Building Community Resilience for Health, Vector Control and Climate Change thru Social Forestry Dr.

Homero Silva Environmental Health Advisor PAHO/WHO Jamaica Introduction Climate change is going to bring chaos to many countries in the world. Especially to those countries with low resilience, under the verge of economic collapse and with already poorly financed health sector programmes. Vector diseases will exacerbate this condition. The end result will be a gargantuan impact on public health to the general population, but especially to those in the lower income groups. The expected environmental impacts, already being felt in some areas of the world, are: higher temperatures; rising seas; increased risk of drought, fire and floods; stronger storms and increased storm damage; changing landscapes; more heat-related illness and disease; economic losses and wildlife at risk. The outcomes in health will be an increase on: cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases; vector and water borne diseases; food safety and food security related diseases; human reproduction and other diseases related to humidity and temperature. The only alternative available for poor countries is to minimize or eliminate the above problems by increasing Community Resilience. In this paper “Resilience” is understood as the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. By the contrary, “Susceptibility” is the inability to resist, absorb, accommodate (adopt or adapt) to a hazard. From here, it is logical that if we want to protect public health from climate change and vector borne diseases, then we should strengthen communities resistance by strengthen the determinants of health. Vector and Climate Change Control thru Social Forestry is oriented to indoor housing and its surroundings, by the introduction of plants and trees that while acting as mosquito repellent indoors and surroundings, (some of them act as insecticides cutting the mosquito reproductive cycle), they also can be utilized as alternative medicines, food and for employment generation. Some of the plants and trees can be used to dry wet areas and hence prevent the creation of mosquito breeding sites. Finally an additional benefit of some plants and trees is the creation of “cool islands” which decrease the temperature indoor and outdoor creating more comfortable conditions for its inhabitants. Reduction of temperature inside and outside the house will decrease the use of energy utilized for cooling purposes, and therefore energy savings can be of the order of 30 to 50%, according to studies done in United Sates. We foresee Social Forestry to have a high impact on the Social Determinants of Health to increase community resilience. Justification Why we should focus on Health Public health is the best strategy for all to attain health and, as a consequence, economic, social, cultural and spiritual development. In this regard, when public health is focused on human capital) it contributes largely to poverty reduction, better education, achievement of human rights, freedom as development and overall, equity. What people can achieve contributes to human capital development. In this regard, Theodore Schultz formulated his theory about development — where to achieve it, human capital should be considered and not only fixed capital (human as well as fixed capital should be considered). The possibility, the capability of human beings to produce and contribute is called human capital. The two most important ingredients to achieve this are health and education. Schultz produced his ideas of human capital in the 60’s as a way to explain the advantage of investing in health and education, in order to improve agricultural production. He demonstrated that human capital production in the USA economy was higher than that based on physical capital (i.e., a new plant or machine).

For Schultz, the concept of human capital implies investing in people. He argues that education, training and health investments open opportunities and options that would normally not be available to many individuals. He compares the acquisition, knowledge and skills to the “acquisition of production means”. Workers should not be at mercy of others. To the contrary, they can control the increase of their own productivity and income. He defends that income difference among persons is related to differences in education and health. In the past, the belief was that fixed capital investment was the most important contributor for the future growth of a country. But, Schultz has demonstrated this is wrong — investment in human capital contributes up to 65% to the economic growth of a country. When we talk about poverty, or how to improve the situation of one country, we shall never forget human capital, because it contributes to the growth of wealth in a country. Health status can influence poverty itself but, contrarily, health can contribute to the productivity or wealth of a country. It is obvious that ill persons cannot contribute; their productivity is relatively low. Health is an element that impacts in wellbeing and contributes to economic growth in four ways: 1) reduces production losses by workers infirmity; 2) allows the use of natural resources that, due to diseases, were totally or practically inaccessible; 3) increases school enrollment of children and allows them to learn better; and 4) liberates, for other uses, resources needed to treat infirmity in other ways. For example, in some classical studies in Central America, in populations dedicated to agriculture, correction of anemia has shown that productivity increases greatly. Iron deficiency and anemia reduce the capacity of individuals and of the entire population causing serious economic consequences and obstacles for national development. Inversely, anemic treatment can increase national productivity in 20%. Overall, the most poor and the less educated are more vulnerable and disproportionately affected by iron deficiency. These vulnerable groups benefit most from anemia treatment. Recent studies show that improvements in workers’ health are associated with productivity improvements, particularly in those where income is low. There are many reasons why the relationship between productivity and health in developing countries is of special interest. Labour income is a fundamental input for wellbeing of the individual and the family, becoming as a last resource for poverty alleviation. Leibenstein showed that among poor nourished workers, those who consume more calories not only can be more productive, but in many cases very low levels of ingestion and betterment of nutrition could be associated with relatively high increases in productivity. Health plays an important role in poverty alleviation, because on one side, a healthier individual is, also, a more productive individual, and a more productive individual will see this result manifested in a higher salary. On the other hand, a healthier individual can compete in similar conditions with others. Therefore, what health does is to put individuals in situations of equal opportunities, which improves their income, but at the same time, also improves economic growth. Some studies have attempted to estimate the return on investment in health and the betterment of income in persons. Strauss and Thomas tried to describe the role of health through four health indicators, namely, weight, size, height and body mass index, and if these represented improvements in salaries in both men and women. Results were significant in low- income population groups, but not in medium- and high-income groups. This indicates that health improvements have a greater impact on the income of persons with low income, i.e., they reduce poverty on this functional group. Investment in health makes investment in education more effective. In order for the inversion in education be effective, first it is necessary that the person be alive and had good health during the rest of his life. Sick children cannot learn because of several reasons. There is evidence showing that sick children cannot learn — new elements, new things — or they can present behaviour problems, etc. This demonstrates that sick children cannot perform well and, hence, investments in education in sick children are not as effective as inversion in healthy children. Different studies on return investments in human capital in function of age where investment is done, have concluded this to be higher during first years than in later years, i.e., investments in health should be at infancy. Be this the reason the importance of child health and mothers education over their children. Amartya Sen, Nobel Prize in Economics, defined development as a product of freedom and the capacities to exert them. That is, development is the freedom to expand our capacities to live life we value and have reasons to value. In this context, instrumental freedoms are: political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities,

transparency guarantees and protective security. These freedoms tend to contribute to the general capacity of a person to live more freely, but they serve to complement each other. Expansion of freedoms should be seen as a primary goal as well as the main means for development. Here persons are considered as active agents of change and not mere passive recipients of benefits provided by others. What people can achieve is influenced by economic opportunities, political freedoms, social forces and permissible conditions of health and basic education. Without diminishing the importance of other freedoms to achieve development, we should focus in the agent of change, i.e., the human being, the human capital. Development of a country depends on human capital, and this depends at the same time on health and education. Parameters that measure poverty are different. This is not in relation to only economic income. Those factors, farther than the mere acquiring capacity, are our capacities, the same that allows us to have options, those who allow us to elect and to have control on our decisions. In summary, we can conclude that one of the health benefits is to allow equity, in all meanings, because health empowers people in their own development. Health plays an important role in poverty reduction, because on one side, a healthier individual is also a more productive individual, and a more productive individual sees this fact reflected in greater salaries. In addition, a healthier person can compete in similar conditions with others, so achievement of health places persons in equal opportunity situations, which improves their income, but at the same time improves the economic growth. The Social Determinants of Health Until now the reports of the impact on Climate Change have been directed to the disease not to health, as defined by WHO. Here, an analysis of Climate Change and its impact on health is presented. But rather than conducting a simplistic approach (i.e. rainfall versus vector diseases), a holistic analysis of how climate change will impact on the determinants of health will be done. Why are some persons healthy and others not? Since 1974 (Lalonde Report) work has been carried to explain that. Excellent scientific research has established that factors such as living and working conditions and how we share wealth in our societies are crucially important for a healthy population. Commonly referred to as the determinants of health, these broad factors impact on individual and population health. The determinants of health are each important in their own right, however, they interact to forcefully influence health and well being across the lifespan. Being the case, then it is obvious that in evaluating the impacts on health from climate change, the determinants of health should be used to adapt and mitigate thru the preparation of policies, plans and projects to minimize the adverse impacts on health. Although the determinants of health can be described in many ways, in this paper it is proposed to use the twelve major determinants1 of health proposed by The Public Health Agency of Canada, as follows: 1) Income and Social Status,; 2) Social Support Networks; 3) Education and Literacy; 4) Employment / Working Conditions, 5) Social Environments, 6)Physical Environments, 7) Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills, 8) Healthy Child Development, 9) Biology and Genetic Endowment, 10, Health Services, 11)Gender and 12) Culture. Income and Social Status. Health status improves at each step up the income and social hierarchy. High income determines living conditions such as safe housing and ability to buy sufficient good food. The healthiest populations are those in societies which are prosperous and have an equitable distribution of wealth. Public health researchers and epidemiologists have long known that social status — wealth, educational attainment, occupational prestige and occupational status — is related to health and well-being. Social Support Networks A social support network is made up of friends, family and peers. It can play an important role in times of stress. A social support network is something you can develop when you're not under stress, providing the comfort of knowing that your friends are there for you if you need them. Support from families, friends and communities is associated with better health. Such social support networks could be very important in helping people solve problems and deal with adversity, as well as in maintaining a sense of mastery

Public Health Agency Canada, 2003.

and control over life circumstances. The caring and respect that occurs in social relationships, and the resulting sense of satisfaction and well-being, seem to act as a buffer against health problems. Education and Literacy Health status improves with level of education. Education is closely tied to socioeconomic status, and effective education for children and lifelong learning for adults are key contributors to health and prosperity for individuals, and for the country. Education contributes to health and prosperity by equipping people with knowledge and skills for problem solving, and helps provide a sense of control and mastery over life circumstances. It increases opportunities for job and income security, and job satisfaction. And it improves people's ability to access and understand information to help keep them healthy. Employment / Working Conditions. Unemployment, underemployment, stressful or unsafe work are associated with poorer health. People who have more control over their work circumstances and fewer stress related demands of the job are healthier and often live longer than those in more stressful or riskier work and activities.

Social Environments. The importance of social support also extends to the broader community. Civic vitality refers to the strength of social networks within a community, region, province or country. It is reflected in the institutions, organizations and informal giving practices that people create to share resources and build attachments with others. The array of values and norms of a society influences in varying ways the health and well being of individuals and populations.
Physical Environments. The physical environment is an important determinant of health. At certain levels of exposure, contaminants in our air, water, food and soil can cause a variety of adverse health effects, including cancer, birth defects, respiratory illness and gastrointestinal ailments. In the built environment, factors related to housing, indoor air quality, and the design of communities and transportation systems can significantly influence our physical and psychological well-being. Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills. Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills refer to those actions by which individuals can prevent diseases and promote self-care, cope with challenges, and develop selfreliance, solve problems and make choices that enhance health. Definitions of lifestyle include not only individual choices, but also the influence of social, economic, and environmental factors on the decisions people make about their health. There is a growing recognition that personal life "choices" are greatly influenced by the socioeconomic environments in which people live, learn, work and play. Healthy Child Development. New evidence on the effects of early experiences on brain development, school readiness and health in later life has sparked a growing consensus about early child development as a powerful determinant of health in its own right. At the same time, we have been learning more about how all of the other determinants of health affect the physical, social, mental, emotional and spiritual development of children and youth. For example, a young person's development is greatly affected by his or her housing and neighborhood, family income and level of parents' education, access to nutritious foods and physical recreation, genetic makeup and access to dental and medical care. Biology and Genetic Endowment. The basic biology and organic make-up of the human body are a fundamental determinant of health. Genetic endowment provides an inherited predisposition to a wide range of individual responses that affect health status. Although socio-economic and environmental factors are important determinants of overall health, in some circumstances genetic endowment appears to predispose certain individuals to particular diseases or health problems Health Services. Health services, particularly those designed to maintain and promote health, to prevent disease, and to restore health and function contribute to population health. The health services continuum of care includes treatment and secondary prevention. Gender. Gender refers to the array of society-determined roles, personality traits, attitudes, behaviors, values, relative power and influence that society ascribes to the two sexes on a differential basis. "Gendered" norms influence the health system's practices and priorities. Many health issues are a function of gender-based social status or roles.

Culture. Some persons or groups may face additional health risks due to a socio-economic environment, which is largely determined by dominant cultural values that contribute to the

This chemical interrupts skin production of carbon dioxide. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). environmental degradation. Up to know. hence mosquitoes avoid getting close to skin areas covered with these products. changing landscapes. N. Geranium (Pelargonium roseum). those include the following: Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium). food safety and food security related diseases. Impacts will vary disproportionately. the most common form to repel or eliminate mosquitoes has included the aspersion of high quantities of poisoning chemical products inside and outside the housing unit or in ourselves. Basil (Ocimum bacilicum). by the intensive use of DDT. during several hours. Several countries also rely on fogging. children and women the most affected. Vector Borne Diseases Vector-borne diseases—especially malaria. which attracts mosquitoes. as two-thirds of those cases occur in working-age people. more heat-related illness and disease. it is proposed to utilize alternative methods to DDT for the control of this disease. Climate changes impacts negatively on each one of the determinants of health. The Proposal There are garden plants and trees with mosquito repellent properties. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). indigenous people. dengue. evaluating the impacts on disease are not helping on strengthening resilience public health to be prepared for the impacts of climate change(direct effects. loss or devaluation of language and culture and lack of access to culturally appropriate health care and services. economic losses and wildlife at risk. being the poor. fire and floods. the disease is still endemic in 21 countries and results in approximately one million cases reported annually—a significant economic impact. but avoid the contact of mosquitoes to persons. In summary. already being felt in some areas of the world. nevertheless the chemical industry continues producing chemicals that are lethal to animal life and the influence on human health is not yet entirely understood. Also there are some natural insecticides such as: Bitter . vector and water borne diseases. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. Climate Change As mentioned before. A more detailed explanation on the determinants of health and how they are going to be impacte is presented in Annex 1. and as consequence there is no biting. human reproduction and other diseases related to humidity and temperature. These repellents do not kill mosquitoes. Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon nardus) in candles and in products designed to be used on the skin is widely known. and high migration of affected persons facilitate the transmission of the disease thru the borders. Mint ((Mentha x piperita) and Chrysanthemum Weed (Artemesia vulgaris). Evaluating impacts of climate change on determinants of health is a better approach than evaluating diseases. rising seas. stigmatization. In this paper we call them Vector Control thru Social Forestry.Diethyl – m – Toluamide). adaptation and mitigation measures). However there are other plants and trees which have been utilized by centuries because of their insect repellent properties. but also to decrease anopheline densities. leaves of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra). principally to reduce Aedes aegypti. both for public health as well as for the environment. In base of the above considerations. Mosquito repellent products turn humans unappealing to mosquitoes. and taking into account the negative effects. Any repellent to be considered effective should contain DEET (N. increased risk of drought. While the number of reported cases of malaria hit a peak in the late 1990s. are: higher temperatures. rapid expansion of agricultural borders. the expected environmental impacts. and Chagas’—continue compromising the health of large proportion of the regional population. Human beings are so accustomed to the use of chemicals that they do not realize all the different remedies Mother Nature has against mosquitoes. Vegetal world offers a great gamut of effective insect repellents. The most commonly used insecticides in the Americas are organophosphates and pyrethroids. stronger storms and increased storm damage . the repellent makes mosquitoes unable to locate their victims. Population growth.perpetuation of conditions such as marginalization. The outcomes in health will be an increase on: cardiovascular. By interrupting this process.

In the following paragraphs a detailed presentation is made on several plants that may be utilized as alternative vector control methods: Tanacetum . Anise (Pimpinella anisum) and Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis). Spanish Chamomile (Anacyclus pyrethrum).Buttons (Tanacetum vulgare).

stress and neuralgia. commonly known as "geranium oil. edema. menopausal problems. dermatitis. Ice creams and Sorbets ingredient (flowers and leaves). graveolens cultivars have a wide variety of smells. i. the acaricidal effects of the essential oils (EOs) prepared from two medicinal plants. Salad ingredient (flowers) and Sugar flavouring (leaves) Traditional Medicine. bruises. under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated. Rose Geranium oil can be used to help in the treatment of the following: acne. Roseum can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of R. It is often called geranium as it falls within the plant family Geraniaceae. lice. burns. particularly P. (B) annulatus in the field. This specific species has great importance in the perfume industry. This specific species has great importance in the perfume industry. although more correctly. the most commercially important varieties are those that have rose scents. breast engorgement. It is cultivated on a large scale and its foliage is distilled for its scent. sore throat. The insecticidal activity against the house fly. poor circulation. including rose. However. mint. and in particular South Africa. ringworm. eczema. it is referred to as Pelargonium. as well as various fruits. Musca domestica L. citrus. Cake ingredient (flowers and leaves). The results show that both plants. coconut and nutmeg. Pelargonium roseum and Eucalyptus globulus on the adult stage of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus were evaluated. cuts. . PMS. Pelargonium distillates and absolutes. hemorrhoids. Other applications include." is sold for aromatherapy and massage therapy applications is sometimes used to supplement or adulterate more expensive rose oils. P. Industrial/Commercial Use.Geranium (Pelargonium roseum) It is a species in the Pelargonium genus. Culinary uses. It's reputation as an extremely versatile essential oil is well documented. tonsillitis. which is indigenous to various parts of southern Africa. It is cultivated on a large scale and its foliage is distilled for its scent. in west-central Iran.e. Jam and jellies ingredient (flowers and leaves). In a laboratory trial. Vector Control It is a natural insect repellent. ulcers.

ovicidal. star anise is considerably less expensive to produce. Anise can be used to relieve menstrual cramps. Anise is used to flavor some alcoholic beverages. compared to 400 tonnes from star anise. adulticidal. while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate. approximately 3 mm diameter. and has gradually displaced the 'original' anise in Western markets. anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness. Anise. While formerly produced in larger quantities. which is similar to hot chocolate. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. contains anethole. quinquefasciatus larvae. which resembles liquorice. The essential oils of Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. compared to 400 tonnes from star anise. . In the 1860's American Civil War nurse Maureen Hellstrom used anise seeds as an early form of antiseptic. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. are used in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries. like fennel. 3 – 5 mm long. The fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp.1 cm) long and shallowly lobed. anethole. This method was later found to have caused high levels of toxicity in the blood and was discontinued shortly thereafter. aegypti with equivalent LD95 values of 115. so they should be started either in their final location or transplanted while the seedlings are still small. According to Pliny the Elder. and taken as a digestive after meals in India. Anopheles stephensi. by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tonnes. Anise plants grow best in light. a phytoestrogen. Industrial/Commercial Use. it is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Australian humbugs.91 m) tall. Western cuisines have long used anise as a moderately popular herb to flavor some dishes. Because the plants have a taproot.7 microg/ml against C. produced in dense umbels. Anise is used as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths). they do not transplant well after being established.Anise (Pimpinella anisum) It is also known as anís. drinks. and when mixed with wine as a remedy for asp bites. It is known for its flavor. contains anethole. The flowers are white. Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft (0. The seeds should be planted as soon as the ground warms up in spring. It is these seed pods that are referred to as "aniseed". a phytoestrogen. including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug. whereas it was 149. by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tonnes. and candies. It is a key ingredient in Mexican "atole de anís". divided into numerous leaves. and East Asian dishes. and so the word has come to connote both the species of herb and the licorice-like flavor. New Zealand aniseed wheels. Vector Control. Traditional Medicine. Anise is sweet and very aromatic. fertile. whole or ground. oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species.5–2 in (1. chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath. fennel and tarragon. The essential oil of P. like fennel. Italian pizzelle. While formerly produced in larger quantities. including British aniseed balls. Anise is used to flavor some alcoholic beverages. The leaves at the base of the plant are simple.3–5. is found in both anise and an unrelated spice called star anise. Featured prominently in South Asian. Southeast Asian. 0. Essential oils extracted from anis were evaluated for larvicidal. distinguished by its licorice-like flavor.The seeds. stephensi and A. Culinary Uses. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise. Anise. Peruvian picarones and others.7 microg/ml. well drained soil.

and are regarded as a good alternative to animal products. earthy taste. . and bell peppers are the holy trinity of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. onions. It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves. Celery seeds yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Culinary Uses. mainly in having stouter leaf stems. Traditional Medicine. Celery is thought to be an aphrodisiac by some people. Celery salt is used as a seasoning. The stalks grow in tight straight parallel bunches. as they can act as a uterine stimulant. either as whole seeds or ground and mixed with salt. Celery salt can also be made from an extract of the roots. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice. aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant. It should also be noted that this may constitute a risk factor in skin cancer. dogs. and carrots make up the French mirepoix. where it provides low-calorie dietary fibre bulk. however. and the most crisp and tender. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine). adult Aedes aegypti. birds. with caution. In North America. Celery seeds are also a great source of calcium. humans. adulticidal. the whole plant having a coarse. such as chicken noodle soup. dulce) or celeriac (var. horses. squirrels. onions. Celery appears to provoke the most severe allergic reactions. white and red. Crude seed extract of celery. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory. in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails). for people with celery allergy. and in Old Bay Seasoning. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac. With cultivation and blanching. and its seeds are those sold as a spice. as celery salt. They also contain an organic compound called apiol. many of which differ little from the wild species. In the European Union. sweetish. Celery is used in weight-loss diets. rapaceum) depending on whether the petioles (stalks) or roots are eaten. foods that contain or may contain celery. and celery along with other umbellifers is one of the vegetables to be included in the diet as a source of psoralens. Celery is a staple in many soups. When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane. and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti. and are typically marketed fresh that way. two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory. Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity. without roots and just a little green leaf remaining. Celery. However. this is a potentially useful action in psoriasis. The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. on the Chicago-style hot dog. all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female. either for the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) or the fleshy toproot. even in trace amounts. the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild. Industrial Uses. The hexane fraction. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy. Celery. often used as a base for sauces and soups. the white cultivars being generally the best flavoured. commercial production of celery is dominated by the varieties called Pascal celery. Apium graveolens grows to 1 m tall. A common use for the seeds is as a "blood purifier" and it is sometimes taken for arthritis. or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars. The wild form of celery is known as smallage. including larvicidal.Celery (Apium graveolens) It is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. Apium graveolens. and a distinctive smell. and small rodents. Vector control. but the leaves may be used in salads.. Apium graveolens is used around the world as a vegetable. They are ranged under two classes. have to be clearly marked as such. Celery is widely eaten by guinea pigs. has been found effective for anti-mosquito potential.

It is high in antioxidant activity. by the absorption of oxygen as it ages. and its origin was mysterious in Europe until the sixteenth century. with the characteristic odor of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. Vector Control. In the Middle East. Cinnamon has been proposed] for use as an insect repellent. as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential. and desserts. The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties. It is of a golden-yellow color. and sweets. cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals. and fruits. hot cocoa. Regular drinking of tea could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans. It has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Pharmacological experiments suggest that the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaleugenoldehyde) activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells and may therefore represent an experimental chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. cinnamyl acetate. . and anethole that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.Cinnamon (Cinnamomum) It is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum which includes all species of Evergreen trees. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. and liqueurs. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine. Recent research documents anti-melanoma activity of cinnamic aldehyde observed in cell culture and a mouse model of human melanoma. macerating it in seawater. it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. eugenol. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and. One teaspoon of cinnamon contains as many antioxidants as a full cup of pomegranate juice and 1/2 a cup of blueberries. It is used in the preparation of chocolate. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. bread-based dishes. eugenol (found mostly in the leaves). although it remains untested. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. In the United States. Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae . Traditional Medicine. as well as spicy candies. it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. Industrial Uses. It has been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system. Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion. used in a variety of thick soups. which can aid in the preservation of certain foods. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark. and then quickly distilling the whole. The compounds cinnamic aldehyde. linalool. Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0. beta-caryophyllene. Cinnamon trees are native to South East Asia. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate. and methyl chavicol.5% to 1% of its composition. drinks. tea. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity Culinary Uses. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats.

Yarrow oil has been traditionally used in hair shampoos. trauma and bleeding. alkaloids including achilleine. for stomach ulcers. Externally for treating wounds and stopping the flow of blood. stimulant. fevers. In 2003. the price per kilogram was $16. sesquiterpene lctones. The world production of Achillea millefolium essential oil is 800 tonnes annually. diaphoretic. Vector Control. They occur in Europe and temperate areas of Asia. and tannins which prove these uses in alternative medicine to be effective. kidney disorders. large or frequent doses taken over a long period may cause the skin to be more sensitive to sunlight. in the family Asteraceae. abscesses. Finally. This herb works as an effective mosquito repellent. Yarrow is used against colds. coumarins. polyacetylenes. dried herb add 1 cup boiling water. carminative. It seems that the global yarrow market is well-developed in Europe. stimulate the flow of bile. salicylic acid. and purify the blood. Yarrow is very common along roadsides and in old fields. Industrial Use. Medicinal tea is a good remedy for severe colds and flu. estimated to have a value of U. sweeten to taste. aromatic leaves. A very good companion plant. In Quebec. The highly aromatic leaves and flowers are made into a herbal tea. It is also added to many cosmetic and beauty products. camphor. hairy. will survive in poor soil. there are some other uses as well. native to Europe and Asia and naturalized in North America and most other countries throughout the world. toothaches. steep for 10 min. triterpenes. emmenagogue. it is used to reduce shore and slope erosion. sabinene.50 and one kg of yarrow essential oil sold for approximately $2. Some caution is advised . it improves the health of plants growing nearby and enhances their essential oil content thus making them more resistant to insect predations also improves the soil fertility. It is also used by honey bees. abdominal cramps. and to reduce inflammation. and meadows in the eastern and central United States and Canada. A few grow in North America. antispasmodic. besides the above mentioned medicinal properties of yarrow herb. Extracts of yarrow exhibit antibiotic activity and may also act as anti-neoplastic drugs. An aromatic tea: To 1 tsp. Richters Herb Catalogue states that the flower market is limited and that special equipment would be required to be competitive on the international market. These plants typically have frilly. and tonics. flavanoids. with much scientific evidence of use in alternative medicine as an antiseptic.Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) It is a genus of about 85 flowering plants. Yarrow is a very valuable medicinal herb. vasodilator and vulnerary. and to regulate menses. Fresh leaves can be used as a substitute for sage in recipes. commonly referred to as yarrow. Common yarrow can be used as a blue dye in medications and food colouring. and chamazulene. digestive. Culinary Uses. However.$88 million. In certain areas. . the annual production of dried organic flowers is 100 kg. skin irritations. pastures.583. Traditional Medicine. It prefers a well-drained soil in a sunny position.S. The main constituents are volatile oils including linalool. Take at bedtime. amenorrhea. with an annual growth rate of about 15%. and hemorrhages. Yarrow is easily cultivated. cramps. astringent. Yarrow is a perennial herb.

It has alkamides. as a an dien Medicinally. Boil 35 grs. Alkamides includes deca-2. lignane (including sesamine). lignane (including sesamine). This herb contains an essential volatile oil and an alkaloid. pellitorin or pyrethrin. It is found in North Africa. and to aid in digestion. This oil can be applied over the penis to get firm erection. and irritation accompanied by a hot. and in Arabian countries. Also useful for toothaches (use as a gargle). and dehydroanacycline. and dehydroanacycline. low-water ornamental. It is given as drink in diabetes. Roots are also used as insecticide and anti-mycosis. It is also used for rheumatic conditions. hemiplegia. The variety depressus (sometimes considered a separate species. tingling and redness when applied to the skin. Some herbalists suggest that this herb may be useful for diabetes. In mixture with cade oil. An oils is prepared by a method known as pit extraction.4-dien acidisobutylamide. It contains pyrethrin. and It is used as an insecticide. called mat daisy or Mount Atlas daisy.Spanish chamomile (Anacyclus pyrethrum) It is also known as pellitory or Mount Atlas daisy is a perennial herb much like chamomile in habitat and appearance. and for sore throat and tonsils. The oleat prepared by mixing the powder of the rot with olive oil is used to treat phtiriasis and vermin of the head and pubis. in the Himalayas. Industrial Use. It is believed that application of this herb to the skin stimulates the nerve ends that may result in redness. pellitorin or pyrethrin. is grown spring-blooming. in water. Other applications include treatment for epilepsy. It is powerfully irritant.4acid-isobutylamide. anacycline. burning sensation. anacycline. None reported Traditional Medicine. It has alkamides. paralysis. in North India. Anacyclus depressus). Vector Control. the powder is used against moth or ringworm. Root of this herb is a valuable sialogogue. elsewhere in the Mediterranean region. It is often used as a tonic to the nervous system. . It induces heat. Culinary Uses. inulin (fructosan) and tannins. Alkamides includes deca-2. inulin (fructosan) and tannins. This herb contains an essential volatile oil and alkaloid. pellitory root has a pungent efficacy in relieving toothache and promoting a free flow of saliva.

"Cinnamon". therefore. lemon basil and holy basil. Basil is commonly steeped in cream or milk to create an interesting flavor in ice cream or chocolates. it is used for treating pimples on the face. In garden plots it is planted besides the tomatoes plants to repel attacking insects. tropical climates. Scientific studies have established that compounds in basil oil have potent antioxidant. and their efficacy tested against adult mosquitoes. respectively. some are perennial in warm.000 years. It is traditionally used for supplementary treatment of stress. which has a slightly different flavour. anti-cancer. Vector Control. antiviral. "Lemon". Arguably the flat-leaf basil used in Vietnamese cooking. a basil clay pot is placed causing mosquitoes to leave the room because they do not like the odor being expelled by the plant. Industrial Uses. The plant can. and anti-microbial properties. The fresh herb can be kept for a short time in plastic bags in the refrigerator. and also plays a major role in the Southeast Asian cuisines of Thailand. Basil. It avoids the entrance of insects into home. "Globe". as opposed to Thai basil. including African Blue and Holy Thai basil. which are used in Asia. The formulations also included the synergist. Its other two main ingredients are olive oil and pine nuts. a known carcinogen and teratogen in rats and mice. and Laos. The efficacy of the formulations depended on the duration of fumigation. There are many varieties of basil. It is generally added at the last moment. In addition. The plant tastes somewhat like anise. . and what little flavour remains tastes very different. contains estragole. like hay. as cooking quickly destroys the flavour. Basil is commonly used fresh in cooked recipes. and "African Blue". with a strong. like other aromatic plants such as fennel and tarragon. people add fresh basil leaves to thick soups. Culinary Uses. The most commonly used Mediterranean basil cultivars are "Genovese". "Mammoth". piperonyl butoxide. is more suitable for use with fruit. but also raspberries or dark-colored plums. Cambodia. The dried herb also loses most of its flavour. A leaf-extract of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) was used in formulating an aerosol and mosquito coil. the rodent experiments indicate that it would take 100–1000 times the normal anticipated exposure to become a cancer risk. Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto—a green Italian oil-and-herb sauce. when they are planted near doors or windows either in ground or pots. When soaked in water the seeds of several basil varieties become gelatinous. pungent. That which is used in Italian food is typically called sweet basil. and are used in Asian drinks and desserts such as fallooda or Sherbet. In Taiwan. "Purple Ruffles". having been cultivated there for more than 5. is a tender low-growing herb. basil has been shown to decrease the occurrence of platelet aggregation and experimental thrombus in mice. but noted that intake of the seeds in large quantities is harmful for the brain.Basil (Ocimum bacilicum) Basil is of the family Lamiaceae (mints). The formulations had potencies of 93 ± 4 and 95 ± 5% for the aerosol and coil. Vietnam. The Chinese also use fresh or dried basils in soups and other foods. While human effects are currently unstudied. Basil is a culinary herb prominently featured in Italian cuisine. sweet smell. after being blanched quickly in boiling water. or for a longer period in the freezer. India and other tropical regions of Asia. Traditional Medicine. asthma and diabetes in India. Basil repels flies and mosquito. While most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals. They also eat fried chicken with deep-fried basil leaves. In Siddha medicine. Basil is sometimes used with fresh fruit and in fruit jams and sauces—in particular with strawberries. To repel the flying insects in a room. serve as a substitute for some expensive synthetic insecticides which have toxic residual effects. Basil is originally native to Iran. with a weak coumarin flavour.

having large square leaves and sanguine flowers in numerous groups of terminal clusters. Industrial Use. Tellimagrandin II is a ellagitannin found in S. to treat hiccough and to fortify the kidney yang. cloves are best known as "clavos de olor". They have been smoked throughout Europe. pimples etc. as a mosquito repellent and to prevent premature ejaculation have been inconclusive. Dried cloves are also a key ingredient in Indian spiced tea. in almost all rich or spicy dishes. direct stomach qi downward. Due to the Indonesian influence. Cloves are used in Indian cuisine. Topical application over the stomach or abdomen are said to warm the digestive tract. . it is a tradition in some European countries to make pomanders from cloves and oranges to hang around the house. Cloves are also said to be a natural anthelmintic. undiluted clove oil repelled multiple species of mosquitoes for up to two hours. for morning sickness together with ginseng and patchouli.Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) They are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Vector Control. Clove oil is used in various skin disorders like acne. In lab and field tests. also relieves toothache. Pakistan. but as they are extremely strong. Traditional Medicine. and often used together with cumin and cinnamon. Western studies have supported the use of cloves and clove oil for dental pain. and western herbalism and dentistry. The spice is used in a type of cigarettes in Indonesia. Cloves are also an important incense material in Chinese and Japanese culture. Cloves are used as a spice in cuisines all over the world. to increase hydrochloric acid in the stomach and to improve peristalsis. However. often in combination with cumin. India and Vietnam. As such it is used in formulas for impotence or clear vaginal discharge from yang deficiency. terminating in four spreading sepals. It is also used in severe burns. Culinary use. for sweet or spicy dishes. This spreads a nice scent throughout the house and acts as holiday decorations. can be one of the most effective natural ingredients to use as an insect repellent. studies to determine its effectiveness for fever reduction. During Christmas. Chinese medicine. the use of cloves is widespread in the Netherlands. The clove tree is an evergreen which grows to a height ranging from 8–12 m. Cloves may be used internally as a tea and topically as an oil for hypotonic muscles. This would translate to hypochlorhydria. Clove may reduce blood sugar levels. Sri Lanka. Because the herb is so warming it is contraindicated in any persons with fire symptoms and according to classical sources should not be used for anything except cold from yang deficiency. Cloves can be used in cooking either whole or in a ground form. especially for digestive problems. or for vomiting and diarrhea due to spleen and stomach coldness. Cloves along with citronella. where the essential oil is used as an anodyne (painkiller) for dental emergencies. they are used sparingly. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy when stimulation and warming are needed. In 2009. and for warming the middle. In Chinese medicine cloves are considered acrid. Cloves are harvested when 1. but rarely in everyday cuisine. skin irritations and to reduce the sensitiveness of skin. Asia and the United States. The flower buds are at first of a pale color and gradually become green. Clove essence is commonly used in the production of many perfumes. entering the kidney. However. when they are ready for collecting. warm and aromatic. In the US. In Mexican cuisine. Cloves are native to Indonesia and now harvested in Madagascar. Cloves are used as a carminative. spleen and stomach meridians. undiluted clove oil may also cause skin rash in sensitive people.5–2 cm long. Cloves are used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine. aromaticum with anti-herpesvirus properties. including for multiple sclerosis. Cloves are used in cheeses. Zanzibar. after which they develop into a bright red. clove cigarettes were outlawed in the US. it is often sold under the name of "chai" or "chai tea". and consist of a long calyx. It also helps to decrease infection in the teeth due to its antiseptic properties. and four unopened petals which form a small ball in the center. Clove oil. The use of a clove in toothache is also said to decrease pain. applied to a cavity in a decayed tooth.

It is a member of the family Apiaceae. but has become widely naturalised elsewhere and may now be found growing wild in many parts of the world. United States. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas. Foeniculum vulgare. is sometimes justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens. Asia and Australia. vegetable dishes such as artichoke dishes in Greece. or eaten raw. fennel seeds or tea can relax the intestines and reduce bloating caused by digestive disorders. Fennel can be found in many regions: northern Europe. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads. Southern Canada. pastas. There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactogogue. fennel seeds said to improve eyesight. It is a hardy. or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. Fennel is a perennial herb. Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma. Dried fennel seed is an aromatic. act as phytoestrogens. where bulbs and fronds are used. an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became. and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves.Fennel oil (Foeniculum vulgare) It is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). on river-banks. For adults. It may be blanched or marinated. both raw and cooked. along roadsides. and risottos. Fennel is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their side effects. which promote growth of breast tissue. Fennel is widely cultivated. Long term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche. which are often mistermed "seeds". Fennel contains anethole. although not supported by direct evidence. Fennel pollen is the most potent form of fennel. against adults of Sitophilus oryzae. it also can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic or painful teething. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup. stewed. is made by pouring boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds. a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen. Fennel tea. slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of fennel. Ancient Romans and in the Indian subcontinent. . in side dishes. Traditional Medicine. used to ease flatulence in infants. also employed as a carminative. green seeds are optimal. strongly-flavoured leaves and fruits. The bulb. bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable. Fennel seed is a common ingredient in Italian sausages and meatballs and northern European rye breads. braised. Essential oil of fennel has these properties in concentration. and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States. The leaves are delicately flavored and similar in shape to those of dill. It was one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe. which can explain some of its medical effects: it. and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the liquorice powder. often tossed with chicory and avocado. these waters constitute the domestic 'gripe water'. especially on dry soils near the sea-coast. Culinary Uses. Fennel features prominently in Mediterranean cuisine. Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. brown or green in colour when fresh. perennial herb. with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. foliage. There is a single case report of fennel tea ingested by a breastfeeding mother resulting in neurotoxicity for the newborn child. C chinensis and L serricorne. in pastures. and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables. and in other open sites. This use. or cooked in risotto. grilled. by the late 19th century. Some people use fennel as a diuretic. Many egg. for its edible. Callosobruchus chinensis and Lasioderma serricorne using direct contact application and fumigation methods could be useful for managing field populations of S oryzae. It propagates well by seed. Vector Control. anise-flavoured spice. For cooking. but also the most expensive. hardy root vegetable and may be sauteed. salads. or its polymers. Industrial Uses. and it may be a potential drug for treatment of hypertension. Several studies have shown some constituents of fennel oil to have mosquitoe repellent properties. The bulb is a crisp. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean. fish.

However. and rajjyo. The leaves. spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Clinical trials found that a mouthwash containing 2. antiviral. as well as other medications. there is no evidence to suggest that garlic is actually effective for this purpose. Garlic has been used reasonably successfully in AIDS patients to treat cryptosporidium in an uncontrolled study in China. antihypertensives. In 1858. maculates. such as preventing and fighting the common cold. chive. the immature flower stalks of the hardneck and elephant types are sometimes marketed for uses similar to asparagus in stir-fries. The findings underscore the hazards of meta-analyses made up of small. Garlic can also cause indigestion. has been shown to boost testosterone levels. Its close relatives include the onion. The sticky juice within the bulb cloves is used as an adhesive in mending glass and china. Garlic is known for causing halitosis as well as causing sweat to have a pungent 'garlicky' smell. along with a high protein diet. It has also been used by at least one AIDS patient to treat toxoplasmosis. reduced accumulation of cholesterol on vascular wall. Industrial Use. There have been several reports of serious burns resulting from garlic being applied topically for various purposes. and it was used as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene during World War I and World War II. The Cherokee also used it as an expectorant for coughs and croup. or for medicinal purposes. and have a characteristic pungent. which has used garlic for hoarseness and coughs. Vector Control. and aortic plaque deposits. Additionally. Some people suffer from allergies to garlic and other plants in the allium family. Garlic supplementation in rats. nausea. Traditional Medicine. saquinavir. Garlic is also claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis.5% fresh garlic shows good antimicrobial activity. shallot. Regular and prolonged use of therapeutic amounts of aged garlic extracts lower blood homocysteine levels and has shown to prevent some complications of diabetes mellitus. With the exception of the single clove types. The cloves are used for cloning. calcium channel blockers. However. the BBC reported that Garlic may have other beneficial properties. Animal studies. In test tube studies garlic has been found to have antibacterial.. This assertion has the backing of long tradition in herbal medicine. Another study showed that supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol. and flowers (bulbils) on the head are also edible. Garlic may interact with warfarin. minimal risks to normal individuals. consumption (raw or cooked). although the majority of the participants reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis. Louis Pasteur observed garlic's antibacterial activity. . antiplatelets. it is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent. high cholesterol. garlic has been consumed for several thousand years without any adverse long-term effects. and some early investigational studies in humans. suggesting that modest quantities of garlic pose. vomiting. have suggested possible cardiovascular benefits. People taking insulin should not consume medicinal amounts of garlic without consulting a physician. including naturopathic uses and acne treatment. they are most often consumed while immature and still tender. at worst. However the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States in 2007 found that the consumption of garlic in any form did not reduce blood cholesterol levels in patients with moderately high baseline cholesterol levels. It is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels. However. and hypoglycemic drugs. leek. Other studies have found a repellent effect of garlic oil against haematophagous arthropods. and high blood pressure) and cancer. the bulb is divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic has been found to reduce platelet aggregation and hyperlipidemia. It thins the blood (as does aspirin). Culinary Uses. and antifungal activity. and diarrhea.Garlic (Allium sativum) It is a species in the onion family Alliaceae." In 2007. The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant. these actions are less clear in humans. and being milder in flavor than the bulbs. flawed studies and the value of rigorously studying popular herbal remedies. Moreover it has found insecticide properties for C. Because of the Allyl methyl sulfide in the bloodstream.

physicians used young alfalfa leaves to treat disorders related to the digestive tract and the kidneys. This makes it very resilient. powders and tea. and has a deep root system sometimes stretching to 4. a substance that induces lactation. vitamin E. It resembles clover with clusters of small purple flowers. Traditional Medicine. This plant has a high attraction to mosquitoes. Dehydrated alfalfa leaf is commercially available as a dietary supplement in several forms. This plant exhibits autotoxicity. Alfalfa is high in protein. vitamins in the B group. At the time. alfalfa was also believed to be helpful towards people suffering from arthritis and water retention. This property was utilized in Russia. especially to droughts. In the UK. and vitamin K. South Africa and New Zealand it is known as lucerne and as lucerne grass in south Asia. Culinary Uses. which means that it is difficult for alfalfa seed to grow in existing stands of alfalfa. Alfalfa has been used as an herbal medicine for over 1. and goats. it is recommended that alfalfa fields be rotated with other species (for example. physicians used the leaves for treating poor digestion. thru a campaign. Australia. In Ayurdevic medicine. calcium. plus other minerals. Vector Control. They made a cooling poultice from the seeds for boils.Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa) It is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop. Its primary use is as feed for dairy cattle—because of its high protein content and highly digestible fiber—and secondarily for beef cattle. The nectar of the alfalfa flower attracts the male mosquitoes. It has a tetraploid genome.500 years. corn or wheat) before reseeding. Industrial uses. to control mosquitoes in highly infected regions. horses. such as tablets. sheep. In early Chinese medicines. killing them from the toxic properties of the nectar. The plant grows to a height of up to 1 metre (3 ft). Humans also eat alfalfa sprouts in salads and sandwiches. Therefore. . Alfalfa is believed by some to be a galactagogue. vitamin C. Alfalfa is a cool season perennial legume living from three to twelve years. depending on variety and climate.5 metres (15 ft).

Monofloral honey is produced primarily around the Mediterranean. lavender seeds and flowers aid sleep and relaxation. An infusion of three flowerheads added to a cup of boiling water soothes and relaxes at bedtime. adding a fresh. Infusions of lavender soothe and heal insect bites. Lavender can be used as a home remedy. an herb blend called herbes de Provence and usually including lavender was invented by spice wholesalers and lavender has more recently become popular in cookery. and is sometimes paired with sheep's-milk and goat's-milk cheeses. herbaceous plants. If applied to the temples. It was used in hospitals during WWI to disinfect floors and walls. and can be used in balms. most commonly made from an extract of lavender. as an anti mosquito lotion. Medicinal use. Lavender flowers are occasionally blended with black. Lavender lends a floral and slightly sweet flavor to most dishes. In the United States. lavender is not used in traditional southern French cooking. Flowers also yield abundant nectar from which bees make a highquality honey. In pillows. and topical applications. Vector Control. Southern Europe and the Mediterranean. sub shrubs and small shrubs. . Once it is cool it can be sprayed to plants. Bunches of lavender repel insects. or herbal tea. North and East Africa. rosewater. In the 1970s. Arabia and India. It yields an essential oil with sweet overtones. or witch hazel. salves.Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) The genus includes annuals. lavender oil soothes headaches. It can be prepared to repel ants in plants: 300 grams of lavender leaves in a liter of boiling water. they are placed among stored items of clothing to give a fresh fragrance and to deter moths. perfumes. Lavenders are widely grown in gardens. Flower spikes are used for dried flower arrangements. though some chefs experiment with the leaves as well. as well as used to make "lavender sugar". According to folk wisdom. Though it has many other traditional uses in southern France. which is where the scent and flavour of lavender are best derived. it also treats skin burns and inflammatory conditions. Lavender is used extensively in herbalism and aromatherapy. The native range extends across the Canary Islands. lavender has many uses. both French lavender syrup and dried lavender buds make lavender scones and marshmallows. Dried and sealed in pouches. Lavender flavors baked goods and desserts (it pairs especially well with chocolate). pale purple flowers and flower buds are used in potpourris. Industrial Uses. it is an excellent and pleasant lotion. Essential oil of lavender has antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. The French are also known for their lavender syrup. green. relaxing scent and flavour. Lavender oil (or extract of Lavender) heals acne when used diluted 1:10 with water. An insect repellent cream can be prepared by mixing lavender oil with body oil or cream. . cosmetics. The fragrant. and is marketed worldwide as a premium product. Only the buds contain the essential oil of lavender. For most cooking applications the dried buds (also referred to as flowers) are used. Flowers can be candied and are sometimes used as cake decorations. Culinary use. These extracts are also used as fragrances for bath products.

It should not ever be taken internally because it is highly toxic. pennyroyal has had a long historical use.Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) It is a plant in the mint genus. within the family Lamiaceae. Romans used to burn pennyroyal because they believe the smoke kept insects away from home. This can be achieved by rubbing a branch of this plant over legs or any other body part. The ancient Greeks often flavored their wine with pennyroyal. all manufactured forms of pennyroyal have carried a warning label against its use by pregnant women. Once prepared you can spray the area where you will stay. the poison can lead to death. Although still commonly used for cooking in the Middle Ages. gall ailments. Early settlers in colonial Virginia used dried pennyroyal to eradicate pests. and abortifacient. The infusion is widely reputed as safe to ingest in restricted quantities. a bath additive and as an insect repellent. Complications have been reported from attempts to use the oil for self-induced abortion. A large number of the recipes in the Roman cuisine use pennyroyal. Another way to produce a natural repellent is by preparing a coction with two spoons of dry leaves in half litter of water. and is also high in pulegone. Vector Control. The oil can be used for aromatherapy. Industrial Uses.S. that the Royal Society published an article on its use against rattlesnakes in the first volume of its Philosophical Transactions. Pennyroyal was commonly used as a cooking herb by the Greeks and Romans. the coction can be applied in some skin portions to keep away these parasites. . flatulence. let it cool and store in a spray bottle. it gradually fell out of use as a culinary herb and is seldom used so today. even in small doses. Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in October 1994. a bath additive and as an insect repellent. Food and Drug Administration. when ground with vinegar. Pennyroyal essential oil is extremely concentrated. Pennyroyal tea is the use of an infusion made from the herb. Since the U. a gum strengthener and. even at extremely low levels. The metabolite menthofuran is thought to be the major toxic agent. The oil can be used for aromatherapy. The most popular current use of the tea is to settle the stomach. often along with such herbs as lovage. folk remedy. Pennyroyal is a traditional culinary herb. flies. louses or mosquitoes). Traditional Medicine. The essential oil of pennyroyal is used in aromatherapy. and hepatitis (presumably Hepatitis A). Crushed Pennyroyal leaves exhibit a very strong fragrance similar to spearmint. It has been traditionally employed and reportedly successful as an emmenagogue (menstrual flow stimulant) or as an abortifacient. (especially fleas. especially fleas which were killed by the smoke. a highly toxic volatile organic compound affecting liver and uterine function. oregano and coriander. In case of walking thru a place infested with mosquitoes or fleas. and as a lung cleanser. So popular was pennyroyal. This substance is not regulated by the U. gout. a tumor remedy. Pennyroyal oil should not be used as a natural flea repellent due to its toxicity to pets. Today we can use pennyroyal to avoid or repel the attack of skin parasites. In this way a natural repellent is obtained. There are numerous studies that show pennyroyal's toxicity to humans and animals.S. Culinary Uses. As an easily-made poison. Other reported medicinal uses through history include treatment for fainting.

The genus is native to Europe. manganese. Fresh or dried leaves can also be used for flavoring sauces stews. In 15th century England. Oil isolated from catnip by steam distillation is a repellent against insects. but some are annuals. The members of this group are known as or catmint because of their effect on cats—nepeta pleasantly stimulates cats' pheronomic receptors. It is now also common in North America. Thymol is a crystalline phenol with aromatic odor and antiseptic properties. It also contains magnesium. the active ingredient in catnip. to induce sweating without increasing body temperature. for children convulsions. The flowers are white. green to grayish-green leaves. to prevent colds. Thymol extracted from catnip can be used as fungicide and preservative. which is said to have sedative and sleep-inducing properties. Catnip has a minty. They have sturdy stems with opposite heart-shaped. and circulation improvement. Catnip oil can be used as natural insecticide. They are usually aromatic Culinary Uses. in particular mosquitoes. Vector Control. I also has been demonstrated to be effective to repel german male roaches. catnip and catnip-laced products designed for use with domesticated cats are available to consumers. and in mixed green salads. blue. pink or lilac and occur in several clusters toward the tip of the stems. bitterish taste. for restlessness. Catmints are also used in herbal medicine for their mild sedative effect on humans. . Nepeta species can be subshrubs. Most of the species are herbaceous perennial plants. Additionally. fatigue. distilled nepetalactone. Catnip oil can be used as natural insecticide. cockroaches and termites. The principal culinary use of catnip is as a tea. At present is thought to be good for different ailments: headaches due to migraine.Catnip (Nepeta) It is a genus of about 250 species of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. miscarriage prevention and symptoms flu related. Before Chinese tea became available. Catnips is high in Vitamins A. The flowers are tubular and spotted with tiny purple dots. catnip leaves were used for rubbing meats before cooking. Traditional Medicine. sodium and traces of sulfur. and cooked foods. herbaceous perennials or annual herbs. pungent. It has bee demonstrated that is an excellent repellent for Aedes Aegypti. as sleep inducer. and Africa. fevers. phosphorous. typically resulting in temporary euphoria. but that it is not as effective a repellent when used on the skin. as pain killer. catnip tea was consumed in England. the active ingredient in most insect repellents. Research suggests that in a test tube. Industrial uses. soups. Asia. repels mosquitoes ten times more effectively than DEET. By 1265 it was a grown in kitchen gardens in England. B Complex and C. Fresh-picked leaves can be used for teas.

Rue can also be made into an ointment for external use against gout. and also sometimes for its tolerance of hot and dry soil conditions. and preventing the Black Death. cheese. The plant produces seeds that can be used for porridge. rue is said to relieve gas pains and colic. Rutaceae) or garlic (Allium cepa. A good insect repelent can be prepared by smashing 200 grams of Rue. rheumatism and neuralgia. None reported. improve appetite and digestion. and is a traditional abortifacient among Hispanic people in New Mexico. fish. Most cats dislike the smell of it and therefore it can be used as a deterrent to them. In México and several Central American countries even today it is common practice to treat pests with plants known for their insecticidal properties as far back as the era of the Aztecs and Mayans. as a potent abortifacient (inducing abortion). there is a grappa/rakija recipe that calls for a sprig of rue. Although used more extensively in former times it is not a herb that typically suits modern tastes. Rue is also grown as an ornamental plant. is a species of rue grown as an herb. Solanaceae). uteral contractions. A case in point is the use of a mixture of corn and beans with chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens. It also is grown as both a medicinal herb and as a condiment. or mixed with damson plums and wine to produce a meat sauce. Rue contains pilocarpine which is used in horses to induce abortion. however it is incredibly bitter and severe gastric discomfort may be experienced by some individuals. Industrial Uses. Traditional Medicine. let it rest for 48 hours and then use it. both as a low hedge and so the leaves can be used in nosegays. Alliaceae). Rue does have a culinary use if used sparingly. and promote the onset of menstruation. In Istria. Culinary Uses. It is native to southern Europe. Rue leaves and berries are an important part of the cuisine of Ethiopia and rue is also used as a traditional flavouring in Greece and other Mediterranean countries. especially because of its bluish leaves. and unavailable in grocery stores. For this reason the refined oil of rue has been cited by the Roman historian Pliny the Elder and the gynecologist Soranus. . Vector Control. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. arthritis. In European folk medicine. and thus its use declined considerably over the course of the 20th century to the extent that it is today largely unknown to the general public and most chefs. add some sage leaves in a litre of water. rue (Ruta graveolens. The bitter leaf can be added to eggs.Common Rue (Ruta graveolens) It is also known as Herb-of-grace. Brushing against it with cuts can result in burn like bubbles (Chronic actinic dermatitis).

may shield the brain from free radicals. disinfect wounds or disinfect polluted water. vomiting. Avoid consuming large quantities of rosemary especially if pregnant or breastfeeding. Halitosis is improved with mouthwash using the liquid prepared by a mixture of water and dried leaves. and as a base for multiple perfumes. A tisane can also be made from them. found in rosemary. tonic. perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves. In cosmetics it is used for capillary treatment. calcium. however. . This property has been used for centuries. Rosemary essential oil is potentially toxic if ingested. such as coma. those people showed improved memory. Rosemary contains a number of potentially biologically active compounds. Rosemary has a very old reputation for improving memory. as well as a smell similar to that of burning which can be used to flavor foods while barbecuing. especially in areas having a Mediterranean climate. One modern study lends some credence to this reputation. It grows best in neutral . lowering the risk of strokes and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Lou Gehrig's. Rosemary is extremely high in iron. Culinary Uses. Recent European research has shown that rosemary interferes with the absorption of iron in the diet. it is also used in landscaping. side effects are minimal. antioxidant and cleansing properties. as a handful of case reports over the past century have linked its use with seizures in otherwise healthy adults or children. which also includes many other herbs. and Vitamin B6. and pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs) that can be fatal. by applying it as Rosemary alcohol. Rosemary extract has been shown to improve the shelf life and heat stability of omega-3 rich oils. When burned they give off a distinct mustard smell. which complements a wide variety of foods. astringent taste and are highly aromatic. including antioxidants such as carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid. It is native to the Mediterranean region.8) with average fertility. precaution is necessary for those displaying allergic reaction or prone to epileptic seizures. Rosemary grows on friable loam soil with good drainage in an open sunny position. to treat food poisoning. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae. spasm. they have a bitter. it will not withstand water logging and some varieties may be susceptible to frost. Its high iron content prevents anemia and its use to treat arthrosis. which indicates that it should not be used internally by persons with iron deficiency anemia. The essential oil is used as muscle relaxant applying it as local massage for rheumatism and joint pain. Industrial uses. It is an economical and attractive way to improve landscaping and to have at hand a natural mosquito repellent. The strong aroma of Rosemary is excellent to drive away fleas and the oil is a good mosquito repellent. When the smell of rosemary was pumped into cubicles where people were working. Large quantities of rosemary leaves can cause adverse reactions. which are prone to going rancid. The fresh and dried leaves are used frequently in traditional Mediterranean cuisine. Toxicity studies of the plant on rats has shown hepatoprotective and antimutagenic activities.Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) It is a woody. body and facial creams. It is consumed as infusion to favor digestion. Traditional Medicine. Other bioactive compounds include camphor (up to 20% in dry rosemary leaves). It is considered easy to grow for beginner gardeners. Since it is attractive and tolerates some degree of drought. It was used externally and prepared by mixing fresh rosemary tops into spirits of wine.alkaline conditions pH (pH 7-7. Laboratory bioassay results indicated that pure rosemary oil could cause complete mortality of spider mites and whiteflies at concentrations that are not phytotoxic to the host plant. Vector Control. The results of a study suggest that carnosic acid. Natural medicine relates Rosemary with stimulant. When rosemary is harvested appropriately and used within recommended guidelines. and is pest-resistant. Rosemary is easily pruned into shapes and has been used for topiary. though with slower recall. Rosemary essential oil may have epileptogenic properties. A few instances of allergic skin reactions to topical preparations containing rosemary have been reported.

soup made from the elder berry (e. Burn leaves are used as insecticides and infusion of leaves for mosquito repellent. . All green parts of the plant are poisonous. The flowers can also be dipped into a light batter and then fried to make elderflower fritters. soft drink.Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) It is a species complex of elder native to most of Europe. chutney and Pontack sauce. The dark blue/purple berries can be eaten when fully ripe but are mildly poisonous in their unripe state. European Black Elderberry. The seeds of red elderberries are toxic and must be removed before eating red elderberries or food products from red elderberries. fever. diuretic and antinflammatory. to keep flies away while riding. wine. This plant is traditionally used as a medicinal plant: root extracts are used to treat bronchitis. cough. The dried flowers are simmered for 15 minutes. Industrial Uses. and western North America. Elderberry flowers for relief of congestion. Some individuals find it better hot. It is one of the best sweat producer. upper respiratory cold infections. Traditional Use. subspecies. and cultivars are used in Wildlife gardens. syrup or cordial. Elderberry. A small (N=60) double blind clinical trial published in 2004 showed reduction in both duration and severity of flu-like symptoms for patients receiving elderberry syrup versus placebo. conjunctivitis. jelly. blood cleansers. European Elderberry. As a horticultural or ornamental plant the species. It grows in a variety of conditions including both wet and dry fertile soils. Culinary Uses. Also when cooked they go well with blackberries and with apples in pies. northwest Africa southwest Asia. containing cyanogenic glycosides. It is most commonly called Elder. others cold. European Elder. tied to a horse's mane. The berries are edible after cooking and can be used to make jam.g. specifically as an expectorant to relieve dry cough and make it productive. Some authors recommend it for hemorrhoid treatment and light burns. or Elder Bush when distinction from other species of Sambucus is needed. Black Elder. In compress form is used to treat skin conditions. liqueur and brandy. eye washing for quit smoking (cigarettes made with elderberry leaves) Vector Control. The strong-smelling foliage was used in the past. primarily in sunny locations. and berries to prepare soup. eczema and other dermatitis. The flowers can be used to make an herbal tea as a remedy for inflammation caused by colds and fever. Natural landscaping themed public landscapes and private gardens. and some may experience an allergic reaction. the resulting flavorful and aromatic tea is poured through a coffee filter. The flower heads are commonly used in infusions. Common Elder. In Scandinavia and Germany. the German Fliederbeersuppe) is a traditional meal.

poultry or pork stuffing. flavones. herbaceous perennials. cornsolic acid. Lamiaceae. nicotinamide. Caution is indicated when using sage in conjunction with central nervous system stimulants or depressants. The plant is used in perfumes and cosmetics and . and tonic. such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. cornsole. randomized and placebocontrolled trial. which contains cineole. As a kitchen herb. with three distinct regions of population: Central and South America (approx. ursonic acid. and the Middle East. fumaric acid. borneol and thujone. in the Balkans. Modern evidence shows possible uses as an anhidrotic. flavonoid glycosides. estrogenic. In a double blind. with approximately 700-900 species of shrubs. eastern Asia (90 species). and annuals. chlorogenic acid. ursolic acid. sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. central Asia/Mediterranean (250 species). Sage is also used in Italian cooking. It is one of several genera commonly referred to as sage. The essential oils have shown to be insecticides. Traditional Medicine. The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its essential oil. Cuisine Uses. The plant is used in perfumes and cosmetics and as a natural insect repellent. 500 species). antibiotic. antifungal. astringent. niacin. antispasmodic. In Western cooking. Sage Derby cheese. Sage leaf contains tannic acid. Lincolnshire sausage. oleic acid. it is used for flavoring fatty meats. hypoglycemic. and in sauces. Vector Control. Common sage is grown in parts of Europe for distillation of an essential oil. Industrial Uses. and estrogenic substances. The genus is distributed throughout the Old World and the Americas.Sage (Salvia officinalis) It is the largest genus of plants in the mint family. caffeic acid. though other species. It is used in combination with other chemicals in spray and cream repellents. sage has a slight peppery flavor.

pickleworms and imported cabbage worms. Other species such as C. are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin. Traditional Medicine. Oil of Chrysanthemum is mixed with other oils to produce a mosquito repellent solution. leafhoppers.000 tonnes) of the world's pyrethrum in 1998. It was sold worldwide under the brand Zacherlin. and inhibit female mosquitoes from biting. one common example is permethrin. or as a powder. Dalmatian Insect Flower and Dalmatian pellitory. C. The other oils are Hedeoma Pulegioides and Pimpinella Anisum. Its flowers. is native to Caucasus and looks somewhat like a daisy. spider mites. This is applied as a suspension in water or oil. Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides based on natural pyrethrum (pyrethrins). the Persian chrysanthemum. Pyrethrum was used for centuries as an insecticide. Production in Tanzania and Ecuador is also significant. but are far less toxic to mammals and birds than many synthetic insecticides and are non-persistent. The plant is economically important as a natural source of insecticide. Because of the natural insecticidal properties of the pyrethrums. It looks more like the common daisy than other pyrethrums. coccineum also contains insecticidal pyrethrum substances but it is a poor source compared to C. pink or red flowers. balsamita and C. When not present in amounts fatal to insects. they are used as companion plants. harlequin bugs. They are considered to be amongst the safest insecticides for use around food. Dalmatian chrysanthemum. Painted daisy. Pyrethrum daisy. cinerariifolium is called the Dalmatian chrysanthemum. Vector Control. The flowering period is June to July in temperate climates (Northern hemisphere). denoting its origin in that region of the Balkans (Dalmatia). A common formulation of pyrethrin is in preparations containing the synthetic chemical piperonyl butoxide: this has the effect of enhancing the toxicity to insects and speeding the effects when compared with pyrethrins used alone. It produces large white. The leaves resemble those of ferns. Pyrethrum daisy. They are thought to repel aphids. they are planted among broccoli plants for protection from several common insect pests. Kenya produced 90% (over 6. Pyrethrum is also the name of a natural insecticide made from the dried flower heads of C. ticks. Common names for Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium include: Pyrethrum. they still appear to have an insect repellent effect. Plants have blue-green leaves and grow to between 45 to 60 cm in height. typically white with a yellow center. being biodegradable and also breaking down easily on exposure to light. and Caucasian Insect Powder Plant Culinary Uses. C. grow from numerous fairly rigid stems. They are harmful to fish. but are less effective than the two species mentioned above. Asteraceae. Persian Insect Flower. The flowers are pulverized and the active components called pyrethrins. cinerariifolium. to repel pest insects from nearby crops and ornamental plants. marshalli also contain insecticidal substances. Both genera are members of the daisy (or aster) family. None reported.Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum) There are several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads. called py for short. For example. Persian pellitory. These formulations are known as synergized pyrethrins. among others that are in gardens and farms. and the plant grows to between 30 and 60 cm in height. Common names for Chrysanthemum coccineum include: Pyrethrum. Dalmatian pyrethrum. cinerariifolium and C. Persian chrysanthemum. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insects. and as a lice remedy in the Middle East ("the Persian Insect Powder"). contained in the seed cases. C. coccineum. coccineum. None reported . Industrial Use. They are all perennial plants with a daisy-like appearance and white petals.

Also fresh grinded leaves can be used directly on skin. but it has been shown that vanilla does increase levels of catecholamine (including adrenaline). vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking. little pod. since true vanilla is much more expensive. The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. Good quality vanilla has a strong aromatic flavor. Originally cultivated by Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples. but has a stronger note.Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. planifolia variety. There are currently three major cultivars of vanilla: Vanilla planifolia (syn. V. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive. It is strange that vanilla likes the same places as mosquitoes: dark misty areas. Vanilla that grows in Japan and other northwestern regions is used for scaring away mosquitoes since ancient times. There are three main commercial preparations of natural vanilla: whole pod. which is produced in a small region of Madagascar and in Indonesia. These purported uses have never been scientifically proven. Vanilla is the second most expensive spice after saffron. The microbes only become virulent when the signals indicate that they have the numbers to resist the host immune system response. One of the best natural insect repellants that have been discovered is made from the clear real vanilla (not the grocery store vanilla extract which is mostly alcohol). and V. It is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances. vanilla derives from the Spanish word "vainilla". This is medically interesting because in many bacteria quorum sensing signals function as a switch for virulence. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two. In an in-vitro test vanilla was able to block quorum sensing in bacteria. Reunion and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean. V. but has a stronger note. The cosmetics industry uses vanilla to make perfume. perfume manufacture and aromatherapy. . vanilla is described as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for fevers. The essential oils of vanilla and vanillin are sometimes used in aromatherapy. In this case. Traditional Medicine. Use half vanilla and half water and find that it works great for mosquitoes and ticks. It's nice that you don't smell like a chemical plant but a cookie. Central and South America. Industrial Uses. Attempts to cultivate the vanilla plant outside Mexico and Central America proved futile because of the symbiotic relationship between the tlilxochitl vine that produced the vanilla orchid and the local species of Melipona bee. the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin. In old medicinal literature. starch or other ingredients). tahitensis. to which its own flavor is often complementary. custard. found in the West Indies. Culinary Uses. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive. both pure and imitation forms of vanilla contain at least 35% alcohol). Despite its high cost. allowing global cultivation of the plant. Vector Control. Etymologically. but it was too expensive. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations. with minimum sun and much moisture. and extract (in alcoholic or occasionally glycerol solution. A major use of vanilla is in flavoring ice cream. depending on the concentration. a 12-year-old French-owned slave (Edmond Albius). discovered the plant could be hand pollinated. grown on Madagascar. such as chocolate. grown in the South Pacific. powder (ground pods. Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. In 1841. The locals put bunches of dried vanilla leaves around their homes to protect from mosquitoes. fragrans). it was not until 1837 that Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant. pompona. but food with small amounts of low quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common. due to the extensive labor required to grow the vanilla seed pods. The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s. and as such can also be considered mildly addictive. caramel. coffee and others. exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. kept pure or blended with sugar.

It is a perennial herb native to Europe. Bach. Tonic. Diaphoretic. Propagation is by root cuttings or seed. oedema.parboiled. Galactogogue. as its relaxing effects can relieve writer's block. It is widely naturalised outside its native range. generally healing. The flowers can be used as a garnish Traditional Medicine. it has long been associated with divine and other supernatural forces. As noted above. It is one of the ingredients used in some spray repellents. with an upright habitus. Birthing aid. malnutrition. genital stimulants/depressants. pain-killers. The lobed leaves are toothed. and it has an equally long-standing use as a medicinal plant. The common name "Blue Vervain" is also sometimes used. Astringent. Emmenagogue. swellings. debility. Antitumor. Among others effects. for example in North America. Depurative. is one of the original 38 Bach flower remedies. gout. prescribed against "over-enthusiasm". Leaves . etc. Therefore. fabrifuges. Common Vervain is held in high esteem since the Classical Antiquity. subcutaneous parasitic infection. but properly refers to V. Medical use of Common Vervain is usually as a herbal tea. it is occasionally grown as an ornamental plant but perhaps more often for the powerful properties some herbalists ascribe to it. It contains alkaloids with poisonous or repellent properties. Vector Control. dropsy. It is used as an Analgesic. menstrual cycle. In the Modern Era. hastata. And of course. it is sometimes considered a powerful "ally" of poets and writers. pulmonary troubles. it is reputed to help against nervousness and insomnia. seasoned and then eaten. Vulnerary. and is often referred to as the North American version of Calea zacatechichi. it has been introduced there and the Pawnee have adopted it as an entheogen enhancer and in oneiromancy. Stimulant. Diuretic. . "Vervain". it cannot be considered safe to use during pregnancy as it might cause miscarriages. Antibacterial. it is also simply known as "the vervain" locally.. or more ambiguously as "mosquito plant" or "wild hyssop". rheumatism. presumably this species. This plant prefers limey soils. being the only member of its genus in much of its range. The leaves can be used as a tea substitute. it is used for arthritis. It grows up to a metre/yard high.Common Verbena (Verbena officinalis). Antispasmodic. it may act as a galagtogue and possibly sex steroid analogue and abortifacient. Flowers. While Common Vervain is not native to North America. It is also known as Simpler's Joy or Holy Herb. the delicate spikes hold mauve flowers. Tea. cutaneous. Anticoagulant. Leaves. Culinary Uses.

Many of them are used for bordering and bedding in rock gardens. for instance “Hawaii” when full grown is very short. Most widespread flossflowers. Not Reported Vector Control. They are planted for their flowers. Ageratum – is a great plant for landscaping and its flowers come in pale blue and white. Culinary Uses. Ageratum is the great plant to repel mosquitoes. The colour and size of Flossflowers make them a good applicants for flower beds. You can find tall flossflowers in seed catalogues. . These are the excellent plants for beginner gardeners. containers and rock gardens. The blue flossflowers are the most popular and common. Not Reported. but there exist the other colours – violet. They have blue flowers and height of 18 inches. from early summer to first frost. 6-8 inches. Coumarin is widely used in commercial insecticides. blue flowers and white top. There also exist a snowcapped variety of medium height. They are easy to grow and all season long produce a profusion of fluffy flowers. Flossflower grows well on partial shade or sun. pink and white. especially the Ageratum houstonianum. These plants produce coumarin which has the horrible scent that repulses the mosquitoes.Flossflowers (Ageratums) As garden plants. Traditional Medicine. but it is difficult to find them in retail stores.

They do best when planted in USDA zones 7 to 10. bees. hummingbird mint. nectar-rich blossoms.Heather Queen seeds can be planted in the spring and will have blooms from early summer until late fall. This species is commonly found in Texas and New Mexico in southern mountains at elevations from 5. or as a flavor for baking cookies or cakes. A. A.000-6. It grows to a height of 24"-36" and a width of 18" making it ideal for mixed borders and herb gardens.000 feet and prefers a well drained soil. Its blooming period is June-September. mosquito plant. and Cedronella cana. in full sun with medium amounts of water. Mosquito plant is a versitle and aromatic perennial. . Culinary Uses.this variety bears violet-blue flowers and grows to about 3 feet tall. while hummingbirds prefer tubularshaped blossoms of bright reds or purples.Hummingbird Mint (Agastache Cana) It is a bushy-type perennial in the mint (Lamiacea) family. The plant has been touted by some for repelling mosquitoes when its foliage is crushed and rubbed on skin or clothing. Traditional Medicine. • A. Agastache cana is an erect perennial with ovate leaves having a scent of bubblegum and camphor. in length and bear dark pink to rose-purple blooms. but can be grown as a half-hardy annual in colder zones. various species of butterflies. Not Reported Vector Control. Their anise-scented foliage can also be used in making an herbal tea. double bubblemint. They are also an excellent choice for long-lasting cut bouquets. This variety grows to about 3 feet in height and bears striking 10 to 12 inch pink flower spikes. This variety loves full sun and will grow to about 3 feet tall. and certain sphinx moths. spread about 1 foot. mexicana . in whorls on compact spikes. or as a flavor for baking cookies or cakes. Hummingbirds really go for this variety as they can easily see the bright. and sport crimson flower spikes from late summer until fall. Its common names include: grayish white giant hyssop. foeniculum) anise-scented foliage can be used in making an herbal tea. Some popular varieties include the following: • Anise Hyssop (A. 12-25mm long. Mosquito Plant has gained recognition for attracting rufous and broad-tailed hummingbirds. Agastache cana is also known by its synonyms: Brittonastrum canum (section Brittonastrum). mexicana will thrive in most well-drained soils. • Heather Queen (A. cana is rated for USDA Zones 5-10..In Zones 8 to 11. Anise Hyssop (A. foeniculum) . The stems are approximately 20-100cm. cana ) . Butterflies are primarily attracted to the scent of flowers. but has been shown drought tolerant down to zone 3. Goldfinches also enjoy eating the seeds of Agastache cana.

the mosquitoes were seen landing and resting on the citrosa plant on a regular basis. in tea and as a flavoring Traditional Medicine. the researchers examined the effect of citral. on both normal and cancerous cells. citronella grass is also used for culinary purposes. and also in aromatherapy. Keeps mosquitoes away.. are antiseptics. is used as a pesticide and a preservative. These species are used for the production of citronella oil. Togo. Besides oil production. Lemon Grass Oil. the researchers observed that citral induces programmed cell death in the cancerous cells. Mexico. bathrooms. as an insect repellent in insect sprays and candles. and seafood. but research indicates Pelargonium citrosum is ineffective against Aedes aegypti mosquitos. which is famous in Bintan Island. Research shows that lemon grass oil has anti-fungal properties. Indonesia. geraniol and citronellol. It should be planted near the dustbins and backyard gardens. DR Congo). Vector Control. the relieving effect helps to cure nervous tension and stress.Citronella Grass Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon nardus and Cymbopogon winterianus) is similar to the species above but grows to 2 m and has red base stems. The principal chemical constituents of citronella. Lemon grass is native to India." Among its uses the following can be found: 1. used as a pesticide and preservative. It is replaced in one or two weeks. Through in vitro studies. It is also suitable for poultry. "Not only was the plant ineffective at protecting humans against Aedes mosquito bites.g. fish. while the normal cells were left unharmed. It is place near or underneath the bed and close to open windows. a molecule found in lemon grass. . a research team from the Ben Gurion University in Israel found that lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) caused apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells. when the fragrance is gone. and curries. soups. It is often used as a tea in African and Latin American countries (e. Keeps flies and bugs away. 3. which is used in soaps. squeeze a leave in his hands. When you feel stressed. hence their use in household disinfectants and soaps. storage rooms and vehicles (front and back seats). kitchen cabinets. 2. Aromatherapy. It is replaced every week. 4.Lemon Grass Oil. is put on the ancient palm-leaf manuscripts found in India as a preservative "Pelargonium citrosum" is marketed as a mosquito plant. It is widely used as a herb in Asian cuisine. Keeps roaches away: It is placed in the corners of closets. or citrosa geranium in stores in the United States and Canada. Using concentrations of citral equivalent to the quantity in a cup of tea (one gram of lemon grass in hot water). In 2006. or used fresh. Culinary Uses Lemon grass is commonly used in teas. place it near the nose and deeply inhale. It has a citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered.

'Pink Surprise' (double. and may be used in salads. and the source of the yellow-orange coloration). from pale yellow to orange-red. 'Lemon' (pale yellow). foods and cosmetics. double). presumably due to presence of compounds such as saponns. Vector Control. antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. To prepare a mosquito repellent put to boil 15 grams of dried marigold in a liter of water. Plant extracts are also widely used by cosmetics. marigold is one of the few plants which is considered astringent despite not being high in tannins. Although perennial. It is probably native to southern Europe though its long history of cultivation makes its precise origin unknown. flavoxanthin. The leaves and petals of the Pot Marigold are edible. and may possibly be of garden origin. resins and essential oils. Examples include 'Sun Glow' (bright yellow). It was used in ancient Greek. and auroxanthin (antioxidants. It is used for the treatment of skin disorders and pain. Roman. with the petals added to dishes as a garnish and in lieu of saffron. Calendula officinalis is widely cultivated as a herb and can be grown easily in sunny locations in most kinds of soils. it is commonly treated as an annual plant. 'Indian Prince' (dark orange-red). 'Orange Prince' (orange). mostly lutein (80%) and zeaxanthin (5%). and with 'double' flowerheads with ray florets replacing some or all of the disc florets. Traditional Medicine. Culinary Uses. A cultivar 'Variegata' with the leaves variegated yellow has also been selected. . with inner florets darker than outer florets) and 'Chrysantha' (yellow. in the family Asteraceae. The petals and pollen contain triterpenoid esters (an anti-inflammatory) and the carotenoids. The obtained liquid is placed with a compress in those areas we want to protect from mosquito bites. Along with Equisetum arvense. Numerous cultivars have been selected for variation in the flowers. particularly in colder regions where its winter survival is poor. Also is effective to alleviate the biting symptoms. The leaves and stems contain other carotenoids.Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis) It is a plant in the genus Calendula (marigolds). The leaves can be sweet but are more commonly bitter. and beta-carotene. and as a bactericide. It is also widely naturalised further north in Europe (north to southern England) and elsewhere in warm temperate regions of the world. Arabic and Indian cultures as a medicinal herb as well as a dye for fabrics.

meat was frequently rubbed with or packed in common Tansy to repel insects and prevent decay. and the final product must be thujonefree. anesthetic. convulsions. Culinary Uses. Bitter Buttons. During the American colonial period. Some insects. carcinogenic. has become invasive. .g. The 1. Research has found that tansy extracts do indeed repel mosquitoes. Tansy can be used as in companion planting and for biological pest control in organic gardens and sustainable agriculture. 1. Thujone is a compound found in some alcoholic beverages. as a moth repellent.Bitter Buttons (Tanacetum vulgare) It is a perennial. pennyroyal. and was also used as an ant repellent.S. and is highly toxic to arthropods. as a preservative in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Because of that the U. camphor. In 2008. In the 1940s distilled common tansy oils mixed with fleabane. It has been introduced to other parts of the world and. Mugwort. The 1. researchers in Sweden investigated the use of tansy to repell ticks. Culex pipiens) obtain sugar from Tansy flower. Finally. insectifuge. and jaundice. with the presence and amounts of each of these groups varying greatly from season to season and from one individual plant to the next. FDA limits Tansy use to alcoholic beverages. in the eighth century A. feverish colds. and myrtenol. sedative. for a variety of medicinal purposes. it is still a component of some medicines in the early 21st century and is listed by the United States Pharmacopeia as a treatment for fevers. Although most of common Tansy’s medicinal uses have been discredited. In England tansy is placed on window sills to repel flies. Tansy contains volatile oils which can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals and. as an injectable antibacterial for root canals in dentistry. Vector Control. recommended for sweetmeats as “an especial thing against the gout. sprigs placed in bed linen to drive away pests. allelopathy. one study finding tansy reduced the potato bugs population by 60-100%. and diluted alcohol was a well known mosquito repellent. The leaves and flowers are said to be poisonous if consumed in large quantities. in some areas. and causing hallucinations. used in lacquers and varnishes. Tansy is highly toxic to internal parasites. The chemical compounds in common Tansy’s volatile oils can be divided into four groups. In Yorkshire. and others . Their data presented a 64-72% repellency for each oil constituent. manufacture of plastics. with collectors paying five cents a pound for tansy in full bloom. in explosives and pyrotechnics.8-cineole.8-cineole compound has a long list of biological activities. medially used to relieve itching and pain creating a cooling effect on the skin. notably the Tansy beetle. Tansy and caraway seeds were traditionally used in biscuits served at funerals. increasing brain activity. Common tansy is planted alongside potatoes to repel the Colorado potato bug. transthujone. Myrtenol has been used as an insect pheromone in insect trapping. Common Tansy has a long history of many uses. fungicide. It is also known as Common Tansy. antibacterial. Tansy was first recorded cultivated by the ancient Greeks. and even death. if taken internally. Camphor is another compound with various uses. have evolved resistance to Tansy and live almost exclusively on it. is a GABA receptor antagonist that allows neurons to fire more easily. a food flavor enhancer. a flavoring and a fragrance. However it has been shown that both sexes of some species of mosquitoes (e. herbaceous flowering plant of the aster family that is native to temperate Europe and Asia. and has been used by herbalists to expel worms for centuries. Cow Bitter. Tennessee whiskey magnate Jack Daniel enjoyed drinking his own whiskey with sugar and crushed Tansy leaf. nematicide. Tansy was well known as “pleasant in taste”. but is almost unknown now. and is an active ingredient in Vicks VapoRub. and has the reported effects of being an aphrodisiac. but not as effectively as products containing diethyltoluamide. spasms. testosterone hydroxylase inducer. Tansy is an effective insecticide. herbicide. result in toxic by-products being produced in the liver and digestive tract as the plant's oils are broken down. as a beverage preservative. or Golden Buttons. Tansy was formerly used as a flavoring for puddings and omelets.8-cineole compound is a toxin produced in the leaves of Tansy believed to defend against herbivores. button-like flowers.D. Traditional Medicine. The scent is similar to that of camphor with hints of rosemary. Tansy is a flowering herbaceous plant with finely divided compound leaves and yellow.

and acts as an aphrodisiac where there is a clear connection between impotence or frigidity and stress. the bundle lends its distinctive flavor and aroma to the water. Java. and because it promotes skin regeneration and strengthens the connective tissue. suitable for deep massage of muscular aches and pains. It stimulates the circulatory system and makes a useful massage oil for elderly or debilitated people with poor circulation. is a perennial grass of the Poaceae family.Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) It is commonly known as Vetiver.3m deep root vetiver's roots grow downward. The two tricyclics esquiterpenoids –zizanal and epizizanal – isolated from vetiver oil show insect repelling activity. Vetiver oil is helpful during emotional stressful times. Furthermore. The stems are tall and the leaves are long. The mats are typically hung in a doorway and kept moist by spraying with water periodically and cool the passing air as well as a cool and refreshing aroma. and Reunion. It is also a useful antiseptic and is slightly stringent. etc. It makes a useful warming and pain-relieving rubbing oil. The main action of vetiver oil is on the nervous system and it is both sedating and strengthening in effect. and for grounding and clarity while traveling. which form horizontally spreading mat-like root systems. other products may be developed. Roots are used to make "khus water" for flavoring candy and fruit drinks in India. In western and northern India. Culinary Uses. . it is popularly known as khus. stiffness. It also helps to stimulate the production of red blood cells and is thus beneficial for anemia. equivalent to 1/6 mild steel old. Vetiver can grow up to 1. China: One year old with 3.5 meters high and form clumps as wide. anxiety. It may be added to sports oil blends and massaged into muscles before and after sports. It is particularly useful for jet lag. or eventually. acne and weeping sores. compresses and baths for the treatment of oily skin. the flowers are brownish purple. its relaxing quality may have some effect on tension arising from sexual problems. native to India. It is used in massage and in baths to relieve stress. it is known as “the oil of tranquility”. it has a rather powerful smell but is very pleasant when diluted. Unlike most grasses.3m long reinforcement) India. It also helps to ground people who live much in their head (ADD). it assists with wound healing and benefits aging skin. Like a bouquet garni. Mats made by weaving vetiver roots and binding them with ropes/cords are used in India to cool rooms in a house during summer. it is used to promote fertilization of the female egg. sometimes a muslin sachet of vetiver roots is tossed into the earthen pot that keeps the household's drinking water cool. nervous tension and insomnia. It also has some anti-fungal properties. thin. It also aids the reproductive system. In the hot summer months in India. nervous tension. It may be used in massage blends and the bath. and has been used a s tonic for women suffering postmenstruation syndrome. 2–4 meters in system (These roots have a tensile stre ngth Thailand: One year depth. and rather rigid. In Sri Lanka and India. It helps to clear acne. cuss cuss. may have important industrial applications . It is excellent in the treatment of depression. Traditional Medicine. Vetiver oil has been found to be best treatment for ADHD/ADD. as insecticide or insect repellent. it helps to balance the secretion of sebum. Vetiver oil is known to repel insects. kuss-kuss grass. In skin care. debility. sprains. Vector Control. insomnia and many stress-related diseases. such as nootkatone – a sesquiterpene. giving the earlier English names cuscus. Vetiver oil revitalizes the body by fortifying the red blood corpuscles crucial in transporting oxygen to all parts of the system. people in India and elsewhere have placed vetiver root among their clothes to keep insects away. It is used in lotions. rheumatism and arthritis. Some of the components of vetiver oil. The world's major producers include Haiti. which has been found to repel and even kill termites. 3. It also repels flies and cockroaches and may make a useful ingredient in insect repellents. It has been used to repel moths.

Neem is considered an invasive species in many areas where it is non-native. In India it is very common to see neem trees used for shade lining the streets or in most people's back yards. It is biodegradable and breaks down easily and quickly. creams and lotions. spider mites. cosmetics. spidermites. bark and leaves contain compounds with proven antiseptic. pet products like pet shampoo. etc. mealy bugs. Neem oil also works as a fungicide and helps control powdery mildew. anti-inflammatory. other essential amino acids and some percentages of fatty acids. Neem oil has been used for hundreds of years in controlling plant pests and diseases. eczema. and Japanese beetles. Vector Control. neem has been used for more than 4. antipyretic. Neem has also proven to be not harmful to adult beneficial insects. Neem flowers are very popular for their use soup-like in the South Indian States and in Tamil Nadu.. It is one of the very few shade-giving trees that thrive in the drought-prone areas. thrips. etc. It can tolerate high to very high temperatures and does not tolerate temperature below 4 °C. antiviral. toothpaste. but also from biting flies. Some people have also experienced good results with neem oil spray on black spot. southern districts of India. psoriasis. mosquito repellants. Of the 25 active ingredients at least 9 affect the growth and behaviour of insects and spiders. It also contains vitamin E. etc.Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica) It is a tropical evergreen tree native to India and is also found in other southeast countries. are present and can also burn leaves if sprayed in sun. but in such cases it depends largely on ground water levels. sand fleas. Neem is also used in parts of mainland Southeast Asia. Neem oil is derived by pressing the seed kernels of the neem tree. Neem Gum is a rich source of protein. since it primarily affects only plant sap-sucking insects. It is an excellent moisturizing oil and contains various compounds that have insecticidal and medicinal properties. Neem is a life-giving tree. Laos. The seeds. skin allergies. birds. with an annual rainfall between 400 and 1200 mm. locusts.'Salannin'. which feed upon the treated plants. particularly in Cambodia. Traditional Medicine. and the bugs choose to starve themselves than eat the leaves treated with neem. Culinary Uses. Neem provides protection from not only mosquitoes. it also works as an antifeedant thus making the leaves sprayed with it very distasteful for the bugs to eat. It can grow in regions with an annual rainfall below 400 mm. Thailand. Neem can grow in many different types of soil. etc. aphids. It is a typical tropical to subtropical tree and exists at annual mean temperatures between 21-32 °C. Care should be taken not to spray neem oil solution when honey bees and the larvae of beneficials like ladybugs. Neem oil is used for treating many skin diseases viz. One of the main ingredients in neem seed oil is Azadirachtin that works as an insect growth regulator. The trees are not at all delicate about the water quality and thrive on the merest trickle of water. Even lightly cooked. In India. anti-ulcer and antifungal uses. soaps. thus preventing the larval stage to molt into an adult. . the flavour is quite bitter and thus the food is not enjoyed by all inhabitants of these nations. especially for the dry coastal. has been proven to be safer but more effective insect repellant than DEET. A single seed may contain up to 50 percent oil by weight. In Myanmar. and is being studied for making contraceptives in India. whatever the quality. It is used in making shampoos.000 years and is known as “the village pharmacy” because of its healing versatility. bees or earthworms. etc. ticks. though it is believed to be good for one's health. As neem is very bitter in taste. scales. mealybugs. Neem oil is bio-degradable and has proven to be non-toxic to mammals. The neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. The spray solution of neem oil helps to control common pests like white flies. Myanmar and Vietnam and is used to cook the salad: gỏi sầu đâu). but it thrives best on well drained deep and sandy soils. A compound found in Neem Oil and neem leaves extract. young neem leaves and flower buds are boiled with tamarind fruit to soften its bitterness and eaten as a vegetable. Pickled neem leaves are also eaten with tomato and fish paste sauce in Myanmar. The tender shoots and flowers of the neem tree are eaten as a vegetable in India. Normally it thrives in areas with sub-arid to subhumid conditions.

the Mediterranean Basin. but their size and aggressive root system made them more of a liability than an asset. especially when it is old. eucalypts are both lauded for their beneficial economic impact on poor populations and derided for being invasive water-suckers. Culinary Uses. Only 15 species occur outside Australia. Chenopodium Oil having become the recognized remedy. It is a fast-growing source of wood. The dose of the oil is 1/2 to 3 minims. 1/2 OZ. Its antiseptic properties confer some antimalarial action. thus rain or irrigation can wet the soil again. There are more than 700 species of Eucalyptus.Eucalyptus It is a diverse genus of flowering trees (and a few shrubs) in the myrtle family. filter them and the liquid is put in small recipients which are placed in the different rooms. it has the typical actions of a volatile oil in a marked degree. Species of Eucalyptus are cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics including the Americas. diphtheria. Traditional Medicine. to dogs in distemper. For local injections. the Eucalyptus has attracted attention from global development researchers and environmentalists. and dripping water from them made the graveled roads muddy. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia. sore throat. Eucalyptus Oil is administered to horses in influenza. Sicily.2 ft) length. Lebanon. An emulsion made by shaking up equal parts of the oil and powdered gum-arabic with water has been used as a urethral injection. typhoid and intermittent fever.' used for sterilizing and lubricating urethral catheters.5 m (8. In veterinary practice. though it cannot take the place of Cinchona. and as a marked nervous depressant ultimately arresting respiration by its action on the medullary centre. Africa. the dose 1/2 to 1 drachms. etc. It is also used for parasitic skin affections. It has decided disinfectant action. it impairs sensibility. None reported. Drainage removes swamps which provide a habitat for mosquito larvae. to the pint is taken. Eucalyptus Oil is used as a stimulant and antiseptic gargle. In croup and spasmodic throat troubles. but can also destroy ecologically productive areas. it acts as an irritant to the kidneys. Europe. Myrtaceae. In large doses. because the eucalyptus roots have up to 2. and a very small number are found in adjacent areas of New Guinea and Indonesia and one as far north as the Philippine archipelago and Taiwan. Their roots tore up sidewalks and streets. food shed and closets. They were too big to prune. 1 OZ. Outside their natural ranges. Of the eucalyptus species blue gums were first used. not reaching the phreatic zone. Eucalyptol may be given in similar doses and is preferable for purposes of inhalation. in scarlet fever. leading to controversy over their total impact. by which it is largely excreted. and California. . The medicinal Eucalyptus Oil is probably the most powerful antiseptic of its class. It was simply a problem of finding the proper species. of the oil is added to 1 pint of lukewarm water. As a local application for ulcers and sores. mostly native to Australia. Internally. Vector Control. The Fluid Extract is used internally. the oil may be freely applied externally. for asthma. to all animals in septicaemia. as ozone is formed in it on exposure to the air. and only 9 do not occur in Australia. For some years Eucalyptus-chloroform was employed as one of the remedies in the tropics for hookworm. For insect repellent purposes boil some eucalyptus leaves. Locally applied. elsewhere in Europe. destroying the lower forms of life. Many were removed. and has also been given internally in drachm doses in pulmonary tuberculosis and other microbic diseases of the lungs and bronchitis. It increases cardiac action. The oil is an ingredient of 'catheder oil. but it has now been almost universally abandoned as an inefficient anthelmintic. Eucalypts have also been used as a way of reducing malaria by draining the soil in Algeria. This drainage is limited to the soil surface only.

thus promoting belching. it can grow anywhere. but often produce a less intensely scented spearmint-like plant. Vector Control. In addition to that. shaded locations. the Galápagos Islands. It is often grown in containers to restrict rapid spreading. pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases. in the EcoSmart Technologies line of products. Being a hybrid.] The leaves and flowering tops are used. and it is considered invasive in Australia. Seeds sold at stores labelled peppermint generally will not germinate into true peppermint. Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose. . If placed. Peppermint generally thrives in moist. including stream sides and drainage ditches. and is often planted in areas with part-sun to shade. the toxicities of the plant seem to vary from one cultivar to another and are dose dependent. and toothpaste. It is found wild occasionally with its parent species. while others found that it is of protective functions against the liver damages which are caused by heavy metal inductions. Peppermint has a long tradition of medicinal use. indigenous to Europe. chewing gum. Some of the toxic components may come from herbicides. A second study in 2010. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone. Also has been found to be a mosquito repellent. Culinary Uses. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos and soaps. Similarly. with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. is now widespread in cultivation throughout all regions of the world. Peppermint has a high menthol content. Outside of its native range. It grows best with a good supply of water. and expands quickly by underground stolons. and is often used as tea and for flavouring ice cream. and in the United States. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters. some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3. confectionery.1. Peppermint oil is used by commercial pesticide applicators. which give the hair a minty scent and produce a cooling sensation on the skin. spreading by its rhizomes. compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. In 2007. a cross between the watermint and spearmint. particularly menthyl acetate. they are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and then are carefully dried.Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) It is a hybrid mint. with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. New Zealand. found similar results. Peppermint relaxes the gastro-esophageal sphincter. The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. as a natural insecticide. Peppermint typically occurs in moist habitats. A mild. it reproduces only vegetatively. Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. Traditional Medicine. conducted in Iran. It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mint-flavoured confectionery. This could also be achieved by using the whole herb or leaves rather than the volatile components alone. but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. areas where peppermint was formerly grown for oil often have an abundance of feral plants. The plant. with a few exceptions.

In common usage the name may refer to: • any or all members of the plant genus Thymus • common thyme. It is also widely used in Caribbean cuisine. Because it is antiseptic. thyme boiled in water and cooled is very effective against inflammation of the throat when gargled 3 times a day. beetles. It can be propagated by seed. Fresh thyme is commonly sold in bunches of sprigs. Other infections and wounds can be dripped with thyme that has been boiled in water and cooled. tisane. Thymol. Traditional Medicine. Thyme is sold both fresh and dried. The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is made up of 20-54% thymol. which is due to its content of thymol. Albanian. The plants can take deep freezes and are found growing wild on mountain highlands. While summer-seasonal. Syrian. Indian. French. It was thought that the spread of thyme throughout Europe was thanks to the Romans. as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs". Spanish. It tolerates drought well. Assyrian. It has also been shown to be effective against the fungus that commonly infects toenails. Its oxytocin-like effect causes uterine contractions and more rapid delivery of the placenta. fresh thyme is often available yearround. Before the advent of modern antibiotics. Medicinally thyme is used for respiratory infections in the form of a tincture. soups and stews. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. The herb is a basic ingredient in Lebanese. Thyme is a well-known culinary and medicinal herb. A tea made by infusing the herb in water can be used for cough and bronchitis. being highly lipid-soluble. tomatoes and eggs. Thyme is widely cultivated for its strong flavor. where it reduces the viscosity of the mucus and exerts its antimicrobial action. and in those derived from them. syrup or by steam inhalation. salve. does not overpower and blends well with other herbs and spices. it was used to medicate bandages.Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Common Thyme is a Mediterranean perennial which is best suited to well-drained soils and enjoys full sun. It has a particular affinity to and is often used as a primary flavour with lamb. bed bugs. The fresh form is more flavourful but also less convenient. Portuguese. Thyme essential oil keeps away mosquitoes. or by dividing rooted sections of the plant. It is generally planted in the spring and thereafter grows as a perennial. fleas. Thyme. and some other species that are used as culinary herbs or for medicinal purposes • Thyme-like species such as Caribbean Thyme (Plectranthus amboinicus) Culinary Uses. Thyme is often used to flavour meats. Vector Control. In traditional Jamaican childbirth practice. Nigerian. is the main active ingredient in Listerine mouthwash. Thyme essential oil kills intestinal worms. Italian. believing that thyme was a source of courage. Greek. Persian. moths and parasites. Thyme is a good source of iron and is widely used in cooking. cuttings. while flavourful. Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. lice. Jordanian. It can destroy them as well. thyme tea is given to the mother after delivery of the baby. The inflammation will normally disappear in 2 – 5 days. . The thymol and other volatile components in the leaf glands is excreted via the lungs. and Turkish cuisines. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples. storage life is rarely more than a week. an antiseptic.

Horsemint grows wild in most of the Eastern United States. and from Nebraska to Texas. Leaves contain citronellol – effective insect repellent when rubbed on the skin. Cosmetic: Facial steam. It is also called purple horse mint or lemon beebalm. from Mexico. fruit cups and fruit drinks. Freeze chopped/ or single flowers in ice cubes. is. where it sometimes forms impressive blankets of summer flowers. Aromatic herb with a lemon-like aroma. However. The hummingbirds. the odor is described as resembling oregano more than lemon. Sometimes. Aromatherapy Vector Control. bees and butterfly's love them though. roadsides and other sunny habitats from California to Florida. and which has purple flowers that prove irresistible to both bees and hummingbirds. Add flower petals and chopped leaves to salads. Native Americans used it as a treatment for colds and flu. . It prefers soils with a high percentage of clay. Light Requirements: Full sun to partial shade. This widespread plant grows in prairies. The crushed leaves of this plant were used by native Americans as insect (mosquito) repellent. Culinary Uses. reminiscent of the fruit of the actual lemon plant. Add to pork and game dishes. Most recipes bearing the name "lemon mint" actually use spearmint and the juice or other components of the actual fruit of the lemon plant rather than this plant. Make a tea Traditional Medicine. Horsemint has a scent similar to citronella. especially late in the season. such as the vertisols and mollisols typical of tallgrass prairies.Lemon mint (Monarda citriodora). which has a citrus smell when crushed. lemon mint is occasionally used in herbal teas. It has natural fungicidal and bacterial retardant properties because it's essential oils are high in thymol. Texas up to Minnesota to Vermont. a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is partial to sandy soils and will grow in USDA Zones 5-10. as the names imply.

This herb can be easy to cultivate in Plant Hardiness Zones 4 to 9 according to the United States Department of Agriculture. so it is best to plant indoors or in spring and not to cover the seeds.[10] The extract of lemon balm was also found to have exceptionally high antioxidant activity.Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) It should not to be confused with bee balm. It can be used in fish dishes and is the key ingredient in lemon balm pesto.[11] Lemon balm is mentioned in the scientific journal Endocrinology. It is claimed to have antibacterial and antiviral properties (it is effective against herpes simplex). it is moderately shade-tolerant. There are many cultivars of Melissa officinalis. It is also frequently paired with fruit dishes or candies. These effects are believed to involve muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. but shoot up again in spring. Monarda species. Traditional Medicine. It grows to 70–150 cm tall. is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae. Lemon balm grows in clumps and spreads vegetatively as well as by seed. Lemon balm is also used medicinally as a herbal tea. Lemon balm is often used as a flavouring in ice cream and herbal teas. it grows best in partial shade. or from seeds. it can be harvested at least until the end of November. Lemon balm extract was identified as a potent inhibitor of GABA transaminase. During summer. which explains anxiolytic effects. It is also used as an anxiolytic. M. officinalis 'Citronella'. In mild temperate zones. officinalis 'Lemonella'. both hot and iced. Its flavour comes from citronellal (24%). In dry climates. [9] Its antibacterial properties have also been demonstrated scientifically. In North America. although the study's authors call for further research. or in extract form. Under ideal conditions. [8] Positive results have been achieved in a small clinical trial involving Alzheimer patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Melissa officinalis has escaped cultivation and spread into the wild. At least one study has found it to be effective at reducing stress. The major compound responsible for GABA transaminase inhibition activity in lemon balm is rosmarinic acid. The leaves have a gentle lemon scent. It can be easily grown from stem cuttings rooted in water. mild sedative or calming agent. although they are markedly weaker than those from a number of other plants studied. small white flowers full of nectar appear. Lemon balm requires light and at least 20 degrees Celsius (70 degrees Fahrenheit) to germinate. some of the more common ones being: M. much more so than most herbs. hence the genus name Melissa (Greek for 'honey bee'). it will seed itself prolifically and can become a nuisance in gardens. These attract bees. While it prefers full sun (as described on most plant tags). the stems of the plant die off at the start of the winter. officinalis 'Quedlinburger'. officinalis 'Lime' Culinary Uses. geranial (16%). it needs well-drained sandy soil and a winter mulch or adequate snowcover to survive. inhibiting TSH from attaching to TSH receptors. M. It can also be easily grown as an indoor potted herb. linalyl acetate (12%) and caryophyllene(12%). where it is explained that Melissa officinalis exhibits antithyrotropic activity. In zone 7. hence making it of possible use in the treatment of Graves' disease or hyperthyroidism. Lemon balm and preparations thereof also have shown to improve mood and mental performance. native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. In zone 4. often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint. related to mint.[12] . M.

The crushed leaves. are used as a repellant for mosquitos. The essential oil is commonly co-distilled with lemon oil. .[15] but this restriction appears to have been revisited and relaxed in the 44th amendment. or other oils. [citation needed] Lemon balm contains eugenol. melissa oil was initially prohibited by the International Fragrance Association (IFRA)'s 43rd amendment.[14] Despite extensive traditional medicinal use. as well as terpenes that add to its soothing effects. It also contains tannins that contribute to its antiviral effects. although this effect has not been proven. citronella oil. which kills bacteria and has been shown to calm muscles and numb tissues. Lemon balm is used in some variations of the Colgate Herbal toothpaste for its soothing and aromatic properties.Lemon balm essential oil is very popular in aromatherapy. as it is believed the herb inhibits the absorption of this medicine. and as an antispasmodic. Traditionally this herb has been used as a sedative.[13] Lemon balm should be avoided by those on thyroid medication (such as thyroxine). when rubbed on the skin.[16] One traditional use of lemon balm tea was in extending age.

like flat leaf parsley or chervil. parsley is biennial. parsley is said to reduce itching of mosquito bites. with rice dishes. Green parsley is often used as a garnish. • It's commonly believed that when chewed. • The essential oil appiole found in all parts of parsley are a proven kidney stimulant. The fresh flavor of the green parsley goes extremely well with potato dishes (french fries. Parsley is widely used as a companion plant in gardens. fried chicken. European. It offers protection even in its first year as the strong scent of the parsley leaves appear to mingle with the tomato scent and confuse the search paradigms of the tomato moth. not blooming until its second year. lamb or goose. Caterpillars are black and green striped with yellow dots. Its preferred uses are in paste and dressing. with full sun. Parsley grows best in moist. Seed eaters such as the lesser goldfinch feed on the seed. and American cooking. many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. it attracts predatory insects. crispum) and Italian. Bees also visit the blooms. they are especially useful for protecting tomato plants as the wasps that kill tomato hornworms also eat nectar from parsley. often used as spice. Parsley attracts winged wildlife. • When crushed and rubbed on the skin. boiled buttered potatoes or mashed potato).it is no more effective than chewing any other substance (such as chewing gum). Parsley is a key ingredient in several West Asian salads. some people regard this as a myth . • Parsley also appears to increase diuresis by inhibiting the Na+/K+-ATPase pump in the kidney. It is also valued as an aquaretic. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol. Parsley has the following Medicinal uses: • Tea may be used as an enema. where it is used as soup vegetable in many soups and in most meat or vegetable stews and casseroles. or flat leaf (P. . steaks. Root parsley is very common in Central and Eastern European cuisines. • It is often used as an emmenagogue. It is common in Middle Eastern. In Central and Eastern Europe and in West Asia. The swallowtail butterfly uses parsley as a host plant for its larvae. However. and will feast upon parsley for two weeks before turning into butterflies. In cold climates. meat or vegetable stews. especially from eating garlic. with fish. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups. • Cherokees used it as a tonic to strengthen the bladder. thereby enhancing sodium and water excretion while increasing potassium re absorption. If the leaves are not harvested.Parsley (Petroselinum) It is a bright green biennial herb. well drained soil. Like many other members of the carrot family. For example. neapolitanum). It frequently has difficulties germinating because of Furanocoumarins in its seed coat. parsley can freshen bad breath. including wasps and predatory flies to gardens. which then tend to protect plants nearby. Curly leaf parsley is often used as a garnish. Parsley is the most abundantly used herb in the Spanish cuisine. parsley is used for its leaf in much the same way as coriander (which is also known as Chinese parsley or cilantro). although parsley is perceived to have a milder flavor. Two forms of parsley are used as herbs: curly leaf (P. the plant eventually ceases to produce them in abundance and grows a thicker central stalk with small flowers instead. • Chinese and German herbologists recommend parsley tea to help control high blood pressure. In modern cooking. green salads or salads like on open sandwiches with cold cuts or pâtés. The use of curly leaf parsley may be favored by some because it cannot be confused with poison hemlock.

70% by mass) in oxalic acid. root. • • Parsley seeds contain a high level of apiole oil and are a diuretic. .Parsley appears to enhance the body's absorption of manganese. The absorption appears to be especially enhanced when parsley is eaten in conjunction with copper and zinc rich foods such as shellfish and organically grown whole grains. • Parsley oil contains furanocoumarins and psoralens which leads to extreme photosensitivity if used to excess. Health risks • Parsley should not be consumed as a drug or supplement by pregnant women. Parsley as an oil. either topically or orally. a compound involved in the formation of kidney stones and a causal agent in some types of mineral deficiencies. and parsley juice has been used as an insecticide. Bruised leaves are applied to bites and stings of insects. which is important to help build bone. or seed could lead to uterine stimulation and preterm labor. Parsley oil sometimes is used in perfumes and soaps. • Parsley is high (1. leaf.

an essential oil used in aromatherapy. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Rockport. [L. Cajeput trees grown in Australia are well known for having the most powerful therapeutic properties.] Constituents: a-pinene. B-pinene. The trees. search This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Compared to other countries. 1995). terpinen-4-ol. y-terpinene. spots. myrcene. Please help clarify the article. The essential oil of the Cajeput trees have many aromatherapeutic and herbal uses. 3. The flexible trunk has a white spongy bark that flakes off easily.8-cineole. are held in high regard throughout the East. bronchitis. Cajeput is also an effective treatment for urinary and digestive infections. or green flowers. MA: Element Books. coughs. The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy (Australia: The Perfect Potion. 1997). Vol 1. M. linariifolia. Primarily it refers to M. making it a good antiseptic for respiratory ailments such as laryngitis. muscle aches. quinquenervia. suggestions may be found on the talk page. 58-63. (February 2009) Cajeput tree is the common name used for certain members of the genus Melaleuca. 15. Cajeput oil can also be used as a warming muscle rub to ease stiffness and rheumatic aches. . "The Composition and Bactericidal Activity of oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. Australia's Cajeput contains the highest anti-infectious properties (cineol. sinusitis. Possible Uses: Asthma." International Journal of Aromatherapy. M. and especially the essential oils. oily skin.. linaolool. Williams. 1. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.Cajeput Tree From Wikipedia.] Cajeput's vapours are decongestant and expectorant. cited in Salvatore Battaglia. viridflora and M. All of these trees are evergreens with pointed leaves and white. native to Australia. No. limonene. terpinolene. rheumatism. Thus. [Julia Lawless. a-terpineol. a-terpinene. pcymene. leucadendra. The cajeput trees are the source of cajeput oil. It is also an effective natural remedy against head lice or pet fleas. sore throat. In this instance the Cajeput oil would be blended with either Rosemary or Marjoram oil. Australian Cajeput is a favorite amongst health professionals when choosing the finest Cajeput in the world. The refreshing action also clears headaches and tiredness associated with influenza. pinene and others). especially if these are recurring.

Davis writes that she uses cajeput oil to help relieve pain from sore throats and it can also provide some relief from laryngitis. . Insect Repellent If you spend time outdoors or want to keep your home free from insects but don't want to use any of the available chemical insect repellents. If you have sore and achy muscles or joints. To help keep the bugs out of your home or yard you can diffuse the oil through the air. You can also include diluted cajeput in an oil blend and directly apply it to your skin. it also works as pain reliever for several ailments. The New Zealand Dermatological Society also lists cajeput as an insect repellent.Pain Reliever While cajeput oil works well for treating the source of infections. cajeput oil provides a natural alternative. cajeput's pain relieving properties might provide some relief. A 2006 study in the journal Parasitology Research found that cajeput oil worked as a repellent against mosquitoes. according to Lawless. This pain-relieving benefits also extend to other parts of the body.

In Palestinian cuisine. who thought it combined the flavour of cinnamon. however. It is used in Caribbean jerk seasoning. but it is also responsible for giving Cincinnati-style chili its distinctive aroma and flavor. the cream made of Pimenta kept the repellent action in 100% of cases and the difference obtained with the use of the placebo cream was statistically significant. they lose much flavour when dried and stored and so do not figure in commerce. To protect the pimenta trade. sometimes grown to provide shade for coffee trees that are planted underneath them. is a spice which is the dried unripe fruit ("berries") of Pimenta dioica . The leaves of the allspice plant are also used in Island cooking. meaning plants are either male or female and hence male and female plants must be kept in proximity in order to allow fruits to develop. It can also be a tall. Allspice is one of the most important ingredients of Caribbean cuisine. it is used mostly in desserts. A cream with essential oil of Pimenta dioica was investigated with the aim of knowing its efficacy as insect repellent. Allspice is also reported to provide relief for indigestion and gas. The whole fruits have a longer shelf life than the powdered product and produce a more aromatic product when freshly ground before use. Allspice is commonly used in Great Britain and appears in many dishes. kurundu. In America. It adapts well to container culture and can be kept as a houseplant or in a greenhouse. The leaves and wood are often used for smoking meats where allspice is a local crop. and in pickling. was essential for germinating the seeds. In the final evaluation. The fruit is picked when it is green and unripe and. it is used in large amounts by commercial sausage makers. dried in the sun. also called Jamaica pepper. . it is also an ingredient in commercial sausage preparations and curry powders. particularly in the Levant. At one time it was thought that the plant would grow nowhere else except in Jamaica. where the plant was readily spread by birds. The name "allspice" was coined as early as 1621 by the English. quite similar to the Bay Laurel in size and form. although larger plants are more tolerant. For cooking. Experiments were then performed using the constituents of bird droppings. Eventually it was realized that passage through the avian gut. or newspice. Allspice is also indispensable in Middle Eastern cuisine.Allspice (Pimenta dioica) Allspice. a weak antimicrobial agent. When dry. including cakes. canopy tree. for example. Smaller plants can be killed by frost. myrtle pepper. traditionally. in mole sauces. Volatile oils found in the plant contain eugenol. nutmeg and cloves. now cultivated in many warm parts of the world. an allspice liqueur called "pimento dram" is produced. The plant is dioecious. many main dishes call for allspice as the sole spice added for flavoring. these were also totally unsuccessful. Allspice is also a main flavor used in barbecue sauces. where it has become naturalized on Kaua'i and Maui. pimenta. Unlike bay leaves. the fruits are brown and resemble large brown peppercorns. It can be grown outdoors in the tropics and subtropics with normal garden soil and watering. where it is used to flavor a variety of stews and meat dishes. Allspice can be a small scrubby tree. all failed. a mid-canopy tree native to the Greater Antilles. Allspice can also be found in essential oil form. It is reported that many attempts were made at growing the pimenta from seeds. the plant was guarded against export from Jamaica. southern Mexico and Central America. fresh leaves are used where available: they are similar in texture to bay leaves and are thus infused during cooking and then removed before serving. In the West Indies. Today Pimenta is spread by birds in Tonga Hawai'i. Even in many countries where allspice is not very popular in the household. Allspice has also been used as a deodorant. either the acidity or the elevated temperature. such as Germany.

and succinic acid. It has also been used to repel fleas and moths indoors. It can be useful to repel insect larvae but it need only be planted on the edge of the area of cultivation.Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) It is a species of wormwood.5 m) tall. Pure wormwood oil is very poisonous. It can be propagated by growth (ripened cuttings taken in March or October in temperate climates) or by seeds in nursery beds. seed dispersal is by gravity. thus weeds. on rocky slopes. and dried naturally or with artificial heat.2 m (rarely 1. The oil of the plant can be used as a cardiac stimulant to improve blood circulation. branched. febrifuge and anthelmintic. The word "wormwood" comes from Middle English "wormwode" or "wermode". It is also an additional ingredient to mint tea in moroccan tea culture. because of the secretions of its roots. including bitters. A dried encapsulated form of the plant is used as an anthelmintic. eaten during the Korean thanksgiving festival of chuseok in the Autumn. The fruit is a small achene. arid ground. It is also available in powder form and as a tincture Wormwood is the traditional color and flavor agent for green songpyeon (a type of steamed dumpling/'cookie' made of fine rice flour). tannic and resinous substances. In the practice of companion planting. but with proper dosage poses little or no danger. not alkyloids. thujone. these alkyloids are poisonous. including much of North America. growing to 0. It is a herbaceous perennial plant. In fresh grinded mixture you can use wormwood directly on skin. The stems are straight. . The leaves and flowering tops are gathered when the plant is in full bloom. it exerts an inhibiting effect on the growth of surrounding plants. the herb is used to make a tea for helping pregnant women during pain of labor. woody rhizome. vermouth and pelinkovac. Its flowers are pale yellow. and also used for flavouring in some other spirits and wines. pollination is anemophilous. mid-weight soil. carminative. and silvery-green. which are in turn clustered in leafy and branched panicles. The form "wormwood" is influenced by the traditional use as a cure for intestinal worms. grooved. But. these pieces are only effective for a relatively short period of time. It is an ingredient in the spirit absinthe. The plant can easily be cultivated in dry soil. stomachic. two bitter elements (absinthin and anabsinthine). It is also used medically as a tonic. Apparently. However there are a lot of recipes how to apply it as repellent. It grows naturally on uncultivated. cholagogue. A wine can also be made by macerating the herb. However. The plant's characteristic odor can make it useful for making a plant spray against pests. It is naturalized in some areas away from its native range. Pieces of wormwood plant have been used as moth and rodent repellents. antispasmodic. It has generally attributed the repellent characteristics of the wormwood and other plants to the presence of alkyloids in the plant. tubular. a natural oil of the wormwood plant and a component of cedar leaf oil from the cedar tree. Their aromatic smell repels insects very effectively. with a hard. For medicinal use. It has also recognized to repel rodents. It prefers soil rich in nitrogen. native to temperate regions of Eurasia and northern Africa. thujone oil.8-1. Flowering is from early summer to early autumn. Wormwood is mostly a stomach medicine. malic acid. and at the edge of footpaths and fields. They should be planted under bright exposure in fertile. will repel rodents. and clustered in spherical bent-down heads (capitula). antiseptic. Its active substances include silica. typically a few days. Its use has been claimed to remedy indigestion and gastric pain. Various kinds of Wormwood are also useful in fight against mosquitoes.

Pineapple weed flowers used to be gathered for food by children. roadsides. especially those with poor. The flower head is cone-shaped. etc. and postpartum anemia.1 to 41 cm) high. pressed and crushed. composed of dense-packed yellowish-green corollas. although most find it too bitter to consume raw. You can find it everywhere on lawns. Flowerheads are produced from May to September. They are edible and have been used in salads (although they may become bitter by the time the plant blooms) and to make herbal tea. The plant grows 2 to 16 inches (5. Pineapple weed has used for medicinal purposes. It can be seen blooming on footpaths. infected sores.Pineapple weed (Matricaria discoidea) It is an annual plant native to North America and Northeast Asia but which has become a cosmopolitan weed. The plant also showed its effectiveness in fighting mosquitoes. compacted soil. The plant grows well in disturbed areas. It is in the family Asteraceae. and similar places in spring and early summer. Washington). can serve as a ready-made repellent for applying directly on skin . The leaves are pinnately dissected and sweet-scented when crushed. and lacking ray-florets. been The pinnately dissected leaves are sweet-scented when crushed (Fir Island. including for relief of gastrointestinal upset. it can be found from central Alaska down to California and all the way to Nova Scotia. In the USA. fevers. The flowers exude a chamomile/pineapple aroma when crushed. near the roads. Fresh leaves.

their use against pests decreased when chemical products became developed. Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia). In this study. and Catnip (Nepeta cataria). Anopheles stephensi (Liston). which induced a protection time of 8 h at the maximum and a 100% repellency against all three species. concerns increased with respect to public health and environmental security requiring detection of natural products that may be used against insect pests. 41 plant extracts and 11 oil mixtures were evaluated against the yellow fever mosquito. This effect needs. The five most effective oils were those of Litsea (Litsea cubeba). Cajeput (Melaleuca leucadendron).Since ancient times. however. plant products were used in various aspects. Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) using the skin of human volunteers to find out the protection time and repellency. However. and the filariasis and encephalitis vector. Recently. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). a peculiar formulation to fix them on the human skin . Violet (Viola odorata). the malaria vector.

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