A Written Report Presented to Mr. Marvin Goles
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Humanities 1
Submitted by: Allecer, Rosalie BSBA 1 Aripin, Adelfa BSBA 4
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects. Painting is a mode of expression and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes of eastern religious origin. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painting) Painting is one of the oldest and most important arts. Since pre-historic times, artists have arranged colors on surfaces in ways that express their ideas about people the world and religion. The paintings that artists create have great value for humanity. They provide people with both pleasure and information. (The world book Encyclopedia Chicago, P-15, pp. 28)
The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia that is dated 40 000 years old.  There are examples of cave paintings all over the world in India, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, etc. In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions. The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In 1829, the first photograph was produced. From the mid to late 19th century, photographic processes improved and, as it became more widespread, painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. There began a series of art movements into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded, through Impressionism, PostImpressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Dadaism. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Painting)
Elements, Style and Era Elements Intensity What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity. Every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity; by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes. Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization (perspective), and symbols. For example, a painter perceives that a particular white wall has different intensity at each point, due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a white wall in pitch darkness. In technical drawing, thickness of line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters.
Color and tone Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.). Rhythm
Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work. This is because the esthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the esthetical value.
Non-traditional elements Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.
Styles Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:
Western Painting Styles Modernism Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism
was a revolt against the conservative values of realism. The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction). Impressionism It is a famous art movement. It portrays the effects of experience upon the consciousness of the artists and the audience. Painting is a theory and a school of art, developed in the third quarter of the 19 century, which attempted to produce, with the vividness and immediacy of nature and particularly of life itself, the impression by the subject on the artist.
Artists have long been drawn to Paris. A famous art movement called impressionism was born here. The best known museum in France the Louvre - is in Paris. The Louvre contains the most famous painting, the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci.
Abstract styles Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement which had a combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.
Expressionism In expressionism, the artist tries to present an emotional experience in its most appealing form. The artist is not concerned with reality as it appears but with its inner nature and with the emotions aroused by the subject.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. The term is sometimes suggestive of emotional angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though in practice the term is applied mainly to 20th-century works. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic styles such as naturalism and impressionism. Era Era refers to a period of art history which is characterized by an artist's place in time and the styles and materials available to the painter. The first painters were limited to painting on cave walls with materials they could find in nature. Over thousands of years new painting materials and developments in art and design challenged painters to explore and refine new horizons. Each era can claim artists who lead the way in the creative and technical development of painting.
Impressionism Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the style is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari. Characteristics of Impressionist paintings include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes; open composition; emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time); common, ordinary subject matter; the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience; and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media which became known as Impressionist music and Impressionist. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impressionism)
Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Manet. Fry used the term when he organized the 1910 exhibition Manet and Post-Impressionism. PostImpressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colors, thick application of paint, distinctive brush strokes, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary color.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-Impressionism)
Modern Painting Modern painting can be furthered categorized into smaller sub-divisions that stem from and were influenced by political, social, ideological, and cultural trends of a particular time. Primary examples include Cubism, Expressionism, Surrealism, Postmodernism, Dadaism, and Fauvism. However, some critics assert that the most recent forms of painting cannot be classified as modern art because that movement lasted only up to the 1970s. They also claim that there is a clear distinction between modern painting and contemporary painting. But other art historians disagree. Thus, considerable confusion exists over the terms modern art , modern painting and contemporary art . (http://modernpainting.org/)
BOAT, PLEIN AIR IMPRESSIONIST PAINTING by TOM BROWN (http://tombrownfineart.blogspot.com/2009/ 08/boat-plein-air-impressionist-painting.html)
In expressionist paintings the artist visually changes their subject to evoke an emotional response. These emotional reactions are usually showing negative emotions such as tension, angst and fear. One of the most iconic examples of expressionist painting is The Scream by Munch. Other noted artists include Kandinsky, Greco and Kubin. Modern Painting
Xiamen Art-Land Industrial & Trade Co., Ltd.
Impressionism Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant(Impression, Sunrise), 1872, oil on canvas, Musée Marmottan
The Centenary of Independence
"Kirishima: Edge of the Forest" by Richard Grass
Modern Filipino Painters Victorio C. Edades (December 13, 1895 - March 7, 1985) is a Filipino painter who was the leader of the revolutionary Thirteen Moderns who engaged their classical compatriots in heated debate over the nature and function of art. He was named a National Artist in 1976.
The Sketch, 1928, Oil on canvas, 96 x 117 cm
Cesar Legaspi(1917-1994)National Artist, Visual Arts 1990, One of the Thirteen
Cesar Legaspi, honored as a National Artist in Visual Arts in 1990, is considered the pioneer of neo-realism in the Philippines. Aside from the monochromatic works in his early years, he exploited the full potential of color in his paintings. A proponent of modern art in the country, Legaspi developed cubism in the Philippine context. He was also identified as one of the Thirteen Moderns, a group of modernists led by Victorio C. Edades whose works went against the conservative academic art of that period.
Back in the Philippines, he had his first one-man show at the Luz Gallery in 1963. While this led to an active phase with his major pieces, he also worked as a magazine illustrator and artistic director at an advertising agency. He finally left the agency in 1968 to focus on his painting. During his career as an artist, he had the opportunity to be part of several exhibits abroad, including the First Plastic Arts Conference in Rome in 1953, the Sao Paolo Biennial in Graphic Arts in 1967 and 1969, and the Wraxall Gallery in London with Filipino artists Malang and Bencab in 1982. Apart from this, he holds the record of five retrospective exhibitions at different venues: the Museum of Philippine Art in 1978, the National Museum and the Metropolitan Museum in 1988, and the Luz Gallery and the Cultural Center of the Philippines in 1990. He was an active member of the Art Association of the Philippines and was part of the Neo-Realists. He was also the head of the Saturday Group artists from 1978 until his death on April 7, 1994.
Legaspi s 1945 Achievements: Man
major and Woman br>
1944 4th Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Gadgets 1948 1st Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Sick Child 1949 4th Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Planters 1949 1st Prize, Manila Club Art Exhibition, for Stairway to Heaven 1950 Honorable Mention in the Manila Grand Opera House Exhibition, for Symphony 1951 3rd Prize, Art Association of the Philippines, for Ritual 1972 Patnubay ng Sining at Kalinangan Award, from the City of Manila 1981 Critics Choice Award for Five Outstanding Living Artists 1990 Gawad CCP para sa Sining Award, from the Cultural Center of the Philippines (http://www.kulay-diwa.com/cesar_legaspi)
Fabián Cueto de la Rosa (May 5, 1869 December 14, 1937) was a Filipino painter. He was uncle and mentor to the Philippines' national artist in painting, Fernando Amorsolo, and to his brother Pablo. He is regarded as a master of genre in Philippine art. Federico Aguilar Alcuaz (June 6, 1932 - February 2, 2011) was an award winning Filipino Painter who exhibited extensively Internationally and whose work earned him recognition both in the Philippines and abroad. Alcuaz was conferred the title of National Artist for Visual Arts, Painting, Sculpture and Mixed Media in 2009. However, four nominees for the award other than Alcuaz became embroiled in the 2009 National Artist of the Philippines Controversy, which led the Supreme Court of the Philippines to temporarily issue a status quo order on August 25, 2009, blocking the conferment of the awards on all seven nominees despite the fact that no objections were ever raised regarding the conferment of the award to Alcuaz and two other nominees. Benedicto Reyes Cabrera (born April 10, 1942), better known as "BenCab", is a Filipino painter and was awarded National Artist of the Philippines for Visual Arts (Painting) in 2006. He has been noted as "arguably the best-selling painter of his generation of Filipino artists.
Based on the research the researchers have made, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. Painting has a very big impact in peoples lives. It does not just express feelings of painters but of ideas, cultures, power, and tradition, as well. 2. Each work of art has always a story to tell. 3. Painting has various roles in our society. 4. In the field of painting, Filipinos have something to say with such field. Filipino painters had then gained awards after all.
Books The Humanitites by Francisco M. Zulueta (National Bokstore, Inc.)
(The world book Encyclopedia Chicago, P-15, pp. 28)