Chapter: I

Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study
Nepal is landlocked country with an area of 147,181 square kilometres shaped almost rectangular. It borders with Tibetan region of the People’s Republic of china in the north and India in the south, east and west. It stretches 145-241 kilometres north to south and 885 kilometres west to east. Topographically, Nepal has divided into three ecological zones running like long strips from east to west. These are mountainous region along the north, the hilly region in the middle and the Terai region along the south. The mountain belt lies at an altitude ranging from 4877 meters above sea level to 8848 meters, which is the height of the Mt. Everest. It occupies 15 percent of the total land area but only 7.3 percent of the country’s population lives here. The hills, with the altitude ranging from 610 meters to 4876 meters, take up 68 percent of the area.45.10 percent of the total population lives in this region. Administratively Nepal has divided into five development regions, fourteen zones and seventy-five districts. There are 3912 village development committees and 58 municipalities. Nepal is a developing country with agricultural economy. 80% people are engaged in agriculture. The main cereal productions are rice, wheat, maize and millet. Jute, sugarcane, tobacco and tea are the main cash crop of the country. Nepalese society is fully of inequality and heterogeneity. Despite having, the caste system is illegal in Nepal people still follow it. As a result, some traditions of Nepal remain inhuman and cruel. Kamaiya system (bonded labour) is one of them so prevalence of widespread poverty and absences of alternative means of livelihood, the poor Tharu fully depend upon their bare hands as farm labours. Farm workers are popularly known Haliya, Haruwa, Charuwa, Kamaiya, Gothala, Bhaisawa, Gaibar, and Chhegarahwa. The practice of Kamaiya system is a resided of former slavery, which still exists especially in the mid and far western Terai districts.

1.2 A Brief Introduction of Kamaiya
The term "Kamaiya" is derived from Tharu community at the structure of joint family system. Earlier, almost all blood relations stayed under one roof as it served the purpose of providing surplus labour needed for farming and household activities. In such system, the eldest son of the house had known as Ghardhuriya who is the sole decision maker though not necessary the sole breadwinner. Besides, he is even responsible for performing all religious ceremonies. All other members except the Ghardhuriya are known as Kamaiyas in the case of male members or Kamlaharies for the female members. Saying in the short a Kamaiya means a hard worker in their native language who sustains his life with full of his
1

farms etc for food & to earn income for their families.own physical strength and self-commitment for his own family and his society. Kailali and Kanchanpur as well as even in practice of some pocket areas of Surkhet. brick factories. 98 percent of the total Kamaiyas belongs to the Tharu. Bardiya. That is why Tharu are mostly Kamaiyas in Nepal (INSEC. both parties may agree or refuse to enter the contract. Rupendehi and Nawalparasi district where the Tharu society is dominant. it was not taken care of welfare and sustainable solutions. it is legally good but in practice. Kamaiya. There are almost 7000 Ex-Kamaiya families. economically and other obligations commanded by the owners. However. Now the Ex-Kamaiya's are settling down at those places increased 2 . Kamaiya system is mostly concentrated in mid and far-western development regions as Dang. The Kamaiya did not have his freedom of choice rather he compelled to work socially. As a result. Especially in Magh month (approximately 14th January) between the landowner and an agricultural labour i. Banke. and Nawalparasi where Tharu Kamaiya's population is high. 2001). the government gave the land for settling down but that is useless land and they had neither home nor way of fulfilling needs. Some of them came to dwell as Kamaiya again with frustrated faces. Bardiya. Bardiya. misinterpreted and extremely exploited during the course of history by feudal groups people in society where Tharu are majority dwellers are very simple and strength for work for serving them. It is a burning issues in mid and far-west region of Nepal. Kailali & Kanchanpur) of mid and Far Western Development Region of Nepal. Government survey revels that Bardiya district has highest number of Kamaiya families. it has been various implied. Banke. In July 2000. As the Government declared the Kamaiya's as Ex-Kamaiya. They both had the choices to make the agreement (INSEC. For the Ex-Kamaiyas. A government survey has identified a total number of 19000 Ex-Kamaiya families in 5 districts (Dang. They are still settling down in the camp as birds. Even the government shifted down them far from their own society resided on the camp.e. Kailali and Kanchanpur districts. At that time. their living conditions have been still so difficult that they have had to send their children to work in hotel. labors are exchanged for payment in cash or kind. domestic labour. As a result. Due to inhuman behaviour. 1.3 Statement of the Problems The issues of Ex-Kamaiyas can be considered as one of the gigantic phenomena to rehabilitate in the mid and far western districts of Nepal such as Dang. Kapilvastu. they became ExKamaiya from feudal landlord groups but wondering as refugees settling down in temporary camps. However afterward. 2001). Banke. government of Nepal declared the age-old Kamaiya system/bounded labour as illegal and punishable by law. Rupandehi. the existing social relation was deserted cut off the chances of employment. The system is also believed to be in practice in some of the pockets of Kapilbastu. they could not bear such system and struggled against it.

1.4 Objective of the Study The overall objective of the study is to investigate the all socio-economic information of the Ex-Kamaiya of Jainpur Bardiya district and reveal their present status. Thus. festivals marriage system and relationship with other caste under the social component. Mainly the study will attempt to explore Ex-Kamaiya's education. 1. the present study has attempted to investigate and describe some socio-economic component of ExKamaiya's. considering the limitations of time and resources the specific objectives of the study are as follows: • • • • • To describe the educational status of Ex-Kamaiya's To analyze the religious. it will also attempt to explore their occupation. However. sources of income. land holding size. family structure and marriage system To find out the occupation and well being as well To find out the health and sanitation status To describe the landholding size and annual income-expenditure pattern of ExKamaiya's. the economic. religious. The Ex-Kamaiya people have not land for agriculture and cultivation. education and health status of the community has not improved. housing type and annual income-expenditure pattern.5 Conceptual Framework Socio-Economic status of freed Kamaiya VDC level Socio economic status Population Education Ethnicity Religious Development infrastructure Health facilities Educational institution Drinking water Electricity Trail /road /market facilities etc Social variables Education Religious Festivals Marriage system Family structure Relationship with other caste Health and sanitation status Economic variables Occupation Well being Major sources of Income Expenditure pattern Land holding size Housing type Production and market 3 . Likewise. There seemed some social changes in ExKamaiya community than in the past.the scarcity of resources. However. means and opportunity.

social. researchers. However. a few of them have done in the subject of socio-economic status of Ex-Kamaiya. Chhetri. Many researches and scholars have done the various research works in the terms of disadvantages groups. Due to the time constraints and resource. Brahmain. The finding from the study does not represent the all Ex-Kamaiya community. The research information is also unable to explain the socio-economic status of Tharu cast. It will also be useful for the policy makers. education. 1. it will also be helpful to NGOS/INGOS to conduct the Ex-Kamaiya management programs in the communities. It will also make clear that Kamaiyas are not only Tharu but they also belong viz. Dahit. etc as disadvantage community. lifestyle. Somehow.1. etc. planner and social workers to know about their economic.6 Significance of the Study This study is important to give information regarding the socio-economic status of Ex-Kamaiya. 4 . this study will not be able to cover all the information.7 Limitation of the Study This study will cover the small unit of Ex-Kamaiya of the Gulariya municipality of Bardiya district.

opinions carried out by different scholars in the sector of the process of changing socioeconomic condition of different tribe and castes. (CBS 2001). shoe making and basket making. They spent their life just in earn and spent system. invested the surplus in loans and so became richer. The main objective of the study was to study socioeconomic condition skill and life cycle of Sarkis of the study area. There is no such better strategy of life among the rickshaw pullers. He found that traditional occupation (agriculture) of the Tharu of Surkhet is no more able to earn their living as previously. health and resources management is increasing among the Tharu of Surkhet valley but they are not in a position to compete with other communities to earn their livelihood. In the study the scholars analyzed the socio-economic inter relationship between the backward and exploited community represented by Dalits and the people of higher caste represented by Brahmin and Chhettri. Lalitpur.P Caplan (1972) made a study of the Priest and cobblers (Brahmin and Sarkis). masonry. there are a few empirical and comprehensive studies on these issues.Chapter: II Review of the Literature The issues of Ex-Kamaiya has been quite critical and achieving the dimension in the present day. The Sarkis people mostly go to India for seasonal work. The land reformation has not effected to cobblers in this area. 5 . Thus. more than eighty percent of the total people are involved in agriculture. This study has concluded that as they were illiterate. Despite this fact." So their socio-economic condition is very poor. "Most of the Sarkis are engaged in agriculture. This study based upon the field survey of 2000 respondents. The writer highlighted that the Brahmin who obtained the resources from their Client. 2. Their caste specific occupation in shoe making but that is in decreasing state. Giri (2002) has made a study on "The Changes occurred in livelihood strategy of the Tharu in Surkhet". Bhattarai (2001) studied the "Rickshaw Pulling as a way of earning some money". They have not enough land for farming.1 Study Related to Socio-Economic Status In Nepal. The economic status of Kamaiya is very miserable so their life has not been improving as expected. Nepalese farmers are not able to increase more income and maintain their economic problems. presented almost 31% of total population is still below the poverty line. The degree of awareness on education. Sijapati (1998) has studied about the socio-economic status of Sarkis living in Jharuwarasi Village. wage labour. Majorities of these rickshaw puller fall under poor economic stress. They run their livelihood from the agriculture. A. as well as secondary information. They are involving in different additional occupation other than agriculture as a change of livelihood strategy in order to tackle the changing situation. rickshaw pulling was the opportunity to earn some money. this chapter discusses different ideas. Few of them are literate.

certain tribal groups. because till 2001.2 Study Related to Kamaiya Shrestha (1990) studied land in Nepal has assigned to individuals. Brahmins easily cheated them. The present Caribbean of South American also carried as a farm labour for the English people. Brahmin provide them loan and take theirs land as collateral. Then Tharu again remained as farm labour. but other people played tricky role to control the land from the ownership of Tharu. Subedi (1999) studied the social and economic condition of Kamaiya's examined their decision practice and analyzed the process of landlessness of Tharu Kamaiya. There are different kinds of bonded labour in Nepal. but the ultimate property rights have been vested in the state. He also explained about their housing and settlement pattern. As the time passed by many social revolutions occurred and people became free from the bonded labour. nor schooling the children. observation. Chaudhary (2005) presented. 6 . but in the western part of Nepal's lowland Terai plains. It indicates that Kamaiya's are poor persons who do not have their own land for cultivation. He concluded that chicanery and fraud were the main causes of the landlessness of the Tharu. Due to the lack of education. freed Kamaiya's did not have basic requirements both they had shelter. Lowe (2002) states Tharu are honest. Upreti (2000) studied religious-cultural belief and practice of Tharu Kamaiya's. bonded labours freed and settling processing for freed Kamaiya took place. Kamaiya is probably the most exploitative form. After the restoration of democracy. Likewise in the same book also expressed Kamaiya as person who cultivates the land for others. Brahmins did not accept the loan repayment amount by Sarkis but lastly they grab their land. Kamaiya. Asian and Latin American countries bonded labour system was prevailed. people in Nepal also organized and put their voice against such system. in many African. bold. in the same book they have also described that credit (loan) is became a media for Brahmin to exploit the Sarkis. analyzed their socio-economic characteristics and Kamaiya system in relation to socio-economic condition of Tharu using interview.Likewise. and religious institutions. they will make the agreement of 1000 rupees. It is practiced not in Nepal of movies and mountaineers. to learn. Paudel (2002) states that Man's three basic needs to live. and to know why the quotes are fitted to the freed Kamaiya's. and they were not aware that why and how they are bonded. laborious and energetic labourers or so called farmers who work with their families in the farms of landlord instead of getting some cash amount or grain. case studies and focus group meeting. If Brahmin provides them 100 rupees. Kamaiya sold the land in a very minimum cost. They are working as slave to the landlord's house. Chaudhary (1999) has revealed the Kamaiya's are these courageous. 2. INSEC (2001) states the modern meaning of the Kamaiya is bonded labour. As the consequence.

3.11 as skilled labour. Most of the Ex-Kamaiya's families are living in many Kamaiya's camps. some have themselves claimed clearings in forests & other unregistered government land. • It is easy to go in this camp on the financial and geographical view. Jainpur is selected for the present study. 16. This is permanent camp. characteristics of a particular place or group. cultural life. 18.1%) of above 18 years age group.2 Kamaiya in Bardiya District On 17th July 2000 the practice of bounded labour was declared illegal & punishable by imprisonment in Nepal. 11610 (29. Some Kamaiya's were provided land by government. The descriptive study will present description of the existing situation. research design.2.51% are involve as non-skilled labour. The Kamaiya were free but left landless.000.000 freed Kamaiya household & the total population is estimated at about 100.547 Ex-Kamaiya's families or 38. 3. data collection technique. 31.57% have to be gone in India or looking work in another place and 1.1 Rationale of the Selection of study area Any study and work has not been done on socio-economic status. In all districts concerned there is an estimated 22. household survey. Among them 32. Some are living in temporary settlements.58 are involving in forming. Exploratory/formulative study will represent 7 . homeless & without education.845 people are living in Bardiya district of which 7378 (19%) under 5 years age group. According to the Baseline survey of freed-Kamaiya of Bardiya district 7. The study will be descriptive and exploratory.Chapter: III Research Methodology This chapter will describe the tools and technique of present research work. direct observation and data processing and analysis procedure.3 Research design Research design represents a compromise dictated by the many practical considerations that go into social research. nature and sources of data. secondary information. religion and the role and status of Ex-Kamaiya's of Bardiya district. 3. Gulariya municipality ward no. Ex-Kamaiya's are settled in different places of Bardiya district in different permanent and temporary camp. This section will includes site selection. The main reasons behinds for selecting the site are as follows: • Any study has not been conducted about Ex-Kamaiya of this settlement.23% are still being at landlords' home as Kamaiya's. It aims to explore the present conditions of people and life ways. which is established by government in Bardiya district.9%) of 6-18 years age group and 19857 (51.

educated person.5 Universes and Sampling The household of the study area is 37 so all households will use for taking as baseline survey due to the compact settlement. It will precisely investigate and operatioanize the issue of study and investigations.2. Likewise. books. Key informants will be selected as per the informants’ desire and interest.1 Semi-Structure Interview To collect the reliable information at household level. While conducting the socio-economic survey of this study. occupation and other relevant information will be collected. Primary data will collect from the household survey.6. and demographic.exploring the hitherto unexplored social phenomena. To maintain the objectives of the study relevant questions and checklist will be developed in the semi-structure interview. The name of the village is Jainpur located in Gulariya Municipality Ward No.6. 3. newspapers.3 Observation Observation is one of the very important research tools. The observation of household structures.2 Key informants Interviews These interviews will be conducted and try to fulfil the gaps. when the answers which were derived from the questionnaire survey. Key informants will be village elder. the sampling will not use for data collection. articles. observation will be done in that community.4 Nature and sources of data Primary and secondary data will use to collect the information. 3. and internet sites. 3. social. which help to collect the real information from the field. teacher and social workers. this method will be used. living status.6. Under this procedure economic.6 Data Collection Technique Using the following methods data will be collected. 8 . secondary information will be collected from published and unpublished research papers. group discussion and observation. 3.6.4 Focus Group Discussion Separate focus group discussion of male and female will conduct to collect more information about the present socio-economic status of male and female. So. 3. 3. community leader. 3. and other social and cultural indicators of respondents will be observed during the field survey.

articles. etc. The data collected from field will be edited and then classified according to their nature. whereas qualitative data will be analyzed and recorded as per the nature of data.8 Data Processing and Analysis The quality of any research work depends upon the techniques used to present and analysis the data.7 Life History Collection Life history of Ex-Kamaiya will be collected during household interviews and secondary data as historical story books. All data will be analyzed and presented to fulfil the objectives. That life history will present the situation of Ex-Kamaiya's. 9 . For the quantitative data statistical operations will be done. 3.Relationship with the other community and their access to social property also will collect through this method. To illustrate the research work. tables are used as tools and techniques of the data analysis of the study. 3.

Landless and Migration in Nepal. T. I/NGOs after the Abolition of Kamaiya System. Lowe.U. Sijapati. TU. Birtamod. "Priest and Cobbler” Chandler Publishing Company.P.D. submitted to the Central Department of Sociology/ Anthropology. B. Jarman. 2005. Kamaiya: Slavery and Freedom in Nepal. Caplan.. USA. Central Department of Geography T. 1972.A. 2000. unpublished M. Ktm: Mandala Book Point.. Pater. Partiva. Subedi.A Dissertation Central Department Sociology/Anthropology 1998. Kathmandu. T. Ghorahi. Paudel. Patan Campus. 'An Assessment of the Resettlement and Rehabilitation Process of Freed. Statistical Pocket Book. Kamaiya Situation Analysis: Responses of Government.P.D. T..A Dissertation. Dissertation Central Department of Geography.R. Unpublished M.REFERENCES INSEC Report 2001. Socio-economic Aspects of Kamaiya of BashkhedaShreepur of Kailali District. Upreti Bed Prakash.A Dissertation Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology. Bonded Labor in Nepal: A sociological study of Kamaiya system in Khairi Chandanpur V. unpublished M.P. Dang district' submitted to Central Department of Geography. Unpublished M. Kamaiyas. Shanker Lal.U. Shrestha. Sanfransico: Westcriure Press. 2001 A.A Dissertation.U.economic status of the Dangaura Tharu: A case study of Tribhuvan Nagar Municipalit. 1990. Bhattrai. M. 2004. Nepal Giri. Nepal 2002. CBS. 2002. 'the socio. T. 1999. 1999.Kamaiya in Kailali District'.C of Bardiya district. Madhav Socio-economic Profile of the Sarkis of Jharuwarasi Village Panchayat. K.U. London. Central Bureau of Statistic. Chaudhary.U. socio-economic status of Dangaura Tharu. 10 . A. Chaudhary. N. Jhapa.P. Keshav Prasad. Rickshaw Pulling as a way of Earning Livelihood. INSEC Nepal. Nepal. 2001. Dang district. 2002. T. The Changes occurred in livelihood strategy of Tharu in Surkhet Valley: A sociological case study. Central Department of Sociology.

.... 2.1) Age: .... Full Name Relation to Age Sex Occupation Education Marital Remarks HH head status B.... 2..... Jainpur.... 2... Bardiya Household Survey Questionnaire A... 2..............N Marriage Type Mark in the right answer 1 Arrange 2 Inter caste 3 Love Remarks 4. Khet 2..5) Education: ........... Demographic Information 1........ Economic characteristic 1.... How many members are in your family? 2...... Bari 3 Unproductive 11 .... 3........N Family type Mark in the right answer 1.... 2. how often do you consume alcohol? (Mark in the right answer) Frequently Daily Occasionally Remarks 8.N Type of land Area in Kattha 1........................... Social information 1. Nuclear Family 3..................... 2...... Full Name of Respondent: ... If yes...... In which age did you get marriage? 5..........3) Occupation: .. Joint family 2..6) Marital status: ..A Case study of Ex-Kamaiyas of Gulariya Munacipality-2....... Do you consume alcohol? Yes No 7........ Details information about the family members of the respondent: S.... which group/ organization.2) Sex: ... 2.... D......... Which type of marriage have you done? S.. N..... In which type of family are you belong to? S...... HHs No: .............. In which age will you perform yours son /daughter marriage now a days? 6. What type of land do you have? S. Have you got the membership of any group/organization? If yes.4) Religious .............

Group saving 12 . Marriage 6. Finance company 3.N. Do you have borrowed money? a) Yes b) No 8. Relatives 4. Medicine 5.N Sources of income Mark in the right answer 1. Children education 4. Have you taken land from other for cultivation? Yes No 3. Poultry 4. Agriculture 2. Up to 6 month 3. Which is the main expenditure item of your family? S. Food 2. Money lender 5.N Expenditure item Mark in the right answer 1. Up to 1 year 5. Borrow from the neighbour 5. Clothing 3. If you have food deficit. What are your major sources of income? S. Bank 2. Purchase from the market 2. Up to 9 month 4. from where did you borrow the money? S. Wage labour 5. More than one year 4.N. Less than 3 month 2. how do you manage for the remaining time? S. Particulars Remarks Mark in the right answer 1. Livestock 3.N. Others 7. Sources Mark in the right answer 1. Festivals 7. If yes. Others 6. Month Remarks Mark in the right answer 1.2. For how many months do you have food sufficiency from your own production? S.

. If Yes... Do you have toilet in your house? a) Yes b) No 13 ... Do you send your children to the school regularly? a) Yes b) No 4...... Are you suffering from any health problem? a) Yes b) No 2... Health and Sanitation 1. What are the barriers for providing education to the children? . Educational characteristic 1.......................... What is your house made of? (Mark in the right answer) Brick with tin roofed Brick with grass roofed Small hut 13.... Do the teacher have good behaviour to your children like other community children’s? a) Yes b) No 3................... Have any organization supported to your children’s education? a) Yes b) No F..... 11..............................9.... For what purpose will you borrow money? ..................... Do your family members have any health problem? a) Yes b) No 4................. which problem (disease name) ........ What is your annual income and expenditure pattern? Average annual Average annual income expenses Average annual saving 12............ What is the major’s production of your farmland? (Mark in the right answer) Cereals Fruits Vegetables E......... How many children have you been sending to the school? a) Boys b) Girls 2..... If Yes............... 3........................... 5....... Which problem (disease name) .......... 5. What is the rate of interest per month? 10...............

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