow to spin faster and faster. According to a form of Euler's fluid dynamics equation, known as pump and turbine equation," the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow's local spinning velocity multiplied times the local impeller tangential velocity. In many cases the flow leaving centrifugal impeller is near or above 1000 ft./s or approximately 300 m/s. It is at this point, in the simple case according to Bernoulli's principle, where the flow passes into the stationary diffuser for the purpose of converting this velocity energy into pressure energy.[1]

Centrifugal impeller with a highly polished surface likely to improve performance

1 Historical contributions, the pioneers 1.1 Partial timeline 2 Turbomachinery similarities 3 Components of a simple centrifugal compressor 3.1 Inlet 3.2 Centrifugal impeller 3.3 Diffuser 3.4 Collector 4 Applications 5 Performance 5.1 Performance maps 5.2 Surge 5.3 Maximum flow line versus choke 5.4 Other operating limits 6 Dimensional analysis 6.1 Π theorem 6.2 Classic turbomachinery similitude 6.3 Other dimensionless combinations 6.4 Affinity laws 7 Aero-thermodynamic fundamentals 7.1 Conservation of mass 7.2 Conservation of momentum 7.3 Conservation of energy 7.4 Equation of state 8 Pros & cons 9 Turbomachinery 10 See also
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Jet engine cutaway showing the centrifugal compressor and other parts

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fans Origin of the centrifugal compressor Euler's "Pump & Turbine" equation First gas turbine patent First practical centrifugal compressor Denis Papin Leonhard Euler John Barber Dr. and Henri Coandă. Partial timeline <1689 Early Turbomachines 1689 1754 1791 1899 2 of 15 Pumps. 1927-1945[2]).org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor 11 References 12 External links Over this past 100 years.wikipedia. A. Figures 1. Improvements in centrifugal compressors have not been achieved through large discoveries. applied scientists like Stodola (1903. Adolf Busemann. which can be characterized by Mach Number. Rateau. Pfleiderer (1952[3]). Ægidius Elling. the free encyclopedia http://en. represents the range of fluid viscosities (or stickiness).2 represents the physical or mechanical domain of turbomachinery.[1][8] Mathematicians and Physicists that established the foundations of this aero-thermo domain include:[9][10] Sir Isaac Newton. Figure 1. E. improvements have been achieved through understanding and applying incremental pieces of knowledge discovered by many individuals. Theodore von Karman. E. Daniel Bernoulli.[1][8] The vertical axis. fans.2 – Physical domain of turbomachinery Figure 1. continuous-flow. Again. C. Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky. Rateau 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . mixed-flow and radial/centrifugal configurations. and compressors in axial. Martin Wilhelm Kutta. Dr. the horizontal axis represents the energy equation with turbines generating power to the left and compressors absorbing power to the right. Ludwig Prandtl.1 represents the aero-thermo domain of turbomachinery.[1][8] Key contributors of technical achievements that pushed the practical application of turbomachinery forward include:[9][10] Denis Papin. Sanford Moss. Sir George Gabriel Stokes. Leonard Euler. represents the range of fluid compressibility (or elasticity). Figure 1. Alexander Sablukov. and Frank Whittle. Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. Shepard (1956[1]).1 and 1. Sir Charles Algernon Parsons.[1][8] The Zed axis. A. Paul Richard Heinrich Blasius.[1][8] Within the physical domain the vertical axis differentiates between high speeds and low speeds depending upon the turbomachinery application. Hermann Schlichting. Hawthorne (1964[4]).[12] John Barber.1 – Aero-thermo domain of turbo-machinery Figure 1.[1][8] It is implied that mixed-flow turbomachinery lie between axial and radial. C. 1997[6]) have tried to educate young engineers in the fundamentals of turbomachinery which apply to all dynamic.Wikipedia.Centrifugal compressor . The horizontal axis represents the energy equation derivable from The First Law of Thermodynamics. This relationship is why advances in turbines and axial compressors frequently find their way into other turbomachinery including centrifugal compressors. blowers. Willis Carrier. John Smeaton. Claude-Louis Navier.[11] Kernelien Le Demour. Ernst Mach. blowers. Lakshminarayana (1996[5]) and Japikse (numerous texts including.[1][8] The Zed axis differentiates between axial-flow geometry and radial-flow geometry within the physical domain of turbomachinery. axisymmetric pumps. which can be characterized by Reynolds Number. Rather.2[7][8] illustrate the domain of turbomachinery with labels showing centrifugal compressors.

the free encyclopedia http://en. Yet. Centrifugal compressors also look very similar to their turbomachinery counterpart the radial-inflow turbine as shown in Figure_2. it can be said that centrifugal compressors often have density increases greater than 5 percent.Centrifugal compressor . In contrast.4.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor 1927 1928 1937 >1970 Aurel Boleslav Stodola Formalized "slip factor" Adolf Busemann Frank Whittle Modern Turbomachines Derived "slip factor" First gas turbine using centrifugal compressor 3D-CFD. Centrifugal compressors are also similar to centrifugal pumps[1] of the style shown in Figure_2. with upward discharging cone used to diffuse the air velocity Figure_2. heart assist pumps. Again.Wikipedia.1.[5][6] It should not be surprising that the first part of the centrifugal impeller looks very similar to an axial compressor.1 – Cutaway showing an axi-centrifugal compressor gas turbine Figure_2. 3 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM .3[5][13] when the working fluid is air or nitrogen. While the compressor transfers energy into the flow to raise its pressure the turbine operates in reverse by extracting energy from the flow thus reducing its.3.2 – A low speed.3 – A squ without a discharge Centrifugal compressors are similar to axial compressors in that they are rotating airfoil based compressors as shown in Figure_2.5. turbocharged fuel cells Figure_2. In many cases the engineering techniques used to design a centrifugal blower are the same as those to design a centrifugal compressor. For purposes of generalization and definition. Centrifugal compressors are also similar to centrifugal blowers of the style shown in Figure_2. there is one important difference. Also. As a result they can at times look very similar.[1] In contrast to centrifugal blowers.[6] In other words power is input to compressors and output from turbines. The key difference between centrifugal compressors and centrifugal pumps is that the compressor working fluid in a gas (compressible) and the pump working fluid is liquid (in-compressible). rocket turbo-pumps. the need to deal with cavitation in pumps. Centrifugal compressors differ from axials as they use a greater change in radius from inlet to exit of the rotor/impeller. fans or blowers are often considered to have density increases of less than 5 percent and peak relative fluid velocities below Mach 0.3.2 as they both increase pressure with the benefit of increasing radius. they often experience relative fluid velocities above Mach number 0.wikipedia. This relationship is less true in comparison to a squirrel-cage fan as shown in Figure_2. compressors operate at higher speeds to generate greater pressure rises. This first part of the centrifugal impeller is also referred to as the "inducer". low pressure centrifugal compressor or blower. the engineering techniques used to design a centrifugal pump are the same as those to design a centrifugal compressor.

the free encyclopedia A simple centrifugal compressor has the following four components: inlet. channel. If you look carefully at Figure_3. Diffuser The next key component to the simple centrifugal compressor is the diffuser.[6][16][17] Downstream of the impeller in the flow path. and collector. This is identical to an axial compressor with the exception that the gases can reach higher velocities and energy levels through the impeller's increasing radius.1 and 3. the flow (working gas) enters the centrifugal impeller axially from right to left. a turbocharger blow-off valve. Collector The collector of a centrifugal compressor can take many shapes and forms. Either the collector or the pipe may also contain valves and instrumentation to control the compressor. Diffusers can be vaneless. Most modern high efficiency impellers use "backsweep" in the blade shape. For example.wikipedia. Both Figures_0.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor [1] Inlet The inlet to a centrifugal compressor is typically a simple pipe. There are turbocharger applications that benefit by incorporating no diffuser. As the name implies. In many modern high-efficiency centrifugal compressors the gas exiting the impeller is traveling near the speed of sound. the flow will pass through the volute's discharge cone moving away from the figure's viewer. To start this list two of the most well-known centrifugal 4 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . diffuser. impeller/rotor.Centrifugal compressor . "covered or shrouded". Bernoulli's fluid dynamic principal plays and important role in understanding diffuser performance. Hybrid versions of vaned diffusers include: wedge. http://en. Below.[6][16] When the diffuser discharges into a large empty chamber the centrifugal compressors collector may be referred to as a Plenum.1 you will be able to identify each of these 4 components of the flow path. the collector is likely to be referred to as a volute or scroll.Wikipedia. stationary vanes/airfoils (used to help swirl the flow) and both pressure and temperature instrumentation.[14][15][16] Euler’s pump and turbine equation plays an important role in understanding impeller performance. High efficiency vaned diffusers are also designed over a wide range of solidities from less than 1 to over 4. All of these additional devices have important uses in the control of the centrifugal compressor.1 – Cut-away view of a turbo-charger showing the centrifugal compressor (blue) on the right end of the rotor Impellers are designed in many configurations including "open" (visible blades). Figure_3. (ref Figure_0. a collector’s purpose is to gather the flow from the diffuser discharge annulus and deliver this flow to a downstream pipe. it is the diffuser's responsibility to convert the kinetic energy (high velocity) of the gas into pressure by gradually slowing (diffusing) the gas velocity. Centrifugal impeller The key component that makes a compressor centrifugal is the centrifugal impeller. is a partial list of centrifugal compressor applications each with a brief description of some of the general characteristics possessed by those centrifugal compressors. With respect to the figure. It may include features such as a valve. bull's horn or a French horn. pipe and pipe diffusers. When the diffuser discharges into a device that looks somewhat like a snail shell. As a result of the impeller rotating clockwise when looking downstream into the compressor.1) It is the impeller's rotating set of vanes (or blades) that gradually raises the energy of the working gas. "with splitters" (every other inducer removed) and "w/o splitters" (all full blades). vaned or an alternating combination.1 show open impellers with splitters.

Figures_4. In gas turbines and auxiliary power units. Standards set by the industry (ANSI/API. centrifugal compressors are use in a wide range of sizes and configurations. gas turbines and turbochargers. Use of real gas properties is required to properly design. This type of compressor is also frequently referred to as API-style. The industry standards applied to all of the centrifugal compressors used in aircraft applications are set by the FAA and the military to maximize both safety and durability under severe conditions. the free encyclopedia http://en. Standards set by the industry for turbochargers may have been established by SAE. In pipeline compressors of natural gas to move the gas from the production site to the consumer. test and analyze their performance.Wikipedia. modern gas turbines operate on the Brayton cycle. In industry and manufacturing to supply compressed air for all types of pneumatic tools.[23] 5 of 15 Figure_4. test and analysis of turbocharger centrifugal compressor performance.wikipedia.2 – Jet engine cross section showing the 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . Air-conditioning and refrigeration and HVAC: Centrifugal compressors quite often supply the compression in water chillers cycles.[19] Ref.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor [5] compressor applications are listed.2 In their simple form. Their casings are often referred to as horizontally split or barrel. ASME & API. single or multi-stage and driven by large gas turbines.1 – Jet engine cutaway showing the centrifugal compressor and other parts.[22] Because of the wide variety of vapor compression cycles (Thermodynamic cycle.Centrifugal compressor . Standards set by the industry (ANSI/API.1) Either or both axial and centrifugal compressors are used to provide compression. Use of real gas properties is required to properly design. test and analyze the performance of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors. ASME) for these compressors result in large thick casings to maximize safety. The types of gas turbines that most frequently include centrifugal compressors include turboshaft. petrochemical and chemical plants. The impellers are frequently if not always of the covered style which makes them look much like pump impellers. The impellers are frequently if not always of the covered style which makes them look much like pump impellers. auxiliary power units. Thermodynamics) and the wide variety of workings gases (refrigerants). and micro-turbines.[21] Centrifugal compressors used in these applications may be centrifugal compressor and other parts. The power necessary to drive these compressors is most often measured in the thousands of HP.[20] Ideal gas properties often work well for the design. This type of compressor is also frequently referred to as an API-style. (ref Figure_5. Use of real gas properties is required to properly design. natural gas processing.1 Centrifugal compressors used in conjunction with reciprocating internal combustion engines are known as turbochargers if driven by the engine’s exhaust gas and turbosuperchargers if mechanically driven by the engine.[18] Ref. turboprop.1–4. test and analyze the performance of these machines. Figure 1. In oil refineries. ASME) result in large thick casings to maximize safety.[21] Centrifugal compressors used in these applications are frequently single shaft multi-stage and driven by large steam or gas turbines. Figure_4. Standards set by the industry for these compressors include ASHRAE. In automotive engine and diesel engine turbochargers and superchargers. The power necessary to drive these compressors is most often measured in the thousands of HP.

[23] The centrifugal compressors used in these applications are often multistage using inter-cooling to control air temperature.[9] Figure_5. Studying these 2 plots further we see that the pressure rises between the compressor inlet (station 1) and compressor exit (station 2). testing.1 – Brayton cycle.x).[21] Centrifugal compressors used in these applications are frequently single shaft multi-stage and driven by gas turbines. Note that the road repair crew and the local automobile repair garage find screw compressors better adapt to their needs. 672-2007)[21][23] have established standards for detailed experimental techniques and analysis of test results. 6 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . Professional societies such as ASME (i. Despite this complexity there are a few basic concepts in performance that can be presented through examination of an example test performance map. Standards set by the industry (API. shows flow. Figure_5. Additionally. At the same time. Ideal gas relationships are often used to properly design. ASME) for these compressors result in large thick casings to maximize safety. These types of plots are fundamental to understanding centrifugal compressor performance at a single operating point. test and analyze the performance of these machines when the working gas is air or nitrogen.2. This type of compressor is also frequently referred to as API-style.Wikipedia.Centrifugal compressor . Other gases require real gas properties. test and analyze the performance of these machines. and ideal gas equation of state and an isentropic process.e. casing are of the barrel style. Figure_5. we are missing several other key pieces of information if we wish to apply the centrifugal compressor to another application. the free encyclopedia http://en. a centrifugal compressor performance map (either test or estimated).[25] ASHRAE (ASHRAE Handbook) and API (ANSI/API 617-2002. PTC–10. Ideal gas relationships are often used to properly design. (thus useful in design). With discharge pressures approaching 700 bar. Also included are constant efficiency contours. While illustrating a gas turbine's Brayton cycle.2 – Example Centrifugal compressor Compared to estimating performance which is very cost effective Performance Map. In oil field re-injection of high pressure natural gas to improve oil recovery. In air separation plants to manufacture purified end product gases.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor The centrifugal compressors used in these applications are often multistage and driven by electric motors. PTC-19. while costly. Standards set by the industry for these compressors include ASME and government regulations that emphasize safety. Standards set by the industry for these compressors include ASME and government regulations that emphasize safety. Fluid Meters Handbook. The impellers are frequently if not always of the covered style which makes them look much like pump impellers.1 includes example plots of pressure-specific volume and temperature-entropy. Use of real gas properties is required to properly design. Centrifugal compressor performance presented in this form provides enough information to match the hardware represented by the map to a simple set of end-user requirements. test and analyze their performance. Studying the temperature-entropy plot we see the temperature increase with increasing entropy (loss). Figure_5. pressure ratio for each of 4 speed-lines (total of 23 data points). Carrier’s equation is often used to deal with humidity. is still the most [24] precise technique.wikipedia. we have enough information to define the pressure ratio and efficiency for this single point. testing centrifugal compressor performance is very complex. If we assume dry air. Unfortunately. Illustration of the Brayton cycle as applied to a gas turbine. Intercooling is often required between stages to control air temperature. it is easy to see that the specific volume decreases or similarly the density increases.

the free encyclopedia http://en. Also as is standard practice. lines of constant speed. For atmospheric air.wikipedia. Lines of constant power could just as easily be substituted. In contrast. With inlet density specified. temperature and gas constants.2 has a horizontal axis labeled with a flow parameter.0. If the shaft speed is held constant. Confusion arises through either inaccuracies or misuse of pressure. the mass flow may be wet or dry (including or excluding humidity).org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor Performance maps Pressure Ratio and Flow are the primary parameters[21][23][9][25] required to match the Figure_5. Frequently. 87%. Questions remaining would involve inlet or outlet (which might involve leakage from the compressor or moisture condensation). The map shown in Figure 3. The first three speed lines have 6 points each while the highest speed line as five. they all fall into one of three categories: The delta increase or rise from inlet to exit (Manometer style) The measured discharge pressure (Force) The force ratio (Ratio. are the easiest to use in practice as there is little room for confusion.2. The variety of pressure measurement units is also vast. it provides a further ability to calculate aerodynamic power. Design Point(s) or Guarantee Point(s) Those familiar with gas turbine operation and performance understand that there may be a series of guaranteed points established for the gas turbine’s centrifugal compressor. test points are taken along a constant speed line by changing throttle positions. Figure_5.34 kg/s) Pressure -. if a throttle valve is held constant.2 shows: Flow -. equivalent pressure and gas is specified explicitly or implied at a standard condition. and 100% RPM. It is also realized that these requirements are of secondary importance to the overall gas turbine performance as a whole. In this figure we see 11 contours ranging from 56% efficiency (decimal 0. Bernoulli's fluid dynamic principal is of great value in understanding this problem. such as kg/s.Pressure Ratio (t-t) (range 1. As is standard practice. While flow measurements use a wide variety unit specifications. The inclusion of efficiency islands effectively generates a 3-dimensional topology to this 2-dimensional map.2 performance map to a simple compressor application. test points are established by changing speed (common gas turbine practice). A detailed inspection of Figure_5.04 . Constant Efficiency Islands The next feature to be discussed is the oval shaped curves representing islands of constant efficiency.76). For this reason it 7 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM .56) to 76% efficiency (decimal 0. In contrast.2 has a vertical axis labeled with a pressure parameter. all fall into one of 2 categories: Mass Flow per unit time Volume Flow per unit time Mass flows. In this case we see data points connected via straight lines at speeds of 50%.0 .Wikipedia.6 PR_t-t) "t-t" implies the discharge total pressure is divided by the inlet total pressure (Pt_discharge/Pt_inlet). the mass flow specification will be presented on an equivalent Mach number basis. all volume flow specifications require the additional specification of density. Making this assumption in a real case would be a significant error.2 illustrate the most common method. General standard practice is to interpret these efficiencies as isentropic rather than polytropic.kg/s (range: 0. it can be assumed that the inlet temperature is sea-level standard. 71%. Figure_5.Centrifugal compressor . In this case. In this case. Exit/Inlet) Constant Speed Lines The two most common methods used for testing centrifugal compressors is to test along lines of constant shaft speed or along lines of constant throttle. It is standard in these cases that the equivalent temperature.

Surge Surge . surge). Surge Line The Surge-line shown in Figure_5. This is a situation where the pressure ratio of a speed line drops rapidly (vertically) with little or no change in flow. Maximum flow line versus choke Choke .2 exhibits a stalling characteristic or positive slope within that range of flows. However.is the point at which the compressor cannot add enough energy to overcome the system resistance or backpressure. Real choke phenomena is a function of compressibility as measured by the local Mach number within an area restriction within the centrifugal pressure stage. System resistance or adverse pressure is proven mathematically to be the critical contributor to compressor surge. as flows increase. Modern industrial compressors are often required to achieve specific performance goals across a range of flows and pressures. Historically.170 kg/s.[26] This causes a rapid flow reversal (i.wikipedia. these points would be the lowest flow points possible to record a stable reading within the test facility/rig. losses increase such that the pressure ratio eventually drops to 1:1. high vibration. In contrast to gas turbines. the occurrence of choke is unlikely. as flow increases the velocity of the flow can approach sonic speed somewhere within the compressor stage. the lowest specific fuel consumption would occur when the centrifugal compressors peak efficiency curve coincides with the gas turbine' s required operation line. thus taking a significant step toward the sophistication seen in gas turbine applications.0 pressure ratio at 0. the reason for this is that the high-speed line in Figure 3. rotor bearings.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor is only necessary to summarize that in the ideal case. Choke The speed lines of gas turbine centrifugal compressors typically exhibit choke. Maximum flow line The maximum flow line. the free encyclopedia http://en. and rapid changes in axial thrust can occur. For example at 100% RPM stalling flow might increase from approximately 0. This location may occur at the impeller inlet "throat" or at the vaned diffuser inlet "throat". for lower speed equipment. the compressor driver and cycle operation. repeated surges can result in a catastrophic failure. Most turbo machines are designed to easily withstand occasional surging. if the turbo machine is forced to surge repeatedly for a long period of time or if the turbo machine is poorly designed. to approximately 0.Centrifugal compressor .2. Of particular interest. As a result. In contrast.21 kg/s. In the simple case an "End User" would be very happy with the performance requirements of 2.Wikipedia. Using the assumption that an application requires performance a specific flow and pressure it would be very acceptable for the centrifugal compressor. In this case. In most cases the reason for this is that close to Mach 1 velocities have been reached somewhere within the impeller and/or diffuser generating a rapid increase in losses. shown in Figure_5. to be applied anywhere within the 76% efficiency island.2. Higher pressure ratio turbocharger centrifugal compressors exhibit this same phenomenon. centrifugal compressors applied to industrial applications were required to achieve performance at a specific flow & pressure. Typically for high speed equipment. As a test map. is the curve that passes through the highest flow points of each 8 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM .occurs under one of 2 conditions. In many industrial applications it might be necessary to increase the stall line due to the system backpresuure.215 kg/s because of the positive slope of the pressure ratio curve. is that while turbo machines may be very durable. shown in Figure_5. These occurrences can damage the rotor seals. temperature increases. the cycles/processes that they are used within can be far less robust.e. most other applications (including industrial) need to meet a less stringent set of performance requirements. As stated earlier. When placed in a different system those lower flows might not be achievable because of interaction with that system.2 is the curve that passes through the lowest flow points of each of the four speed lines.

The method of procedure known as Buckingham's Pi-Therom can help solve this problem by generating 5 dimensionless forms of these parameters.the maximum operating speed for the compressor. most industrial and commercial centrifugal compressors are selected or designed to operate at or near their highest efficiencies and to avoid operation at low efficiencies.Centrifugal compressor . density (ρ). the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. They provide for the creation of additional relationships (being dimensionless) found valuable in the characterization of performance. flow (Q). power (P). Specifically. = kg*m/s^2 9 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM .wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor speed line. Selecting a low efficiency (<60%) is the most common practice used to terminate compressor performance maps at high flows. Another factor that is use to establish the maximum flow line is a pressure ratio near or equal to 1. At speeds above this level the equipment will likely become very dangerous and be controlled to lower speeds.2's speed lines provides a good example of why it is inappropriate to use the term choke in association with a maximum flow of all centrifugal compressor speed lines. In summary. For the examples below Head will be substituted for pressure and sonic velocity will be substituted for elasticity. This is because it is nearly impossible to change one of these parameters independently. speed (N). = m^3/s ex. The 50% speed line may be considered an example of this. diameter (D). For this reason there is seldom a reason to illustrate centrifugal compressor performance below 60% efficiency. Beyond this value stresses may rise above prescribed limits and rotor vibrations may increase rapidly. Π theorem The three independent dimensions used in this procedure for turbomachinery are: M Mass (Force is an alternative) L Length T Time According to the theorem each of the eight primary parameters are equated to its independent dimensions as follows: Flow: Head: Q= H= ex. Maximum Allowable Speed . viscosity (mu) and elasticity (e). pressure rise (p). This creates a practical problem when trying to experimentally determine the effect of any single parameter.[1][6][10] These Pi parameters provide the foundation for "similitude" and the "affinity-laws" in turbomachinery. To weigh the advantages between centrifugal compressors it is important to compare 8 parameters classic to turbomachinery. The shape of Figure_5.the minimum speed for acceptable operation. Other operating limits Minimum Operating Speed . Stonewall Many industrial and commercial multistage compressor performance maps exhibits this same vertical characteristic for a different reason related to what is known as stage stacking. below this value the compressor may be controlled to stop or go into an "Idle" condition. Upon inspection it may be noticed that each of these points has been taken near 56% efficiency.

the free encyclopedia http://en. The fifth parameter. while at the same time the Reynolds coefficient is used to define the zed axis. Any number of new dimensionless parameters can be calculated through exponents and multiplication.1. Other dimensionless combinations Demonstrated in the table below is another value of dimensional analysis. for centrifugal compressors.Centrifugal compressor . In general application. a variation of the first parameter shown below is popularly used in aircraft engine system analysis. This third definition is applicable with strict limitations. The third parameter is a simplified dimensional variation of the first and second. = m/s ex. = m/s Classic turbomachinery similitude Completing the task of following the formal procedure results in generating this classic set of five dimensionless parameters for turbomachinery.Wikipedia. = m ex. It may be found interesting that the Speed coefficient is used to define the y-axis of Figure_1. is a less frequently discussed dimensionless parameter found useful by Balje. = kg/(m*s) ex. Generally. is very well known and useful in that it removes diameter. specific diameter.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor Speed: Power: Density: Viscosity: Diameter: Speed of sound: U= P= ρ= μ= D= a= ex. as expected for pumps. the flow coefficient and head coefficient are considered of primary importance.[27] 10 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . For example. specific speed. the Reynolds number becomes of secondary importance and the velocity coefficient almost irrelevant. The fourth parameter. In contrast. This of course would mean the two turbo-machines being compared are geometrically similar and running at the same operating point.wikipedia. Full similitude is achieved when each of the 5 Pi-parameters are equivalent. = kg/m^3 ex. the velocity coefficient is of secondary importance while the Reynolds coefficient is of tertiary importance. Flow coefficient: Head coefficient: Speed coefficient: Power coefficient: Π1 = Π2 = Π4 = Π3 = Π5 = Reynolds coefficient: Turbomachinery analysts gain tremendous insight into performance by comparisons of these 5 parameters with efficiencies and loss coefficients which are also dimensionless. = kg*m^2/s^3 ex.

They provide a simple basis for scaling turbomachinery from one application to the next. the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. limitations in computational power.wikipedia.Centrifugal compressor . Even with all of this simplification it still requires large textbooks to outline and large computer programs to solve practically. Solving this one-dimensional problem is still valuable today and is often referred to as mean-line analysis. Conservation of mass 11 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . forced these equations to be simplified to an Inviscid two-dimensional problem with pseudo losses.[5][28] Until recently.2. Affinity laws The following "affinity laws" are derived from the five Pi-parameters shown above.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor 1 Corrected mass flow coefficient: 2 Alternate#1 equivalent Mach form: 3 Alternate#2 simplified dimensional form: 4 Specific speed coefficient: 5 Specific diameter coefficient: (Π1 * Π4) = It may be found interesting that the Specific speed coefficient may be used in place of Speed to define the y-axis of Figure_1. From flow coefficient: From head coefficient: From power coefficient: From flow coefficient: From head coefficient: From power coefficient: The following equations outline a fully three-dimensional mathematical problem that is very difficult to solve even with simplifying assumptions. while at the same time the Specific diameter coefficient may be in place of Diameter to define the zed axis. Prior to the advent of the computer these equations were almost always simplified to a one-dimensional problem.

org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor Also referred to as continuity. The above equation is known as the fundamental thermodynamic relation. are relatively energy efficient.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. S and V are thermodynamic functions of state. and give higher airflow than a similarly sized reciprocating compressor or positivedisplacement compressor. Another example are centrifugal compressors design and built for the petroleum industry. U = CvT is the internal energy per unit mass (the "specific internal energy"). With regard to the equation of state. Therefore. Most of the hydrocarbon gases such as methane and ethylene are best modeled as a real gas equation of state rather than ideal gases. It is important to remember the while air and nitrogen properties (near standard atmospheric conditions) are easily and accurately estimated by this simple relationship. Written in compressible form for a Newtonian fluid. centrifugal compressors used for large air conditioning systems (water chillers) use a refrigerant as a working gas that cannot be modeled as an ideal gas. Cons 12 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . this fundamental equation written in general form is as follows: Conservation of momentum Also referred to as the Navier–Stokes equations. For a reversible process. this equation may be written as follows: Conservation of energy The First Law of Thermodynamics is the statement of the conservation of energy.Centrifugal compressor . For example. the total amount of heat added to a system can be expressed as δQ = TdS where T is temperature and S is entropy. Cv is the specific heat at constant volume. Under specific conditions. the operation of a Centrifugal compressor is considered a reversible process. and Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure. this fundamental is derivable from Newton's second law when applied to fluid motion. the above relation holds also for non-reversible changes. γ = Cp / Cv is the adiabatic index (ratio of specific heats). The Wikipedia entry for equations of state is very thorough. for a reversible process: Since U.wikipedia. Equation of state The classical ideal gas law may be written: The ideal gas law may also be expressed as follows where ρ is the density. there are many centrifugal compressor applications where the ideal relationship is inadequate. Pros Centrifugal compressors are used throughout industry because they have fewer rubbing parts.

and thermodynamics. Axial compressor Axial fan Centrifugal fan Centrifugal pump Centrifugal type supercharger Francis turbine Gas turbine Industrial fans Jet engine Mechanical fan Mixed flow compressor Radial turbine Steam turbine Turbocharger Turboexpander Turbofans Turbojet Turbomachinery Turboprop Turbopump Turboshaft Turbines Water turbine Aircraft engine Angular momentum Coandă effect Computational Fluid Dynamics Compressibility Compressors Compressor map Corrected speed Darcy–Weisbach equation Gustaf de Laval 13 of 15 Pumps Real gas HVAC List of mechanical engineering topics List of aerospace engineering topics List of engineering topics Mach number Multiphase flow Navier-Stokes equations Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . This is due to requiring fewer stages to achieve the same pressure rise. Pros Centrifugal compressors are often used in small gas turbine engines like APUs (auxiliary power units) and smaller aircraft gas turbines.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor Their primary drawback is that they cannot achieve the high compression ratio of reciprocating compressors without multiple stages. A significant reason for this is that with current technology. Cons Centrifugal compressors are not practical in large aircraft applications due to the resulting weight & stress. There are few single stage centrifugal compressors capable of pressure-ratios over 10:1. the equivalent flow axial compressor will be less efficient due primarily to a combination of rotor and variable stator tip-clearance losses.Centrifugal compressor .wikipedia. Additionally. gas dynamics.Wikipedia. due to stress considerations which severely limit the compressor's safety. hydrodynamics. durability and life expectancy. and also due to the frontal area presented by the diffuser. the free encyclopedia http://en. they offer the advantages of simplicity of manufacture and relatively low cost. aerodynamics. Below is a partial list of these entries. This does not negate the fact that they are unified by the same underlying physics of fluid dynamics. What is notable about this collection is that the fundamentals that apply to centrifugal compressors also apply to each of these entries. There are numerous types of dynamic continuous flow turbomachinery that can be referenced within Wikipedia. Certainly there are significant differences between these machines and between the types of analysis that are typically applied to specific cases.

20.4. ^ Whitfield. ^ API (July 2002).Wesley Publishing Company.org/technology/page/548. http://global. Elliott.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor Enthalpy Entropy Euler equations (fluid dynamics) Finite element analysis Fluid dynamics Gas compressor Gas laws History of the internal combustion engine Ideal gas law Reynolds transport theorem Osborne Reynolds Reynolds number Refineries Turbine map Turbulence Viscosity Vortex Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) 1.com /?RID=API1.com/Files/Admin/100th%20Anniversary /1930s%20-%20O%20Line%20Blowers. Std 673-2002 Centrifugal Fans for Petroleum. http://www. (1956).loc.. Future. Gas Turbine Theory. Prentice-Hall. ISBN LCCN 75-79598. 2. (1952). W. Concepts ETI .sae. Nicholas C. 4. ^ W. ISBN 07-062191-8. H. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.org/technology/page/548) . 14 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM . N. Reading.html. Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery. http://global.C. Longman Scientific and Technical. ^ a b c d e Lakshminarayana. 21.ihs. 11.elliott-turbo. Fluid Mechanics fifth edition. LCCN 56002849 (http://lccn. 3.com/?RID=API1/. 7.ihs.com/Files/Admin/100th%20Anniversary /1930s%20-%20O%20Line%20Blowers. ISBN 0-471-85546-4.Wikipedia. (1997). (1998). ^ Japikse. ASHRAE. 9. 10.memagazine.org/standards/) . 6. 19.html) . New York: API. Turbomachines. New York: Dover. http://www.Centrifugal compressor . H. 12. Chemical.. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.. A Strategy for Aerodynamic Design and Analysis. New York: API. (2007). Present. Retrieved 1 May 2011. Fundamentals of Turbomachinery. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 13. and Gas Industry Services (http://global. 17. 5. ISBN 0-13-015847-X.org /b/OL18625767M) . Integrally Geared Centrifugal Air Compressors for Petroleum. Retrieved 23 April 2011. ^ Peng. (1996). 8. Bernard D.85546 . ASME. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Shepard.com/?RID=API1) . G. ISBN 0-7918-0093-8. Principles of Turbomachinery.org /backissues/membersonly/february99/features/crystal/crystal. (2005). N. Std 672-2007 Packaged.pdf) .ashrae. New York: Springer-Verlag. (2001).ihs. C. ^ Aurel Stodola (1945). ISBN LCCN 58-5029. 23..H. Steam and Gas Turbines.memagazine. Abraham (1999). ^ Japikse. ^ Pfleiderer. ^ a b c Aungier. ^ a b c Streeter. 16. Hawthorne (1964). "From the Crystal Palace to the pump room" (http://www. http://www. Chemical and Gas Industry Services (http://global. ^ Engeda. ISBN 0-933283-10-5. David & Baines. ^ Saravanamuttoo. David and Baines.elliott-turbo. 14. A.471 . ISBN 0 . C. Fluid Mechanics of Turbomachinery in two volumes.org/standards/. David. Victor L. Centrifugal Compressor Design and Performance. Applications of Thermodynamics. Fundamentals of Turbocharging. ^ Baines. Std 617-2002 Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum. ISBN 0-933283-03-2. ^ Elliott Company. ^ "SAE Standards" (http://www. Centrifugal Compressors. New York: API. ASME Press. 1910-2010" (http://www. McMillan.F. Concepts ETI .com/?RID=API1/) . ISBN 0-933283-14-8. & Baines. SAE/standards/power and propulsion/engines. (2000). Oxford: Oxford University press. Diffuser Design Technology. B.ashrae. http://global..ihs. 22. ^ a b c d e f g h Wislicenus. (1971).ihs. R.ihs. the free encyclopedia http://en. Rogers.pdf. http://www. Concepts ETI . 15.Dennis G.gov/56002849) . "Past. ^ ASHRAE. (1990). "Standards & Guidelines" (http://www. ^ a b c d e API (July 2002). Introduction to Turbomachinery. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc. George Friedrich (1965). Retrieved 23 April 2011.wikipedia. (1969). American Society of Heating.com /?RID=API1/. Mechanical Engineering. W. Design of Radial Turbomachinery. ISBN 0-470-21667-0. 18. Massachusetts: Addison . ^ a b c d e f Japikse.. Nicholas C. Chemical and Gas Industry Services (http://global. ^ a b c d API (October 2007).com/?RID=API1/) . OL18625767M (http://openlibrary. and Cohen.sae.C. New York: P. ISBN 0-933283-01-6. Aerodynamics Of Turbines and Compressors. Ronald H.I.org/backissues /membersonly/february99/features/crystal/crystal. Smith. SAE International. ^ a b c d Wood.

15 of 15 7/12/2011 11:37 AM .wikipedia. standards & publications (http://www. E.cfm) To find ASME codes. (2004).x (http://onlinelibrary.wiley. New York: ASME. 26..shtml) To find API codes.com/doi/10. Advanced Experimental Techniques in Turbomachinery. (1961).com/index. the free encyclopedia http://en.asme.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor" Categories: Mechanical engineering | Compressors | Turbomachinery | Turbines | Thermodynamics | Fluid dynamics | Aerodynamics This page was last modified on 3 July 2011 at 12:09. ISBN 0791824500. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Concepts ETI . N.htm) Retrieved from "http://en.ashrae. Concepts ETI.html) HYDRODYNAMICS OF PUMPS. New York: John Wiley & Sons. standards & publications (http://www.asme.. A.aardvark. ^ a b ASME PTC 10-1997 Test Code on Compressors and Exhausters (http://www. MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory (http://web.asme. ^ Pampreen.org/kb/standards#des=PTC.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/centrf.Journal of the American Society for Naval Engineers. Ronald C. (1993). 27.wikipedia.Wikipedia.org/) To find ASHRAE codes. by Christopher Earls Brennen (http://caltechbook. http://www.1559-3584.1559-3584. ^ Balje. ISBN 0-933283-01-6. David. ISBN 0-933283-05-9. Compressor Aerodynamics.x/abstract) A history of Chrysler turbine cars (http://www. a Guide to Design.Centrifugal compressor . 25. ISBN 0-471-06036-4.html) Pontyak Resource Centre (http://pontyak.1111/j. Turbo Machines. doi: 10.1948.tb02754. O. FIRST MARINE GAS TURBINE IN SERVICE.org/Publications/addenda/add-ref. and Theory. standards & publications (http://www.nasa.grc.1948. 60: 66–86.nz/pjet/chrysler.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor 24.html) (1948). 1997.tb02754.caltech.1111 /j. 28.mit. See Terms of use for details.org/) Glenn Research Center at NASA (http://www. Compressor Surge and Stall. Inc.api.library. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.org/kb/standards#des=PTC) . Krieger Publishing.edu/aeroastro/www/labs/GTL/gtl_about. additional terms may apply. ^ Japikse.edu /22/1/content. a non-profit organization.co. ^ Cumpsty. ISBN 1-57524-247-8. Selection.

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