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Nanomagnet memory and logic could achieve ultimate energy efficiency July 6, 2011 by Editor

The bright spots are nanomagnets with their north ends pointing down (represented by red bar below) and the dark spots are north-up nanomagnets (blue). The six nanomagnets form a majority logic gate transistor, where the output on the right of the center bar is determined by the majority of three inputs on the top, left and bottom. (Credit: Bokor lab, UC Berkeley) Future computers may rely on magnetic microprocessors that consume the least amount of energy allowed by the laws of physics, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have determined. The researchers used nanomagnets to build magnetic memory and logic devices about 100 nanometers wide and about 200 nanometers long. Because they have the same north-south polarity as a bar magnet, the up-or-down orientation of the pole can be used to represent the 0 and 1 of binary computer memory. When multiple nanomagnets are brought together, their north and south poles interact via dipole-dipole forces to exhibit transistor behavior, allowing simple logic operations. Such devices would dissipate only 18 millielectron volts of energy per operation at room temperature, the minimum allowed by the second law of thermodynamics, the Landauer limit. That’s 1 million times less energy per operation than consumed by today’s computers, the researchers said.

Ref.: Brian Lambson, David Carlton, Jeffrey Bokor, Exploring the Thermodynamic Limits of Computation in Integrated Systems: Magnetic Memory, Nanomagnetic Logic, and the Landauer Limit, Physical Review Letters, 2011; 107: 010604 [DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.010604]

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July 7, 2011 by Anumakonda In the future, computers, cell phones, laptops and other consumer devices might be able to consume only the smallest amounts of electricity possible under the laws of physics. The silicon-based processors we use today may become obsolete. Electrical engineers at the University of California in Berkeley (UCB) feel that replacing electrical microprocessors with their magnetic counterparts might help improve performance, while at the same time reducing consumption. Such a device would operate at the Landauer limit, the minimum level of energy consumption allowed for a device to operate, as expressed by the second law of thermodynamics. This processor would dissipate just 18 millielectron volts of energy per operation. Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India E-mail: anumakonda.jagadeesh@gmail.com

making them non-magnetic. Traditional computing devices process information by moving electrons around.” making the material magnetic.1126/science. By using electron spin to represent 1s and 0s instead of electrons moving through logic gates. Ref.NEWS ACCELERATING INTELLIGENCE Magnets with an ‘on’ and ‘off’ switch May 30. 1040 (2011) DOI: 10. 2011 by Editor Applying a voltage to cobalt-doped titanium dioxide causes the carrier density to increase and the electrons act as magnetic messengers. seamlessly integrating memory and logic in the same chip. the electrons in the material go back to having different spins. drawing power and limiting device life. computers could be more efficient.: Igor Žutić and John Cernĕ. aligning the Co 2+ spins (credit: Igor Zutic.” Science 332.1205775 Comments (1) July 7. When the current stops. 2011 by Anumakonda . The flowing current causes cobalt ions in the material to align with the same “spin./Science) Researchers at Tohoku University added cobalt to titanium dioxide to create a “chameleon” magnet that can be turned on and off by inducing an electric current. et al. “Chameleon Magnets. generating a substantial amount of waste heat.

Dr.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP).S.org/abs/1103.com NEWS ACCELERATING INTELLIGENCE New Magnetic Resonance Technique Could Revolutionise Quantum Computing March 8. 2011 [+] Graphic: M.0546: Quantum Control Of Proximal Spins Using Nanoscale Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comments (1) .A. Harvard University scientists have develop a miniaturized MRI device that could lead to large-scale quantum computers.A major breakthrough in magnetism.India E-mail: anumakonda. Grinolds et al. That allows them to stimulate and control the magnetic resonance of single electrons in a way that could easily be adapted for quantum computation. Ref: arxiv. 2011 Source: The physics ArXiv blog — Mar 7. The did it by placing a powerful magnet at the scanning tip of an atomic force microscope to create a powerful magnetic field gradient in a volume of space just a few nanometers across.jagadeesh@gmail.

July 7.jagadeesh@gmail. 2011 by Anumakonda A major achievement in quantum computing through Magnetic Resonance Technique .A. 2011 by Editor High-speed imaging reveals the surface of a HeLa cell (credit: Janelia Farm) Scientists at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Janelia Farm Research Campus have created a microscope that lets researchers see the dynamic inner lives of living cells using a form of high speed imaging called Bessel beam plane illumination microscopy. .India E-mail: anumakonda. Dr.com NEWS ACCELERATING INTELLIGENCE New microscope produces 3-D movies of live cells March 6. Congratulations for the fine work Harvard University Scientists.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP).

including Janelia Farm Fellow Philipp Keller. Adapted from materials provided by Howard Hughes Medical Institute Comments (1) July 7. the light sheets were still too thick to work effectively for imaging within single cells only tens of microns in size.The microscope uses an exquisitely thin sheet of light— similar to that used in supermarket bar-code scanners — to peer inside single living cells and create dazzling 3D movies that make biological processes.com . come alive. since it noninvasively images the rapidly evolving threedimensional complexity of cells. have used plane illumination to great effect to study multicellular organisms hundreds of microns in size. and can be very damaging when looking at live ones. dead samples.jagadeesh@gmail. PALM and other super-resolution techniques are limited to looking at thin. Their work appears March 4 in Nature Methods. Bessel beam plane illumination microscopy will be a powerful tool for cell biologists.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP). Betzig and his Janelia Farm colleague Harald Hess invented photoactivated localization microscopy. Betzig says. such as cell division. Although other researchers. PALM. I will be improvement of super-resolution microscopy. which can produce images of objects only 10-20 nanometers in size.India E-mail: anumakonda. 2011 by Anumakonda Great News. Several years ago. Janelia Farm group leader Eric Betzig comments that until recently. microscopes could see objects no smaller than 200 nanometers in size.A. The new microscope is also exciting because it may be used in the future to improve super-resolution microscopy. Dr.

” However. some big technical hurdles remain: the nuclear spin storage-and-read-out apparatus works only at 3. but do you want a computer that has to be operated at 454 degrees below zero Fahrenheit and in a big national magnetic laboratory environment?” Boehme says.” says Christoph Boehme (pronounced Boo-meh). “Yes.2 degrees Kelvin. And the apparatus must be surrounded by powerful magnetic fields roughly 200. Dec. used to demonstrate how data can be stored in magnetic "spins" within the centers or nuclei of phosphorus atoms. 2010 by Editor [+] A phosphorus-doped silicon chip. “First we want to learn how to do it at higher temperatures. published Friday. which are more practical for a device. Dane McCamey. and then how that data can be accessed and read electronically (C.” . or slightly above absolute zero – the temperature at which atoms almost freeze to a standstill. 17 in the journal Science. and without these strong magnetic fields to align the spins.000 times stronger than Earth’s. University of Utah) University of Utah physicists stored information for 112 seconds in what may become the world’s tiniest computer memory: magnetic “spins” in the centers or nuclei of atoms. you could immediately build a memory chip this way. “The length of spin memory we observed is more than adequate to create memories for computers.NEWS ACCELERATING INTELLIGENCE Physicists store information on world’s tiniest computer memory December 17. “It’s a completely new way of storing and reading information. an associate professor of physics and senior author of the new study. and only can jiggle a little bit. Then the physicists retrieved and read the data electronically – a big step toward using the new kind of memory for both faster conventional and superfast “quantum” computers. only 1 millimeter square.

Britain’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. which used classical data (0 or 1) rather than quantum data (0 and 1 simultaneously). another group of scientists reported storing so-called quantum data for two seconds within atomic nuclei. a British funding agency led by Prince Philip. meaning that information is processed and stored by flowing electricity in the form of electrons. Other co-authors were Hans van Tol of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee. The study was led by Boehme and first author Dane McCamey. “nobody has done this before. Electronic and Spintronic Memories Modern computers are electronic. Quantum computers – a yet-unrealized goal – would run on the odd principles of quantum mechanics. Transistors in computers are electrical switches that store data as “bits” in which “off” (no electrical charge) and “on” (charge is present) represent one bit of information: either 0 or 1. one quantum bit or “qubit” could be both 0 and 1 at the same time. and “that’s what’s new. as Boehme and colleagues did in the new study. Boehme and colleagues did in their latest study. Externally applied electric fields would be used to read and process the data stored as “spins” – just what McCamey.” he adds. in which the smallest particles of light and matter can be in different places at the same time.. His main affiliation now is with the University of Sydney. a former research assistant professor of physics at the University of Utah and still an adjunct assistant professor.As for obtaining an electrical readout of data held within atomic nuclei. By . the Australian Research Council. who showed it was feasible to read data stored in the net magnetic spin of 10. the National Science Foundation. but they did not read it electronically.000 electrons in phosphorus atoms embedded in a silicon semiconductor.” Boehme says. Fla. The technique was developed in a 2006 study by Boehme. which are negatively charged subatomic particles that orbit the nucleus of each atom. Two years ago. In a quantum computer. That means quantum computers theoretically could be billions of times faster than conventional computers. and Gavin Morley of University College London. McCamey says a memory made of silicon “doped” with phosphorus atoms could be used in both conventional electronic computers and in quantum computers in which data is stored not by “on” or “off” electrical charges. The study was funded by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The new study puts together nuclear storage of data with an electrical readout of that data. but by “up” or “down” magnetic spins in the nuclei of phosphorus atoms.

Down and up can represent 0 and 1 in a spin-based quantum computer. The readout is produced because the electrons’ spins are converted into variations in electrical current. Boehme says the spins of atoms’ nuclei are better for storing information than the spin of electrons. that points either up or down to represent the particle’s spin. “Nuclei experience nearly perfect solitude. McCamey. FM-range radio waves were used to take the spin data stored in the electrons and write it onto the phosphorus nuclei. Next.” Summarizing the process. Nuclear spins where we store information have extremely long storage times before the information decays.” Boehme says. We have shown we can write and read [spin data in nuclei]. Later.” and shown that the information . the physicists took a key step in linking spin to conventional electronics – a field called spintronics. That’s why nuclei are a good place to store information magnetically. The physicists used powerful magnetic fields of 8. and placed electrical contacts on it.” McCamey says. A simplified way to describe spin is to imagine that each particle – like an electron or proton in an atom – contains a tiny bar magnet. The information must be repeatedly refreshed. pulses of near-terahertz electromagnetic waves were used to “write” up or down spins onto electrons orbiting phosphorus atoms. In contrast. but Boehme says the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) in a modern PC or laptop stores information for just milliseconds (thousandths of a second).59 Tesla to align the spins of phosphorus electrons. and surrounded by intense magnetic fields. That’s because electron spin orientations have short lifetimes because spins are easily changed by nearby electrons and the temperature within atoms. other pulses of near-terahertz waves were used to transfer the nuclear spin information back into the orbiting electrons. Boehme says. like a compass needle.” The average 112 second storage time in the new study may not seem long.000 times stronger than Earth’s magnetic field. and trigger the readout process. Boehme and colleagues used a thin.demonstrating an ability to read data stored in nuclear spins. “We basically wrote 1 in atoms’ nuclei. phosphorus-doped silicon wafer measuring 1 millimeter square. The device was inside a supercold container. Spin is an unfamiliar concept to comprehend. Wires connected the device to a current source and an oscilloscope to record data. “We read the spin of the nuclei in the reverse of the way we write information. “We have a mechanism that turns electron spin into a current. “the nucleus sits in the middle of an atom and its spin isn’t messed with by what’s going on in the clouds of electrons around the nucleus. How to Store and Then Read Data in the Spins of Atomic Nuclei For the experiments. That’s 200. he adds. Then. which is how computer memory is maintained.

2011 by Anumakonda Once it was macro then micro and now nano. he adds.can be repeatedly read from the nuclei for an average of 112 seconds before all the phosphorus nuclei lose their spin information. . for which readouts must be able to discern the spins of single nuclei. jobs.tiny. making the memory reliable. not political spin. and the environment. the physicists read and reread the same nuclear spin data 2.thin is the order of the day.A. 03 July 2011 08:10 Representative Jim Costa and the California Drought Last week.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP). Our report sets the record straight using real data.India E-mail: anumakonda.com O circle of blue Reporting the Global Water Crisis Peter Gleick: When Beliefs Conflict with Facts Sunday. Dr. and misrepresentation swirling around about how the drought affected California agriculture. misunderstanding. but not for quantum computers. the Pacific Institute released a comprehensive assessment of the actual impacts of the 2007-2009 California drought. Boehme hopes that can be achieved within a few years.jagadeesh@gmail. Boehme says. Adapted from materials provided by the University of Utah Comments (2) July 7. showing the act of reading the spin data doesn’t destroy it. Boehme says. That will work for classical computers. Reading out the data stored as spin involved reading the collective spins of a large number of nuclei and electrons. There is a lot of myth. In a much shorter time.000 times.

simply disagree with experience. are estimated to range roughly from 20% to 25% of total water delivery reductions for 2009. Data do not “minimize.” The Pacific Institute’s source on this matter was the Congressman’s own legislative research branch. Here are a few examples. 2009)] Representative Costa says: “the report minimizes the painful effects of the drought on our livelihoods..” ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Dr.” Data are data. After our report came out he posted a note to his constituents (the 20th Congressional District) on his House of Representatives webpage. In the absence of the current three-year hydrological drought. according to the Department of the Interior. this isn’t unique to Rep. are due to “lack of run-off” (i. or imposed by courts’ interpretation of those rules.” however they can demonstrate . it’s wrong. Costa. many of his colleagues have the same problem with climate change science — a much longer discussion). Worse. entitled “The Pacific Institute is Wrong. The remaining 75%-80% of 2009 water reductions.These data and facts apparently conflict with Representative Jim Costa’s political position or his basic beliefs (needless to say. his post makes it clear that he has not read the report or understood the data that it presents. drought) and other factors.e. That’s all there is to it. Representative Costa says: “The report claims that these [environmental] regulations had a minimal impact on our water supply because they accounted for only 25 percent of the problem.” Congressman Costa’s beliefs about the links between the drought and the economic problems in his district. depending on the time period used for estimating annual deliveries. Peter Gleick is president of the Pacific Institute. the Congressional Research Service (CRS): “Restrictions on water deliveries resulting directly from federal and state regulations. heartfelt though they may be. … As the famous physicist Richard Feynman said “If [your belief] disagrees with experience. an internationally recognized water expert and a MacArthur Fellow.” [From CRS (Cody et al. The report uses federal and state agency data to actually quantify impacts on Central Valley livelihoods. it is unlikely that the existing regulatory water delivery restrictions would have created controversy of a similar magnitude.

not down.750 jobs) in the San Joaquin Valley. The pain in the Central Valley is real. Census data. but the cause is not water shortages. unemployment almost doubled statewide from 5. From 2005 to 2009. Yet our report repeatedly acknowledges that poverty remains a very serious problem in the Valley: “The drought played an important role in highlighting the very real and chronic poverty in the San Joaquin Valley… Communities within the San Joaquin Valley have had the highest levels of unemployment and poverty in the state for decades. in both wet and dry years (CRS 2005).3 % (3. The U. Again. quoting from our report: “Policies to improve conditions in the area should focus on identifying and addressing the factors that have led to long-term economic hardship in the region. unemployment in every San Joaquin Valley county went up.when something is minimal. though they were concentrated in non-agricultural sectors: “The drought period coincided with the foreclosure crisis and a national and global recession. (2010) found that over the same time period crop production and agricultural support jobs declined by 1.S.4% to 11. mining.” Representative Costa says: “…this report ignores the facts that the Valley’s water supply is unreliable and that growing the food for a booming population across the globe is in our nation’s vital interest. transportation. This is due to the fact that the federal and state water projects were never fully completed and contractual allocations were larger than actual resource availability could guarantee. Michael et al.5% (2. however. The facts show that the real employment disaster in the region is in construction and other sectors not linked to water supply.” . which finds that over a longer time period (2003-2009) agricultural employment throughout the Central Valley gained slightly (2%) while natural resources.” We don’t ignore these problems.3%.” Our analysis actually reports significant job losses in the Central Valley.” And. and utilities sectors fell by 46%.500 jobs) to 2. “In situations of shortage there is also a hierarchy of contracts whereby some contractors receive more of their contract water than others. indicates that many employment sectors saw far greater declines…These conclusions are strengthened by EDD [California Employment Development Department] data.” And. The report focuses on these very points in agreement with Representative Costa: “Project contractors (or those that receive Delta water from water projects) may not receive 100% of their contractual allocations even in normal years. and construction jobs fell by 44% and employment in the trade. even when water supplies improved substantially in 2010. we highlight them. leading to highly varied drought impacts.

but they cost us much of our groundwater supply and will not be sufficient for the next. or 41%. and workers. Quoting from a January 19.” Representative Costa says: “Finally. and nuts consumed by Americans. All of the sectors that we examine in this report (agriculture. about 343. And one fact stands out: even in one of the highest-grossing agricultural regions in the world.“California produces approximately 400 different agricultural commodities. I spoke with folks I represent standing in lines at food banks that stretched for blocks. go hungry or worry about finding their next meal. high unemployment rates and poverty levels have been the norm for decades and are only equivalent to the Appalachian region of the United States.” If Representative Costa would like to have a discussion about real actions that could be taken to help his constituents face the realities of California’s water challenges and the inevitability of future droughts. California also provides food for the international market. environmental. irrigation districts.” We walked those fields too. we would welcome such a discussion. Parents and children wait in line for free bags of groceries at the Westside Youth Center… Here’s why: Of the estimated 841. it will be critical to shift from crisis-driven responses to development and enactment of long-term mitigation measures. accounting for 15% of the nation’s total agricultural export.” Representative Costa says: “I walked through fallowed fields that once grew food for our families and the world. choosing instead to issue ideological statements. farmworkers stand on street corners in Mendota. Indeed we make this very argument in our report: “…some of the response strategies such as groundwater mining were short term fixes that would not provide water security in the face of a longer or more severe drought.” “In order for California to become more resilient to future drought conditions.” This statement. shows that Representative Costa simply failed to read our report. I met face-to-face with countless people who were unable to find jobs or provide food for their families. and the environment) are highly vulnerable to future droughts and should develop more comprehensive drought planning and mitigation measures to reduce the potential for human. energy. and talked to farmers. drought on the horizon. supplying about half of the fresh fruits. vegetables. We’ve been .000 people. 2004 Fresno Bee Pablo Lopez article (before the drought and legal restrictions on moving water through the Delta): “On a cold January day. in wet or dry years. If he had read it. the report falsely claims that the coping strategies and extraordinary measures our famers employed during the drought left the Valley unharmed…These short-term strategies were essential. hoping for work. he would know that once again. as much as any of the others. and economic harm. possibly longer.400 people living in Fresno County. we’re in agreement.

Peter Gleick. Fueled by a mining boom in the nearby Atacama Desert. but should inform genuine efforts to determine the root causes of poverty and to begin to honestly address them. Dr. Peter Gleick 1 Comment Dr.A. By Brett Walton Circle of Blue Located in an arid region of northern Chile.A. the city’s population has grown by 20 .jagadeesh@gmail. Your analysis is outstanding Dr. 2011 at 3:22 am Excellent article on “impacts of the 2007-2009 California drought”.having them with his constituents and farming communities around the state. and money for utility companies around the globe. 29 June 2011 06:30 TaKaDu uses algorithms to save water.com Israeli Data Company Makes a Splash in the Water Industry (And Keeps the Drops in the Pool) Wednesday.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP).India E-mail: anumakonda.Jagadeesh July 7. energy. Antofagasta is a city in transition. The pain and suffering in this region should not be used as a political pawn by local representatives.

) Data is uploaded to remote servers and analyzed to establish a baseline water-use profile. Our foundation is in information technology. water pressures. Chilean statistical agencies predict that the population will push 500. TaKaDu uses its IT background to search for patterns in data that signify something is amiss with the water supply system. Antofagasta’s distribution system loses 23. After a brief trial period. and sensor readings. . which. Aguas de Antofagasta has turned to TaKaDu. TaKaDu offers a software solution that works with the data already collected by the utility—chunks of information on flow rates. but also how to make sure that all of that water reaches its intended destination. To improve the system’s efficiency and service quality. With traditional water sources exhausted. “The people who founded the company are from the telecommunications industry. Not A Water Company Founded in 2008 and employing 35 people. the two companies officially announced a contract on May 18.5 percent of its supply to leaks. by 2014. Early detection catches small problems before they turn into big ones. though it has more appeal in areas where the water distribution system has a high sensor density.percent over the last decade to more than 360. a small technology start-up based in Israel. preventing a pipe leak from becoming a much costlier break. For Aguas de Antofagasta. the regional supplier. the Antofagasta will become the first city in South America to rely solely on desalinated water. The Pacific Ocean already provides more than 60 percent of the utility’s water supply. not the water used by customers. TaKaDu’s algorithms and mathematical models sift new data as it comes in to identify anomalies in real time. is a performance measure just under the global average of 30 percent loss. “We really do not consider ourselves a water company. TaKaDu’s service requires the installation of no additional equipment. Aguas de Antofagasta. as TaKaDu calls it.000.” As is the trend for water aid organizations. since more data makes identifying smaller leaks easier. however.” said Guy Horowitz. But the utility is not only worried about creating fresh water from sea water. in an interview with Circle of Blue. and. is investing heavily in desalination. (Water infrastructure monitoring. according to the World Bank.000 by 2020. oversees the water distribution system. vice president for marketing. the water waste cuts much deeper: the company squanders significant amounts of energy—and money— desalinating and pumping water that customers never see. TaKaDu brings a different sensibility to the water sector. Currently.

By using the software.org. Its largest client is Thames Water. Europe. And there is a rising supply of data mavens who want to do just that.7 million cubic meters (450 billion gallons). “Water is a scare resource. 2011 at 3:26 am . TaKaDu serves water utilities in Israel. Reach Walton at brett@circleofblue. which Horowitz said is a nonsense word selected precisely because. as far as the company knows. in the next few weeks.A. These new contracts come on the heels of some prestigious global recognition. Horowitz said. Kutulas told Circle of Blue via email that the predicted electricity savings of 7. and now Chile. Because new water sources are more expensive to develop. it doesn’t mean anything. a club for spreading the gospel about how data management can improve water systems. Brett Walton is a Seattle-based reporter for Circle of Blue. It is also a member of the Smart Water Network Forum. Australia. the company will be announcing a contract with an even larger utility.000 megawatt-hours per year represent 10 percent of the company’s annual use.” Small Company with Global Ambitions The company’s global ambitions are evident in its name. saving 1. TaKaDu won a technology award from the World Economic Forum (WEF) and a sustainability award from the International Water Association for its Thames Water project.” Horowitz said. according to the company’s general manager Marco Kutulas. Last fall. which serves close to 9 million water customers and 14 million sewer customers in London. utilities like Aguas de Antofagasta are looking to make better use of what they have. 1 Comment Dr.5 percentage points within three years. “We’ve identified a new niche.Jagadeesh July 7. Aguas de Antofagasta hopes to reduce water loss by 3. but it hasn’t received a lot of attention and innovation from investors.

CEO of Recurrent Energy.com Solar at Risk? Policy stalemate undermines future Bill Opalka | Jul 07. “It’s an interesting in that there’s more solar in the pipeline than we’ve ever seen in the past.” Harris said. Solar developers are excited about the future but policy gridlock means much of its recent progress could be undercut by Washington gridlock in a matter of months. First. That would be 30 gigawatts of utility scale projects in advanced permitting. Israel is well known for its water research and irrigation techniques.A. . “We have this tremendous buildup of projects because of declining costs and the policy in play.Marvelous.jagadeesh@gmail.” he added. they need pass through the gauntlet of permitting and finance.India E-mail: anumakonda. In order for theme to make it to completion to operating assets. So why is the industry worried about the future? I spoke to Arno Harris. according to a study by the American Public Power Association. Dr. a utility scale solar developer based in California that also has operations in Canada and Europe.Jagadeesh Nellore(AP). The proportion is astounding. The initial victim is the ability to finance projects. 2011 Solar power has the biggest project pipeline of any energy source in the country. the good news.

with the United States seen as the largest solar market bar none. “It’s really frustrating problem because there’s a tremendous amount of interest in solar projects. at 6.” Harris said.As the projects move down the list.” Harris said. the terms are strong. however. That’s why 1603 was so different. like the 1603 Treasury grants in lieu of production tax credits.$9 billion in projects in a pool of $3 billion of tax equity – the competition is fierce and capital cost high. But worldwide credit markets – and they are worldwide. because the credit is really strong. But that requires a policy discussion that is only now just beginning. Comments . Another would be to move toward what’s used in oil and gas.” Harris said. "In the longer term it makes a heckuva lot of sense to move away from tax credits because markets don’t seem to be working. Congress may be unwilling in the current budget climate. but can’t write a $20 million check to participate by investing in a fund.” Harris said. go to any renewable energy finance conference and half the audience seems to be comprised of Europeans – have billions to invest in clean energy. the tax equity market exists. Canada and Europe are poised to pick up where we’ve left off. Congress could extend some of the programs that have worked in recent years. “There’s a chance we could blow it if we don’t get the policies right. with Congress only willing to extend existing programs at the last minute.2 gigawatts. and the underlying technology risk is well understood. but that is only a temporary fix. in particular the utility scale projects. for better or worse. A convoluted and inefficient system has grown up around the industry. “What that would allow is the millions of individual investors who have an interest. But with about three times as much demand as the available supply in the tax equity markets -. In the meantime. In the relative short run. One policy making the rounds is the refundable investment tax credit to solve the liquidity problem. but some fixes could be helpful. solar drops to number four when listed as projects awaiting construction. a master limited partnership for solar. That’s where the financing challenge appears. If so.

Jul 7.6:03 AM Good Editorial. Dr.A.jagadeesh@gmail. Declan Butler . 19 (2011) | doi:10. Unless CSP.Improved materials for solar cells like Gallium Arsenide.1038/475019a News Mosquitoes score in chemical war Growing resistance is threatening global malaria-control efforts. Gallium Phosphide.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP).com naturenews Published online 5 July 2011 | Nature 475. Solar PV is still uneconomic in many countries because of its limited efficiency. 2011 .Organic Polymer come to the market Solar is a far cry especially in the developing countries.Solar has great future when Efficiency goes up . India Wind Energy Expert E-mail: anumakonda.Tandem.

pyrethroid insecticides. "Data are coming in thick and fast indicating increasing levels of resistance." says Robert Newman. these efforts have greatly reduced the disease's toll. "We have lots of our eggs in the pyrethroid basket. although they cost more and are less effective. cheap." says Jo Lines. and chief executive of the non-profit Innovative Vector Control Consortium. More systematic and more sophisticated monitoring of resistance is also vital. an entomological epidemiologist and head of vector control at the Global Malaria Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva. are losing their edge. The best . saying: 'As soon as you scale up you are going to get resistance. "A number of us had been banging the drums. billions of dollars have been spent on distributing longlasting pyrethroid-treated bed nets and on indoor spraying. and also of resistance in new places. But pyrethroids are the only insecticides approved by the WHO for use in bed nets. says Janet Hemingway. Teasing out the impact of resistance on the success of malaria-control interventions is difficult because so many other factors influence their outcome. Pyrethroids are the mainstay of malaria control because they are safe.'" But Lines says that the malariacontrol community felt too many lives were at stake to let the threat of resistance stand in the way of massively scaling up the bed-net and spraying campaigns. director of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Alternatives such as organophosphates and carbamates are available for indoor spraying. a public–private venture set up in 2005 to develop new insecticides and monitoring tools. says Lines. But they have also created intense selection pressure for mosquitoes to develop resistance. effective and long-lasting. The WHO now intends to launch a global strategy to tackle the problem by the end of the year. director of the Global Malaria Programme. Over the past decade. where most malaria deaths occur. Switzerland. UK. Focused in Africa.Key weapons in the fight against malaria. Click for larger image The international community has been slow to respond to the threat despite warnings.

that control programmes rotate insecticides sprayed indoors. Quick. 27. For indoor spraying. which depend on increased levels of mosquito enzymes that can destroy pyrethroids before they reach their target. In areas where pyrethroid bed nets are used. Malaria-control programmes often lack insect-resistance monitoring. 91–98. he says. using pyrethroids one year and a different class the next. so that mosquitoes resistant to one would be killed by the other. Lines says that new combinations of insecticides also need to be developed. This would be more costly and less effective than relying only on pyrethroids. which is why control efforts have had so few options to call on Comments #25039 There are many plants which are used as natural insecticides including mosquitos as repellents: • • • o Achillea alpina (mosquitos) alpha-terpinene (mosquitos) Basil Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) . although useful. do not give a complete picture of where resistance is emerging and how prevalent it is. Trends Parasitol. however. Ultimately. 2011). although developing wholly new classes will take five to seven years. so control programmes may be reluctant to adopt this measure. cheap tests can pick out gene mutations that help the mosquitoes' nerve cells withstand pyrethroid attack. she adds. Research targeting mosquito control is "grossly underfunded" compared with that on malaria drugs and vaccines. But uncertainties about the extent of resistance or its impact are "no excuse for inaction". says Newman. arguing that the proposed WHO strategy needs to be urgently implemented. But other forms of resistance. Ranson et al. and also rolled out preemptively in places where resistance has yet to be detected. some longer-lasting and more costeffective non-pyrethroid insecticides should be available by next year. The WHO's plan will recommend. entirely new classes of insecticides — particularly those that can be applied to bed nets — are needed to alleviate the dependence of malaria-control efforts on pyrethroids. require more complex tests to detect (H. he adds. for example. a different class of insecticides should be used for wall spraying.surveillance data (see 'Resistance on the rise'). Repurposed agricultural insecticides might also act as a stopgap were resistance to pyrethroids to develop rapidly. Hemingway says. and detection of all forms of resistance is not easy.

but very toxic to pets. moths) Celery extract (Apium graveolens) (mosquitos) Cinnamon (leaf oil kills mosquito larvae) Citronella oil (repels mosquitos) Oil of cloves (mosquitos) Eucalyptus oil (70%+ eucalyptol). It is a 400 millions years old natural mechanisms helping to sanitise the hives or to escape predators Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) (mosquitos. mosquitos. flies. their larvae and a plethora of other insects including those in agriculture) Oleic acid. repels bees and ants by simulating the "Smell of death" produced by their decomposing corpses. fleas).8-diol (PMD) Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon species) (mosquitos) East-Indian Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) Marigolds (Tagetes species) Marjoram (Spider mites Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis) Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) (Repels or kills mosquitos. (cineol is a synonym).• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • o • • • • • • Callicarpa americana (Beautyberry) Camphor (moths) Carvacrol (mosquitos) Castor oil (Ricinus communis) (mosquitos) Catnip oil (Nepeta species) (nepetalactone against mosquitos) Cedar oil (mosquitos. wheat flour beetle) Geranium oil (also known as Pelargonium graveolens) Lavender (repels insects) Lemon eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora) essential oil and its active ingredient p-menthane-3. dust mites Fennel oil (Foeniculum vulgare) (mosquitos) Garlic (Allium sativum) (rice weevil. Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) (mosquitos) .

2011. People put the dried leaves of neem made as powder (Azadirachta indica)and put them on natural coal fire and the smoke repels the mosquitos. Helopeltis theivora) Tea tree oil Thyme (Thymus species) (mosquitos) Yellow Nightshade (Solanum villosum). When Kerosene spreads it forms a layer which does not allow sunrays to enter and as such prevent mosquito breeding. coccineum) Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) (mosquitos) Spanish Flag (Lantana camara) (against Tea Mosquito Bug. cinerariifolium and C. putting ointment on the skin etc. berry juice (against Stegomyia aegypti mosquitos In the olden days Municipalities in India used to have a program to spray Kerosene in ponds and open canals which are breeders for mosquitos. The more chemical used are Mosquito mats.• • • • • • Pyrethrum (from Chrysanthemum species. Mosquito coils smoke. liquid evoporation.7. particularly C.7 9:05:16 AM Posted by: Jagadeesh A ..