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Monique DP. Pacheco Maria Cecelia
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Ms. Judy Mae Caballes

The basic principle of his calculator is still used today in water meters and modern-day odometers. a tax collector. let's examine the history. Blaise Pascal is usually credited for building the first digital computer in 1642. You may ask "What is a computer?" or "What is a software". Instead of having a carriage wheel turn the gear. he made each ten-teeth wheel accessible to be turned directly by a person's hand (later inventors added keys and a .HISTORY OF THE COMPUTER Computers and computer applications are on almost every aspect of our daily lives. at the birth of the abacus. The history of computers starts out about 2000 years ago in Babylonia (Mesopotamia). 2. we may need clearer understanding of what they are. 1. a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them. As like many ordinary objects around us. It added numbers entered with dials and was made to help his father. or "What is a programming language?" First.

The gear train supplied a mechanical answer equal to the answer that is obtained by using arithmetic. A step towards automated computing was the development of punched cards. They developed devices that could read the information that had been punched into the cards automatically. and. different problems could be stored on . 3. work flow increased. stacks of punched cards could be used as easily accessible memory of almost unlimited size. called the Pascaline. which were first successfully used with computers in 1890 by Herman Hollerith and James Powers. Because of this. This first mechanical calculator. reading errors were reduced dramatically. who worked for the US. without human help. most importantly. the first signs of technophobia emerged with mathematicians fearing the loss of their jobs due to progress. a series of numbers was entered and a cumulative sum was obtained. Census Bureau. with the result that when the wheels were turned in the proper sequences. had several disadvantages.crank). only Pascal himself could repair the device and it cost more than the people it replaced! In addition. Although it did offer a substantial improvement over manual calculations. Furthermore.

and their associates at the Moore school of Electrical Engineering of University of Pennsylvania decided to build a high .like turning the wheels of an adding machine. multiply. These advantages were seen by commercial companies and soon led to the development of improved punch-card using computers created by International Business Machines (IBM). John W. Remington (yes. New weapons were made for which trajectory tables and other essential data were needed. These computers used electromechanical devices in which electrical power provided mechanical motion -. Mauchly. Such systems included features to: o o o feed in a specified number of cards automatically add. and other corporations. In 1942. and sort feed out cards with punched results 5. . the same people that make shavers). 4. The start of World War II produced a large need for computer capacity.speed electronic computer to do the job. John P.different stacks of cards and accessed when needed. Burroughs. especially for the military. Eckert.

800 square feet of floor space.000 times faster then the previous generation of relay computers. which served as adders and also as quick-access (. and consumed about 180. The executable instructions making up a program were embodied in the separate "units" of ENIAC. It had punched card I/O. ENIAC was therefore about 1. about 1.computer field. which were plugged together to form a "route" for the flow of information.000 watts of electrical power. The two women in the photo were programmers.0002 seconds) read-write register storage. from one of fast but unreliable hardware to an image of relatively high reliability and . 1 multiplier. and it could multiply two of these numbers at a rate of 300 per second. by finding the value of each product from a multiplication table stored in its memory.This machine became known as ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator) Two men (in uniform) being trained to maintain the ENIAC computer. 7. 6. 1 divider/square rooter. and 20 adders using decimal ring counters. ENIAC used 18. The ENIAC occupied the entire thirty by fifty feet room. Early in the 50s two important engineering discoveries changed the image of the electronic .000 vacuum tubes. The size of ENIACs numerical "word" was 10 decimal digits.

These discoveries were the magnetic core memory and the Transistor Circuit Element.even more capability. Such computers were mostly found in large computer centers operated by industry. handling 32 bits of data at a time. especially in the area of memory chips. with access times of 2 to 3 MS (Milliseconds). In the 1980's some friction occurred in the crowded PC field. although Japanese firms were making strong economic advances.000 to 64. 8. These technical discoveries quickly found their way into new models of digital computers.000. These machines were very expensive to purchase or even to rent and were particularly expensive to operate because of the cost of expanding programming. This situation led to modes of operation enabling the sharing of the high potential available. with Apple and IBM keeping strong.000 words in commercially available machines by the 1960s. In the manufacturing of semiconductor chips. By the late 1980s. could process about 4. such as Apple Computer and Radio Shack. introduced very successful PCs in the 1970's. government.000 instructions per second. and private laboratories staffed with many programmers and support personnel. encouraged in part by a fad in computer (video) games. some personal computers were run by microprocessors that. RAM capacities increased from 8. Many companies. the Intel and Motorola Corporations were very competitive into the 1980s. .

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