INTERNATIONAL MARKETING : BSB10186-3 STUDENT HANDBOOK 2009 LECTURE & TUTORIAL PROGRAMME Please note that lecture inputs will
generally coincide with teaching weeks but there may be some variation in order, and also content, to allow for any significant contemporary developments WK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 WK beg 12/1 19/1 26/1 2/2 9/2 16/2 23/2 LECTURE TUTORIAL Introductions & briefing Student presentations: culture Student presentations: FDI Student presentations: FDI Assignment briefing Ben& Jerry student presentations Ben & Jerry student presentations; briefing for Wedgwood & Tutbury Crystal Wedgwood Tutbury Crystal Assignment workshop Student individual discussions Student individual discussions
International Marketing: readiness, internationalisation, motivations & barriers, trade & investment International Marketing Environment : PEST factors and market differences International Market Selection & Timing Marketing Channels & Market Entry Mode Strategy 1: Market Entry Mode Strategy 2: Export & Contractual strategies Market Entry Mode Strategy 3: FDI strategies & Selection models International Marketing Strategy 1 Country focus: marketing to and by Big Emerging Markets International Marketing Strategy 2 Segmentation-Targeting-PositioningBranding-Competitor Oriented strategy International Marketing Product & Brand issues International Marketing Mix issues 1 International Marketing Mix issues 2 Student individual discussions
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Lecture 1 introduces the topic of International Marketing (IM). It introduces the key IM decisions and points to issues covered in more detail later. It suggests there are different types of IM (see below). It considers whether internationalisation is even appropriate for a particular firm and it examines motives for, and barriers to, internationalisation and considers a simple model of the internationalisation to globalisation process. It concludes with a suggestion that IM may have a wider role than commerce and hints at ethical implications including the impact of FDI on the foreign market.
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Understanding different cultural. localised or adapted. mixes and processes should be standardised. using a variety of PEST/SLEPT/STEEPLE factors (while these acronyms are useful they fail to include cultural and other differences which are highly important). the determination of appropriate product modifications to meet the demand requirements of export markets. Reading: ‘IMHelp Fredict’ in Blackboard Lecture 3 addresses the topic of international (country) market selection and focuses on screening methodologies for deciding which country markets to enter first. When practicing international marketing a company goes beyond exporting and becomes much more directly involved in the local marketing environment within the given country or market. An important challenge for the international marketing phase of a firm becomes the need to understand the different environments in which the company needs to operate. economic. and the development of export channels.The following is extracted from Jeannet & Hennessey’s book introduction to the concepts of export and international marketing
(6 th ed. Perhaps the biggest difference between the international marketer and his/her domestic counterpart is the need for a detailed appreciation of the complex and changing political and economic environments and a sensitivity to cultural differences. is referred to as domestic marketing. market entry mode and the degree to which marketing strategy. and political environments becomes necessary for success. the firm’s home market. Reading: Any IM text on this topic IW journal article ‘Chile: an Export Marketing Opportunity’ Selected sections from IW in Blackboard
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. Export marketing covers all marketing activities involved when a firm markets it products outside its (domestic) base of operation and when products are physically shipped from one market or country to another.) as an
“Marketing aimed at a single market. This understanding is crucial in making decisions about international market selection. It also addresses issues related to the number of markets sold to and the timing of foreign market entry. The major challenges of export marketing are the selection of appropriate markets or countries through marketing research. Reading: Any IM text Introductory chapter IW article ‘Globalising a Brand’ (handout) Lecture 2 considers several ways in which different country markets can be classified.
China is already known as the “factory of the world” and is considered to be the most important present and future battleground for many of the world’s leading companies. (2002). (2001). Reading IW paper ‘International Marketing Strategy’ on Blackboard Lecture 9 examines the nature of international and global brands and how they may be built and protected. Vol.and 6. Reading: IW paper ‘International Marketing Strategy: country focus’ on Blackboard Lecture 8 examines issues of segmentation. distributed and serviced in foreign markets. Selecting overseas markets and entry modes: two decision processes or one?. Whether a firm is exporting or whether it has its own overseas marketing organisation. J. It incorporates the work of Simon Anholt who proposes that the poorer countries of the world should build and internationalise their own brands instead of providing unbranded goods to major Western brands such as Nike.e. 19. A. There is a focus is the big emerging market (BEM) of PR China since this is widely predicted to be the world’s biggest economy by the middle of this century. Theories of Internationalisation and their impact on market entry.
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. Marketing intelligence & planning 19: 6575 Whitelock. 4 Lecture 7 considers a number of strategic issues.Lecture 4 stresses the importance of analysing current and potential marketing (distribution) channels in foreign markets. and marketing by. Reading: IW paper on ‘International market entry mode strategy’ on Blackboard IW article ‘Entering the Chinese Market’ on Blackboard IW article ‘UK SMEs in China: Performance & Market Entry Mode Strategies’ on Blackboard IW article ‘UK Small Firms Japanese Market Entry Strategies’ Selected extracts from Hollensen and Young et al to be distributed in class Koch. unfortunately the way in which some writers refer to “market entry mode strategy”. export. Some channel options will be explored and the topic will be linked into market entry mode strategy. positioning and branding in and across international and global markets. No.. It also considers issues related to the management of products ion an international context. contractual and investment strategies) and this will be the basis on which the lecturers are structured. targeting. International Marketing Review. One framework for analyzing these strategies classifies them into 3 groups (i. particularly related to marketing to. focus on the key issue of entry mode strategy into international markets. J. It is crucial that students recognise that market entry mode strategy is a very specific subject and should not be confused with the more general term of “market entry strategy” which is also. it needs to understand and plan how its products will be sold. Big Emerging Markets. Reading: IW paper on ‘International Marketing Channels’ in Blackboard Lectures 5.
They will attempt to provide both practical insights and academic underpinning.Reading IW paper on ‘International Brand & Product planning’ on Blackboard IW journal article ‘Bentley’ on Blackboard IW journal article ‘Champagne campaign’ on Blackboard IW paper on ‘Wine Brand Naming in PR China’ on Blackboard Lectures 10 and 11 examine selected international marketing mix issues. This means that students are encouraged to make those needs explicit. to help foreign students with English words they may not know (but please back check any translation with English people). Secondly. It also means that the programme of lectures and tutorials is an indication of content and timing and not a rigid programme and may be changed as appropriate. product adaptation etc.g posting interesting adverts or details about marketing channels or joint ventures. We have students from many different countries and I encourage everybody to comment on relevant issues from their own cultural perspective. so that all students can learn a few words in some foreign languages. Blackboard Most of the resources for the module are available in or through Blackboard. Please make use of the discussion forum on Blackboard. I would also like students to provide information about their own markets in general e.
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. and provide differing perspectives (where those exist) on the subject areas. Reading Selected items on Blackboard LEARNING STRATEGY Students should note that our approach to learning is flexible and that every attempt will be made to respond to student needs. Regular visits to Blackboard will keep you abreast of what you need to do. You will find a language translator on the main menu. They will point to relevant models. We should all be able to say ‘cheese’ and ‘cheers’ in several languages You will also find a currency converter. Lectures Lectures are mandatory will provide a framework for the topics to be studied. Use this to check how much foreign currency you need for your holidays but also to assess the likely impact of changes on international trade. Its purpose is twofold. when and how. Firstly.
Student presentations Most students think that giving presentations is rather daunting – especially if it’s not in your first language.You are strongly advised to download the slides before the lecture so that you have the time to make additional comments on them during the lecture.
Tutorials Tutorial attendance is also mandatory. Where possible. Please make sure that you have all the contact details of all the members of your team within your tutorial group. This again. • It is excellent practice for job interviews and working life • Preparation for presentations encourages debate and co-ordination with your colleagues • It allows your tutor to assess the progress you are making • Actually. But there are 3 main reasons why they are an important part of tutorial activity. Different tutors have different expectations. Working with colleagues from different cultures is considered to be a key part of the IM learning process. students will be organised into groups which feature a mix of nationalities. It is crucial for all students to participate fully in all student oriented activities whether organised on a group or individual basis. for example. You have the opportunity to build relationships which will be important for the rest of your social and business life. Always demonstrate the implications of the information you have found for the task you have been set. I will attempt to lecture at an appropriate pace (please advise me if it is not) but you will still not have time to write down all the information. Sometimes you have to make extra efforts in terms of language. Never just provide masses of material. is part of the learning and gives you an idea of what it is like in IM. These are mine: • Make sure the content is relevant to the task. Work will be set for all sessions and all of this is intended to prepare students for the assessment as well as to deepen their understanding of some interesting and practical marketing issues. Often this will require you to build a
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. You may even have the opportunity to set up some IM business ! Working in multi-cultural groups can be hard work. presentations can be good fun and a good way of learning Presentations are not formally assessed but when you prepare them – and when you observe other students giving them – you should evaluate them against the criteria which your tutor advises.
• Internet searches for data on international markets. You must have a rehearsal Never read out masses of text Put group presentations on one USB.• • • • • • • • • • • •
simple model of the relevant factors which can then be applied to the context of the particular question Ensure a logical sequence Share the presentation amongst as many team members as possible Keep to the time limits. eye contact.g.
• Adaptation of standard ‘models’ to reflect specific situations or students’ OWN insights. humour Speak slowly and clearly Enjoy! We are all in the same boat. This will take a variety of forms including: • General reading of texts to deepen and broaden understanding of topic areas. • Directed reading of journal articles.
Independent Learning Students are expected to devote considerable effort to independent learning activities. As well as demonstrating practitioner competence. not as I do!) Make sure slides are legible at the back of the room Attractive graphics are good Build rapport with your audience e. texts and case studies.
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. • Assignment preparation Assessment Assessment is by one individual assignment of 2500 words. • Integration of learning matter from different parts of the programme. Recent assignments are available to peruse. students must also (where appropriate) demonstrate : • Critical appreciation of theoretical concepts and processes. The assignment will test Learning Outcomes as specified in the module descriptor and will normally be based on a case study. The content and context of the assignment will vary from year to year. • Reading of newspapers and magazines for understanding of international market conditions. • Case study preparation. Put your names on and email a copy to me Do not put too much information on each slide (do as I say.
Really good students will propose their own adaptations to the theory and/or models and give reasons for the adaptations.e. Really good students will point out limitations in what academics have written. 3. Where appropriate. good students will point to any limitations of the models which may make their applicability less appropriate 8. they will consider different perspectives and point to similarities and differences and try to integrate information from different sources. the above statement means that students must use academic references in order to demonstrate they have studied the subject beyond their lecture notes and to support some of the arguments they are making. the implications of your analysis/application must be linked to the recommendation/decision
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. Assignment guidance for students 1. but if students don’t meet all of the ‘pass’ criteria. into your answer 6. Such models must be applied in such a way as to take into account the specific context of the question or case study. such recommendations will be no more than uninformed opinion and more or less worthless. Better students will (in a limited way compared to a dissertation) attempt to synthesise and critique some of the literature i. New ways of thinking about old problems are particularly welcome 9. then markers must fail them. 5. Students must make sure they have met the assessment criteria. students need to use academic models. they help by clarifying what is expected. perhaps because it may be based on limited or faulty research or lacks applicability in particular contexts. otherwise the external examiner will challenge our standards.e. selected from the literature. The progression from analysis to recommendation must be clearly traceable. Some students undertake an analysis using a model and make recommendations but there does not appear to be any relationship between them. 7.e. fully referenced. These are a ‘double edged sword’ i. Without this. 4. You will also need to integrate country data.• Wide and deep reading rather than reading based only on standard texts. Again. I call this ‘linkimplication’ i. Clearly. to aid decisions or recommendations they have been asked to make. 2.
The key skill to demonstrate in this latter situation is establishing the pathways and the criteria by which your decision will be reached. in a sensible font size and spelling carefully checked (for UK students !). methods or theories to demonstrate or to solve (particularly when used in new or different situations0 Analyse: identify the key features in a set of information (showing how they are related or may contrast) Synthesise: integrate from different sources into a coherent account Evaluate: Assess the value or validity of something e. Do not regurgitate case material but use it where relevant as evidence to support your argument. The key point is that the examiner can clearly see you have used a logical process for arriving at your decision 11. Try to enjoy doing it ! Ian Wilson
Some definitions of things we ask students to do: Apply: use models. Despite the above. rating system or many other possibilities (see Wedgwood exercise).g.
General Reading Students are required to read the material indicated separately for each topic area.10. It is generally preferable to use more of a report format than an essay format. Do not have long introductions. Some of these readings are based on chapters from a forthcoming text on International Marketing written by myself and Geri Clarke and constitute core reading. there are many different ways of presenting and arguing for your solution e. Please note this is different to using the word ‘evaluate’ to mean ‘choose between different marketing options and justify why’. Do not put ‘cut & paste ‘ models in the Appendix.
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. most importantly. apply them.Layout should be attractive (include relevant maps if you wish). an academic model or piece of evidence. 13. Put them in the body of your assignment and.g. Use your word count fully and make every word count 12.
McGraw-Hill Jeannet.. And Lowe. (2004). International Marketing: An SME Perspective. . These cover (reasonably adequately) the ‘standard’ topics of international marketing.. . I. R. ButterworthHeinemann.J.Prentice Hall.. Global Marketing : a decision-oriented approach F. H. Fletcher. Students should ideally gain access to one or more of the preferred texts listed below.  4th Edition. Concepts and Challenges. Please note that older editions of all listed texts are worth studying. and Wilson. C. each chapter in de Burca is well structured and written with a good mix of theory and practice. (2006) International Marketing 2nd ed. The case study book by Atkinson & Wilson contains several mid-sized cases which illustrate real companies facing critical decisions in international marketing. It is difficult to suggest one text as being better than the others since they all have different strengths and weaknesses..T.In addition. Students should note that all the text books have their individual strengths and weaknesses and they should therefore consult a variety of texts. Many of the texts on International Business also cover many of the areas we are interested in. (1999) 2nd Ed. A good suggestion is for a group of students to buy a couple of different texts between them. Harper Collins ISBN:0-00-499037-4 Recommended Texts De Burca. J. S.R. S. ISBN: 0-273-67839-6 Ghauri. ISBN: 0-273-67323-8 Hollensen. It is very useful for giving students the flavour of marketing on an international basis and for “fleshing out” some key areas. International Marketing Strategy. Hollensen is comprehensive on market entry mode strategies and the internationalisation process but weak on branding and the international-global debate.T: Prentice Hall. P. Global Marketing Strategies. ISBN: 1-84480-025-3
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. J-P. Strategic Marketing Cases. I. Boston: Houghton Mifflin ISBN: 0-618-310592 Noonan. On the other hand.D. Students can also access most of these texts via the ebrary system.L.and Cateora. Case studies Atkinson. Thomson. it is less comprehensive than it might be on branding and market entry mode strategies. 4th ed. students are expected to consult existing texts in order to provide different perspectives and to ‘fill out’ some issues only touched on in our text. Oxford Doole. A wide list of existing texts has been provided to increase access for students. The CIM Handbook of Export Marketing. (2004) 6th ed. P. For example. and Hennessey. F. and Brown.
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.. Young. McGraw-Hill. S. K. Czinkota. 1995].  Global Marketing Management [7th Ed].. 1994]. W. 4th Edition..  2nd ed. ISBN: 0-07-283371-8 General Texts – Other suitable reading Kotabe.R.. and Leihs. De Mooij M. H.R. Local Marketing and Global Management [Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill].P...Johannson. Kogan Page. Wheeler. S. G. (2003) 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill. Global Marketing: Foreign Entry. Pearson Prentice Hall. J.. (2003). and Ronkainen. . H. Global Marketing Management. Thomson Business Press. Initernational ed. and Davies.  Global Marketing.  International Marketing. M. and Green. C.. C.J. Sage Publications. International Edition.  Global Marketing Strategy [New York: McGraw-Hill.S. Global Brand Strategy :unlocking brand potential across countries. J. (2003). On-line learning Resources There is a wealth of invaluable data available on the net and students are encouraged to explore for relevant web sites. P. 12th ed. Global Branding Hankinson. S. W. S. Van Gelder. L. Muhlbacher. cultures and markets. M.K. P. Cateora. J. I. and Cowking.J. Butterwort-Heinemann. Douglas.  International Marketing: A Global Perspective. Prentice Hall. and Graham.. and Craig.  Global marketing and Advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. Keegan. Oxford Market Entry Mode Strategies Root.R. International Marketing. London Anholt. J. 1989]. International market Entry and Development: Strategies and Management [Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf..R. Brand New Justice: The Upside of Global Branding. Wiley Keegan.S.. F. M. Dahringer..A. Hamill. Entry Strategies for International markets [San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.L.  The Reality of Global Brands. and Helsen.
cim.nationmaster. Students should also read Marketing and Marketing Week. Students must become proficient in using these elearning resources and in writing assignments which integrate referencing from multiple sources. European Journal of Marketing. There are also some useful on-line academic journals. there are sites which cover a range of interesting items on marketing in general e. the UN.brandchannel. the CIA. Ian Wilson
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. but also NGO sites such as Sweatshopwatch. Oxfam and Fairtrade. especially the Knowledge Hub within www. Websites of very useful magazines and news organisations include The Economist.com . OECD etc. it is well worth reading a hardcopy of The Economist or a ‘good’ daily newspaper. particularly the Journal of International Marketing (JIM) for which full text can be downloaded via Ebsco and International Marketing Review for which full text can be downloaded via Emerald. Other journals you will want to consult include Journal of Marketing & Marketing Research. www. Again. Marketing Intelligence & Planning. Journal of International Business Studies. A good sites for practical material on international branding and marketing mix issues is www. the World Bank. BBC and the Financial Times.These include sites for the World Trade Organisation. Harvard Business Review.com is well worth exploring although attention should be paid to the date and source of the data. Journal of Product & Brand Management.uk. UNCTAD.co. various CIM and AMA sites. Additionally.g.