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The researcher have read one article from the internet that saysresearch has been done on biodegradable plastics and found out
that itcan break with exposure to sunlight such as ultra-violet radiation,water or dampness, bacteria, enzymes, wind abrasion and
someinstances like rodent pest or insect attack. The idea of improving thequalities of biodegradable plastics has been entered to the
researcher.So, the researcher proposed that cogon grass can be an effectivecomponent for ideal biodegradable plastics, since cogon grass
isfrequently used by the people and this study will introduce anotherimportant use of cogon grass In the past years, cogon grass was usedto
build better and stronger houses but nowadays, people haveforgotten the uses of cogon grass because of cement and hollow blocks.
Plastics are indispensable to our modern way of life. Many peoplesleep on pillows and mattresses filled with a type of plastic
eithercellular polyurethane or polyester. At night, people sleep underblankets and bedspreads made of acrylic plastics, and in the morning,they
step out of bed onto polyester and nylon carpets. The cars wedrive, the computers we use, the utensils we cook with, the
recreational equipment we play with, and the houses and buildings welive and work in all include important plastic components. The
averagecar contains almost 136 kg (almost 300 lb) of plastics nearly 12percent of the vehicle s overall weight. Telephones, textiles,
compactdiscs, paints, plumbing fixtures, boats, and furniture are otherdomestic products made of plastics. In 1979 the volume of
plasticsproduced in the United States surpassed the volume of domesticallyproduced steel.
Plastics possess a wide variety of useful properties and arerelatively inexpensive to produce. They are lighter than many materialsof
comparable strength and unlike metals and wood, plastics do notrust or rot. Most plastics can be produced in any color. They can alsobe
manufactured as clear as glass, translucent (transmitting smallamounts of light), or opaque (impenetrable to light).
Plastics consist of very long molecules each composed of carbonatoms linked into chains. One type of plastic, known as
polyethylene, iscomposed of extremely long molecules that each contain over 200,000carbon atoms. These long, chainlike molecules give
plastics uniqueproperties and distinguish plastics from materials, such as metals, thathave short, crystalline molecular structures. Although
polypropylene. in a sealed landfill. the majority are made from fossil fuels.Degradation of oil-based biodegradable plastics may contribute toglobal warming through the release of previously stored carbon ascarbon dioxide. These joined molecules form aplastic resin known as polyethylene. which may actually contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. However degradation ofbiodegradable plastic occurs very slowly. called monomers. These small building blocks.which are used to make plastic products. because water orother by-products are eliminated as the polymer forms. if at all. polyester. This reduces problems with litterand reduces harmful effects on wildlife.and polystyrene. is a gaseous hydrocarbon. The process of forming these longmolecules from hydrocarbons is known as polymerization. Condensationpolymers include nylon (polyamide). for example. Under proper conditions biodegradable plastics can degrade to the point wheremicroorganisms can metabolise them. thisdamages the recycled plastic and reduces its value. Themolecules typically form viscous. . Biodegradable plasticscannot be mixed with other plastics when sent for recycling. Ethylene. the ethylene molecules join togetherinto long. Fossilfuels contain hydrocarbons (compounds containing hydrogen andcarbon). and certain catalysts (substances used toenable faster chemical reactions).Proper composting methods are required to efficiently degrade theplastic. When it issubjected to heat. and polyurethane. Biodegradation of plastics can be achieved byenabling microorganisms in the environment to metabolize themolecular structure of plastic films to produce an inert humus-likematerial that is less harmful to the environment. pressure. sticky substances known as resins. Joining identical monomers to make carbon chains is calledaddition polymerization. because the process is similar to stringingmany identical beads on a string. Biodegradable plastics are plastics that will decompose in thenatural environment. link together to formlong carbon chains called polymers. which provide the building blocks for long polymer molecules. polyvinyl chloride. repeating carbon chains. Plastics made by additionpolymerization include polyethylene.some plasticsare made from plant oils. Starch- based bioplastics produced from sustainablefarming methods can be almost carbon neutral. Joining two or more different monomers of varyinglengths is known as condensation polymerization.
wherecogon grass survives poorly due to shading. relatively low yields. and heavily cultivatedlands. and repetitive control measures.Currently the most effective management strategies in the UnitedStates have involved integrating mechanical. and subsequently compete with anddisplace desirable vegetation and disrupt ecosystems over a widerange of environmental conditions. andrevegetation methods. as ithas long been considered one of Southeast Asia s most noxious weeds In areas other than closed-canopy forests or plantations. this aggressive. infestations are treatedby relatively costly. rhizomatous perennial is generallyconsidered a pernicious pest plant due to its ability to successfullydisperse. thisstudy will improve the quality of biodegradable plastics by means ofscientific process involve in biodegradability test. laborious. Is there a significant difference between an ordinary plastic and a newly improved biodegradable plastics using cogon grass? Significance of the Study This study will improve the quality of plastics especiallybiodegradable plastics.Cogon grass. colonize. For both economical and environmentalreasons. So. It will introduce the other important uses ofcogon grass except for building houses. Scopes and delimitations . Statement of the Problem 1. the currently recommended control strategies often areunacceptable. spread. chemical. There also are minortraditional uses for human foods and medicines. and very lownutritive and energy values make cogon grass poor forage It is very important in our daily life because everyday weencounter and use plastics to become our every living easier. In tropical and subtropical regionsaround the globe. necessitating consideration of some form of classicalbiological control. cultural. These include use for thatch. and bedding material for livestock. Silica bodies in theleaves. Can cogon grass be an effective component for ideal biodegradable plastics? 2. razor-like leaf margins. Imperata cylindrica (L. papermaking. These characteristics andconsequences of cogon grass infestations are similarly evident evenwithin the native or endemic range in the Eastern Hemisphere. erosion control. has been ranked as one ofthe ten worst weeds of the world.). It will introducebiodegradability testing for biodegradable plastics to compare thequality of plastic between an ordinary plastic and biodegradable plasticusing cogon grass. where it is kept in check mechanically. forage. There are only a few localized benefits of cogongrass.
Biodegradability test this test will measure the strength of a plasticdue to exposure to sunlight such as ultra-violet radiation. Cogon grasswill only be used as a component of plastics and no other materials. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecularweight. Biodegradable plastics it is made of plastarch material and polylactide will compost in an industrial compost facility. and may contain other substances to improve performanceand/or reduce costs. wind abrasion and some instances likerodent pest or insect attack. as well as synthetics such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Definition of terms Plastic resin glue it is powdered. Chapter II Review of Related Literature Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of syntheticor semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture ofindustrial products. water ordampness. Although there are many polyesters. enzymes. this process is called catalysis Biodegradable is generally an organic material such as plant andanimal matter and other substances that originating from livingorganisms or artificial materials that are similar enough to plant andanimal matter to be put into used by microorganisms.I will only use cogon grass as component of ideal biodegradableplastics.is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. The common word "plastic" should not be . Polyester . such as in the cutin of plant cuticles. the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). bacteria. Polyesters include naturally- occurring chemicals. Only biodegradability test will be demonstrated to test thestrength of the plastic especially biodegradable plastic. Biodegradation the process by which organic substances can be broken down by the enzymes produced by living organisms. urea formaldehyde wood glueactivated by mixing a water into it and it forms a bond stronger thanthe plastic itself. Catalysts the rate of chemical reaction is increased by means of chemical substance.
wikipedia. while some plastics. most plastics will melt or decompose whenheated to a few hundred Celsius. then dried andwound onto rolls. Due to theirrelatively low cost. Only the highest-quality pulps are used forTenite cellulosics http://www. resistance to various chemical products. forinstance. bridges. cross-linking. Plastics are still too expensive toreplace wood. will break beforedeforming and therefore are not "plastic" in the technical sense.polyesters. At this stage.Some important groups in these classifications are the acrylics. in their finished forms. The use of plastics is constrained chiefly bytheir organic chemistry. dams.stone. horn and bone. they are still no match formetals like copper or aluminum. The resulting pulp of alpha cellulose and hemicellulose is treatedwith various bleaching chemicals to reduce the hemicellulose contentand remove the last traces of lignins and resins. paper.and their ability to resist heat. Plasticscan also be classified by the chemical process used in their synthesis.e. polyurethanes. plastics are used in an enormous andexpanding range of products.confused with the technical adjective "plastic". and ionizingradiation. Aluminum. etc. which seriously limits their hardness. little is wasted. It is pressed to remove water. glass and ceramic in most of their former uses. density. high-alpha cellulose used to manufacture cellulose esters for plastics. Plastics can also be ranked by variousphysical properties. as condensation. railroad ties. is "plastic" in this sense. Plastics can be classified by their chemical structure. which is applied to anymaterial which undergoes a permanent change of shape (a "plasticdeformation") when strained beyond a certain point. and halogenated plastics.The bark is removed before pulping and is used as fuel for theconversion process itself. The tree is chipped and then cooked in adigester to separate cellulose fibers. oxidation. such as density. from paper clips to spaceships. Lignins and resins produced atthis stage can also be used for other chemical products or as fuel. In particular. glass transitiontemperature.org/wiki/Plastic#Biodegradable_plastics The Process of Making Trees into Plastic In the process of converting trees to cellulose. While plastics can be madeelectrically conductive to some extent. This is the high-quality. andimperviousness to water. etc. etc. namely themolecular units that make up the polymer's backbone and side chains. ease of manufacture. Theyhave already displaced many traditional materials such as wood. silicones. http://en. elastomer. Otherclassifications are based on qualities that are relevant formanufacturing or product design. biodegradable. organic solvents. pavement. versatility. polyaddition. Examples of such classes are thethermoplastic and thermoset.htm Cogon Grass Cardboard Food Packaging The feasibility of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) as a substitute for cardboard food packaging was studied in this research . metal. concrete and ceramic in bulky items like ordinarybuildings.g.eastman. structural. leather.com/Online_Publications/ppc100d/ppc100d02. tensile strength.electrically conductive. but not "a plastic" in the commonsense. etc. the pulpis clean and white.
trees still need to be cut for paper production. Paper is being reconsidered and encouraged for use. This spells trouble for the already depleted forests. Because of this.investigatoryprojectexample. boiled. This material can be recycled over and over again. and crushed in order to get the pulp.project. http://www. one logical solution is to use biodegradable materials or recyclable ones. such as styrofoam. However. To lessen this environmental problem. The bulk of the world s waste consists of the hard-to-break-down products. This alternative uses cogon grass for making the pulp and the paper.com/science/cogon-grass-asa-substitute-for-cardboard-food-packaging. Because it cannot be recycled.html . The amount of resin and other additives was kept constant while the amount of starch was varied in every treatment. Styrofoam is commonly used as food containers in fast food restaurants. this particular waste contributes largely to the world s increasing garbage problem. the researchers thought of another alternative. Cogon grass is found abundantly in many places and is sometimes considered a nuisance. Introduction Nonbiodegradable waste is a major concern everywhere in the world. The cogon grass was cut. The pulp was then subjected to five different treatments before it was made into a card board like material.
the researcher has pursued investigation of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). results showed that there was significant difference among the three treatments in bending and tensile strength. 80 grams in T1. Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s. research and experimentation reach great developments. ground and squeezed to extract starch. and their associated procedures.http://www. For its ability to hold water. The grass was obtained by weighing anddividing into three equal parts. an analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models. Test for capacity to carry weight indicated T3 as the best.etymonline. all products passed but for biodegradability. in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to different explanatory variables. Cogon grass were gathered. The components in every treatment were mixed.com/index. . stirred and then poured in silk screen with oil and then sun-dried. The final phase of the study determined the effectiveness of cogon grass as component ofbiodegradable plastic. Using ANOVA single factor. The initial techniques of the analysis of variance were developed by the statistician and geneticist R. Treatments also consisted of 60 ml plastic resin glue and resin with 50 grams of flour catalyst for T1. T1 gave the best results. With continuing efforts to investigate the constituentsof Philippine plants. and is sometimes known as Fisher's ANOVA or Fisher's analysis of variance. Results confirmed that cogon grass is ideal as tests proved its worth.php?search=plastic&searchmode=n one Chapter III Methodology Inventions have evolved and continue to evolve such that after several years of study. 100 grams for T2 and 150 grams in T3. T2 and T3. A. due to the use of Fisher's F-distribution as part of the test of statistical significance. The tensile and bending properties had been tested using the Universal Testing Machine and Analysis showed that T3 had the greatest tensile strength while T2 had the greatest bending property.
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