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Abstract Mathematics

Ralph W. Oberste-Vorth

and

Aristides Mouzakitis

1

Copyright c ´2003 by Ralph W. Oberste-Vorth and Aristides Mouzakitis

i

Table of Contents

Contents i

Some Notes on Notation iii

Preface iv

PART I. THE AXIOMATIC METHOD 1

Chapter 1. Introduction 2

Section 1. The History of Numbers 2

Section 2. The Algebra of Numbers 2

Section 3. The Axiomatic Method 3

Section 4. Parallel Mathematical Universes 5

Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics 8

Section 1. Mathematical Statements 8

Section 2. Mathematical Connectives 8

Section 3. Symbolic Logic 8

Section 4. Compound Statements in English 8

Section 5. Predicates and Quantiﬁers 11

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics 8

Section 1. What is Mathematics? 12

Section 2. Direct Proof 13

Section 3. Contraposition and Proof by Contradiction 15

Section 4. Proof by Induction 16

Section 5. Examples and Counterexamples 22

Supplemental Exercises 74

How to THINK about mathematics: A Summary 24

How to COMMUNICATE mathematics: A Summary 24

PART II. SET THEORY 25

Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations 26

Section 1. Introduction 26

Section 2. Subsets 27

Section 3. Intersections and Unions 28

Section 4. Differences and Complements 31

ii

Section 5. Power Sets 32

Section 6. Russell’s Paradox 33

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 5. Functions 34

Section 1. Functions as Rules 34

Section 2. Cartesian Products, Relations and Functions 34

Section 3. Injective, Surjective and Bijective Functions 38

Section 4. Compositions of Functions 40

Section 5. Inverse Functions and Inverse Images of Functions 42

Section 6. Another Approach to Compositions 44

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 6. Relations on a Set 56

Section 1. Properties of Relations 56

Section 2. Order Relations 57

Section 3. Equivalence Relations 61

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets 46

Section 1. Introduction 46

Section 2. Finite Sets 46

Section 3. Inﬁnite Sets 49

Section 4. Countable Sets 51

Section 5. Uncountable Sets 52

Supplemental Exercises 74

PART III. ALGEBRA OF NUMBER SYSTEMS 64

Chapter 8. Algebra of Number Systems 65

Section 1. Primary Properties of Number Systems 65

Section 2. Secondary Properties Involving Addition and Multiplication 66

Section 3. Secondary Properties Involving Order 66

Section 4. Isomorphisms and Embeddings 68

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 9. Archimedean Ordered Fields 65

Section 1. The Main Goal and Archimedean Principle 69

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 10. The Natural Numbers 71

Section 1. Introduction 71

Section 2. Zero, the Natural Numbers and Addition 71

Section 3. Multiplication 74

Supplemental Exercises 74

Summary of the Properties of Z

÷

74

Chapter 11. The Integers 75

Section 1. Introduction: Integers as Equivalence Classes 75

iii

Section 2. A Total Ordering of the Integers 75

Section 3. Addition of Integers 75

Section 4. Multiplication of Integers 75

Section 5. Embedding the Natural Numbers in the Integers 78

Supplemental Exercises 74

Summary of the Properties of Z 74

Chapter 12. The Rational Numbers 79

Section 1. Introduction 79

Section 2. A Total Ordering of the Rationals 75

Section 3. Addition of Rationals 75

Section 4. Multiplication of Rationals 75

Section 5. An Ordered Field Containing the Integers 79

Supplemental Exercises 74

Summary of the Properties of Z

÷

74

Chapter 13. The Real Numbers 82

Section 1. Dedekind Cuts 82

Section 2. Order and Addition of Real Numbers 82

Section 3. Multiplication of Real Numbers 84

Section 4. Embedding the Rationals in the Reals 85

Section 5. Uniqueness of the set of Real Numbers 85

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 14. The Complex Numbers 89

Section 1. Introduction 89

Section 2. Algebra of Complex Numbers 89

Section 3. Order on the Complex Field 89

Section 4. Embedding the Real Numbers in the Complex Numbers 90

Supplemental Exercises 74

Chapter 15. The Real Numbers According to Cantor 92

Section 1. Convergence of Sequences of Rational Numbers 92

Section 2. Cauchy Sequences of Rational Numbers 93

Section 3. Cantor’s Set of Real Numbers 95

Section 4. The Isomorphism from Cantor’s to Dedekind’s Reals 97

Supplemental Exercises 74

PART IV. HINTS 98

Chapter 16. Hints for the Exercises 99

Hints for Chapter 1 99

Hints for Chapter 3 99

Hints for Chapter 4 99

Hints for Chapter 5 100

Hints for Chapter 7 100

Hints for Chapter 6 102

Hints for Chapter 8 103

Hints for Chapter 10 104

iv

Hints for Chapter 11 104

Hints for Chapter 12 105

Hints for Chapter 13 106

Hints for Chapter 14 107

Hints for Chapter 15 108

Postscript and Selected References 109

Index 110

v

Some Notes on Notation

We will use the following sets of numbers:

N denotes the set of natural numbers: { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . }

Z

n

denotes the set of the ﬁrst n integers: { 1, 2, 3, . . . , n }∗

Z denotes the set of integers

Z

÷

denotes the set of nonnegative integers: { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . }

Z

∗

denotes the set of nonzero integers

Q denotes the set of rational numbers

Q

÷

denotes the set of nonnegative rational numbers

Q

∗

÷

denotes the set of positive rational numbers

R denotes the set of real numbers

R

÷

denotes the set of nonnegative real numbers

R

∗

÷

denotes the set of positive real numbers

C denotes the set of complex numbers

(a, b) denotes the open interval: { x ∈ R [ a < x < b }

[a, b] denotes the closed interval: { x ∈ R [ a ≤ x ≤ b }

(a, b] denotes the interval: { x ∈ R [ a < x ≤ b }

[a, b) denotes the interval: { x ∈ R [ a ≤ x < b }

Beware of our use of the following notation for subsets:

A ⊂ B A is a subset of B (A may equal B)†

A B A is a proper subset of B (A ,= B)

*Most authors use Z

n

= { 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1 }. This is especially true in number theory

and abstract algebra, where 0 and n are really the same. The choice here is more natural in

our discussion of cardinality in Chapter 7.

†We never use the notation A ⊆ B. Many authors use A ⊆ B for subsets and A ⊂ B

for proper subsets.

˜περ ¶δει δε›ξαι.

vi Notation

We use the following notation for relations and functions:

f : X →Y f is a function with domain X and codomain Y

f

S

restriction of f to a subset S of its original domain

The symbol will denote the end of a proof; purists may read it as “Q.E.D.”

abbreviating the Latin quod erat demonstrandum, which translates the an-

cient Greek of Euclid:

Similarly, we use the symbol . to mark the end of an example or remark.

vii

Preface

’Mathematicians,’ [Uncle Petros] continued, ’ﬁnd the same enjoyment in their studies

that chess players ﬁnd in chess. In fact, the psychological make-up of the true mathematician

is closer to that of the poet or the musical composer, in other words of someone concerned with

the creation of Beauty and the search for Harmony and Perfection. He is the polar opposite

of the practical man, the engineer, the politician or the ...’ – he paused for a moment seeking

something even more abhorred in his scale of values – ’... indeed, the businessman.’

— Apostolos Doxiadis, Uncle Petros & Goldbach’s Conjecture (2000)

A Historical Perspective.

We, the authors of this text, were undergraduates together at the end

of the 1970’s. We learned how to construct proofs essentially by osmosis.

Also, we learned most of the material contained in this text in much the same

way. That is, we learned the art of proof mostly by imitating the experts,

after listening to and watching their presentations, reading their textbooks

and thinking these things through. For us, the process of learning how

to prove theorems began in the calculus sequence and continued through

linear algebra and beyond.

Undergraduate mathematics curricula in the U.S. have undergone

some changes since that time. The most visible change may be the end

product of Calculus Reform. With an emphasis on the integration of the

numerical, analytical, and geometrical aspects of the subject as well as

the integration of computing technology, some topics have been removed

or minimized in the curricula. We saw proofs of most everything in our

calculus courses, even if we were not generally held responsible for them

on the examinations. This is not always the case today. In fact, at many

institutions a variety of calculus sequences exists. Some of the calculus

textbooks used in some of those courses do not give any proofs.

Calculus Reform is certainly not the only factor for the changing cur-

ricula. The growing number of high school graduates who continue their

educations at post-secondary institutions has also put some pressure on the

calculus curricula by requiring increasingly extensive reviews of algebra

and trigonometry. Also, the ﬂuid nature of the liberal arts education often

leads a future major in mathematics to take a calculus course designed for

other majors.

viii Preface

As a result of these fundamental changes in calculus curricula, students

have been enrolling in linear algebra courses with weaker backgrounds in

constructing and understanding proofs. Recently, many institutions have

inserted new (or, sometimes, recycled) courses into their curricula to ad-

dress this problem. These courses go by many names. The choice of

mathematical content is not universal, but the prime objective is univer-

sal. That objective is to prepare students to deal with proofs in their later

courses. At the University of South Florida, the faculty gave this course the

somewhat pretentious title “Bridge to Abstract Mathematics.” (Amazingly,

the title was more contentious than the course itself!)

An interesting aside lies in the fact that the usual content for these

new“Bridge” courses is set theory and related topics. Courses in set theory

were a standard part of the major earlier in the twentieth century. Between

the 1950’s and 1970’s most of these types of courses were squeezed out of

the requirements for the mathematics major by a combination of courses in

linear algebra and abstract algebra as well as a relaxation of requirements

in favor of elective courses; many of the elective courses were new to the

undergraduate curriculum.

We are curious how our own mathematical development would have

been altered had we taken such a course during our own mathematical

training. We certainly hope that you—today’s majors—ﬁnd this type of

course useful.

About This Text and How to Use It.

This text has a dual purpose. As suggested above, the goal is both to

present appropriate mathematical content and to guide students on how to

do proofs. While the content is, we hope, interesting, the process of trans-

forming the thought processes from a passive computational orientation to

an active creative orientation is at least as important.

This text consists of four parts. Part I is an introduction (with a few

historical comments). The second and third chapters should be impossible

to absorb on a cursory reading. You may want to read it carefully and

refer to it as you read the remaining parts. (If you wish to try to ignore it

completely, we suggest you at least look at Section 5 of Chapter 2 on the

language of mathematics.)

Parts II and III present the mathematical content. Part II presents

topics from set theory and Part III presents the constructions of various

number systems in the context of some of their properties. The deﬁnitions

are presented with examples and comments. The proofs of propositions and

theorems are almost all left as exercises. Yes, you can learn mathematics—

how to prove theorems—passively, by watching, listening, and reading.

However, we strongly believe that you will be better off learning actively,

that is, by supplying the proofs yourself. You have a number of resources

Preface ix

available to you. The text takes small steps forward, with some proofs

provided where they involve a larger leap forward. Of course, you can ask

the experts. Lastly, do not overlook this resource: your fellow students. It

is difﬁcult to do mathematics without discussing it with someone, even a

non-expert.

We should mention here that the chapters on the constructions of the

natural numbers and the real numbers, Chapters 10 and 13, respectively, are

much more difﬁcult than the other chapters of Part III. They can be skipped

as long as their properties are understood for use in the other chapters.

Part IVconstitutes another resource for completing proofs. It contains

hints andcomments for manyof the exercises. Some of the hints will tell you

howto start a proof. Other hints may only be helpful once you have already

thought about how to approach the proof. In any case, we recommend that

you attempt each exercise without consulting the hints. If you get stuck,

then consult the hints (or a fellow student or an expert). Once you have

completed an exercise, read the hint and tell someone about your solution.

By the way, proper etiquette is to challenge everything your fellow

students tell you about their proofs. Passive listeners are useless in the

pursuit of knowledge. It is not rude to call someone an idiot (at least

with respect to a faulty part of their proof), but you should be ready for

someone else to call you an idiot (with respect to your own faulty proofs).

Perhaps this is a bit overblown: calling a nonsensical statement made by a

friend idiotic will hopefully be taken (and given) constructively, while such

behavior with a total stranger could be quite dangerous. We are merely

supporting a ruthless attack on knowledge through free discourse and not

an attack on your neighbors!

Acknowledgments.

We would like to thank the Fall 2000, Spring 2001 and Summer 2001

classes of MGF 3301 taught by the ﬁrst author at the University of South

Florida for “testing” drafts of this text. Their corrections and suggestions

have been invaluable. In particular, we would like to thank Paul Ander-

son, Ray Burrus, Christie Burton, Leon Calleja, Thuc Cao, Nathan Chau,

Teresa Chung, Jason Copenhaver, Mindy Eason, Adam Francis, Alynne

Frewin, Russell Gerbers, Bridget Giroux, Erika Johnson, Kristy Kazemfar,

Sarah Lahlou-Amine, Christopher Ledwith, Carson McCoy, Rose Nestor,

Cheryl Ng, Ryan Parrish, Michelle Richardson, Patrick Robbins, Emily

Roberts, Cheryl Scilex, Anthony Upchurch, Adrianne Waltz, Jeanne Waser

and Aimee Yates. We would also like to thank professors Edwin Clark and

Boris Shekhtman for using drafts of this text at the University of South

Florida in 2001 to 2003.

1

PART I

THE AXIOMATIC METHOD

2

Chapter 1

Introduction

1. The History of Numbers.

The seemingly easy concept of number is actually an abstraction which

came quite late in the history of our intellectual evolution. The ancient

shepherd had no method of counting the sheep in his herd. He used the

more primitive concept of a one-to-one correspondence instead, perhaps

by notching a bone as many times as the number of his sheep.

The counting numbers or natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . were the ﬁrst

to appear on the scene. Pythagoras, a mystic who lived in the sixth century

B.C. and who is famous for the theorem which bears his name, considered

the natural numbers to be the very stuff out of which the universe is made.

The positive rational numbers, which come up when we divide a whole

thing into smaller pieces, were invented second. They constitute a natural

extension of the natural numbers. A number is positive rational if and only

if it can be expressed as a quotient of natural numbers. Such quotients are

called fractions.

Pythagoras and his disciples knew about fractions. However, the

discovery of numbers that are not fractions shook the foundations of the

Pythagorean school and caused the ﬁrst big crisis in mathematics. Eudoxos

devised an ingenious theory of irrational quantities, which anticipated the

rigorous treatment given by G. Cantor and R. Dedekind in their construc-

tions of the real number system almost two and one half millennia later.

The number zero was introduced by the Hindus in the ninth century

A.D., but some historians conjecture that it was known to the Babyloni-

ans. The negative and complex numbers go hand in hand because of the

deﬁnition of imaginary numbers as the square roots of negative numbers.

Negative and complex numbers were recognized at this time as well. How-

ever, the existence of negative and complex numbers was viewed as absurd

for another millennium, despite their increased formal use.

Economic developments—for example, an international banking sys-

tem spreading out of Italy in the fourteenth century just as Europe was

Section 2. The Algebra of Numbers 3

moving from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance—provided favorable cir-

cumstances for wider acceptance of negative numbers. The use of negative

numbers was perhaps inﬂuenced by Fibonacci in the thirteenth century; he

noted that a negative number could be regarded as a loss whereas a positive

number could represent a gain.

The universal acceptance of the complex numbers and, hence, the

negative numbers, did not occur until the 1830’s. The early part of the

nineteenth century sawdevelopments in algebra, particularly the extensions

of the naturals to the integers and rationals and of the reals to the complex

numbers. The notion of equivalence classes stood at the heart of these

developments, though this language was not developed until the twentieth

century.

The real numbers, at least the positive real numbers, were certainly

accepted since the time that Eudoxus developed the irrationals numbers.

However, the axiomatic construction of the real numbers did not occur

until the nineteenth century. Many mathematicians had attempted to put

the reals on a solid foundation; this was ﬁnally achieved by R. Dedekind

and G. Cantor 1870’s.

This brings us full circle back to the naturals. The easiest of the

numbers were the most difﬁcult, requiring the very axioms of set theory

which were taking form at the beginning of the twentieth century. Today,

we give B. Russell and A. Whitehead the credit for formalizing what was

known and used for ages.

2. The Algebra of Numbers.

Apart from any social conditions which may have played a role in

the development of number systems, there also exist intrinsic reasons for

their development that peculiar to the inner dynamics of mathematical ac-

tivity. The step from natural numbers to rational numbers derives easily

from human activity where an apple and yet another make two apples and

where two people sharing an apple make for one half of an apple for each.

Irrational numbers are at a deeper level; in the time of Eudoxus, it centered

on geometrical issues such as the lengths of diagonals of a rectangle whose

sides had lengths expressed by natural numbers. Negative numbers are

understandable, as by Fibonacci above, if not as easily realizable. Where

do complex numbers come from?

Pause for a moment to reﬂect on the interesting names given to the

expanding sets of numbers. They surely reﬂect the prejudices of the namers

or, at the very least, the harsh criticism their introduction produced! Con-

sider the positive versus the negative, the rational versus the irrational and

the real versus the imaginary.

There is a purely algebraic way of explaining the need for most of these

numbers and it is this need which ﬁrst pointed to the complex numbers.

4 Chapter 1. Introduction

We will give successive elementary equations in terms of successive sets of

known numbers whose solutions are not in those sets, but in successively

expanded sets.

Consider the equations

m ÷ x = n,

for natural numbers m and n. It is true that exactly one of the following

holds: n > m or n = m or n < m. If n > m, then the equation has a

solution in N, which is called n − m. If n = m, then the existence of 0 is

suggested. Finally, if n < m, then the negative integers are needed for the

equation to have a solution. The equations

qn = m,

for integers m and n, with n ,= 0, lead us to the rational numbers. Polyno-

mial equations with integral coefﬁcients such as

a

n

x

n

÷a

n−1

x

n−1

÷a

n−2

x

n−2

÷· · · ÷a

1

x ÷a

0

= 0

lead us to irrational numbers such as the solutions of x

2

− 2 = 0 and

complex numbers such as the solutions of x

2

÷1 = 0.

The set that is missing from the above discussion is the set of real

numbers. The set of all real solutions of polynomial equations with integer

coefﬁcients is called the set of algebraic numbers. Some transcendental

numbers (real numbers, such as π, which are not algebraic) were known

before the real numbers were rigorously deﬁned. The actual set of real

numbers—not just the rationals and some algebraic irrationals—was not

fully explained until the nineteenth century. One has to view the real

numbers as some sort of completion of the rational numbers.

Consider the rational numbers. All can be written as repeating deci-

mals such as

1

1

= 1.0 . . . ,

1

2

= 0.50 . . . , and

1

3

= 0.3 . . . .

We can now imagine all other possible decimals, where the digits need not

form any pattern, and call this the set of real numbers. Making this precise

is not as easy as it may appear!

3. The Axiomatic Method.

Mathematics is highly respected in our culture. To most people it

inspires awe or fear, while to a few it is a source of joy and admiration, an

artistic game of the highest quality, the very language in which the book of

nature is written.

Section 3. The Axiomatic Method 5

Whence mathematics derives its power? Is there a royal road to it?

Is it accessible to all mortals? It certainly requires hard work, discipline,

concentration, self-respect andself-conﬁdence. Armedwiththese qualities,

you have to plunge into this book and be actively engaged in deciphering

its content. That means that you have to ask yourself questions and, by

trying to answer them, ask more questions; you have to try to discover the

real path that the intellect has followed to derive a proof, a path that is

now hidden either for aesthetic purposes or for the sake of precision and

simplicity.

Mathematics started as an empirical discipline in Mesopotamia and

Egypt to serve everyday practical needs. Rules were invented to measure

distances, areas, and volumes, thus constituting an embryonic form of the

body of knowledge called geometry.

It is with the Greeks that geometry acquired a drastically different

character. With Thales as a pioneer and then with the school of Pythagoras,

geometry was constructed as an axiomatic, deductive discipline. Since, in

fact, this point of view is still prevailing as a way to sanction the results

of the mathematician’s creative imagination, let us describe and explain its

main features.

In order to establish human discourse, the meaning of the terms em-

ployed has to be speciﬁed and universally accepted. To determine the

meaning of a word, this word has to be explained in terms of other words

and this process will never terminate unless we reach a word whose mean-

ing is generally accepted. A word whose meaning is generally accepted is

called a primitive term or an undeﬁned term. The terms point, straight line,

and plane are examples of primitive terms used in geometry. Other terms

of the system in question are deﬁned in terms of previously deﬁned terms

and the primitive terms. The following example gives a deﬁnition phrased

in three different ways.

Example 1. The following deﬁnitions are exactly the same:

• The midpoint of a line segment is the point that divides the line

segment into two equal parts.

• If a point divides a line segment into two equal parts, then that

point is called the midpoint of that line segment.

• A point is the midpoint of a line segment if and only if it divides

the line segment into two equal parts.

All deﬁnitions are really if and only if statements,* even if we are not careful

to state them in that way. The context should tell you when a statement is

really a deﬁnition. .

*We will discuss if and only if statements more in Section 2 of Chapter 2.

6 Chapter 1. Introduction

When starting from scratch—from the level of undeﬁned terms—it

is not so easy to give deﬁnitions of even simple objects. However, this is

necessary since we cannot assume that terms are understood the same way

by different people. Take the basic geometric notion of a triangle. See

Figure 2.

Figure 2: Triangle vs. triangular region

You may think everyone knows what a triangle is. Try this experiment:

ask a few non-mathematicians “What is a triangle?” You will probably get

some different answers, perhaps including drawings. The most popular

answer may describe a triangular region, which a geometer would call a

region bounded by a triangle. Clearly, we need deﬁnitions, even for simple

mathematics objects.

Exercise 3. Deﬁne the concept of a triangle. Do you need more primitive

terms than the ones mentioned above?

There follows another basic term to deﬁne.

Exercise 4. Deﬁne the concept of an angle. How might addition of two

angles be deﬁned?

A key concept in mathematics is that of a proof. Suppose you state

an opinion on an issue using a single sentence, for example “freedom is

preferable to happiness” and your interlocutor asks you to justify it. Just

after you have pronounced your next sentence he asks you to justify this

sentence also. It is clear that this process will never end, unless you and

your interlocutor agree upon the truth of some sentence. Such a sentence

is called an axiom.

Exercise 5. Are any axioms involved in the deﬁnition of a triangle?

We list a fewaxioms from“The Elements,” a book written around 300

B.C. by Euclid and preserving the geometric achievements of the ancients

in their ﬁnal form.

Axiom 1. If two straight lines intersected by a transversal make the sum

of the measures of the interior angles on the same side less

than 180

◦

, then the two straight lines meet on that same side.

Section 4. Parallel Mathematical Universes 7

Axiom 2. Things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one

another.

Axiom 3. If equals are added to the same thing, the sums are equal.

Axiom 4. If equals are subtracted from equals, the differences are equal.

Axiom 5. All right angles are equal to one another.

A proof consists of a series of logical steps by which we deduce the

truth of a statement from the axioms that are explicitly stated. A statement

which can be proved is called a theorem. When we present a proof of

a theorem, we present only a skeleton; this skeleton indicates the ideas

necessary to give a complete proof. Such skeletal proofs rarely go back

to the level of axioms, rather they usually depend on theorems which are

already proved.

Examples of theorems are:

(1) The diagonals of any rectangle are congruent.

(2) The square of an even number is an even number.

Frequently, a theorem is called a proposition or a lemma or a corol-

lary. Logically, all of these are the same. A statement which is called

a proposition is usually a less important result than a statement which is

called a theorem. Alemma is usually only important as a logical step in the

proof of some theorem.* A corollary is a theorem which follows, usually

easily, from the preceding theorem.

But what do we mean by logical steps? Mathematicians have contrived

various methods of deducing a desired result, that is, they have devised

different kinds of proof. We illustrate the methods with speciﬁc examples

in the next chapter. However, there is more to the methodology of doing

proofs than the types of proofs. This involves the very thought processes

themselves. The only way to develop and reﬁne these processes is to use

them frequently.

4. Parallel Mathematical Universes.

You may think that there is only one mathematics, that is, one “correct”

set of axioms from which to start. Surprisingly, this is quite wrong, in two

different ways! The removal, addition or other change of just one axiomcan

dramatically change the mathematics. Also, two very different collections

of axioms can lead to the same mathematics.

You may already know the story of Euclid’s “Parallel Postulate” from

your high school geometry class. (By the way, we regard the words axiom

and postulate as synonyms, though Euclid and others regard them as tech-

nically different.) In plane geometry, the Parallel Postulate is equivalent to

*It is interesting to note that posterity may judge—sometimes has judged—a lemma to

be a theorem. For example, Zorn’s Lemma and the Urysohn Lemma are famous theorems in

set theory and topology, respectively, that were considered lemmas by their original authors.

8 Chapter 1. Introduction

the statement that there is a unique line that is parallel to a given line passing

through a given point not on the original line. One may instead assume

that no parallel line may exist or that more than one parallel line may exist.

Such changes in the axioms lead to new and different geometries; these are

called non-Euclidean geometries. In fact, non-Euclidean geometries are

as legitimate as Euclidean geometry. Despite the fact that Euclid and the

ancient Greeks tried to model the physical universe with their geometry,

in physics, for example in relativity theory, it is a non-Euclidean geometry

which is the correct model.

Recall your high school geometry class. You may remember that

there were quite a few axioms. Perhaps the notions of betweenness and

congruence were left undeﬁned, while the ideas of measurement were de-

veloped from the axioms. You may remember developing the ideas of

segment length and angle measure from the axioms. It is quite possible to

develop Euclidean geometry by starting from different collections of unde-

ﬁned terms and axioms. The following lengthy example gives a different

set of axioms with the opposite approach.

Example 6. In 1932, G. D. Birkhoff published a paper* giving a collection

of four axioms for Euclidean plane geometry. Birkhoff assumes you have

constructed the set of real numbers. The terms set, point, line, on, line

measure (or distance or length), and angle measure are undeﬁned. Birkhoff

gave his axioms the following names:

I. Postulate of Line Measure

II. Point-Line Postulate

III. Postulate of Angle Measure

IV. Postulate of Similarity

Let us consider the statements of these four axioms (or postulates)

individually; we will state each one and examine its content. You should

remember the big picture as you read this; ask yourself if this really gives

you the same plane geometry that you already know. (We follow the usual

custom of using the term “line” to mean “straight line.”)

Postulate of Line Measure. Given any line, there is a one-to-one corre-

spondence from the set of points of this line onto the set of real numbers,

where every point A on this line corresponds to the real number x

A

, so that

the length of the line segment AB (or distance between A and B) is given

by

d(A, B) = [x

B

− x

A

[

for all points A, B.

*A Set of Postulates for Plane Geometry (based on scale and protractor) appeared in

volume 33 of the journal Annals of Mathematics.

A

A

x

B

B

x

C

C

x

B x C x – | | A x B x – | |

A

as

r

B

O

s

ar

as-ar (mod 2π)

Section 4. Parallel Mathematical Universes 9

The idea of this postulate is that every line comes with coordinates.

Consider Figure 7.

Figure 7: Birkhoff’s Postulate of Line Measure

You are familiar with thinking of the set of real numbers as a line.

The Postulate of Line Measure indicates that every line can be thought of

as a number line. The length of a segment is then the distance between its

endpoints. The absolute value is necessary to avoid negative length since

we do not know, a priori, which endpoint will have the larger coordinate;

of course, [x

A

− x

B

[ = [x

B

− x

A

[.

Point-Line Postulate. One and only one line contains two given distinct

points.

The Point-line Postulate should be familiar to you; it can be restated

as “Two points determine a line.”

The ﬁrst two postulates allow us to deﬁne the distance between any

two distinct points, A and B, of the plane. By the Point-Line Postulate,

there exists a line containing A and B. The Postulate of Line Measure then

gives the distance between the points. This is well-deﬁned since, by the

Point-Line Postulate, there is only one line containing the two points.

Before proceeding with a postulate on measuring angles, consider

Figure 8.

Figure 8: Birkhoff’s Postulate of Angle Measure

A

B

O

BOA

AOB

A

B

O

BOA

AOB

10 Chapter 1. Introduction

Postulate of Angle Measure. Given any point O, there is a one-to-one

correspondence from the set of rays with endpoint O onto the set of real

numbers (mod 2π),* where every ray r with endpoint O corresponds to a

real number a

r

(mod 2π), so that, if A ,= O and B ,= O are points on rays

r and s, respectively, then the measure of angle AOB is given by

mAOB = a

s

−a

r

(mod 2π).

Furthermore, if the point B on ray s varies continuously in a line not

containing the vertex O, the number a

s

varies continuously also.

Figure 8 may help you to understand the Postulate of Angle Measure

better. The angle measure deﬁned here is a little different than you may

think. In general, mAOB ,= mBOA; in fact, the sum of mAOB and

mBOA is 0 (mod 2π), which equals 2π (mod 2π). See Figure 9.

Figure 9: mAOB ÷mBOA = 0 = 2π (mod 2π)

Before proceeding to the last of Birkhoff’s postulates, which is about

triangles, we should make sure we understand how triangles are deﬁned.

Exercise 10. Deﬁne triangle using only Birkhoff’s ﬁrst three postulates.

Postulate of Similarity. Given two triangles, .ABC and .A

/

B

/

C

/

, and

a constant k > 0, if

d(A

/

, B

/

) = k · d(A, B), d(A

/

, C

/

) = k · d(A, C)

and mB

/

A

/

C

/

= ±mBAC,

*You may not be familiar with the phrase “mod 2π.” However, you are probably familiar

with the concept from trigonometry. In trigonometry, one may consider angles with negative

measure or with measure larger than 2π. The sine or cosine of these angles only depend

on the equivalent angle between 0 and 2π or, more precisely, in the interval [0, 1). For

example, sin(−π) = sin π = sin(3π) and cos(−π) = cos π = cos(3π). Therefore, we write

−π = π = 3π (mod 2π); actually we usually read the equal sign as either “is congruent to”

or “is equivalent to” rather than “is equal to.” You may recall that the symbol ≡is usually used

instead of = in this context. We consider this idea more carefully in Section 3 of Chapter 6.

A

B C

C

A

B

**Section 4. Parallel Mathematical Universes 11
**

then

d(B

/

, C

/

) = k · d(B, C), mC

/

B

/

A

/

= ±mCBA

and mA

/

C

/

B

/

= ±mACB.

Figure 11: Birkhoff’s Postulate of Similarity

Figure 11 may help you to understand the Postulate of Similarity

better. This is the familiar Side-Angle-Side statement (usually called SAS)

for similar triangles. In Figure 11, k = 2; that is, A

/

B

/

is twice as long

as AB, A

/

C

/

is twice as long as AC and B

/

A

/

C

/

is congruent to BAC.

The triangles are congruent if k = 1.

Of course, the statement at the beginning of this example, that these

are axioms for Euclidean plane geometry, must be proved. We will not do

this here. .

Exercise 12. Using Birkhoff’s axiomatic system in Example 6, deﬁne the

concepts of betweenness and congruence (for line segments and angles).

We will see other axioms in Chapter 7 that play similar roles. These

are the Axiom of Choice and the Continuum Hypothesis. Mathematicians

are free to accept or reject these as axioms of their mathematics; a theorem

of one mathematics may be false in another, which is based on a different

collection of axioms.

12

Chapter 2

Statements in Mathematics

1. Mathematical Statements.

Whatever mathematics may be as a mental activity, it is communicated

as a language. Therefore, it has its speciﬁc syntax, its own technical terms,

andits ownconventions. Mathematics is alsoanexact science, whichmeans

that we are obliged to express our mathematical thoughts with high preci-

sion. A deviation from the norm may easily lead to a complete distortion

of the intended meaning.

In mathematics, we assert the truth of certain statements. Other state-

ments are to be proved or disproved. This is a fundamental dichotomy:

No mathematical statement is both true and false.

Viewed axiomatically, you can take true and false to be undeﬁned terms;

the above dichotomy can be taken as an axiom. We should clarify what is

meant by a mathematical statement.

Deﬁnition 1. Adeclarative sentence is a logical statement iff, according to

its logical content, it is unambiguously either true or false. Amathematical

statement is a logical statement used in mathematical discourse.

By statement, without the adjective logical or mathematical, we will

always meana logical or, usually, a mathematical statement. Let us consider

this carefully with some examples.

The sentence

The number 2 is positive.

is a true mathematical statement and the sentence

The number 2000 is divisible by 3.

is a false mathematical statement. Note that the previous two sentences are

both declarative.

Section 1. Mathematical Statements 13

By deﬁnition, sentences that are not declarative cannot be logical state-

ments; such sentences are neither true nor false. An interrogative sentence

such as

Who is there?

is not a logical statement. An imperative sentence such as

Go away.

is not a logical statement. An exclamatory sentence such as

Wow!

is not a logical statement. Of course, a sentence like

Hello.

is not a logical statement either.

Adeclarative sentence may be a logical statement even though its truth

value is not known. This is very common in the most advanced areas of

mathematics; it is the fuel of mathematical research. Consider the following

sentence:

The 10

10

digit in the decimal expansion of the number π is 3.

This is a mathematical statement. Even if no one knows whether this is

true or false, it must be exactly one or the other. This is what we mean by

unambiguous in Deﬁnition 1.

Not every declarative sentence is a statement. Opinions are not logical

statements. For example, the declarative sentence

Vanilla is the best ice cream ﬂavor.

is not a logical statement since it does not have a truth value; it is true that

a person may have an opinion on this subject, but this does not make the

statement true or false. On the other hand,

Vanilla is Jon’s favorite ice cream ﬂavor.

may be a statement for a speciﬁc person named Jon. The sentence

Socrates was a good philosopher.

14 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

is a less clear example. We should ask what constitutes a good philosopher;

the sentence about the famous ancient Greek philosopher, Socrates, is a

logical statement if we give precise criteria for the adjective good.

The examples given above are usually called simple statements since

they cannot be broken into pieces that are themselves statements. Some

authors call simple statements atoms or atomic statements.

You can probably think of examples that are not so simple, such as

compound statements involving words like not, and, or, if, then, implies, and

equivalent. We will consider these terms, called connectives, in Section

2. The same authors who call simple statements either atoms or atomic

statements call compound statements molecules or molecular statements.

You might also imagine statements involving variables. Consider the

sentences

The square of every real number is nonnegative.

and

There exists a real number whose square is not positive.

Though these are true statements, they are rather different from our simple

statements. Both contain variables. The former states a fact about every

real number and the latter states a fact about at least one real number (specif-

ically, 0). Predicates—sentences involving variables—that are quantiﬁed,

as in the examples above, will be studied in Section 5.

You may say that you know exactly what the words not, and, or,

etc. mean and how their use will change the meaning of a statement. How-

ever, the colloquial usage of these terms does not entirely agree with the

mathematical usage. For this reason, we will take a rather pedantic ap-

proach and deﬁne these words in terms of truth values—the truth values

of compound statements formed by connectives are functions of the truth

values of the simple statements from which they are formed.

Linguistics also comes into play. Translating between mathematical,

or logical, language and a natural language, such as English, is not always

straight forward. We will start by using statements in symbolic logic and

their English translations, side by side. After this chapter, we will abandon

the logical notation completely; however, we recommend that you adopt

some of it as a type of short hand for your own writing of mathematics. We

will remind you of this in Remark 37 at the end of this chapter.

2. Mathematical Connectives.

We are now ready to study the different connectives used in creating

compound statements. Remember that these are being deﬁned in a for-

mal way, based on truth values, rather than a linguistic way, based on the

colloquial usage of English.

Section 2. Mathematical Connectives 15

Negation (not)

You may recall that an integer is called an even number when it equals

twice some integer andis calledanoddnumber whenit equals one plus twice

some integer. The statement “3 is an odd number.” is a true mathematical

statement; the statement “3 is not an odd number.” is a false mathematical

statement. How are these two statements related? You might say that the

second is the negation of the ﬁrst. This is correct. However, we will deﬁne

negation not in colloquial terms, but in terms of truth values.

Deﬁnition 2. For a mathematical statement p, the negation of p is a math-

ematical statement, denoted ¬p, whose truth value is the opposite of the

truth value of p.

In general, we denote the negation of a statement, p, by not p; some

denote it symbolically as either ∼ p or −p, rather than ¬p. We can

illustrate Deﬁnition 2 using the following truth table:

p ¬p

T F

F T

In a truth table, one reads the truth values—T for true and F for false—

of the column headings across a given row. In the truth table above for not

p, the ﬁrst row indicates that whenever p is true, then not p is false while

the second row indicates that whenever p is false, then not p is true. Truth

tables give us a nice shorthand for expressing the various truth values of

related statements, starting with simple statements like p.

Colloquially, we generally negate a statement by using the word not.

Of course, it isn’t* as simple as changing p to not p. For example, suppose

p is the statement “3 is an odd number.” For not p, we write “3 is not an

odd number.” rather than “Not 3 is an odd number.”

Conjunction (and)

Two mathematical statements can be combined to form new, more

complicated statements. One way to do that is to connect two statements

with the word and. Let us consider this connective, deﬁning it by a truth

table.

Deﬁnition 3. For mathematical statements p and q, the conjunction of p

and q is the mathematical statement, denoted p ∧ q, whose truth value

varies according to the following truth table:

*Sorry for the contraction; we didn’t want the word not to appear here.

16 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

p q p ∧ q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

We will generally write p and q for the conjunction p ∧ q. Some

authors use the notation p · q or p &q instead of p ∧ q.

An example of conjunction is the statement “2 is positive and 3 is

negative.” Of course, this conjunction is false since “3 is negative.” is a

false statement.

The conjunction of two statements is a true statement exactly when

both statements are true and is a false statement when at least one statement

is false. This agrees with the truth table in Deﬁnition 3.

Disjunction (or)

You might think we were excessively pedantic in deﬁning negation

and conjunction of mathematical statements. The next two deﬁnitions may

change your mind. Consider, for example, the statement

2 is positive or 3 is positive.

Is this statement true or false? You might want to say this is false because

it is not true that only one or the other is true. For a less mathematical

example, consider the statement

I will take a bath or I will take a shower.

Would you expect that the speaker may take both a bath and a shower?

Deﬁnition 4. For mathematical statements p and q, the disjunction of p

and q is a mathematical statement, denoted p ∨q, whose truth value varies

according to the following truth table:

p q p ∨ q

T T T

T F T

F T T

F F F

We will generally write p or q for the disjunction p∨q. You should be

extremely careful here, since the word or is not used with its most common

meaning. When someone says

I will give my ticket to Alex or to Jamie.

Section 2. Mathematical Connectives 17

it is implied that only one person will receive the ticket: either Alex or

Jamie, but not both Alex and Jamie. In mathematics, we use the word or

in the sense of at least one.

The disjunctionof twostatements is true if at least one of the statements

is true. In mathematics, the word or is equivalent to the hideous word

and/or. As we use it in mathematics, or is referred to as the mathematical

or and the inclusive or (since the possibility of both is included). Similarly,

the or of everyday language is referred to as the exclusive or (since the

possibility of both is excluded).*

Example 5. It is usually easy to recognize negation, conjunction, and

disjunction by use of keywords: the word not in negations, the word and in

conjunctions, and the word or in disjunctions. However, notation can hide

these constructions. Consider the following three true statements.

• 1 ≤ 1

• 2 < 3 < 4

• 5 ≤ 6 ≤ 6

Reading the symbol ≤ as “is less than or equal to” shows that the ﬁrst

statement is a disjunction; it can be interpreted as 1 < 1 or 1 = 1. The

second statement is the conjunction 2 < 3 and 3 < 4. The third statement

is a conjunction of two disjunctions. .

Implication (implies/if, then)

We will consider two additional types of compound statements, im-

plications and equivalences. These are also called conditionals and bicon-

ditionals, respectively, by some authors. The next construct, implication,

also disagrees with the common colloquial interpretation.

Deﬁnition 6. For mathematical statements p and q, the implication (or

conditional statement) denoted p ⇒q is a mathematical statement whose

truth value varies according to the following truth table:

p q p ⇒q

T T T

T F F

F T T

F F T

We will generally write either if p, then q or p implies q for the

implication p ⇒q; some authors use the notaion p →q or p ⊃ q instead

of p ⇒ q. For the implication p implies q, the statement p is called the

*Some people go to the extreme of using the new word xor for the exclusive or. We do

not like it and you may (or may not) like it. Is xor any better (or worse) than and/or?

18 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

hypothesis or antecedent and the statement q is called the conclusion or

consequent of the implication.

Usually, in ordinary language, it is understood, for a statement of the

form if p, then q, that there exists a causal connection between p and q.

We cite as an example the following statement:

If you leave me, then I will be badly hurt.

In mathematical language, a conditional statement is false only when the

hypothesis is true and the conclusion is false. Since a false hypothesis

always yields a true implication, no sense of causality can be interpreted.

Example 7. Cinsider the following four examples:

• “If 2 is positive, then 3 is positive.” is a true statement since both the

hypothesis and the conclusion are true statements.

• “If 2 is negative, then 3 is positive.” is a true statement since the

hypothesis is false.

• “If 2 is negative, then 3 is negative.” is a true statement since the

hypothesis is false.

• “If 2 is positive, then 3 is negative.” is a false statement since the

hypothesis is true, but the conclusion is false.

Make sure you read the middle two examples carefully and understand why

they are true! Do not let the trivial nature of the hypotheses and conclusions

fool you: once the truth values of the hypothesis and the conclusion of any

given implication are known, the truth value of that implication is trivially

known as well. .

An implication if p, then q is called vacuously true if its hypothesis,

p, is false. For a vacuously true implication, it does not matter whether its

conclusion is true or false. Look again at Example 7 and notice that we

did not indicate whether the conclusion was true or false in the middle two

examples since it did not matter.

We have already said that if p, then q and p implies q are used in-

terchangeably to mean p ⇒q. In fact, all of the following are equivalent

English sentences:

(1) If p, then q.

(2) p implies q.

(3) p only if q.

(4) q if p.

(5) p is sufﬁcient for q.

(6) q is necessary for p.

Forms (3) and (4) may seem peculiar to you; think of them, for a true

implication p implies q, as “p is true only if q is true” and “q is true if

Section 2. Mathematical Connectives 19

p is true.” (You should compare these with the truth table for p ⇒ q.)

The forms (5) and (6) are more esoteric. We have a prejudice against this

language unless used together, as explained after the following example.

Example 8. Consider the sentence

For all real numbers a and b, if a = 0, then ab = 0.

This is a statement of a different type since it contains variables. Notice

that the truth value of “a = 0” depends on the value of the variable a. We

will discuss such statements further in Section 5; we use it here because it

better illustrates the different forms of implications mentioned above. The

following forms should strike you as equivalent.

• For all real numbers a and b, a = 0 only if ab = 0.

• For all real numbers a and b, ab = 0 if a = 0.

• For all real numbers a and b, a = 0 is sufﬁcient for ab = 0.

• For all real numbers a and b, ab = 0 is necessary for a = 0. .

Equivalence (equivalent/if and only if/necessary and sufﬁcient)

Our ﬁnal construct, equivalence, probably agrees with your colloquial

use of that word.

Deﬁnition 9. For mathematical statements p and q, the equivalence of p

and q, denoted p ⇔ q, is a mathematical statement whose truth value

varies according to the following truth table:

p q p ⇔q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F T

Instead of writing p ⇔q for an equivalence, we will generally write

one of the following:

• p is equivalent to q,

• p if and only if q,

• p is necessary and sufﬁcient for q.

For brevity, many people write p iff q in place of p if and only if q. Some

authors use p ↔q or p ≡ q instead of p ⇔q.

Remark 10. You may recall that, in Section 3 of Chapter 1, we explained

that deﬁnitions are often stated in the form of if and only if statements.

Of course, deﬁnitions are not logical statements whose truth value can

be determined.* Rather, for a deﬁnition in the form of an if and only if

*You may choose to think of all mathematical terms as undeﬁned, in which case deﬁni-

tions become axioms. This make the biconditional appearance of deﬁnitions more reasonable.

20 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

statement, the ﬁrst half of the statement names the term being deﬁned by

the other half. While we try to use the word iff in our deﬁnitions, most

authors simply write if. For example, we could deﬁne even integers as

follows: an integer is even iff it is two times some integer. .

3. Symbolic Logic.

We could make an entire course out of symbolic logic. Rather than

do that, we will discuss some of the more important compound statements,

those we will use from time to time. Before doing this, let us discuss how

statements of symbolic logic are parsed. Note that we will use the symbolic

notation throughout this section and return to English statements in the next

section.

Remark11. You may remember rules for order of operations in arithmetic.

For example

1 ÷2 3 = 7 ,= 9

since multiplications are performed before additions. There are also rules

for order of operations in logic. Reading from left to right, do things in the

following order:

(1) parentheses (or brackets, etc.)

(2) negation

(3) conjunctions and disjunctions (in any order)

(4) implication

(5) equivalence

Groupings by parentheses, brackets, etc. are treated hierarchically. That is,

nested groupings are evaluated from the inside towards the outside (just as

for algebraic expressions). We remember this as working from the inside

out.

Therefore, ¬p∨q is the same as (¬p)∨q and different from¬( p∨q).

Remember that between matched pairs of parentheses, you must apply the

same rules. For a more complicated example, the following two compound

statements based on simple statements a, b, c, . . . , i are equivalent:

a ∨ ¬b ∧ c ⇒¬d ∧ e ⇔¬ f ∧ g ∨ h ⇒i,

¸¸

¸

a ∨ (¬b)

¸

∧ c

¸

⇒

¸

(¬d) ∧ e

¸

⇔

¸¸

¸

(¬ f ) ∧ g

¸

∨ h

¸

⇒i

.

Notice that, in order to evaluate this, we must start with the innermost pairs

of parentheses, then the square brackets, then the curly braces, and then,

ﬁnally, the angle brackets. .

Section 3. Symbolic Logic 21

Example 12. Consider the disjunction p ∨ ¬p. If p is true, then the

disjunction is true.* On the other hand, if p is false, then ¬p is true and

the disjunction is true. This can be expressed by the following truth table:

p ¬p p ∨ ¬p

T F T

F T T

Notice how the column for p ∨ ¬p has all T’s in its column; that is,

p or not p is always true.† .

Deﬁnition 13. A compound statement is a tautology iff it is true for all

possible truth values of its component statements.

Tautologies are easily recognized in truth tables: their columns con-

tains only T’s. Next we examine the other extreme.

Example 14. Consider the conjunction p ∧ ¬p. If p is false, then the

conjunction is false.‡ On the other hand, if p is true, then ¬p is false and

the conjunction is false. This can be expressed by the following truth table

with only F’s in the column for p ∧ ¬p.

p ¬p p ∧ ¬p

T F F

F T F

.

Deﬁnition 15. A compound statement is a contradiction iff it is false for

all possible truth values of its component statements.

Contradictions are easily recognized in truth tables: their columns

contains only F’s. Contradictions are actually quite important in math-

ematics. In fact, we will see in the next chapter that contradictions can

actually be useful in proving theorems.

Let us look at a couple additional examples.

Example 16. Consider the implication p ⇒ p. The following truth table

shows that this is a tautology.

p p ⇒ p

T T

F T

.

*The fact that ¬p is false in the case when p is true does not matter.

†The moral of this example is that you should never ask your mathematics instructor

a question like “Will this topic be covered on the exam or not?” because you are likely to

receive the perfectly correct, yet uninformative, response “Yes.”

‡The fact that ¬p is true in the case when p is false does not matter.

22 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

Example 17. Consider the equivalence ¬¬p ⇔ p. This is a tautology:

p ¬p ¬¬p ¬¬p ⇔ p

T F T T

F T F T

.

The following shows that some data can be extraneous.

Exercise 18. Use truth tables to show that the following are tautologies:

(a) p ∧ q ⇒ p (b) p ⇒ p ∨ q

The following gives us an alternative deﬁnition of implication.

Exercise 19. Use a truth table to show that p ⇒q ⇔¬p ∨ q.

The following exercise may remind you of the concept of equality:

x = x, x = y if and only if y = x, and x = y = z implies x = z.

Exercise 20. Use truth tables to show that the following are tautologies:

(a) p ⇔ p

(b) ( p ⇔q) ⇔(q ⇔ p)

(c) ( p ⇔q) ∧ (q ⇔r) ⇒( p ⇔r)

In the language of Chapter 6, the previous three exercises say that

the relation deﬁned on any set of statements by equivalence is, indeed, an

equivalence relation.

Recall that p ⇒q can be read as p only if q and q ⇒ p can be read

as p if q. It seems reasonable that p if and only if q should be equivalent

to p if q and p only if q. This suggests the following important (though,

perhaps, obvious) result; we will use this very often.

Exercise 21. Use a truthtable toshowthat ( p ⇔q) ⇔( p ⇒q)∧(q ⇒ p)

is a tautology.

One can use truth tables in this way to prove many such statements

in logic. Remember that this is just a shorthand. To write out the proof of

Exercise 21 in words would go something like this:

Proof. We consider four cases:

(1) p is true and q is true,

(2) p is true and q is false,

(3) p is false and q is true, and

(4) p is false and q is false.

Section 3. Symbolic Logic 23

First, suppose p is true and q is true. Hence, if p, then q is true and if q,

then p is true. Therefore, the conjunction if p, then q, and if q, then p is

true. Moreover, since p and q are true, p is equivalent to q is true. This

completes the ﬁrst case.

Second, . . . .

Exercise 22. Complete the proof, started above, of Exercise 21 using

words.

Let us return to conditional statements. Given statements p and q, we

can make implications p implies q as well as q implies p. We can also

take the negations of p and q and form other implications. Three of these

constructions are important enough to have names.

Deﬁnition 23. The converse of the implication p ⇒ q is the implication

q ⇒ p.

That is, the converse of the statement if p, then q is the statement if q,

then p. If a statement is true, then its converse may be either true or false;

you can examine the possibilities in the following exercise.

Exercise 24. Give examples of each of the following, if possible:

(a) a true implication whose converse is true,

(b) a true implication whose converse is false,

(c) a false implication whose converse is true,

(d) a false implication whose converse is false.

Let p and q be simple statements. Remember that the implication

if p, then q can only be false when p is true and q is false. Similarly,

if q, then p can only be false when q is true and p is false. So, as you

should have discovered in the previous exercise, it is impossible for both

such an implication—between simple statements—and its converse to be

false. If you thought otherwise, you probably introduced a variable in your

statements. Soon, we will introduce variables and quantiﬁers; this will

make things more difﬁcult, but far more interesting.

Deﬁnition 25. The contrapositive of the implication p ⇒ q is the impli-

cation ¬q ⇒¬p.

So, the contrapositive of the statement if p, then q is the statement if

not q, then not p.

Example 26. Consider the statement

If the moon is made of cheese, then 1 = 2.

24 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

The contrapositive of this statement is

If 1 ,= 2, then the moon is not made of cheese.

You should recognize that both of these statements are true! .

The truth value of a contrapositive statement is always the same as the

truth value of the original statement.

Exercise 27. Prove that any implication is equivalent to its contrapositive.

That is, p ⇒q ⇔¬q ⇒¬p.

Deﬁnition 28. The inverse of the implication p ⇒ q is the implication

¬p ⇒¬q.

The inverse of the statement if p, then q is the statement if not p, then

not q; it is the contrapositive of the converse of if p, then q. Therefore, the

converse and the inverse of a given statement are equivalent:

q ⇒ p ⇔¬p ⇒¬q.

Exercise 29. (a) Use a truth table to show that, given an implication, its

converse and its inverse are equivalent; that is, q ⇒ p ⇔¬p ⇒¬q.

(b) Are an implication and its inverse equivalent? Prove your answer.

So, from every given implication we can derive three implications

called the converse, the contrapositive, and the inverse of the original im-

plication:

Original: p =⇒ q, if p, then q

Converse: q =⇒ p, if q, then p

Contrapositive: ¬q =⇒¬p, if not q, then not p

Inverse: ¬p =⇒ ¬q, if not p, then not q

4. Compound Statements in English.

Of course, statements can get quite complicated and writing statements

in English is further complicated by the fact that we do not use parentheses

to indicate order of thoughts; commas can play an important role. You

may have noticed that we used italics and quotation marks to try to clarify

sentences in this chapter; this is a luxury upon which we should not depend.

For example, consider the sentence:

1 is negative and 2 is negative or 3 is positive.

Section 5. Predicates and Quantiﬁers 25

If we let p denote the statement 1 is negative, let q denote the statement 2

is negative and let r denote the statement 3 is positive, then our compound

statement looks like

p ∧ q ∨r.

For symbolic logic, order of operations dictates that this is equivalent to

( p ∧ q) ∨r.

Since p and q are false and r is true, this statement is true. Notice that

p ∧ q ∨r is different from p ∧ (q ∨r); in fact, p ∧ (q ∨r) is false.

Now how do we make this distinction in written English? What do

you think of the following two statements?

1 is negative and 2 is negative, or 3 is positive.

1 is negative, and 2 is negative or 3 is positive.

There certainly is a lot of weight riding on those two little commas. Notice

that the former should be interpreted as ( p ∧q) ∨r while the latter should

be interpreted as p ∧ (q ∨r).

Now consider spoken English. It is very difﬁcult to hear those little

commas!

An alternative is to rephrase the sentences completely. This is not so

simple. For example,

The conjunction of the statement 1 is negative and the

disjunction of the statements 2 is negative and 3 is positive.

While this may be clearer, it is not a very satisfying solution. Look at the

symbolic statement in Exercise 21. In words, we could say something like

the following:

p if and only if q is equivalent to the conjunction

of the implications if p, then q and if q, then p.

5. Predicates and Quantiﬁers.

Take another look at Example 8. Also, did you have any difﬁculties

with Exercise 24? These were tricky since they got you thinking (perhaps,

in the case of Exercise 24) about introducing variables into statements. In

this section, we introduce the use of variables in both logical and mathe-

matical statements. The statements of most mathematical theorems involve

26 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

variables. By the way, variables are sometimes called free variables, to em-

phasize that they are free to change.

Consider the statement

The square of −2 is positive.

We know that this statement is true. Now consider the sentence

The square of a negative number is positive.

Is this a logical statement? You might think that it is, since you see that

it is true for every real number. However, this sentence is not a logical

statement since there is an unresolved variable involved.

Now, let us consider the following sentence:

The number x is positive.

Is that a logical statement? No, again, since there is an unresolved variable

involved. Again, noanswer canbe givenas tothe truthvalue of the sentence,

unless x is given a speciﬁc value. For example, if x = 2, the sentence

becomes a true statement, and, if x = −4, the sentence becomes a false

statement.

Any declarative sentence that contains one or more unresolved vari-

ables is called a predicate iff it is a statement whenever speciﬁc values are

substituted for the variables. The word unresolved means that no values,

or possible set of values, are given for the variables. We will return to the

business of resolving, or substituting for, the variables shortly.

Two other examples of predicates are x ≥ 0 and x ÷y = 0; the former

has one variable and the latter has two variables. Using functional notation,

we could denote these predicates by P(x) and Q(x, y), respectively.

Just as in the case of logical statements, we can negate a predicate.

For instance, if P(x) is the predicate x ≥ 0, then not P(x) is the predicate

x ,≥ 0.*

Predicates also can be combined to formnewpredicates as is illustrated

in the following exercise.

Exercise 30. Equations and inequalities involving variables are predicates.

(a) Determine all real numbers x for which the conjunction x ÷3 > 6 and

x

2

< 3 is a true statement.

(b) Similarly, determine all real numbers x and y for which the disjunction

xy = 0 or 2x −3y = 0 is a true statement.

*Thinking of the real numbers, we could have said x < 0, but, technically, that requires

proof!

Section 5. Predicates and Quantiﬁers 27

Substituting a single value for a variable is not generally of interest

since it can be done directly, thereby turning a predicate into a statement.

For example, instead of writing a predicate with a substitution such as

x

2

> 3 for x = 2.

we could just write the statement

2

2

> 3.

However, there are two very important ways of creating statements out of

predicates; this is called quantifying a predicate.

Consider the sentence:

For all real numbers, x

2

= 4.

This sentence should be a false statement since 5

2

,= 4. This is one kind of

quantiﬁer.

Deﬁnition 31. Let S be a set and let P(x) be a predicate. The universal

quantiﬁer is a phrase of the form for all x ∈ S, denoted ∀x ∈ S. The

universally quantiﬁed predicate sentence

∀x ∈ S, P(x)

is a mathematical statement which is true iff P(x) becomes a true statement

whenever an element of S is substituted for x in the predicate P(x).

We will generally write for all x ∈ S, P(x) for ∀x ∈ S, P(x). The

phrases for every x ∈ S and for any x ∈ S are also used for universal

quantiﬁers. We recommend that you be careful with the use of the word

any since it may be misinterpreted as some rather than every. The phrase

for all real numbers x is, of course, equivalent to for every x ∈ R.

Example 32. Consider the following statements. Which are true and which

are false?

(a) For all real numbers x, (x ÷3)

2

÷(x −2)

2

> 0.

(b) For all real numbers x,

√

x

2

= x.

For (a), the squares are nonnegative. (x ÷ 3)

2

= 0 only if x = −3

and (x −2)

2

= 0 only if x = 2. So they cannot both be equal to 0 for the

same x. Therefore, the statement in (a) is true.

For (b), the square root notation denotes the nonnegative square root.

Since, for x = −1,

(−1)

2

=

√

1 = 1 ,= −1, statement (b) is false. .

28 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

Remark33. Sometimes a universal quantiﬁer is hidden in a statement. It is

sometimes preferable, for purposes of logical manipulation, to restate such

a statement, as is done in the next example. Sometimes the set deﬁning the

universal quantiﬁer is hidden. Consider the statement

For all x, there exists a positive square root.

This is true for the set of positive real numbers, but is false for the set of

real numbers. When the set is omitted, we will assume that it is the set of

real numbers. .

Example 34. In geometry, the Isosceles Triangle Theorem may be stated:

The angles at the base of an isosceles triangle are congruent.

This could be restated as follows:

For every triangle T, if T is isosceles,

then the angles at the base are congruent.

You might even wonder exactly what set of triangles we are talking about!

.

Next, consider the sentence:

There exists x, such that x

2

= 4.

This sentence is a true statement since 2

2

= 4; it is also true since (−2)

2

=

4. The expression “there exists” is a new type of quantiﬁer.

Deﬁnition 35. Let S be a set and let P(x) be a predicate. The existential

quantiﬁer is a phrase of the form there exists x ∈ S, denoted ∃x ∈ S. The

existentially quantiﬁed predicate sentence

∃x ∈ S, P(x)

is a mathematical statement which is true iff P(x) becomes a true statement

for at least one element of S substituted for x in the predicate P(x).

We will generally write there exists x ∈ S such that P(x) for ∃x ∈

S, P(x). The phrase for some x ∈ S is also used for existential quantiﬁers.

Again, we remind you to be careful with the use of the word any.

Section 5. Predicates and Quantiﬁers 29

Example 36. Which of the following statements about sets of real numbers

are true and which are false?

(a) There exists x such that (x ÷5)

2

= 0.

(b) There exists x such that [x −1[ = x.

(c) There exist x, y such that x

2

÷ y

2

= 1.

Statement (a) is true since x = −5 satisﬁes the equation. Statement

(b) is true since x =

1

2

satisﬁes the equation. Statement (c) is true since,

for example, x = y =

1

2

√

2, satisﬁes the equation. Notice that the set of

values for x is important: if the word real were changed to natural, then

all three statements above would be false. .

Let us see howwe negate a sentence which is introduced by a universal

quantiﬁer. Consider the statement: “For all x and y, x ÷ y = 0.” In fact,

this statement is false. What is the negation of this sentence? If not all

pairs of numbers add up to zero, there exist numbers x and y, whose sum

is not zero, so the negation of our original sentence is “There exist x and y

such that x ÷ y ,= 0.” which is a true statement. In general, the negation of

the statement

For all x, P(x).

is the statement

There exists an x such that not P(x).

The negation of predicates with more than one variable is deﬁned in an

analogous way.

To see howwe negate a sentence which is introduced by the existential

quantiﬁer, we look at the following example. Consider the statement:

“There exists a number x, such that x

2

< 0.” which is a false statement. If

there does not exist a number whose square is negative, then the square of

all numbers will be nonnegative, so the negation of the original sentence is

“For all numbers x, x

2

≥ 0.” In general, the negation of the statement

There exists x such that P(x).

is the statement

For all x, not P(x).

Remark 37: Logical notation. Although we have mentioned the symbols

¬, ∧, ∨, ⇒, ⇔, ∀, and ∃, we will not use themin this text after this chapter.

Many people use them in writing mathematics by hand. The symbols for

implications, equivalences, and quantiﬁers are especially useful. Some

people also use a or s.t. for “such that,” ∵ for “since” or “because” and ∴

for “therefore” or “thus” or “hence.”

30 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

We prefer to use double barred arrows (⇒, ⇐, ⇔) for logical opera-

tions since single barred arrows, especially →, are used frequently in the

notation for functions.

We recommend that you use whatever shorthand you feel comfortable

with. Moreover, we want to remind you to keep in mind your audience,

those who will read what you write! .

Supplemental Exercises 31

Supplemental Exercises

Deﬁnition Review. There were 13 deﬁnitions in this chapter. You can take

the truth values true and false to be undeﬁned. Let p and q be logical or

mathematical statements (or predicates). Deﬁne each of the following and

give an example of each:

(1) p is a logical statement

(1) p is a mathematical statement

(2) ¬p is negation of a statement p

(3) p ∧ q (or p and q) is conjunction of statement p and q

(4) p ∨ q (or p or q) is disjunction of statement p and q

(6) the implication p ⇒q (or p implies q or if p, then q)

(9) the equivalence p ⇔q of statements p and q

(13) a statement is a tautology

(15) a statement is a contradiction

(23) the converse of an implication p ⇒q

(25) the contrapositive of an implication p ⇒q

(28) the inverse of an implication p ⇒q

(31) the universal quantiﬁer

(31) an universally quantiﬁed predicate sentence

(35) the existential quantiﬁer

(35) an existentially quantiﬁed predicate sentence

In Exercises S1—S35 below, use truth tables to show that each statement

is a tautology involving statements p, q, and r.

Exercise S1. p ∧ ( p ⇒q) ⇒q

Exercise S2. ¬p ∧ (q ⇒ p) ⇒¬q

Exercise S3. ¬p ∧ ( p ∨ q) ⇒q

Exercise S4. p ⇒(q ⇒ p ∧ q)

Exercise S5. ( p ⇒q) ∧ (q ⇒r) ⇒( p ⇒r)

Exercise S6. ( p ∧ q ⇒r) ⇔( p ⇒[q ⇒r])

Exercise S7. ( p ∧ q ⇒r) ⇔( p ⇒[q ⇒r])

Exercise S8. ( p ⇒[q ∧ ¬q]) ⇒¬p

Exercise S9. ( p ⇒q) ⇒( p ∨r ⇒q ∨r)

Exercise S10. ( p ⇒q) ⇒([q ⇒r] ⇒[ p ⇒r])

Exercise S11. ( p ⇔q) ∧ (q ⇔r) ⇒( p ⇔r)

Exercise S12. ( p ⇔q) ⇔(q ⇔ p)

32 Chapter 2. Statements in Mathematics

Exercise S13. ( p ⇒q) ∧ (r ⇒q) ⇔( p ∨r ⇒q)

Exercise S14. ( p ⇒q) ∧ ( p ⇒r) ⇔( p ⇒q ∧r)

Exercise S15. ( p ∨ q) ⇔(q ∨ p)

Exercise S16. ( p ∧ q) ⇔(q ∧ p)

Exercise S17. ( p ∨ q) ∨r ⇔ p ∨ (q ∨ p)

Exercise S18. ( p ∧ q) ∧r ⇔ p ∧ (q ∧ p)

Exercise S19. p ∨ (q ∧r) ⇔( p ∨ q) ∧ ( p ∨r)

Exercise S20. p ∧ (q ∨r) ⇔( p ∧ q) ∨ ( p ∧r)

Exercise S21. p ∨ p ⇔ p

Exercise S22. p ∧ p ⇔ p

Exercise S23. ¬( p ∨ q) ⇔¬p ∧ ¬q

Exercise S24. ¬( p ∧ q) ⇔¬p ∨ ¬q

Exercise S25. p ⇒q ⇔¬p ∨ q

Exercise S26. p ⇒q ⇔¬( p ∧ ¬q)

Exercise S27. p ∨ q ⇔¬p ⇒q

Exercise S28. p ∨ q ⇔¬(¬p ∧ ¬q)

Exercise S29. p ∧ q ⇔¬( p ⇒¬q)

Exercise S30. p ∧ q ⇔¬(¬p ∨ ¬q)

Exercise S31. ( p ⇔q) ⇔( p ⇒q) ∧ (q ⇒ p)

In Exercises S32—S35, let F and T represent statements that are

always false or true, respectively.

Exercise S32. p ∨ F ⇔ p

Exercise S33. p ∧ F ⇔ F

Exercise S34. p ∨ T ⇔T

Exercise S35. p ∧ T ⇔ p

Exercise S36. Which of the following statements are true and which are

false? Explain.

(a) For all x, (x ÷3)

2

÷(x −2)

2

> 0.

(b) For all x,

√

x

2

= x.

(c) For all x and y, [x − y[ = [y − x[.

Exercise S37. Show that q ∧ ( p ⇒ q) ⇒ p is not a tautology. This is

sometimes referred to as the fallacy of asserting the conclusion.

33

Chapter 3

Proofs in Mathematics

1. What is Mathematics?

Using the ideas of the previous section, we are nowin a position where

we can understand a given statement. The next step would be to prove or

disprove that statement. Is this mathematics? Well, not quite.

Mathematics is, foremost, a creative activity. Theorems are not handed

out by God (or professors) to the faithful (students?) with the expectation

that the supplicants (students??) will supply the appropriate proof before

awaiting the next theorem from on high.* Theorems are a product of

human endeavor, dependent on the human experience and knowledge. To

do mathematics is to create mathematics, theorems along with proofs. Yes,

perhaps the scholastic experience is slightly different. Most professors and

their texts play the roles of gods and kings, expecting their slaves (students!)

to do the grungy work.

Before you proceed you should give the preceding some thought.

This text deals with ﬁnding proofs, not theorems. From elementary school

through the master’s degree, students of mathematics rarely encounter the

other side, the creation of the theorems themselves. Finding theorems is

the primary goal of a doctoral dissertation and of mathematical research.

Most times you are given a proof immediately after the theorem. Your

job is then to comprehend both the theorem and its proof. In order to learn

howto do proofs, you should think about howyou would prove the theorem

ﬁrst. To start thinking like a mathematician you must read slowly, pausing

to think often. If you pause now and then to ask the question “What can

I try to prove next?” you will be taking a large step towards becoming a

mathematician and you will be better able to construct proofs.

Two things that you should do frequently, which are helpful both in

ﬁnding theorems and proofs (not surprising since they go hand in hand),

are to think of examples and draw pictures. In fact, these are not unrelated

activities. Often, working out an example will help you to better understand

*Some philosophers certainly disagree with this point of view.

34 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

what makes a theorem true, that is, how to prove it. Pictures are usually an

extension of that process. Just as important is to change the hypotheses and

consider examples where the conclusion fails. These “counterexamples”

again can help you to isolate the missing ideas which make up the proof.

You may be thinking that you have seen lots of pictures in mathematics

texts that you did not ﬁnd the least bit illuminating. That is quite under-

standable. The important part of the picture is usually in its construction,

not in its ﬁnal presentation. It is like looking up the answer to an exercise

in the back of a text. Usually, the answer alone does not illuminate the path

from the problem to the answer.

If you get nothing else out of this chapter, we hope you will understand

the following two things. First, you must spend far more time thinking than

reading. (It is not uncommon for a mathematician to take hours, even days,

to read and comprehend a single page!) Second, you should always think

of examples (and counterexamples), drawing pictures as a guide. (Yes, you

can draw mental images, but it is surprising how different things can look

on paper.)

In the remainder of this chapter, we will examine various techniques

of proof.

2. Direct Proof.

The ﬁrst type of proof we will consider is the direct proof. When

someone says that a proof is “by brute force” or by “following your nose,”

they are referring to a direct proof. While “brute force” generally implies

some sort of explicit computation, all of these descriptions describe the basic

nature of a direct proof. Many mathematicians will say that they “construct”

a proof. We warn you that this na¨ıve use of the word “construct” may be

misunderstood.* The basic idea of direct proof is simple: start from the

hypotheses, make a sequence of implications, and arrive at the conclusion.

An Example of Direct Proof

Consider the following proposition from geometry. You may refer

back to Section 3 of Chapter 1 for our discussion of the axioms of Euclid;

the axiom numbers used below refer to the list of axioms in that section.

Proposition 1. If two lines intersect, then they make the vertical angles

equal to one another.

Before writing down a proof, let us start with a picture. Consider

Figure 2, which shows two intersecting lines.

*“Constructive proof” may refer to the constructivist philosophy of mathematics. Not

everyone subscribes to this philosophy. In this philosophy, the existence of a mathematical

object is accepted only when it can be constructed (for instance, only when an explicit example

is known).

A

C

D

B

E

Section 2. Direct Proof 35

Figure 2: Vertical angles

If nothing else, the ﬁgure gives us a shorthand notation for our proof

by giving names to the angles. By the way, if you do not remember the

deﬁnition of vertical angles, you should be able to ﬁgure it out from the

proposition and the ﬁgure!

Proof. Let BAD and CAE be two lines intersecting at the point A. Then

the angles BAD and CAE are both equal to two right angles.† If

we subtract from both angles the angle CAD, by Euclid’s Axiom 4, we

conclude that BAC = DAE, which is what we wanted to prove. Using

the same line of reasoning, we can prove that CAD = E AB.

Exercise 3. Complete the proof of Proposition 1: prove that CAD =

E AB.

If you prefer to think about the measures of angles (perhaps following

Birkhoff’s axioms in Example 6 of Chapter 1), then you might rewrite the

above proof as follows:

Proof. Let BAD and CAE be two lines intersecting at the point A. Then

mBAD = π and mCAE = π.

Therefore, mBAD = mCAE and

mBAD −mCAD = mCAE −mCAD.

Since

mBAC = mBAD −mCAD

and

mDAE = mCAE −mCAD,

†By Axiom 5 and the familiar construction of perpendicular lines, the angle at a point

on a line is equal to two right angles. In more modern language, we can say these angles

measure π or 180

◦

.

36 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

we have proved that mBAC = mDAE. Using the same line of reason-

ing, he reader can prove that mCAD = mE AB.

Proof by Brute Force: Another Example of Direct Proof

Let A = { 1, 3, 5, 7, . . . } be the set of odd natural numbers. We know,

by deﬁnition, that every odd natural number can be expressed in the form

2n ÷1 for some nonnegative integer n.

Proposition 4. The square of any odd integer is odd.

Proof. Consider the odd natural number x = 2n ÷1 for some nonnegative

integer n. Then

x

2

= (2n ÷1)

2

= 4n

2

÷4n ÷1 = 2(2n

2

÷2n) ÷1 = 2k ÷1,

where k is the natural number 2n

2

÷2n. Hence, x

2

is odd.

Exercise 5. Prove that the square of an even integer is even.

Exercise 6. (a) Prove that the sum of two even integers is even.

(b) Prove that the sum of an even integer and an odd integer is odd.

Exercise 7. Prove that the cube of an odd integer is odd.

Exercise 8. Prove that the sum, the difference, the product, and the quotient

(when it is deﬁned) of two rational numbers is a rational number.

Proof by cases.

In proving a proposition, we sometimes have to distinguish cases. The

following example is suggestive.

Example 9. To prove that (−1)

n

÷ (−1)

n÷1

= 0 for all integers n, we

distinguish two cases: n is either even or odd.

Case 1: suppose n is even. Then n ÷1 is odd. Hence, (−1)

n

= 1 and

(−1)

n÷1

= −1. Therefore, the sum equals 0.

Case 2: suppose n is odd. Then n ÷ 1 is even. Hence, (−1)

n

= −1

and (−1)

n÷1

= 1. Therefore, the sum equals 0. .

We give another proof of (−1)

n

÷(−1)

n÷1

= 0 for all integers n:

(−1)

n

÷(−1)

n÷1

= (−1)

n

÷(−1)

n

· (−1) = (−1)

n

· (1 ÷(−1)) = 0.

The moral of this example is that there are generally many ways to prove a

theorem. The usual problem is to ﬁnd some proof. Some mathematicians

Section 3. Contraposition and Proof by Contradiction 37

like to ﬁnd “the best” proof of every theorem; of course, this is subjective.

The twentiethcenturymathematicianP. Erd¨ os likedtosaythat Godhas “The

Book,” which contains all of the theorems, along with their best proofs.

Recall the deﬁnition of the absolute value, [x[, of a real number, x. Of

course, we can deﬁne [x[ to equal

√

x

2

. However, the ﬁrst deﬁnition you

saw was probably something like

[x[ =

¸

x , if x ≥ 0

−x , if x < 0

where −x plays the role of “dropping the negative sign” when x is negative.

Since this is a deﬁnition by cases, proofs of statements involving absolute

values often consider cases.

Example 10. Let us prove that [x[ ≥ x for all x ∈ R. We consider two

cases according to the deﬁnition of absolute value. If x ≥ 0, then [x[ = x

by deﬁnition; hence [x[ ≥ x. On the other hand, if x < 0, then [x[ = −x

is positive; hence [x[ ≥ x. .

Exercise 11. Prove that for all x ∈ R, [2x ÷1[ > x.

We wouldlike topoint out that “proof bycases” is not a proof technique

at all. Instead, “proof by cases” is a method of reducing a problemto easier,

smaller problems. In fact, the methods of proof used to prove each of the

individual cases may be different.

Exercise 12. Prove that, for all real numbers a, if a ,= 0, then a

2

> 0.

3. Contraposition and Proof by Contradiction.

We noted that a statement is equivalent to its contrapositive. Therefore,

to prove a statement, we can prove its contrapositive. We call this proof by

contraposition.

An Example of Proof by Contraposition

Consider the converse of Exercise 5.

Proposition 13. If the square of an integer is even, then the integer is even.

Proof. By contraposition, this statement is equivalent to saying “If an in-

teger is odd, then its square is odd,” which is Proposition 4.

The following exercises are examples of statements whose proofs are

most easily done by contraposition.

Exercise 14. Prove that if

2n

1÷n

2

is irrational, then n is irrational.

38 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

Exercise 15. Prove that, for all real numbers a, if a

2

> 0, then a ,= 0.

Look at Exercise 7. The converse can be proved by contraposition.

Exercise 16. Prove that the cube of an integer n is odd if and only if n is

odd.

A similar idea to contraposition is proof by contradiction. In proof by

contraposition, we used the fact that an implication and its contrapositive

are logically equivalent. Mechanically, this amounts to the following: to

prove that p implies q, we assume that the negation of q is true (i.e., q is

false) and proceed o show that the negation of p is true (i.e., p is false).

Seen as a direct proof, the hypothesis p has been contradicted since both

p and its negation are apparantly true. We use this idea to generalize this

proof technique.

In proving an implication, p implies q, by contradiction, if we ﬁrst

suppose the hypotheses of a statement, p, and we assume the negation of

its conclusion, q, and use these to derive a contradiction (to a hypothesis

or to our assumption or to any other true statement), then we have proved

the original implication. Note that the case of deriving the negation of

the hypotheses is exactly proof by contraposition. To understand that this

makes sense, consider that a contradiction should never arise logically

unless there is a false assumption and the only assumption we made was

the negation of the conclusion of our implication.

Two Examples of Proof by Contradiction

Let us consider two examples of proof by contradiction. First, Propo-

sition 17 shows another way to approach Exercise 6(b).

Proposition 17. The sum of an odd integer and an even integer is odd.

Proof. Let x be odd and y be an even integer. Assume that x ÷ y is

not odd, that is, x ÷ y is even. Then x = 2n ÷ 1 for some integer n,

y = 2m, for some integer m and x ÷ y = 2p for some integer p. Hence,

x ÷ y = 2n ÷1 ÷2m = 2p. This is equivalent to 2( p −m −n) = 1. But

this is a contradiction since the number on the left-hand side is even, but 1

is odd. Therefore, x ÷ y is odd.

This proof would not make Erd¨ os’ The Book (see Example 9). The

direct proof is shorter and neater.

The second example of a proof by contradiction is given in Theorem

18. This is a famous theorem.

Theorem 18.

√

2 is irrational.

Before giving a proof of this proposition, you might wonder how we

know that there exists a real number called

√

2. This is actually proved by

Section 3. Contraposition and Proof by Contradiction 39

constructing the set of real numbers in Part III. The following proof shows

that this real number is indeed irrational.

Proof. Assume that

√

2 is rational. Then there exist natural numbers m

and n such that

√

2 =

m

n

.

Without loss of generality, we assume that the fraction

m

n

is reduced to

lowest terms; hence, m and n are not both even. Squaring both sides we

get

m

2

n

2

= 2.

This is equivalent to the equality

2n

2

= m

2

.

Since the left-hand side is an even number, m

2

is even. By Proposition 13,

m is even. This means that

m = 2k

for some natural number k. Hence

2n

2

= (2k)

2

= 4k

2

,

which implies that

n

2

= 2k

2

.

Therefore, n

2

is even and so n is even. This is a contradiction since we

assumed that m and n are not both even. Hence,

√

2 is irrational.

Remark 19. The following remarks concern the style of writing proofs by

contradiction.

(1) Many mathematicians start their proofs by indicating how they plan to

proceed. A good way to start a proof by contradiction is a statement such

as “This proof is by contradiction.”

(2) Although the words “assume” and “suppose” are synonyms, you may

ﬁnd it helpful to use “assume” when trying to construct a proof by contra-

diction and “suppose” for all hypotheses. In this way the word “assume” is

a reminder that you are trying to ﬁnd a contradiction. We are divided on this

advice; one of us tries to follow it regularly while the other is indifferent.

(3) It is common to leave out the punch line. What is the punch line? It is

the declaration of a contradiction and the negation of the original assump-

tion. Sometimes such proofs end with the simple declarative statement

40 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

“Contradiction.” This may leave the reader with a little bit to think about!

For example, a much terser proof of Proposition 17 may look as follows.

Proof. Suppose x = 2n÷1 is odd and y = 2m is even. Assume x÷y = 2p

is even. Hence, x ÷ y = 2(n ÷m) ÷1 = 2p. Contradiction.

We strongly suggest that you write as much as is necessary so that your

fellow students could understand your proofs. .

We will need the following important theorem to generalize Proposi-

tion 13 and Theorem18; its proof is postponed until the Exercise 42. Recall

that a integer p is prime iff p is neither 0 nor ±1, and its only divisors are

±1 and ±p.

Theorem20 (Fundamental Theoremof Arithmetic). Each natural num-

ber other than 1 is the product of a uniquely determined ﬁnite collection of

positive primes.

For example,

12 = (2)(2)(3) = (2)(3)(2) = (3)(2)(2):

the factorization is unique in that each includes two 2’s and one 3. We think

of 2 as a “product” of only one prime, namely 2. That is, every integer m

greater than 1 can be written uniquely in the form

m = p

n

1

1

p

n

2

2

· · · p

n

k

k

,

where

p

1

< p

2

< · · · < p

k

are k distinct positive prime numbers and n

1

, n

2

, . . . , n

k

are natural num-

bers.

Consider the following generalization of Proposition 13; they are the

same when n = 2 and p = 2.

Theorem 21. Let n be a natural number, m be an integer greater than 1,

and p be a positive prime number. If the m

n

is divible by p, then m is also

divisible by p.

Proof. By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, there exists a factor-

ization

m = p

n

1

1

p

n

2

2

· · · p

n

k

k

as a product of positive prime numbers where p

1

< p

2

< · · · < p

k

. By

the deﬁnition of prime, if m is divisible by p, then there exists j (between

1 and k inclusive) such that p

j

is divisible by p and, hence, p = p

j

. Now

m

n

= ( p

n

1

1

p

n

2

2

· · · p

n

k

k

)

n

= p

n

1

n

1

p

n

2

n

2

· · · p

n

k

n

k

.

Section 4. Proof by Induction 41

By the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, the uniqueness of the factor-

ization of m

n

guarantees that m

n

is divisible by p = p

k

.

Use these ideas for the following exercise.

Exercise 22. Prove that

√

3 and

√

5 are irrational.

The following exercises are two more examples of statements whose

proofs are best done by contradiction (or contraposition).

Exercise 23. Let a and b be real numbers. Prove that a

2

÷ b

2

= 0 if and

only if a = b = 0.

Exercise 24. Let x be a real number. Prove that if x

2

< x, then x < 1.

The next exercise is a type of problem in combinatorics. Be careful

with counting problems as they are notoriously difﬁcult.

Exercise 25. Prove that if at least two people are present at a party, at least

two of them know the same number of participants. (Assume that either

everyone or no one counts themselves as someone they know and that if

one person knows another, then the latter also knows the former.)

4. Proof by Induction.

Before we discuss the next example we need some preliminaries. Sup-

pose we want to prove that n

2

≥ n for all natural numbers n. In fact, we

have to prove inﬁnitely many statements:

1

2

≥ 1

2

2

≥ 2

3

2

≥ 3

.

.

.

We can denote these statements by P(1), P(2), P(3), etc. The following

tells us one way to prove such a sequence of statements.

Theorem 26 (Principle of Induction). Statements P(n) are true for all

n ∈ N if

(1) the ﬁrst statement, P(1), is true and

(2) whenever a statement in the sequence, P(n), is true, then the suc-

ceeding statement, P(n ÷1), is also true.

42 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

Notice that we called the preceding a theorem. In fact, it is very close

to being an axiom, usually called the Axiomof Inﬁnity. We state this axiom

below in a somewhat different (also more readable and less precise) form

than you would encounter in an axiomatic approach to set theory.

Axiom 27 (Axiom of Inﬁnity). There exists a set S of natural numbers

such that

(1) 1 ∈ S and

(2) if n ∈ S, then n ÷1 ∈ S.

If we have a sequence of statements P(1), P(2), P(3), P(4), . . . , then

we can deﬁne a set

S = { n [ P(n) is true } .

This axiom characterizes the set of natural numbers: S = N. For our

purposes, we may as well assume that the Principle of Induction is itself an

axiom. Let us see how this gives us an important proof technique.

The second step in the Principle of Induction can be restated as

P(n) implies P(n ÷1) for all n ∈ N.

This step is called the inductive step and P(n) is called the inductive hy-

pothesis (or induction hypothesis). Sometimes, it is more advantageous to

use the implication P(n −1) implies P(n); in this case, P(n −1) is called

the inductive hypothesis. The idea is actually quite natural: if P(1) is true

and if P(n) → P(n ÷1) for all n ∈ N, then

P(1) is true → P(2) is true → P(3) is true → P(4) is true →. . . .

Remark 28. We like to think of a proof by induction as building a machine:

you need an “ON” switch to get it going and then the machine needs to

crank out the desired product. The switch is part (1) above and the machine

mechanism, or crank, is part (2). .

We are now ready to apply the Principle of Induction to prove the

assertion that n

2

≥ n, for all n ∈ N. Actually we will consider three

examples of proof by induction in Propositions 29, 30 and 31.

Proposition 29. n

2

≥ n for all n ∈ N.

Proof. The proof uses the Principle of Induction. Let P(n) denote the

statement “n

2

≥ n.” We ﬁrst prove P(1). For n = 1, we have 1

2

≥ 1,

which is obvious.

Next we suppose that P(n) is true for some ﬁxed n, that is, n

2

≥ n;

this is the inductive hypothesis. Next we prove that P(n ÷ 1) is true, that

is, (n ÷ 1)

2

≥ n ÷ 1. We compute (n ÷ 1)

2

= n

2

÷ 2n ÷ 1 and, by the

Section 4. Proof by Induction 43

inductive hypothesis, n

2

÷2n ÷1 ≥ n ÷2n ÷1 ≥ n ÷1 since 2n ≥ 0.*

Therefore, (n ÷1)

2

≥ n ÷1.

You should take a close look at the proof of Proposition 29. Do you

see that the work in the second paragraph is necessary? Many students who

are seeing induction proofs for the ﬁrst time want to simply assert the truth

of P(n ÷1) by substituting n ÷1 into the inductive hypothesis. Of course,

this is wrong.

Proposition 30. 1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷· · · ÷n =

n(n÷1)

2

for all n ∈ N.

You may already be familiar with summation notation. In general,

b

¸

k=a

f (k)

indicates a sum of terms of the form f (k), for some function f , where we

substitute sequential values from a to b in place of k. The statement in

Proposition 30 can be rewritten as

n

¸

k=1

k =

n(n ÷1)

2

.

Proof of Proposition 30. The proof is by induction on n. First we prove

the statement for n = 1: we have 1 =

1·(1÷1)

2

which is obviously true.

Next, we suppose that is 1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷· · · ÷n =

n(n÷1)

2

. Add n ÷1 to

both sides of our inductive hypothesis and simplify the right-hand side to

get

1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷· · · ÷n ÷(n ÷1) =

n(n ÷1)

2

÷(n ÷1)

=

n(n ÷1) ÷2(n ÷1)

2

=

(n ÷1)(n ÷2)

2

.

The above proof would probably not make Erd¨ os’ book. Never be

afraid to try different techniques in proving a result. The following proof

*In fact, 2n ≥ 2 since n ≥ 1, but we do not need this in the proof. Of course, we

could say that n

2

> n for n > 1. Since 1

2

= 1, this would slightly improve the statement of

Proposition 29.

44 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

of Proposition 30 seems more intuitive. It often seems that inducive proofs

obscure the motivation of mathematical statements.

Another Proof of Proposition 30. Let x = 1 ÷ 2 ÷ 3 ÷ · · · ÷ n. Then

x = n ÷(n −1) ÷(n −2) ÷· · · ÷1 also. Therefore,

2x = x ÷ x

= (1 ÷2 ÷3 ÷· · · ÷n) ÷(n ÷(n −1) ÷(n −2) ÷· · · ÷1)

= (1 ÷n) ÷(2 ÷n −1) ÷(3 ÷n −2) ÷· · · ÷(1 ÷n)

= n(n ÷1).

Hence,

x =

n(n ÷1)

2

.

Nowthere is actually nothing special about starting an induction proof

from n = 1; an induction can start with any integer and continue with all

integers greater than the original integer. (Even wilder possibilities exist!)

To understand this you should realize that it is just a matter of relabeling

which integer is “the ﬁrst.” Consider the following proposition.

Proposition 31.

n

¸

k=0

r

k

=

1 −r

n÷1

1 −r

for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . and r ,= 1. [For

r = 0, use the convention r

0

= 1.]

Proof. The proof is by induction. Let r be a ﬁxed real number different

from 1. For n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , let P(n) be the statement

n

¸

k=0

r

k

=

1 −r

n÷1

1 −r

.

We want to prove P(0); that is, we start with n = 0.

0

¸

k=0

r

k

= r

0

=

1 =

1 −r

1 −r

=

1 −r

0÷1

1 −r

.

Next, we want to show, for every n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , that P(n) implies

P(n ÷ 1). Let n be a ﬁxed nonnegative integer. Suppose that

n

¸

k=0

r

k

=

1 −r

n÷1

1 −r

; this is the inductive hypothesis. We must showthat the inductive

hypothesis implies

n÷1

¸

k=0

r

k

=

1 −r

(n÷1)÷1

1 −r

=

1 −r

n÷2

1 −r

.

Now

n÷1

¸

k=0

r

k

=

n

¸

k=0

r

k

÷r

n÷1

=

1 −r

n÷1

1 −r

÷r

n÷1

by the inductive

hypothesis. Moreover,

1 −r

n÷1

1 −r

÷ r

n÷1

=

1 −r

n÷1

÷(1 −r)r

n÷1

1 −r

=

Section 4. Proof by Induction 45

1 −r

n÷1

÷r

n÷1

−r

n÷2

1 −r

=

1 −r

n÷2

1 −r

. This is what we needed to showand

completes the proof.

Remark 32. The following remarks concern the style of writing proofs by

induction.

(1) Since a proof by induction has two steps, two paragraphs make it more

readable.

(2) Usually, the ﬁrst step is much easier than the inductive step.

(3) Many authors like to use a new variable when considering the inductive

step in the proof. For example, for the inductive step in the proof of n

2

≥ n

for all n ∈ N they will use k

2

≥ k to show that (k ÷1)

2

≥ k ÷1. We are

not convinced that this makes proofs by induction any easier to understand.

(4) During a lecture, a mathematician may give a shorthand proof which

looks like the following.

Short proof of Proposition 29. n = 1: 1

2

≥ 1.

n ÷1: (n ÷1)

2

= n

2

÷2n ÷1 ≥ n ÷2n ÷1 ≥ n ÷1.

Short proof of Proposition 30. n=1: 1 =

1·(1÷1)

2

.

n ÷1: (1÷2÷3÷· · · ÷n) ÷(n ÷1) =

n(n÷1)

2

÷(n ÷1) =

n

2

÷3n÷2

2

=

(n÷1)(n÷2)

2

.

Short proof of Proposition 31. n=0:

0

¸

k=0

r

k

= r

0

= 1 =

1−r

1−r

.

n+1:

n÷1

¸

k=0

r

k

=

n

¸

k=0

r

k

÷r

n÷1

=

1−r

n÷1

1−r

÷r

n÷1

=

1−r

n÷1

÷(1−r)r

n÷1

1−r

=

1−r

n÷2

1−r

.

Can you follow the three proofs above? Do you ﬁnd the original,

wordy proofs more readable? Remember that written words do help the

reader to understand your proofs. We do not support shorthand for its own

sake, but it is acceptable as long as there is no loss of understanding such

as in a lecture where the writer is there to answer questions! .

The following statement and proof are wrong. [Recall that, for any

natural number n, n factorial is the number n! = n(n −1)(n −2) · · · (1).]

Absurdum. 2

n

< n! for all n ∈ N.

Proof? The proof is by mathematical induction. Suppose that 2

k

< k! is

true; this is our inductive hypothesis. We need to show this implies that

2

k÷1

< (k ÷1)!. We see that

(k ÷1)! = (k ÷1)(k!) > (k ÷1)(2

k

) ≥ (1÷1)(2

k

) = (2)(2

k

) = 2

k÷1

.

46 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

Exercise 33. (a) Explain why the statement above is absurd and why its

proof is wrong.

(b) Prove that 2

n

< n! for all n = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, . . . .

Once more, the following statement and proof are wrong.

Absurdum. For n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , every bag containing n solid-colored

balls contains balls of only one color.

Proof? n=1: A bag with one ball clearly has balls of only one color.

n+1: Take a bag with n ÷ 1 balls. Remove one ball. By hypothesis,

the bag now has balls of only one color. Replace the ﬁrst ball and remove

a different ball. Again, the bag now has balls of only one color. Since the

other balls which never left the bag did not change color, all the balls must

be the same color.

Exercise 34. Explain why the statement above is absurd and why its proof

is wrong.

Now it’s time for you to try some proofs by induction.

Exercise 35. Prove that 1 ÷3 ÷5 ÷· · · ÷(2n −1) = n

2

for all n ∈ N.

Exercise 36. Prove that, for all natural numbers n,

n

¸

k=1

1

k(k ÷1)

=

n

n ÷1

.

Exercise 37. Prove that, for all natural numbers n,

n

¸

k=1

k

2

=

n(n÷1)(2n÷1)

6

.

In the following exercise, there are two variables, p and n. Remember

that induction is on one variable which varies through integer values.

Exercise 38. Prove that for every real number p > −1 and any natural

number n, (1 ÷ p)

n

≥ 1 ÷np.

We now state the Principle of Complete Induction, which is an equiv-

alent version of the Principle of Induction.

Theorem 39 (Principle of Complete Induction). Statements P(n) are

true for all n ∈ N if

(1) P(1) is true and

(2) for every n ∈ N if P(k) is true for k = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n, then P(n ÷1)

is also true.

Section 4. Proof by Induction 47

The next result is quite amazing at ﬁrst glance; we prove it by complete

induction. The Fibonacci sequence is deﬁned inductively as follows: set

a

n

=

¸

1, if n = 1, 2

a

n−1

÷a

n−2

, if n = 3, 4, 5, . . .

That is, the Fibonacci sequence is

{ 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, . . . }.

You probably do not see a formula to determine the thousandth term in this

sequence as you would for an arithmetic or geometric sequence. However,

there is the following formula.

Proposition 40. The n

th

term of the Fibonacci sequence is

a

n

=

1 ÷

√

5

n

−

1 −

√

5

n

2

n

√

5

.

What makes this statement amazing is the appearance of irrational

numbers—square roots of 5—in this sequence of sums of pairs of natural

numbers! The number

1 ÷

√

5

2

is a very special number called the golden ratio. It has interesting properties

and comes up in surprising situations, like this one. The number

1−

√

5

2

is

referred to as the conjugate of the golden ratio.

Before giving the proof, let us consider what must be done. It is a

simple computation to check the formula for a

1

= 1. Consider the inductive

step using complete induction: we want to use the inductive hypothesis

a

k

=

1 ÷

√

5

k

−

1 −

√

5

k

2

k

√

5

,

for all k = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n −1, to prove that

a

n

=

1 ÷

√

5

n

−

1 −

√

5

n

2

n

√

5

.

We know that

a

n

= a

n−1

÷a

n−2

.

48 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

By the inductive hypothesis for k = n −1 and k = n −2, we have

a

n

=

1 ÷

√

5

n−1

−

1 −

√

5

n−1

2

n−1

√

5

÷

1 ÷

√

5

n−2

−

1 −

√

5

n−2

2

n−2

√

5

.

So we wish to verify that

1 ÷

√

5

n

−

1 −

√

5

n

2

n

√

5

?

=

1 ÷

√

5

n−1

−

1 −

√

5

n−1

2

n−1

√

5

÷

1 ÷

√

5

n−2

−

1 −

√

5

n−2

2

n−2

√

5

.

Using algebra, you might derive the following equivalent equations:

1 ÷

√

5

n

−

1 −

√

5

n

?

= 2

¸

1 ÷

√

5

n−1

−

1 −

√

5

n−1

¸

÷4

¸

1 ÷

√

5

n−2

−

1 −

√

5

n−2

¸

1 ÷

√

5

n

−2

1 ÷

√

5

n−1

−4

1 ÷

√

5

n−2

?

=

1 −

√

5

n

−2

1 −

√

5

n−1

−4

1 −

√

5

n−2

1 ÷

√

5

n−2

¸

1 ÷

√

5

2

−2

1 ÷

√

5

−4

¸

?

=

1 −

√

5

n−2

¸

1 −

√

5

2

−2

1 −

√

5

−4

¸

1 ÷

√

5

n−2

¸

1 ÷2

√

5 ÷5 −2 −2

√

5 −4

¸

?

=

1 −

√

5

n−2

¸

1 −2

√

5 ÷5 −2 ÷2

√

5 −4

¸

(1 ÷

√

5)

n−2

[0]

?

= (1 −

√

5)

n−2

[0]

0

?

= 0

You know that since the last of these equations is true, all of the previous,

equivalent equations are true also. Of course, you never see a computation

with question marks like this in a textbook and you should be careful

in doing so even as a side computation. It is important that every step

Section 4. Proof by Induction 49

is reversible! You can rewrite this computation in a better form, going

forwards rather than backwards. We will give a less messy proof below.

Does this complete the proof? No, since our proposed inductive step

never settles the case of n = 2. This is because we used the fact that

a

n

= a

n−1

÷a

n−2

which is only valid for n ≥ 3. The proof is completed by checking this

case.

Let us nowrewrite the proof, followingthe ideas just discussed. Before

doing so, let us consider the golden ratio and its conjugate again. Note that

these are exactly the two zeros of the quadratic polynomial x

2

−x −1. Let

ϕ =

1 ÷

√

5

2

and ˆ ϕ =

1 −

√

5

2

.

So ϕ

2

−ϕ −1 = 0 and ˆ ϕ

2

− ˆ ϕ −1 = 0. That is,

ϕ

2

= ϕ ÷1 and ˆ ϕ

2

= ˆ ϕ ÷1.

Proof of Proposition 40. We wish to show that

a

n

=

1 ÷

√

5

n

−

1 −

√

5

n

2

n

√

5

=

1

√

5

ϕ

n

− ˆ ϕ

n

.

For n = 1 and n = 2, we compute

1

√

5

ϕ

1

− ˆ ϕ

1

=

1 ÷

√

5

−

1 −

√

5

2

√

5

= 1 = a

1

and

1

√

5

ϕ

2

− ˆ ϕ

2

=

1

√

5

(ϕ ÷1) −( ˆ ϕ ÷1)

=

1

√

5

ϕ − ˆ ϕ

= 1 = a

2

.

For an integer n ≥ 3, suppose that the induction hypothesis that

a

k

=

1 ÷

√

5

k

−

1 −

√

5

k

2

k

√

5

=

1

√

5

ϕ

k

− ˆ ϕ

k

**50 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics
**

holds for all k = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n − 1. By the deﬁnition of the Fibonacci

sequence and the induction hypotheses for k = n −1 and k = n −2,

a

n

= a

n−1

÷a

n−2

=

1

√

5

ϕ

n−1

− ˆ ϕ

n−1

÷

1

√

5

ϕ

n−2

− ˆ ϕ

n−2

.

To show that a

n

=

1

√

5

ϕ

n

− ˆ ϕ

n

**, we need to show that
**

1

√

5

ϕ

n

− ˆ ϕ

n

=

1

√

5

ϕ

n−1

− ˆ ϕ

n−1

÷

1

√

5

ϕ

n−2

− ˆ ϕ

n−2

.

We compute that

(ϕ

n−1

− ˆ ϕ

n−1

) ÷(ϕ

n−2

− ˆ ϕ

n−2

) = ϕ

n−1

(ϕ ÷1) − ˆ ϕ

n−1

( ˆ ϕ ÷1)

= ϕ

n−1

(ϕ

2

) − ˆ ϕ

n−1

( ˆ ϕ

2

)

= ϕ

n

− ˆ ϕ

n

.

Dividing both sides by

√

5 yields the desired result.

Let’s look at two erroneous attempts at using complete induction.

Absurdum. For all n ∈ Z

÷

, n = 0.

Proof? The proof is by complete induction. Let P(n) be the predicate

n = 0. Since the least number in Z

÷

is 0, the ﬁrst step is for n = 0. This

already proves the ﬁrst step.

For the inductive step, we hypothesize that, for k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n,

P(k) is true. That is, for k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n, k = 0. We want to use this

to show that n ÷ 1 = 0. Since, by hypothesis, 1 = 0 and n = 0, then

n ÷1 = 0 ÷0 = 0. This proves the inductive step and completes the proof

of the statement.

Of course, there is a problem in the proof, but where is it? You may

notice that the hypothesis 1 = 0 is nonsense. However, that alone does not

explain how the logic of the proof is faulty. You may also notice that we

proved only one starting step (n = 0), but use two hypothses (1 = 0 and

n = 0) in proving the inductive step. This brings us closer to the error.

The very ﬁrst application of the inductive step is when n ÷ 1 = 1

or, equivalently, when n = 0. The induction hypothesis is k = 0 for

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n, which is just 0 = 0 when n = 0. That is, 1 = 0 is not

part of the induction hypothesis when n = 0.

The next proof attempt, in short-hand form, suffers a similar fate.

Section 5. Examples and Counterexamples 51

Absurdum. For all n ∈ Z

÷

, 10

n

= 1.

Proof? n=0: 10

0

= 1.

n+1: 10

n÷1

= 10

2n−(n−1)

=

10

2n

10

n−1

=

(10

n

)

2

10

n−1

=

1

2

1

= 1 since

10

n

= 10

n−1

= 1.

Exercise 41. Explain why the statement above is absurd and why its proof

is wrong.

You can use the Principle of Complete Induction to prove the follow-

ing, which is the existence part of Theorem 20, the Fundamental Theorem

of Arithmetic.

Exercise 42. Prove that every integer n greater than 1 equals a product of

one or more positive prime numbers.

The uniqueness part of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic is

not so easy to write down. Think about why it is true and compare your

thoughts with the following.

Proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. In Exercise 42, we

proved the existence of such a factorizaion. Now, suppose there are two

distinct postive prime factorizations of an integer n with n ≥ 2:

n = p

1

p

2

p

3

· · · p

a

= q

1

q

2

q

3

· · · q

b

:

that is, n is factored into a primes on one hand and b primes on the other.

Since p

1

is a divisor of n = q

1

q

2

· · · q

b

, p

1

must be a divisor of a prime q

j

;

in fact, p

1

= q

j

. Next rearrange the factorization into q

k

’s as q

/

1

q

/

2

· · · q

/

b

with q

/

1

= q

j

. Cancelling p

1

= q

/

1

yields

p

2

p

3

· · · p

a

= q

/

2

q

/

3

· · · q

/

b

.

Continue to cancel primes in this way until one side of the equation equals

1. Since 1 is neither prime nor the product of primes greater than 1, both

sides must equal 1. Therefore, a = b. This shows that the factorization

is unique up to the order of the factors. The Fundamental Theorem of

Arithmetic is proved.

5. Examples and Counterexamples.

Thus far we have considered methods of proof. We will now consider

a method for disproving statements. Let us consider the following claim:

There do not exist integers a, b, and c, such that a

2

÷b

2

= c

2

.

52 Chapter 3. Proofs in Mathematics

Obviously this claim is false, since for a = 3, b = 4, and c = 5 the above

relation holds. In this case, we say that we have provided a counterexample.

Exercise 43. Find a counterexample to the assertion that the absolute value

of every real number is positive.

Exercise 44. Find a counterexample to the assertion that every continuous

function is differentiable.

As we mentioned in Section 1, we consider examples and counterex-

amples to be extremely important. You should always consider them; often

they will help you to ﬁnd a proof of a statement. You should keep in

mind that you can never prove or disprove a statement simply by giving an

example unless

• you examine all possible examples (this is a proof by cases), or

• the statement is an existence theorem, or

• the statement is false in at least one case (this is a counterexample).

A counterexample to a statement is also a proof of the negation of the

statement. Remember that the negation of a statement of the form “for all

x, P(x)” is a statement of the form “there exists an x such that not P(x).”

So a counterexample for such a statement gives an example that proves a

corresponding existence theorem.

For example, consider the following existence theorem.

Proposition 45. There exists a continuous function f which is not differ-

entiable.

Proof. Your counterexample in Exercise 44 proves this proposition.

Supplemental Exercises 53

Supplemental Exercises

Exercise S1. Prove that 2

n

÷ 2 ≤ 2

n÷1

for all n ∈ N. Use this result to

prove that 2n ÷1 ≤ 2

n

for n = 3, 4, 5, . . . .

54

How to THINK about mathematics: A Summary

• Before trying to prove a statement:

• Construct examples (under the same and modiﬁed hypotheses)

• Construct counterexamples (under the same and modiﬁed hy-

potheses)

• Construct pictures

• Consider different proof techniques:

• Direct Proof (including Brute Force)

• Proof by Contraposition (or proof by proof of the contrapositive)

• Proof by Contradiction

• Proof by Induction (including Complete Induction)

• Consider proof by cases and breaking a proof into smaller pieces

How to COMMUNICATE mathematics: A Summary

• Discuss mathematics with people—all parties should be honest and

active

• Organize your ideas (rewrite your proofs several times, if necessary)

• Remember to use enough words (a reader of your written proofs

cannot ask you questions)

• Use notation only as a shorthand or to clarify your proofs

55

PART II

SET THEORY

56

Chapter 4

Basic Set Operations

1. Introduction.

Perhaps our ability to distinguish and to classify objects constitutes

the essential part of our intellectual armor as human beings. These objects

may be tangible—inanimate objects, distant galaxies, living beings, our

beloved persons—or they may even be ideas, feelings or ﬁgments of our

imagination. Very often we view a certain collection of these objects as

a unity. When Aristotle claimed that man is a rational animal, he meant

to say that all human beings are rational. In fact, of all the animals, he

isolated those, and only those, who shared a common characteristic. Of

course, categorization is not always an easy process. Very often, it stumbles

over insurmountable ambiguities, especially due to the fact that universal

agreement on the meaning of terms is not always achieved.

If we restrict reality to the mathematical realm, it turns out that we

can come up with an elegant and powerful theory. The key concept is that

of a set. To cite Cantor’s so-called na¨ıve deﬁnition, a set is any collection

of deﬁnite, distinguishable objects of our intuition or of our intellect to be

conceived as a whole.

You are probably already familiar with the notation used to describe

sets. We may list the elements of sets explicitly as in

T = { earth, wind, ﬁre, water } and E = { 2, 4, 6, . . . }.

The set T has exactly four elements. E, the set of all even natural numbers,

has inﬁnitely many; the three dots indicate that the list continues indeﬁnitely

in the same pattern.

We may specify E in different ways as follows:

E = { n ∈ N [ 2 divides n }

= { 2n [ n ∈ N } .

This kind of notation is called set-builder notation. It is common to read

this notation by substituting “such that” for the vertical bar. Some authors

Section 2. Subsets 57

prefer to use a colon in place of the vertical bar. Notice that the set N

appears on different sides of the vertical bar. We must specify a set for

every variable.

2. Subsets.

To study set theory, as with any new mathematics, we start with some

undeﬁned terms and some deﬁnitions.

Undeﬁnition* 1. The terms set, element, and is an element of (represented

by the symbol ∈) are taken as undeﬁned.

For example, the notation x ∈ S means that x is an element of a set, S.

We will be sloppy with this notation when we write something like x, y ∈ S

to mean x ∈ S and y ∈ S.

To make set theory interesting, we need an axiom which tells us that

some set actually exists. The existence of the following set is assumed

axiomatically.

Deﬁnition 2. A set is called empty iff the set contains no elements. The

empty set is denoted in two ways, ∅ and { }.

You should be very careful about notation! The sets { {} } and { ∅} are

not empty. Both have exactly one element, namely, the empty set.

You may have noticed that we wrote “the” empty set instead of “an”

empty set in Deﬁnition 2. This will be justiﬁed in Proposition 12; there is

only one empty set.

Deﬁnition 3. A set S is called a subset of a set X iff every element of S is

also an element of X. We write either S ⊂ X or X ⊃ S.

That is, S is a subset of X iff s ∈ S implies s ∈ X.

Important Remark 4. You should be careful with the notation used in this

text. Many authors, especially of more elementary texts, use the notation

S ⊆ X to describe subsets. Those authors use S ⊂ X to mean that S is

a proper subset of X, that is, S is a subset of X, but is not equal to X†.

We will use the notation S X for proper subsets. It is more common to

discuss subsets than proper subsets; we prefer to use the simpler notation

for the more common usage. In more advanced mathematical texts, it is

normal to use ⊂ for all subsets.

*Since a sentence introducing deﬁned terms is called a deﬁnition, we will call a sentence

introducing undeﬁned terms an undeﬁnition. Or perhaps we should call it a primativum since

primitive terms are introduced?

†You may take the concept of set equality for granted. However, we will deﬁne this in

Deﬁnition 9 later in this section.

B

A

U

x

58 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

There is a moral to this story: whenever you pick up a new mathe-

matics text, you should be sure that you understand the notation and the

terminology since usage may differ among different authors. .

In constructing proofs, it is often helpful, as we noted in Section 1 of

Chapter 3, to draw pictures. For proofs about sets, Venn diagrams, such as

in Figure 5, may help you to construct proofs.

Figure 5: Example of a Venn diagram

There is no geometry in Figure 5; the circular nature of the actual

shapes is irrelevant. The sets A and B are subsets of some set U. Also, A

is a subset of B. Sometimes it is useful to indicate elements explicitly. The

element x is an element of B. However, x is not an element of A, which

we denote by x / ∈ A. Remember this tool when you construct proofs in

this chapter.

Absurdum. Let X be a set. The empty set is not a subset of X.

Proof? For the empty set to be a subset of X, every element of the empty

set must belong to X. Since the empty set has no elements, this condition

is not satisﬁed. Therefore, the empty set is not a subset of X.

Exercise 6. Find the fallacy in the “Proof?” of the Absurdum and prove

that ∅ ⊂ X.

Remember that the notation A ⊂ B does not imply that A ,= B

(not that we have even deﬁned the equality—or inequality—of sets yet).

Keeping this in mind, prove the following:

Exercise 7. Let X be a set. Prove that X ⊂ X.

The following is an important property called the transitive property

of subsets.

Exercise 8. Let A, B, and C be sets. Prove that if A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C, then

A ⊂ C.

If you ask yourself what it means for two sets A and B to be equal,

you might say that A and B have exactly the same elements. We make this

precise in the following deﬁnition.

Section 3. Intersections and Unions 59

Deﬁnition 9. Two sets A and B are equal iff the following equivalence

holds:

x ∈ A if and only if x ∈ B.

Of course, when A equals B we write A = B.

Proving that two sets are equal can be quite easy, as in the following

example.

Example 10. Let A = { 2, 4, 6 } and B = { 2n [ n ∈ Z

3

}. Since Z

3

=

{ 1, 2, 3 }, we see that the elements of B are 2(1) = 2, 2(2) = 4, and

2(3) = 6. But these are exactly the elements of A! Hence, A = B. .

Of course, proving that two sets are equal is generally much more

difﬁcult than in Example 10! The following is a useful way of thinking

about equality of sets.

Exercise 11. Let A and B be sets. Prove that A = B if and only if A ⊂ B

and A ⊃ B.

In other words, to prove that two sets A and B are equal, we must

show that a ∈ A implies a ∈ B, and b ∈ B implies b ∈ A.

You may have wondered why we wrote “the empty set” (and not “an

empty set”) in and after Deﬁnition 2. The following proposition shows that

there is a unique empty set.

Proposition 12. If A and B are empty sets, then A = B.

Proof. By Exercise 11, to showthat A = B, it sufﬁces to showthat A ⊂ B

and B ⊂ A. By Exercise 6, since A is empty, A ⊂ B. Again, by Exercise

6, since B is empty, B ⊂ A.

In the following exercise, we examine the important properties of

equality, called the reﬂexive, symmetric, and transitive properties. These

three properties virtually characterize equality; this will be explored in

detail in Chapter 6.

Exercise 13. Let A, B, and C be sets. Prove that

(a) A = A,

(b) if A = B, then B = A, and

(c) if A = B and B = C, then A = C.

3. Intersections and Unions.

Next we consider two basic set operations, intersection and union.

We will do this ﬁrst for two sets and then for arbitrarily many sets. The

intersection of two sets A and B should be the set consisting of all elements

common to both of the sets A and B.

A B

C

D E

U U

x

y

60 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

Deﬁnition 14. Let A and B be sets. The intersection of A and B is the set

A ∩ B = { x [ x ∈ A and x ∈ B } .

That is, x ∈ A ∩ B if and only if x ∈ A and x ∈ B.

Consider howyousee intersections inVenndiagrams, suchas inFigure

15.

Figure 15: Intersections in Venn diagrams

The left ﬁgure shows two sets, A and B with the intersection A ∩ B

shaded. The right ﬁgure shows three sets intersecting each other in the

most generic way possible. Note that x, y ∈ C ∩ E, x ∈ (C ∩ E) ∩ D but

y / ∈ (C ∩ E) ∩ D.

Let us consider two easy intersection properties.

Exercise 16. Let A be a set. Prove that A ∩ ∅ = ∅.

Exercise 17. Let A be a set. Prove that A ∩ A = A.

Deﬁnition 18. Two sets A and B are disjoint iff A ∩ B = ∅.

By Exercise 16, every set is disjoint from the empty set. By Exercises

12 and 17, only the empty set is disjoint from itself.

Next, we consider unions. The union of A and B should be the set

consisting of all elements of the sets A and B.

Deﬁnition 19. Let A and B be sets. The union of A and B is the set

A ∪ B = { x [ x ∈ A or x ∈ B } .

That is, x ∈ A ∪ B if and only if x ∈ A or x ∈ B. Remember that

or is not exclusive; x ∈ A or x ∈ B is true when x ∈ A and x ∈ B. An

element may appear only once in a set. So {1, 2} ∪ {2, 3} = {1, 2, 3}; in

fact, {1, 2, 2, 3} is not a set.

The Venn diagrams in Figure 20 showthe unions of two and three sets,

respectively.

A B

C

D E

U U

Section 3. Intersections and Unions 61

Figure 20: Unions in Venn diagrams

Here are some easy exercises.

Exercise 21. Let A be a set. Prove that A ∪ ∅ = A.

Exercise 22. Let A be a set. Prove that A ∪ A = A.

The following exercise relates intersections and unions.

Exercise 23. Let A and B be sets. Prove* A ∩ B ⊂ A ⊂ A ∪ B. Prove

that this implies that A ∩ B ⊂ A ∪ B.

Remember that A∩ B ⊂ A∪ B does not necessarily mean that A∩ B

is a proper subset of A∪B; this should remind you of the non-exclusiveness

of the logical “or” operation.

Exercises 16 and 17 are generalized by Exercise 24; Exercises 21 and

22 are generalized by Exercise 25.

Exercise 24. Let A and B be sets. Prove that A ∩ B ⊃ A if and only if

A ⊂ B. Conclude that A ∩ B = A if and only if A ⊂ B.

Exercise 25. Let A and B be sets. Prove that A ∪ B ⊂ B if and only if

A ⊂ B. Conclude that A ∪ B = B if and only if A ⊂ B.

The following shows that the equality of subsets is truly exceptional.

Exercise 26. Let A and B be sets. Prove that A ∩ B = A ∪ B if and only

if A = B.

In the following exercises, you will prove the commutative, associa-

tive, and distributive properties of intersections and unions.

Exercise 27. Prove the commutative properties for intersections andunions.

That is, for sets A and B show that

A ∩ B = B ∩ A and A ∪ B = B ∪ A.

A B

62 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

Exercise 28. Prove the associative properties for intersections and unions.

That is, for sets A, B, and C show that

(A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C) and (A ∪ B) ∪ C = A ∪ (B ∪ C).

Exercise 29. Prove the distributive properties. That is, for sets A, B, and

C show that

A∩(B∪C) = (A∩B)∪(A∩C) and A∪(B∩C) = (A∪B)∩(A∪C).

Notice that, by Exercises 27 and 29, we also have the following dis-

tributive properties:

(A∪B)∩C = (A∩C)∪(B∩C) and (A∩B)∪C = (A∪C)∩(B∪C).

Some people use terms like “left” or “right” distributive properties; we do

not use these terms since we can never remember which is which!

Let us nowreturn to the deﬁnitions of intersection and union, this time

for a collection of sets. The intersection of a collection of sets should be the

set consisting of the common elements of all of the sets in the collection.

Deﬁnition 30. Let Abe a collection of sets. The intersection of the sets in

A is the set

{ a [ a ∈ A for all A ∈ A } .

Some authors simply say the intersection of A. The notation is usually

¸

A∈A

A or

¸

A

Recall Deﬁnition 18 of a disjoint pair of sets. Before generalizing that

concept to collections of sets, consider Figure 31. Figure 31 shows two

different collections, A and B, of subsets of R

2

which exhibit some kind

of “disjointness” property; in both A and B, the circular and triangular

regions are disjoint as in Deﬁnition 18.

Figure 31: Disjointness properties of collections of sets

0 1 1/2 1/3 1/4

x

Section 3. Intersections and Unions 63

Deﬁnition 32. Let A be a collection of sets. The sets in A are pairwise

disjoint iff A

1

and A

2

are disjoint for all A

1

, A

2

∈ A such that A

1

,= A

2

.

Deﬁnition 33. Let A be a collection of sets. The sets in A are disjoint iff

¸

A = ∅.

The above deﬁnition of a disjoint collection is not universally used

since pairwise disjointness is usually desired. Hence, some authors use

disjoint to mean pairwise disjoint. Consider Figure 31 again; which collec-

tion(s) is (are) pairwise disjoint and which collection(s) is (are) disjoint?

Often a collection of sets is indexed by some parameter. For example,

the following is such a collection of intervals:

¸

(0, 1),

0,

1

2

,

0,

1

3

, . . .

¸

=

¸

0,

1

n

n ∈ N

¸

.

This family is indexed by N. For operations such as intersections of indexed

sets the following notations are equivalent:

∞

¸

n=1

0,

1

n

=

¸

n∈N

0,

1

n

= (0, 1) ∩

0,

1

2

∩

0,

1

3

∩ . . . .

Example 34. Consider Figure 35, showing the nested intervals (0, 1),

0,

1

2

,

0,

1

3

, . . . .

Figure 35: Nested intervals with empty intersection

∞

¸

n=1

0,

1

n

**= ∅ since 1/n can be made arbitrarily small by choosing
**

a sufﬁciently large n. To be more precise, start by assuming that there

exists x ∈

∞

¸

n=1

0,

1

n

**. Hence, x > 0 and, for all n ∈ N, x < 1/n. But
**

this is clearly false since there are certainly natural numbers greater than

1/x. This “obvious” statement is called the Archimedean Principle; we

will study it more carefully in Part III. .

Exercise 36. Find

∞

¸

n=1

¸

0,

1

n

and

∞

¸

n=2

¸

1

n

, 1

.

64 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

Exercise 37. Let A be a collection of sets containing at least two sets.

(a) Prove that if A is a pairwise disjoint collection, then A is a disjoint

collection.

(b) Give a counterexample for the converse of the statement in (a).

The deﬁnition of the union of a collection of sets is similar to that of

the intersection. The union of the sets in a collection is the set consisting

of all of the elements of all of the sets in the collection.

Deﬁnition 38. Let A be a collection of sets. The union of the sets in A is

the set

{ a [ there exists A ∈ A such that a ∈ A } .

In analogy with intersections, some authors simply say the union of

A. The notation is usually

A∈A

A or

A.

We can rephrase this deﬁnition to say that something is an element of the

union of A if and only if there is some set in A that contains it.

Exercise 39. Find

∞

n=1

0,

1

n

and

∞

n=2

¸

1

n

, 1

.

The distributive properties can be generalized for collections of sets.

Exercise 40. Let A be a collection of sets and let B be a set. Prove:

B ∩

A∈A

A

=

A∈A

(B ∩ A) and B ∪

¸

A∈A

A

=

¸

A∈A

(B ∪ A).

What happened to the associative and commutative properties? You

can think of these properties as coming for free in the deﬁnitions of inter-

section and union for collections.

Remark 41. Let us consider the deﬁnitions of intersection and union for

small collections A. For example, suppose A = { A, B }. In this case, we

are back to our ﬁrst deﬁnition of intersection and union:

∩A = A ∩ B and ∪ A = A ∪ B.

Suppose we have a collection A = { A } of only one set. Then

∩A = A and ∪ A = A.

Section 4. Differences and Complements 65

The situations for collections with two sets and with one set should be clear

to you. Now consider what happens when A = ∅. Since there does not

exist a set in the empty collection, no element can be contained in a set in

the empty collection A. Therefore,

∪A = ∅.

What about ∩A? Which elements are contained in every set of the empty

collection A? Every element satisﬁes this condition vacuously! That is, the

statement if A ∈ A, then x ∈ A is true for all elements x. So what is this

set of all possible elements? If we assume that every set we are considering

is a subset of some universal set U, then

∩A = U.

The necessity of universal sets comes up often, e.g., Deﬁnition 49 of the

complement of a set; it is also useful for avoiding paradoxes such as we

dscuss in Section 6. Also, you may have wondered whence the elements

in Deﬁnitions 30 and 38 came. .

4. Differences and Complements.

You have probably seen the operation of taking complements of sets.

Before deﬁning this concept we will ﬁrst look at the operation of set dif-

ference.

Deﬁnition 42. Let A and B be two sets. The set difference A − B is the

set of all elements of A that are not elements of B.

That is,

A − B = { x [ x ∈ A and x / ∈ B } .

Set difference is characterized by the following property.

Exercise 43. For all sets A and B, prove that A − B is the largest subset of

A that is disjoint from B. (Being the largest such set means that if C ⊂ A

and C ∩ B = ∅, then C ⊂ A − B.)

Set difference is not a commutative operation.

Exercise 44. (a) Give a counterexample to A − B = B − A.

(b) Give an example where A − B = B − A.

The following exercise relates intersection, union, and difference.

Exercise 45. Prove that A−B and A∩B are disjoint and(A−B)∪(A∩B) =

A for all sets A and B.

66 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

Set difference is not an associative operation either.

Exercise 46. Give a counterexample to A −(B −C) = (A − B) −C.

The following exercise concerns properties which are referred to as

De Morgan’s Laws.

Exercise 47. Let A, B, and C be sets. Prove that

A−(B∩C) = (A−B)∪(A−C) and A−(B∪C) = (A−B)∩(A−C).

This can be generalized to collections of sets; the following are also

called De Morgan’s Laws.

Exercise 48. Let A be a set and let B be a collection of sets. Prove that

A −

¸

B∈B

B

=

B∈B

(A − B) and A −

B∈B

B

=

¸

B∈B

(A − B).

So what is the complement of a set? This is not so obvious. We rely

on the existence of a universal set, of which all sets are subsets.

Deﬁnition 49. Suppose that U is the universal set. The complement of A

is U − A.

The complement is denoted differently by many authors; A

/

, A

c

, A

and, of course, U − A are all commonly used to denote the complement.

We will usually use U − A and occasionally use A

/

when U is clear from

the context.

Exercise 50. Suppose that A and B are subsets of a universal set U. Prove

that

A − B = A ∩ B

/

.

Exercise 51. Suppose that A and B are subsets of a universal set U. Prove

that

(B

/

)

/

= B and A

/

− B

/

= B − A.

Exercise 52. Suppose that A and B are subsets of a universal set U. Prove

that

(A − B) ∪ (B − A) = (A ∩ B)

/

−(A ∪ B)

/

.

The set (A−B)∪(B−A) is sometimes called the symmetric difference

of A and B.

Section 5. Power Sets 67

5. Power Sets.

A construction with which you may not be familiar is the power set

of a set. It is an elementary construction and it is useful in more advanced

topics in mathematics. We will use it again when we discuss different types

of inﬁnities in Chapter 7.

Deﬁnition 53. Let X be a set. The power set of X, denoted P(X), is the

set of all subsets of X.

For example,

P

{ 1 }

=

¸

∅, { 1 }

¸

and

P

{ 1, 2 }

=

¸

∅, {1}, {2}, { 1, 2 }

¸

.

Of course, since ∅ and X are always subsets of a set X, the power set of X

always contains the sets ∅ and X.

Exercise 54. What is P(∅)? Prove your result.

We have noted that

P(Z

1

) = P({ 1 }) = { ∅, { 1 } }

has two elements and that

P(Z

2

) = P({ 1, 2 }) = { ∅, {1}, {2}, { 1, 2 } }

has four elements. This can be generalized.

Exercise 55. How many elements does P(Z

n

) have? Prove your result.

Exercise 55 can be proved by induction and by a direct counting ar-

gument. Try to give both proofs.

Exercise 56. Prove: if S ⊂ X, then P(S) ⊂ P(X).

It follows from Exercise 56 that if S = X, then P(S) = P(X).

Exercise 57. Let A and B be sets. Prove, or disprove by a counterexample,

each of the following:

P(A) ∩ P(B) ⊂ P(A ∩ B) and P(A) ∩ P(B) ⊃ P(A ∩ B).

68 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

Exercise 58. Let A and B be sets. Prove, or disprove by a counterexample,

each of the following:

P(A) ∪ P(B) ⊂ P(A ∪ B) and P(A) ∪ P(B) ⊃ P(A ∪ B).

Exercise 59. Let A and B be sets. Prove, or disprove by a counterexample,

each of the following:

P(A) −P(B) ⊂ P(A − B) and P(A) −P(B) ⊃ P(A − B).

6. Russell’s Paradox.

We have mentioned the term “collections” of sets in this chapter. We

should be careful here. If we were to develop the theory of sets axiomati-

cally, we would need to deﬁne this term. Alternatively, we might want to

replace the term “collection” with “set.” The use of sets of sets (or collec-

tions of sets) has to be dealt with very carefully, however. To see that this

is so, let us consider the following paradox, which is usually attributed to

Bertrand Russell.

Let us consider the set of all sets. Some sets may contain themselves

as elements while others may not. Think about this for a moment. Most

sets do not contain themselves. For example, the set of natural numbers

does not contain itself; N is not an element of N since every element of N

is a number and not a set of numbers.* For another example, consider the

set of all sets. This set must contain itself. There is no paradox here, yet.

Now consider the set R of all sets which do not contain themselves

as elements. Now we ask the question, is R contained in R? If R is an

element of R, then, by deﬁnition of the set R, R cannot contain R. This

is a contradiction. In case you think we were unwise to start with the

assumption that R is an element of R, consider the other case. If R is not

an element of R, then, again by the deﬁnition of R, R must be an element

of R. Again this is a contradiction.

Much effort was spent by mathematicians in trying to remedy this

situation. The usual remedy is to use axioms which do not allow the

existence of the set of all sets. One axiom allows for the speciﬁcation of

subsets as we described in the introduction. For example, set difference is

allowed by this axiom. Other axioms allow for unions, intersections, and

power sets. That is, such a formal system of axioms allows us to do what

we have done in this chapter.

If this all strikes you as a bit abstract, consider the following amusing

version of Russell’s paradox. If the barber in a certain village shaves all

*You may ask what a number is; indeed Chapter 10 will blur the distinction between

numbers and sets.

Section 6. Russell’s Paradox 69

those, and only those, who do not shave themselves, then who shaves the

barber?

70 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

Supplemental Exercises

Deﬁnition Review. There were 13 deﬁnitions in this chapter. Recall that

the terms set, element, and is an element of are undeﬁned. Let A and B be

sets and let C be a collection of sets; assume all of these sets are subsets

of a universal set U. Deﬁne each of the following and give an example of

each:

(2) A is empty

(3) A is a subset of B

(9) A equals B

(14) the intersection of A and B

(18) A and B are disjoint

(19) the union of A and B

(30) the intersection of C

(32) C is a pairwise disjoint collection

(33) C is a disjoint collection

(38) the union of C

(42) the difference of B from A

(49) the complement of A

(53) the power set of A

Exercise S1. List the elements of each of the following four sets.

A =

¸

n ∈ N

12

n

∈ N

¸

B =

¸

(x, y)

x ∈ N, y ∈ N, x ÷ y = 5

¸

C =

¸

(x, y) ∈ R

2

[x ÷ y[ ≤ 0

¸

D =

¸

x ∈ Z

x ÷2

x −3

< 0

¸

Exercise S2. After Deﬁnition 2, we remarked that { {} } and { ∅} are not

empty. Verify this by ﬁnding an element of each. Are these two sets equal

or not? Explain!

Exercise S3. Let A and B be sets. Can A ∩ B A? Can A ∩ B B?

Explain!

Exercise S4. Prove that

¸

x

3

[ x ∈ R

¸

= R.

Supplemental Exercises 71

Exercise S5. Determine which of the following sets are equal and which

are proper subsets of which.

A =

¸

x ∈ R

√

x

2

= x

¸

B =

¸

x ∈ R

1 ÷

√

x

1 −

√

x

∈ R

¸

C =

¸

x ∈ R

x ≥ 0

¸

D =

¸

x ∈ R

x

3

(x −1)

2

¸

E =

¸

x

2

x ∈ R

¸

Exercise S6. Prove or disprove that if A ,= B and B ,= C, then A ,= C.

Exercise S7. Prove that if A ⊂ B, B ⊂ C, C ⊂ D and D ⊂ A, then

A = B = C = D.

Exercise S8. Let

A =

¸

x ∈ R

x =

a

b

÷

b

a

, for some a, b ∈ R

∗

¸

and B =

¸

y ∈ R

**y = sin t, for some t ∈ R
**

¸

.

Prove that A ∩ B = ∅.

Exercise S9. Find a condition such that A ∩ C = B ∩ C implies A = B.

Also, ﬁnd an example where A ∩ C = B ∩ C, but A ,= B.

Exercise S10. Let A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 } and B = { 2, 4, 6, 8 }. Find all

the subsets of A∩ B. Also, ﬁnd all the subsets of A∪ B, containing exactly

three elements.

Exercise S11. Let A = { 4, 5 }. Suppose that

A ∪ B = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 } and B ∪ C = { 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 }.

Can we determine uniquely the sets B and C? If not, what is the minimal

additional information needed, concerning unions or intersections of the

sets, for these sets to be determined uniquely?

72 Chapter 4. Basic Set Operations

Exercise S12. Let

A =

¸

n ∈ N

n

2

−8n ÷7 > 0

¸

,

B = { x ∈ N [ x is a prime number }

and C =

¸

n

2

[ n ∈ N

¸

.

Determine the sets A ∩ B, (A ∩ B) ∪(A ∩C) and (A ∩C) −(A ∪ B ∪C).

Exercise S13. Find a condition such that A ∪ C = B ∪ C implies A = B.

Prove it! Also, ﬁnd an example where A ∪ C = B ∪ C, but A ,= B.

Exercise S14. Prove that A ∪ B = ∅ if and only if A = B = ∅.

Exercise S15. Prove that A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A

Exercise S16. Prove that if C ⊂ A, then (A ∩ B) ∪ C = A ∩ (B ∪ C). Is

the converse true?

Exercise S17. Prove or disprove that if C ⊂ B, then (A ∪ B) ∩ C =

A ∪ (B ∩ C).

Exercise S18. Let A

1

, · · · , A

n

be n sets. Prove that, for all 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n,

A

i

∩ A

j

⊃ A

1

∩ · · · ∪ A

n

and A

i

∪ A

j

⊂ A

1

∪ · · · ∪ A

n

.

Exercise S19. Consider the following three collections of sets. Which are

disjoint? Which are pairwise disjoint?

A = { {0, 1}, {1, 2}, {2, 3} }

B = { (0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3) }

C = { [0, 2], [1, 3], [2, 4] }

Exercise S20. Let C be a collection of sets. Prove that if C contains exactly

two sets, then C is disjoint if and only if C is pairwise disjoint.

Exercise S21. Let C be a collection of sets. Prove that if S ∈ C, then

∩C ⊂ S ⊂ ∪C.

Exercise S22. Let C be a collection of sets. Prove that ∩C = ∪C if and

only if S

1

= S

2

for all S

1

, S

2

∈ C.

Exercise S23. Prove that A −(A − B) = A ∩ B.

Exercise S24. Prove that A ∩ (B −C) = (A ∩ B) −(A ∩ C).

Exercise S25. Prove that (A − B) ∪ (B − A) = (A ∪ B) −(A ∩ B).

Supplemental Exercises 73

Exercise S26. If A − B = B − A, what can you conclude about the two

sets? Prove your answer. Also, answer the same question if A−B ⊂ B−A.

Exercise S27. Prove that if A ∪ B = A ∩ B, then A − B = ∅.

Exercise S28. Prove that (A − B) ∩ (C − A) = ∅.

Exercise S29. Prove that the following are equivalent conditions on sets A

and B:

(1) A − B = B − A;

(2) A = B;

(3) A − B = B − A = ∅.

Exercise S30. Prove that (A

/

)

/

= A.

Exercise S31. If A =

¸

x ∈ R

x

2

> x

¸

, express A

/

as an interval.

Exercise S32. Prove that B ⊂ (A ∩ B

/

)

/

.

Exercise S33. Let A and B be sets such that P(A) = P(B). Prove that

A = B.

Exercise S34. Show that (A ∩ B ∩ C)

/

= A

/

∪ B

/

∪ C

/

. Is it also true that

(A ∪ B ∪ C)

/

= A

/

∩ B

/

∩ C

/

?

Exercise S35. Prove that if (A ∪ B)

/

= A

/

∪ B

/

, then A = B. Does

(A ∩ B)

/

= A

/

∩ B

/

imply that A = B?

Exercise S36. Prove that (A

/

∪ B

/

) ∪ (A

/

∪ B)

/

= A.

Exercise S37. Can there exist a set whose power set has 4

k

÷1 elements,

where k ∈ N?

Exercise S38. Prove that (A − B) ∩ (B − A) = ∅ for all sets A and B.

Exercise S39. Prove that P(A − B) ⊂ (P(A) −P(B)) ∪ { ∅}.

Project. We have taken a relatively “na¨ıve” approach to set theory. It is

possible to be much more “axiomatic.” Find a text on axiomatic set theory

and outline the development of the topics of this chapter in an axiomatic

form, giving undeﬁned terms, axioms, deﬁnitions, etc. Pay particular atten-

tion to the axioms that allow new sets to be created from known sets, such

as by unions and intersections. Is a universal set needed in your axiomatic

set theory? Howis Russell’s Paradox avoided in your axiomatic set theory?

74

Chapter 5

Functions

1. Functions as Rules.

Much of mathematics concerns the study of functions; the notion of

“function” is perhaps the single most important concept in all of mathe-

matics. Let us start with an informal deﬁnition of the term function.

Probably you have seen (but perhaps forgotten?) a deﬁnition of the

word function which goes something like this: a function is a pair of sets

and a rule which assigns a unique element of the second set to each element

of the ﬁrst set. You may also recall that the ﬁrst set is called the domain

of the function and, again, you may recall (somewhat incorrectly!) that

the second set is called the range of the function. Actually, the second set

should be called the codomain of the function. Probably your facility with

functions is better than your recollection of the actual deﬁnition of the term

function.

In the next section, we will deﬁne functions as certain types of sets.

From a rigorous (logical, axiomatic) point of view, this is preferable. How-

ever, you may (should?!) continue to think of a function as a rule that

assigns to each value of its domain a unique value in its range.

Before you continue reading, think for a moment about a function and

its graph. If, for a graph, you are thinking of a pictoral representation, then

what does that picture represent? Is there a difference between that object,

called the graph of a function, and the function itself?

2. Cartesian Products, Relations, and Functions.

Before giving our deﬁnition of the word function, we will remind you

of the cartesian product of two sets. Often, cartesian products are simply

called products.

Deﬁnition 1. Let A and B be sets. The cartesian product of A and B,

denoted by A B, is the set of all ordered pairs* (a, b) such that a ∈ A

and b ∈ B.

*While it is possible to deﬁne the term ordered pair by something like (a, b) =

{ a, {a, b} }, you may accept this as undeﬁned. Since the notation (a, b) also represents

an open interval, some authors use the notation a b for an ordered pair.

0 -1 1 -2 2

1

2

3

P(x,y)

-3

-2

-1

3 -3

x

y

Section 2. Cartesian Products, Relations, and Functions 75

Of course, you should have in mind the usual example and its model.

R R, which is usually denoted as R

2

, is the setting for most functions

you have studied; the model of R

2

is the plane which you usually draw by

indicating the two coordinate axes. A point P in this plane corresponds to

an ordered pair (x, y); the vertical line through P intersects the horizontal

axis at x while the horizontal line through P intersects the vertical axis at

y. See Figure 2.

Figure 2: A point of the plane models an ordered pair in R

2

It is possible to construct the products of other sets. Using the kind of

geometric intuition that we used for R

2

, we may model various products.

For example, R

3

= RRR is modeled by (three dimensional) space.†

Similarly, N

2

= N N is modeled by a lattice of isolated points and

R{1, 2} and {1, 2} R are modeled by pairs of lines. We draw pictures

of these models as if drawing the sets themselves.

Exercise 3. Draw pictures of (the models of) R

3

, N

2

, R {1, 2} and

{1, 2} R.

We didnot require non-emptysets inDeﬁnition1; of course the product

of empty sets is again empty. Empty products are not very important, but

may come up on occasion.

Exercise 4. Let A and B be sets. Prove that A B = ∅ if and only if

A = ∅ or B = ∅.

†You may wonder if RRRmeans (RR)Ror R(RR); it turns out that it does

not matter however. The reason for this has to do with the concept of isomorphism, which we

will introduce in Chapter 8. The general idea is that every element ((x, y), z) ∈ (RR) R

corresponds to exactly one element (x, (y, z)) ∈ R (R R); we can simply think of both

of these points as (x, y, z) ∈ R

3

. In fact, we will give a different deﬁnition of products of

collections of sets in Deﬁnition 52 of Chapter 7.

0 -1 1 -2 2

1

2

3

-3

-2

-1

3 -3

x

y

0 -1 1

1

-1

x

y

76 Chapter 5. Functions

Of course, the operation of taking products is not commutative. For

example, if A = { 1 } and B = { 2 }, then AB = { (1, 2) } while B A =

{ (2, 1) }. The following exercise relates to this.

Exercise 5. Let A and B be sets. Prove that A B and B A are disjoint

if and only if A and B are disjoint.

Before giving a deﬁnition of the term function, we deﬁne a simpler

term: relation.

Deﬁnition 6. Let A and B be sets. A relation from A to B is a subset

R ⊂ A B. This relation is denoted as R(A, B) or, when A and B are

understood, simply as R. If A = B, then R ⊂ A A = A

2

and we call R

a relation on A.

An ordered pair (a, b) in a relation R is usually denoted by a R b

which is read “a is R-related to b” or, more simply, as “a is related to b.”

That is, if we write a R b, we mean (a, b) ∈ R; similarly, a

/

R b will mean

that (a, b) / ∈ R.

Figure 7: The circle x

2

÷ y

2

= 1 in R

2

and < on R

Let us consider two examples of relations that you have seen before.

They are represented by Figure 7.

Example 8. The equation x

2

÷ y

2

= 1 determines a subset of the product

R

2

, that is, a relation on R. .

Similarly, any equation in two variables determines a relation.

Example 9. We deﬁne a relation <(R, R), in the notation of the deﬁnition.

This is the usual relation “less than” on the set of real numbers. We use

the notation x < y to mean that (x, y) is an element of this relation. We

will refer to this as the relation < on R and never use the hideous notation

<(R, R) again! .

Section 2. Cartesian Products, Relations, and Functions 77

In Chapter 6, we will study relations on a set more closely.

For the remainder of this chapter, we will consider functions. You

may already know that every function is a relation. Also, the converse is

false: you may recall that the circle of Example 8 is not the equation of a

function. No doubt you would suspect that the relation of Example 9, as

depicted in Figure 7, is not a function either.

We are nowready to give a formal deﬁnition of the termfunction. This

deﬁnition will be rather different from the informal deﬁnition in Section

1. In fact, the object we will deﬁne is often called the graph of a function

rather than a function.

Deﬁnition 10. Let X and Y be sets. A function from X to Y is a relation

f from X to Y with the property that for every x ∈ X there exists a unique

y ∈ Y such that the ordered pair (x, y) is in f . X is called the domain of

the function and Y is called the codomain of the function.

That is, a function f from X to Y is a subset of X Y such that for

every x ∈ X there exists a unique y ∈ Y such that (x, y) ∈ f . When we

sketch the graph of a function, the domain is usually on the horizontal axis

while the codomain is on the vertical axis.

Consider again the circle of Example 8; this is a relation on R. It fails

to deﬁne a function from R to R in two ways. First, the domain is not R

since x must be between −1 and 1, inclusive. Second, domain values do

not, in general, correspond to unique codomain values; for example,

3

5

,

4

5

and

3

5

, −

4

5

**are both on the circle. So, this circle is not a function with
**

domain [−1, 1] either.

Remark11. Here are some important words about notation. Afunction, as

in Deﬁnition 10, is denoted by f : X →Y. When X and Y are understood,

we may simply denote the function by f . If (x, y) ∈ f , then we denote the

element y by f (x); that is, f (x) = y and (x, y) = (x, f (x)). Be careful,

while most mathematicians are happy to call a function f , many frown at

calling a function f (x) since f (x) is an element of the codomain. The

notation y = f (x) is better and is very commonly used, as in the function

y = x

2

or f (x) = x

2

. .

You may have noticed that we used a lower case f to represent a set;

of course, there is no rule which requires the name of a set to be an upper

case Latin letter. Some authors substitute the words source and target for

domain and codomain, respectively. When specifying a function f without

explicitly giving the domain and codomain, we will use the notations D

f

and C

f

for the domain and codomain, respectively.

This formal deﬁnition certainly looks very different from the informal

deﬁnition, but it is not so very different at all. The domain and codomain

are actually exactly the same in both the informal and the formal deﬁnitions.

f(x) = x

2

1

R R

-1

2

.5

1

4

.25

0 -1 1 -2 2

1

2

3

x

f(x)

78 Chapter 5. Functions

The difference is in the interpretation of f , which is either a rule or a set.

The primary difference may be in the way one thinks of a function. In

fact, we ignore this ambiguity and think of a function in whatever way is

convenient for us at the time; consider Figure 12.

Figure 12: A function thought of as a rule and as a subset of R

2

So what happened to the range, which you may remember fromearlier

days?

Deﬁnition 13. Let f : X →Y be a function and S ⊂ X. The image of S

under f is the set

f (S) =

¸

y ∈ Y [ (x, y) ∈ f for some x ∈ S

¸

.

Deﬁnition 14. The range of a function f : X → Y is the set f (X), the

image of the domain.

Exercise 15. Let f : X → Y be a function and S ⊂ X. Prove that

f (S) = { f (x) [ x ∈ S }.

The following examples should help to clarify these matters.

Example 16. Consider again the function f (x) = x

2

. Figure 12 shows

a picture of this function. What are the domain and codomain for this

function? Of course, the domain is R. By convention, when the domain is

not given explicitly, then the domain is the largest subset of real numbers

(or whatever set ﬁts the situation) for which the rule deﬁning the function

makes sense. The range of this function is [0, ∞). Since the codomain

must contain the range, any set containing the set [0, ∞) would sufﬁce. In

the case of real-valued functions, that is, functions whose range is a subset

of R, we use the convention that the codomain is R. That is, we can write

f : R →R. Nowwhat is f ? Since the domain of f is Rand the codomain

is R, the function f is a subset of the product R

2

= R R. We can write

it as

f =

¸

(x, x

2

) [ x ∈ R

¸

. .

Section 2. Cartesian Products, Relations, and Functions 79

Example 17. Consider the familiar function f (x) =

√

x. The domain and

range of this function is [0, ∞) and the codomain of this function is R; so

we can write f : [0, ∞) → R. The range of this function is [0, ∞). f is

the following subset of [0, ∞) R:

f =

¸

(x,

√

x) [ x ∈ [0, ∞)

¸

. .

Exercise 18. Draw a picture of f from the preceding example.

In general, if we know the rule deﬁning a function f and its domain

X, then we know that

f =

¸

(x, f (x)) [ x ∈ X

¸

.

Notice that we did not specify the codomain of the function f . Hence, we

do not know the product, in the deﬁnition of function, that is supposed to

contain the set f . However, this is generally good enough. In practice, we

may be given a formula deﬁning a function where the domain and range

are implied and the codomain may be inferred. (Perhaps this is why you

remembered the range rather than the codomain at the beginning of this

chapter?)

Exercise 19. Determine the domain, range, and function deﬁned by the

rule y =

x

x

2

−1

. Draw a picture of f .

When are two functions equal? Since functions depend on the domain

X, the codomain Y, and the set of ordered pairs in X Y, it makes sense

to say two functions are equal if their domains, codomains, and sets of

ordered pairs are equal. The equality of the sets of ordered pairs implies

the equality of the domains. [You should check this!] We therefore give

the following deﬁnition.

Deﬁnition 20. The functions f : X → Y and g : U → V are equal if

Y = V and f = g as sets of ordered pairs.

In practice, to check that two functions f and g are equal, we check

that f (x) = g(x) for all x. You should be asking yourself “For all x in

what set?” In fact, one must ﬁrst check that the domains of f and g are

equal and then that f (x) = g(x) for all x ∈ D

f

= D

g

; that is, we must

check that X = U in the notation of Deﬁnition 20.

80 Chapter 5. Functions

Example 21. Let f : R →Rbe deﬁned by f (x) = x and let g : R

÷

→R

be deﬁned by g(x) = x. Of course, these are very different functions; they

are not equal. However, note that f (x) = g(x) for all x ∈ R

÷

= D

g

. On

the other hand, f (−1) = −1 while g(−1) is not deﬁned since −1 / ∈ D

g

.

Another way of saying this is that (−1, −1) ∈ f but (−1, −1) / ∈ g. .

In Example 21, the functions f and g are very similar. You can think

of g as being f with a restricted domain. This idea is important enough to

merit a name and some notation.

Deﬁnition 22. Let f : X →Y be a function and let S ⊂ X. The function

g : S → Y deﬁned by g(x) = f (x) for all x ∈ S is called the restriction

of f to S and is denoted f [

S

.

We continue with exercises and an example about the image of sets

under a function.

Exercise 23. Let f be a function and let A ⊂ B ⊂ D

f

. Prove that

f (A) ⊂ f (B).

Exercise 24. Let f be a function and let A and B be subsets of D

f

. Prove

that f (A ∪ B) = f (A) ∪ f (B).

The situation for intersections is more complicated.

Example 25. Let f : R → R be deﬁned by f (x) = [x[ and consider the

intervals A = (−2, −1) and B = (1, 2). Since A∩ B = ∅, f (A∩ B) = ∅.

Also f (A) ∩ f (B) = (1, 2). Therefore, f (A ∩ B) ,= f (A) ∩ f (B).

Another example where f (A ∩ B) ,= f (A) ∩ f (B) is f : R → R

deﬁned by f (x) = x

2

with A = { −1 } and B = { 1 }. Then A ∩ B = ∅,

but f (A) = f (B) = { 1 }.

In both cases, f (A ∩ B) f (A) ∩ f (B). .

However, containment in one direction always holds for intersections.

Exercise 26. Let f be a function and let A and B be subsets of D

f

. Prove

that f (A ∩ B) ⊂ f (A) ∩ f (B).

3. Injective, Surjective, and Bijective Functions.

In this section we will look at some properties of functions which you

may ﬁnd familiar.

Deﬁnition 27. A function f : X → Y is one-to-one if and only if x

1

and

x

2

are distinct elements in X implies f (x

1

) and f (x

2

) are distinct elements

in Y.

Section 3. Injective, Surjective, and Bijective Functions 81

That is, f : X → Y is one-to-one if, for all x

1

, x

2

∈ X, x

1

,= x

2

implies f (x

1

) ,= f (x

2

). For a one-to-one function we often write that it

is “1-1.” A one-to-one function is also called an injective function or an

injection.

The following exercise gives us an equivalent deﬁnition of one-to-one.

Exercise 28. Prove that a function f : X → Y is one-to-one if and only

if, for all x

1

and x

2

in X, f (x

1

) = f (x

2

) implies x

1

= x

2

.

One-to-one functions are better behaved than generic functions. Com-

pare Exercises 24, 26, and the following exercise.

Exercise 29. Let f be a function. Prove that f is one-to-one if and only if

f (A ∩ B) = f (A) ∩ f (B) for all subsets A and B of D

f

.

Deﬁnition 30. A function f : X → Y is onto if and only if f (X) = Y,

that is, the range of f is the codomain of f .

An onto function is also called a surjective function or a surjection.

The following exercise gives us an equivalent deﬁnition of onto.

Exercise 31. Prove that a function f : X → Y is onto if and only if, for

each y ∈ Y, there exists x ∈ X such that f (x) = y.

Deﬁnition 32. A function f : X → Y is bijective if and only if it is

one-to-one and onto.

Bijective functions are also called one-to-one correspondences. The

authors generally prefer bijective function or bijection to one-to-one cor-

respondence; however, we prefer the latter in connection with cardinality,

the topic of Chapter 7.

The following will remind you of the tenuous role of the codomain as

compared with the range.

Exercise 33. Let f : X →Y be a function.

(a) Prove that there exists a surjective function from X onto f (X).

(b) Prove that if f is one-to-one, then there exists a bijective function from

X onto f (X).

The following exercise gives us an equivalent deﬁnition of bijective.

Exercise 34. Prove that a function f : X → Y is bijective if and only if,

for each y ∈ Y, there exists a unique x ∈ X such that f (x) = y.

82 Chapter 5. Functions

It is possible for a function to be bijective or to have exactly one

of the properties of one-to-one or onto or to have neither property. For

example, f (x) = tan x, with the conventional codomain of R is onto, but

not one-to-one since tan 0 = tan π.

Exercise 35. Find three examples of functions with codomain R such that

the ﬁrst is bijective, the second is one-to-one but not onto, and the third is

neither one-to-one nor onto.

4. Compositions of Functions.

An important operation we perform on functions is that of composi-

tion. The most common deﬁnition that mathematicians give for the com-

position of functions requires that the codomain of the ﬁrst function equals

the domain of the second function as in

f : X →Y and g : Y → Z.

Since the range of a function is more essential than the codomain of that

function, the situation for composition can be relaxed to allow the range of

the ﬁrst function to be a subset of the domain of the second function. You

will recall deﬁning the function g ◦ f : X → Z by

(g ◦ f )(x) = g( f (x)).

Below, we deﬁne the composition of two functions as a subset of a cartesian

product. A more general deﬁnition, which does not require the range of the

ﬁrst function to be contained in the domain of the second function, is given

in Section 6; it evolves from the deﬁnition of composition of relations.

Deﬁnition 36. Let f : X → Y and g : W → Z be functions with

f (X) ⊂ W. The composition of f followed by g is the function deﬁned by

g ◦ f =

¸

(x, z) ∈ X Z [ there exists y ∈ f (X)

such that f (x) = y and g(y) = z

¸

.

The domain of g ◦ f is X, the domain of f , and the codomain of g ◦ f is

Z, the codomain of g.

Deﬁnition 36 is actually quite reasonable if you consider things. The

idea is that f sends an x ∈ X to some y ∈ Y. In order to be able to apply g,

we must have y ∈ W also; since f (X) ⊂ W this condition is automatically

satisﬁed. Finally, g sends y to some z ∈ Z. Notice that if Y ⊂ W (for

example, when Y = W), then f (X) ⊂ W.

Section 4. Compositions of Functions 83

Exercise 37. For f : X → Y and g : W → Z with f (X) ⊂ W, verify

that

g ◦ f = { (x, g( f (x))) [ x ∈ X } .

You may already have noticed that given two functions f and g, there

are often two composite functions: f ◦ g and g ◦ f . In general, f ◦ g ,=

g ◦ f , as the following examples demonstrate. This is true even when both

composite functions exist.

Example 38. Deﬁne f : R → R and g : R → R by f (x) = 2x and

g(x) = 2x ÷1 for all x ∈ R. Then f ◦ g and g ◦ f are both functions from

R to R. However,

( f ◦ g)(x) = f (g(x)) = f (2x ÷1) = 2(2x ÷1) = 4x ÷2

while

(g ◦ f )(x) = g( f (x)) = g(2x) = 2(2x) ÷1 = 4x ÷1.

So f ◦ g ,= g ◦ f . Therefore, composition is not a commutative operation.

.

The following example is much more peculiar, yet more typical.

Example 39. Let f (x) = 2 ÷

√

x and g(x) =

√

1 − x. Then, f (g(x)) =

2 ÷

√

1 − x = 2 ÷

4

√

1 − x and hence

f ◦ g =

¸

(x, 2 ÷

4

√

1 − x) [ x ∈ (−∞, 1]

¸

.

Note that the range of g equals the domain of f : the interval [0, ∞). This

is consistent with Deﬁnition 36.

On the other hand, g( f (x)) =

1 −(2 ÷

√

x) =

−1 −

√

x is not

deﬁned for any real number x. Hence, g ◦ f does not exist. Another way

of saying this is that g ◦ f does not exist since the domain of g, which

equals (−∞, 1], does not contain the range of f , which equals [2, ÷∞).

In fact, the domain of g and the range of f are disjoint sets. So, certainly

f ◦ g ,= g ◦ f . .

Examples 38 and 39 show that composition depends on the order

of the functions, that is, composition is not commutative. The second

example also shows that one of the compositions may be more interesting

than the other. In fact, usually we will have the following situation: given

f : X → Y and g : W → Z, if Y ⊂ W (or Y = W), then we have the

composite g ◦ f : X → Z.

84 Chapter 5. Functions

Given the noncommutative nature of compositions, you may be sur-

prised to learn that composition is associative.

Exercise 40. Show that composition of functions is associative.

Compositions of one-to-one and onto functions are well-behaved.

Exercise 41. Prove that the composition of two one-to-one functions is

again one-to-one.

Exercise 42. Prove that if f : X →Y and g : Y → Z are onto functions,

then the composite function g ◦ f is onto.

Recall that in Deﬁnition 36, g ◦ f was deﬁned whenever the range of

f was a subset of the domain of g. In Exercise 42, we strengthened this

requirement to equality: Y = R

f

= D

g

. The following example shows

that this stronger requirement is necessary.

Example 43. Deﬁne f : R

÷

→ R

÷

and g : R → R be deﬁned by

f (x) = x and g(x) = x for all x in their respective domains. Both

functions are onto. By Deﬁnition 36, g ◦ f has domain R

÷

and codomain

R; g ◦ f is not onto.

From Exercises 41 and 42 we see that the composite g ◦ f of two

bijections f : X →Y and g : Y → Z is a bijection.

The converses of Exercises 41and42are interestingandare considered

in Exercises 44 and 45. Let us consider one-to-one composite functions

ﬁrst.

Exercise 44. Suppose that g ◦ f is the composition of f : X → Y and

g : Y → Z. Suppose that g ◦ f is one-to-one.

(a) Prove that f is one-to-one.

(b) Find a counterexample to show that g need not be one-to-one.

(c) Prove that if f is onto, then f is bijective and g is one-to-one.

Now let us consider onto composite functions.

Exercise 45. Suppose that g ◦ f is the composition of f : X → Y and

g : Y → Z. Suppose that g ◦ f is onto.

(a) Prove that g is onto.

(b) Find a counterexample to show that f need not be onto.

(c) Prove that if g is one-to-one, then g is bijective and f is onto.

Section 5. Inverse Functions and Inverse Images of Functions 85

5. Inverse Functions and Inverse Images of Functions.

The study of inverses is common in mathematics. It requires identities

and composites.

Deﬁnition 46. Afunction f is the identity function on X iff D

f

= C

f

= X

and

f = { (x, x) [ x ∈ X } ⊂ X X.

That is, f : X → X, deﬁned by f (x) = x for all x ∈ X, is the identity

function on X. We use I

X

to denote the identity function on X.

Exercise 47. Prove that I

X

is the unique function from X to X which

satisﬁes f ◦ I

X

= f and I

X

◦ g = g for all functions f : X → Y and

g : W → X. (That is, show that if i : X → X satisﬁes f ◦ i = f and

i ◦ g = g for all functions f : X →Y and g : W → X, then i = I

X

.)

Deﬁnition 48. Let f and g be functions. f and g are inverse functions iff

f ◦ g = I

D

g

and g ◦ f = I

D

f

. We also say that g is an inverse of f . A

function f is invertible iff an inverse function g exists.

Notice that this deﬁnition implies a relationship between the domains

and codomains of the inverse functions, as given in the following exercise.

Exercise 49. Prove that if f is an invertible function and g is an inverse of

f , then D

f

= C

g

and D

g

= C

f

.

It is important to include both f ◦ g = I

D

g

and g ◦ f = I

D

f

in the

deﬁnition of inverse functions, as Example 50 will show.

Example 50. Let f : R

÷

→ R be deﬁned by f (x) = x and let g : R →

R

÷

be deﬁned by g(x) = [x[. Then (g ◦ f )(x) = g(x) = x for all x ∈ R

÷

;

that is, g ◦ f = I

R

÷

. However, ( f ◦ g)(x) = [x[ for all x ∈ R, which is not

I

R

. You may notice that f is one-to-one, but not onto, and that g is onto,

but not one-to-one. .

Exercise 51. Prove that a function is invertible if and only if it is bijective.

If it sounds strange to you to read “an inverse” rather than “the inverse”

in the deﬁnition of inverse functions, the following exercise will help. Of

course, we will always write “the inverse” after the following exercise.

Exercise 52. Prove that every invertible function has a unique inverse

function.

86 Chapter 5. Functions

Since inverse functions are unique, when they exist, we have a dedi-

cated notation for them: the inverse of f is denoted by f

−1

.

When f is invertible, we have an inverse function f

−1

and it makes

sense to consider images of the inverse function such as f

−1

(S). We call

this the inverse image of S. This concept can be generalized to noninvertible

functions.

Deﬁnition 53. Let f : X → Y be a function and T ⊂ Y. The inverse

image of T under f is

f

−1

(T) = { x ∈ X [ (x, y) ∈ f for some y ∈ T } .

Remark 54. Be very careful here! The use of the superscript on f

−1

(T)

should not make you think the function is invertible. Also, when T is a

singleton set { y }, we write f

−1

(y) instead of f

−1

({ y }). .

The use of inverse images gives us a nice way of describing one-to-one

and onto functions.

Exercise 55. Let f : X →Y be a function. Prove the following:

(a) f is one-to-one if and only if f

−1

(y) contains at most one element for

every y ∈ Y.

(b) f is onto if and only if f

−1

(y) contains at least one element for every

y ∈ Y.

(c) f is bijective if and only if f

−1

(y) contains exactly one element for

every y ∈ Y.

Inverse images behave nicely with respect to set operations.

Exercise 56. Let f : X →Y be a function with A ⊂ Y and B ⊂ Y. Prove

the following:

(a) f

−1

(A ∩ B) = f

−1

(A) ∩ f

−1

(B),

(b) f

−1

(A ∪ B) = f

−1

(A) ∪ f

−1

(B),

(c) f

−1

(A − B) = f

−1

(A) − f

−1

(B).

Forward and inverse images can be combined. In general, the new set

is different from the original.

Exercise 57. Let f : X →Y be a function with S ⊂ X.

(a) Prove that f

−1

( f (S)) ⊃ S.

(b) Give a counterexample to f

−1

( f (S)) = S.

(c) Prove that if f is one-to-one, then f

−1

( f (S)) = S.

(d) Is the converse of the statement in (c) true? Prove it or ﬁnd a counter-

example.

Section 6. Another Approach to Compositions 87

Exercise 58. Let f : X →Y be a function with T ⊂ Y.

(a) Prove that f ( f

−1

(T)) ⊂ T.

(b) Give a counterexample to f ( f

−1

(T)) = T.

(c) Prove that if f is onto, then f ( f

−1

(T)) = T.

(d) Is the converse of the statement in (c) true? Prove it or ﬁnd a counter-

example.

Compare parts (d) of Exercises 57 and 58 with Supplemental Exercise

S17.

6. Another Approach to Compositions.

In Section 4, we looked at compositions of functions where the range

of the ﬁrst function was contained in the domain of the second function.

In this section, we will remove this requirement. The moral of this section

is that the easier (i.e., more general) the deﬁnitions are, the harder (or less

general) the theorems are. We consider ﬁrst the composition of relations.

Deﬁnition 59. Let f be a relation from X to Y and let g be a relation from

W to Z. The composition of f followed by g is the relation from X to Z

deﬁned by

g ◦ f =

¸

(x, z) ∈ X Z [ there exists y ∈ Y ∩ W

such that f (x) = y and g(y) = z

¸

.

It is more common to compose functions than relations. However, we

will use this idea to generalize composition of functions.

Deﬁnition 60. Let f : X → Y and g : W → Z be functions. The

composition of f followed by g is the function deﬁned by

g ◦ f =

¸

(x, z) ∈ X Z [ there exists y ∈ Y ∩ W

such that f (x) = y and g(y) = z

¸

.

The codomain of g ◦ f is Z, the codomain of g. The domain of g ◦ f is

the largest subset of X for which it makes sense.

Deﬁnition 60 differs fromDeﬁnition 36 in two ways: ﬁrst, the require-

ment that f (X) ⊂ W was removed and, second, the domain is a subset of

X, but not necessarily all of X. In fact, the domain may turn out to be the

empty subset of X! You could complain that the phrase “the largest subset

of X for which it makes sense” is not very precise. An example should

help.

88 Chapter 5. Functions

Example 61. Let us consider Example 39 again. Let f (x) = 2 ÷

√

x and

g(x) =

√

1 − x. Since (g ◦ f )(x) =

1 −(2 ÷

√

x) =

−1 −

√

x is

not deﬁned for any real number x, the domain of g ◦ f is empty. Hence,

g ◦ f = ∅! This is OK; the deﬁnition of a function does not require a

nonempty domain and ∅ Z = ∅ for every set Z. .

The following is similar.

Exercise 62. Suppose that w, x, y, and z are distinct; in particular, y ,= z.

Let X = { x }, Y = { y }, W = { w}, and Z = { z }. Deﬁne f : X →Y and

g : W → Z by f (x) = y and g(w) = z. Describe g ◦ f and f ◦ g. Do f

and g commute under composition? (That is, does g ◦ f equal f ◦ g?)

In general, what is the domain of the composite function g ◦ f ? The

composition of f followed by g may easily be rewritten as

g ◦ f =

¸

(x, g( f (x)))

x ∈ D

f

and f (x) ∈ D

g

¸

.

[You should check this!] This tells us that the domain is the set

D

g◦ f

=

¸

x ∈ D

f

f (x) ∈ D

g

¸

.

We have already seen (Exercise 38, Exercise 39, Example 61, and

Exercise 62) that composition is not commutative. Composition is still

associative in this setting, but the proof requires you to consider the domains

carefully. Here we have an example where our more general deﬁnition

makes a theorem more difﬁcult to prove.

Exercise 63. Show that composition of functions is associative.

Next, consider the relationship of compositions with the properties of

being one-to-one and onto. The following exercise gives us examples of

how generalizing a deﬁnition can turn a true theorem into a false statement.

Exercise 64. For each of the following, give two functions f and g satis-

fying the conditions:

(a) f and g are onto, but the composite function g ◦ f is not onto.

(b) neither f nor g is one-to-one, but the composite function g ◦ f is one-

to-one.

(c) f is a bijection, g is not one-to-one, but the composite function g ◦ f

is one-to-one.

(d) g is a bijection, f is not onto, but the composite function g ◦ f is onto.

Recall that the deﬁnition of inverses is dependent on composition of

functions. You may wish to return to the exercises in Sections 4 and 5, this

time using Deﬁnition 60 for the deﬁnition of composition of functions.

Supplemental Exercises 89

Supplemental Exercises

Deﬁnition Review. There were 16 deﬁnitions in this chapter. Let A, B,

X, Y, S, and T be sets with S ⊂ X and T ⊂ Y. Let f : X → Y and

g : W → Z be functions (or relations). Assume all of these sets are subsets

of a universal set U. Deﬁne each of the following and give an example of

each:

(1) the cartesian product of A and B

(6) a relation from A to B

(6) a relation on A

(10) a function f from X to Y

(10) the domain of a function f

(10) the codomain of a function f

(13) the image of S under f

(14) the range of a function f

(20) functions f and g are equal

(22) the restriction of f to S

(27) f is one-to-one (or injective)

(27) f is an injection

(30) f is onto (or surjective)

(30) f is a surjection

(32) f is bijective (or a one-to-one correspondence)

(32) f is a bijection

(36) composition of a function f followed by a function g ( f (X) ⊂ W)

(36) the domain of g ◦ f ( f (X) ⊂ W)

(36) the codomain of g ◦ f ( f (X) ⊂ W)

(46) f is the identity function on X

(48) f and g are inverse functions

(48) f is an invertible function

(53) the inverse image of T under f

(59) composition of a relation f followed by a relation g

(60) composition of a function f followed by a function g

(60) the domain of g ◦ f

(60) the codomain of g ◦ f

Exercise S1. Find the range of the following functions

(1) f (x) =

x

2

x

2

÷x−2

(2) g(x) = [x

3

÷ x ÷1[

(3) h(x) = 2 sin

x

2

x

2

÷1

.

90 Chapter 5. Functions

Exercise S2. How many 1 − 1 functions can be deﬁned from {1, 2, 3} to

{1, 2, 3, 4}?

Exercise S3. Determine which of the following functions is 1 −1

(1) f (x) =

3x÷1

2x−3

(2) g(x) =

1 ÷

1

x

(3) h(x) = [2x ÷1[

(4) t (x) =

√

−x

6

Exercise S4. Determine which of the following functions is a bijection

from R to R

(1) f (x) = ax ÷b

(2) g(x) = [x[

(3) h(x) = x

3

÷1

Exercise S5. Let f : R → R be a function, with f (x) = 2x ÷ 1. Prove

that f (N) ⊂ f (R). Find a function g : R →R, such that g(N) = g(R).

Exercise S6. If ( f ◦ g)(x) = x

2

÷3 and g(x) = 2x −1, ﬁnd the function

f .

Exercise S7. If ( f ◦ g)(x) = 3x ÷2 and f (x) = 4x −1, ﬁnd the function

g.

Exercise S8. Determine the values of a and b, for which the function

f (x) = ax ÷b is invertible and ﬁnd its inverse.

Exercise S9. Determine the values of a, b, and c, for which the function

f (x) = ax

2

÷bx ÷c is invertible and ﬁnd its inverse.

Exercise S10. Find a restriction f [

S

of the function f (x) = 2x

2

−5x ÷1

which is invertible. Prove or disprove that for each function f , there exists

a restriction of f which is invertible.

Exercise S11. Let f (x) = ax ÷ b and g(x) = 2x − 3. Determine a and

b, such that f ◦ g = g ◦ f .

Exercise S12. Let f (x) = 5x −4. Find f

−1

([2, 3]) and f

−1

(R).

Exercise S13. Let f : R − {−2} → R be a function, with f (x) =

2x−7

x÷2

.

Prove that f is not onto. Restrict the codomain so that f is onto, prove that

with the restricted codomain is invetrible and ﬁnd its inverse.

Exercise S14. Let f : A → A and g : A → A be invertible functions.

Show that ( f ◦ g)

−1

= g

−1

◦ f

−1

.

Supplemental Exercises 91

Exercise S15. Let f (x) =

¸

x, x ∈ Q

x ÷1, x / ∈ Q

. Prove that f is invertible

and ﬁnd its inverse.

Exercise S16. Let f (x) =

¸

x

2

, x ∈ Q

x ÷1, x / ∈ Q

. Is f invertible?

Exercise S17. Let f : X →Y be a function.

(a) Prove that if f

−1

( f (S)) = S for every subset S of X, then f is one-to-

one.

(b) Prove that if f ( f

−1

(T)) = T for every subset T of Y, then f is onto.

(Compare with Exercises 57 and 58.)

92

Chapter 6

Relations on a Set

1. Properties of Relations.

As we sawin Chapter 5, a function is a speciﬁc kind of relation. Recall

that a relation from a set A to a set B is a subset R ⊂ A B and if A = B,

we call R a relation on A. You may have noticed that the examples of

relations we looked at in Chapter 5 are relations on a single set. In fact,

we are more interested in relations on a set and consider various properties

that a relation may or may not have.

Deﬁnition 1. Let R be a relation on a set S.

(a) R is reﬂexive iff s R s for all s ∈ S.

(b) R is nonreﬂexive iff s

/

R s for all s ∈ S.

(c) R is symmetric iff s R t implies t R s for all s, t ∈ S.

(d) R is asymmetric iff s R t implies t

/

R s for all s, t ∈ S.

(e) R is antisymmetric iff s R t and t R s implies s = t for all s, t ∈ S.

(f) R is transitive iff s R t and t R u implies s R u for all s, t, u ∈ S.

(g) R is connected iff s R t or t R s or s = t for all s, t ∈ S.

(h) R is trichotomous iff exactly one of s R t , t R s, s = t is true for all

s, t ∈ S.

In the deﬁnition of connected, we say that s and t are comparable iff

s R t or t R s or s = t . There are many relationships between the properties

in Deﬁnition 1; the most obvious is that if a relation is trichotomous, then

it must be connected.

Example 2. Let us consider the relation in Example 8, given by x

2

÷y

2

=

1. It is not reﬂexive since, for example, 1 is not related to 1, that is,

1

2

÷1

2

= 2 ,= 1. It is not nonreﬂexive either since (

1

√

2

)

2

÷(

1

√

2

)

2

= 1. It is

symmetric by the commutative property of addition. It is not antisymmetric

since 0

2

÷1

2

= 1

2

÷0

2

= 1, but 0 ,= 1. It is not transitive since 1 is related

to 0 which is related to 1 but 1 is not related to 1. It is neither connected

nor trichotomous since 1 and

1

2

satisfy none of the conditions.

Section 2. Order Relations 93

Exercise 3. Consider whether the relation <on Rsatisﬁes or fails to satisfy

each of the eight properties of relations given above. Prove your answers.

Exercise 4. Consider whether the relation ⊂ on P(U) for some nonempty

U satisﬁes or fails to satisfy each of the seven properties of relations given

above. Prove your answers.

Exercise 5. Prove that a relation on a nonempty set cannot be both reﬂexive

and nonreﬂexive but can be both symmetric and antisymmetric.

Exercise 6. Give an example of a relation on a nonempty set which is

connected but not trichotomous.

Exercise 7. Give examples of relations which have any combination of the

properties given above.

2. Order Relations.

One natural kind of relation is of the type which puts an order on

the set. The relations < on R and ⊂ on P(U) (which were considered in

Exercises 3 and 4) are examples of such order relations. We start with two

deﬁnitions that model these two examples, but are more general.

Deﬁnition 8. A relation ≺ on a set S which is nonreﬂexive and transitive

is called a strict partial ordering. A strictly partially ordered set is a set S

together with a strict partial ordering ≺ on S.

Deﬁnition 9. A relation -on a set S which is reﬂexive, antisymmetric and

transitive is called a partial ordering. A partially ordered set is a set S

together with a partial ordering - on S.

Using the highlighted characters, a partially ordered set is sometimes

called a poset.

Exercise 10. Consider = as a relation on R. Does it deﬁne a strict partial

ordering? Does it deﬁne a partial ordering? Prove your answers.

The example in Exercise 10 is rather trivial since most elements are

not comparable. It is sometimes called a totally disordered set.

Exercise 11. Consider R with < and P(U) with ⊂ again. Which is a

strictly partially ordered set? Which is a partially ordered set? Prove your

answers.

{1,2}

{1} {2}

∅

{1,2}

{1} {2}

∅

{1,2,3}

{1,3} {2,3}

{3}

94 Chapter 6. Relations

Sometimes, especially for ﬁnite partially ordered sets in which not all

elements are comparable, it is useful to make an illustration, called a Hasse

diagram, of the set with its relation as Figure 12 illustrates.

Figure 12: The Hasse diagram for P({1, 2}) with ⊂

Figure 12 shows the elements of the P({1, 2}) with the relation ⊂. The

elements of P({1, 2}) are shown as the vertices of a graph. Arrows show

the order relation; if there is a directed path from one vertex to another

using one or more arrows, then the vertex at the tail of the (ﬁrst) arrow is

related to the vertex at the head of the (last) arrow. For example, the arrow

from ∅ to {1} indicates that ∅ ⊂ {1} and the arrow from ∅ to {2} together

with the arrow from {2} to {1, 2} indicate that ∅ ⊂ {1, 2}.

It is possible to give a precise deﬁnition of a Hasse diagram in terms

of directed graphs, which are discussed in Chapter ???.

Using the convention that arrows always go up simpliﬁes the presenta-

tion. Figure 13 shows the more complicated Hasse diagramfor P({1, 2, 3});

you should see it as a cube.

Figure 13: The Hasse diagram for P({1, 2, 3}) with ⊂

The next exercise shows that strict partial orderings and partial order-

ings are intimately related.

Section 2. Order Relations 95

Exercise 14. (a) Suppose that - is a partial ordering on S and deﬁne the

relation ≺ on S by s ≺ t if and only if s - t and s ,= t . Show that ≺ is a

strict partial ordering on S.

(b) Suppose that ≺ is a strict partial ordering on S and deﬁne the relation

- on S by s - t if and only if s ≺ t or s = t . Show that - is a partial

ordering on S.

Remark 15. According to Exercise 14, it does not matter whether the order

on a partially ordered set S is derived from a partial ordering - on S or a

strict partial ordering ≺ on S. Put another way, whenever either type of

order relation is present, both types are actually present. Hence, one can

use whichever is more convenient. A mathematician may be sloppy and

write “a partial ordering ≺” when “a strict partial ordering ≺” is meant.

Deﬁnition 16. Astrict partial ordering ≺on S which is connected is called

a strict total ordering. A strictly totally ordered set is a set S together with

a strict total ordering ≺ on S.

Deﬁnition 17. A partial ordering - on S which is connected is called a

total ordering. A totally ordered set is a set S together with a total ordering

- on S.

Exercise 18. (a) Prove that every strict total ordering ≺ on a set S is tri-

chotomous.

(b) Suppose that R is a relation on S which is transitive and trichotomous.

Prove that R is a strict total ordering.

That is, a relation is a strict total ordering if and only if it is transitive

and trichotomous.

In our notation, we will always assume that we can go back and forth

between ≺ or -, as in Exercise 14. Perhaps you were wondering if we

can use > or _ when we have ≺ or -, respectively? The answer is yes, of

course. That is, x > y is deﬁned as y ≺ x and x _ y is deﬁned as y - x.

The following deﬁnitions are related, but not the same.

Deﬁnition 19. Let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering -. An

element m ∈ S is maximal iff there exists no s ∈ S such that m ≺ s.

Deﬁnition 20. Let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering -. An

element M ∈ S is greatest iff s - M for all s ∈ S.

Deﬁnitions 19 and 20 are different. The key thing to remember is that,

in a partially ordered set, all elements need not be related. The following

example shouldhelpyoutosee the difference betweenmaximal andgreatest

elements.

96 Chapter 6. Relations

Example 21. Let A = { 1, 2 }. Consider S = P(A) and T = S − { A }

with the partial ordering ⊂. S has A as its only maximal element and its

only greatest element. T has two maximal elements, { {1} } and { {2} }, but

no greatest element.

Example 22. Consider Nwith the partial ordering ≤. Nhas neither a max-

imal element nor a greatest element. [Though this is intuitively obvious,

its proof is surprisingly difﬁcult. The proof depends on the Principle of

Archimedes, which we postpone until Chapter 10.]

Of course, maximal and greatest elements are intimately related as we

will see from the following four exercises.

Exercise 23. Let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering -. Prove

that if S has a greatest element, then this greatest element is unique.

Exercise 24. Let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering -. Prove

that the greatest element of S, if it exists, is a maximal element.

Exercise 25. Let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering -. Prove

that if S has more than one maximal element, then S does not have a greatest

element.

Exercise 26. Let S be a totally ordered set with total ordering -. Prove

that a maximal element of S, if it exists, is the greatest element.

In a totally ordered set, by Exercises 24 and 26, maximal and greatest

elements are identical and, by Exercise 23, if a maximal element exists,

then it is unique.

We can deﬁne minimal elements and the least element of a partially

orderedset inanalogywiththe deﬁnitions of maximal andgreatest elements.

Analogous results can be proved about these.

Next we consider subsets in a partially ordered set. Of course, the

partial ordering on the ambient set induces a partial ordering on the subset.

Deﬁnition 27. Let A be a subset of S, a partially ordered set with partial

ordering -. An element m ∈ S is an upper bound on A iff a - m for all

a ∈ A. A is bounded above iff A has an upper bound.

Deﬁnition 28. Let A be a subset of S, a partially ordered set with partial

ordering -. An element M ∈ S is a least upper bound on A iff M is an

upper bound on A and M ≤ s for all upper bounds s on A.

A least upper bound is also called a supremum.

Section 2. Order Relations 97

Example 29. Let A =

¸

x

0 < x

2

< 2

¸

. Clearly, 2 is an upper bound

on A. What is the least upper bound of A? It turns out that we have not

been precise enough to answer this question! If we consider A as a subset

of R, then

√

2 is the least upper bound. What if we consider A as a subset

of Q? In that case, there is no least upper bound! You may recall that

√

2 is irrational (see Proposition 18 of Chapter 3). You can think of the

decreasing sequence of rational upper bounds

2, 1.5, 1.42, 1.415, 1.4143, 1.41422, 1.414214, . . . .

This sequence converges to

√

2 in R. Since this limit is unique, it can be

shown that there is no rational least upper bound. We will not go into the

details.

Example 30. Consider N with the partial ordering ≤. N has no upper

bounds. Also the set E of all even natural numbers has no upper bounds.

[Again, while this is intuitively obvious, its proof is surprisingly difﬁcult

and is postponed until Exercise 3 of Chapter 8.]

Exercise 31. Let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering - and

A ⊂ S. Prove that if A has a least upper bound, then A has a unique least

upper bound.

Exercise 32. For both of the following, give an example of a nonempty

subset A of a partially ordered set S such that:

(a) the least upper bound of A exists and equals the greatest element of A,

(b) the least upper bound of A exists but is not the greatest element of A.

Prove your answers.

Exercise 33. Let A be a subset of a partially ordered set S with partial

ordering -. Prove that if A has a greatest element, then the least upper

bound of A equals the greatest element of A.

We can deﬁne lower bounds and the greatest lower bound of a subset

of a partially ordered set in analogy with the deﬁnitions of upper bound and

least upper bound. Analogous results can be proved about these.

Deﬁnition 34. Let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering -.

S has the least upper bound property iff every nonempty subset which is

bounded above has a least upper bound.

The least upper bound property is important. It distinguishes the

rational numbers from the real numbers and will be discussed more in

Chapters 8 and 13.

98 Chapter 6. Relations

Example 35. Let us again consider A =

¸

x ∈ Q

0 < x

2

< 2

¸

. We

indicated that

√

2 is the least upper bound of A as a subset of R and that A

has no least upper bound as a subset of Q. Hence Qdoes not have the least

upper bound property.

We mention here one more deﬁnition related to order.

Deﬁnition 36. A totally ordered set S is well-ordered iff every nonempty

subset of S has a least element. The ordering is called a well-ordering.

The fact that N is well-ordered is proved in Exercise 7 of Chapter

10. The question of well-ordering a set in general is quite difﬁcult. The

statement that every set has a well-ordering is actually equivalent to the

Axiom of Choice.

3. Equivalence Relations.

Deﬁnition 37. A relation ≈ on a set S which is reﬂexive, symmetric and

transitive is called an equivalence relation.

The prototypical example is equality on a set. There are other, more

interesting, examples.

Example 38. Congruence and similarity are equivalence relations on the

set of triangles.

Example 39. Let k ∈ N. Deﬁne the relation ≡on N by n ≡ m if and only

if

n−m

k

∈ Z. We usually say that n is congruent to m modulo k and we

write “n ≡ m (mod k).” This equivalence relation is well known to small

children, who learned it in the form that 3 hours after 11 o’clock comes 2

o’clock; in this case k = 12 and the statement is that 11 ÷3 ≡ 2 (mod 12).

In Chapter 7, given two sets A and B, we will say that A has the same

cardinality as B if and only if there exists a bijection f : A → B.

Exercise 40. Prove that “has the same cardinality as” is an equivalence

relation on the power set of a given set.

Partitioning the set of clothes in your house into categories such as

coats, shirts, pants, underwear, socks and shoes is an example of an equiv-

alence relation at work. Rather than giving the relation in terms of pairs of

objects, it is given in terms of the subsets which supply the entries of these

pairs. This leads us to the following deﬁnition.

Deﬁnition 41. Let ≈ be an equivalence relation on S and let x ∈ S. The

set

[x]

≈

= { s ∈ S [ x ≈ s }

Section 3. Equivalence Relations 99

is called the equivalence class of x under ≈.

The notation for the equivalence class of x is sometimes written simply

as [x] when the equivalence relation is understood.

Exercise 42. Let ≈ be an equivalence relation on a set S and let s, t ∈ S.

Prove that [s] = [t ] if and only if s ≈ t .

Exercise 43. Let ≈ be an equivalence relation on a set S and let s, t ∈ S.

Prove that if [s] ,= [t ], then [s] ∩ [t ] = ∅, that is, [s] and [t ] are disjoint.

We will rephrase the previous exercises using the following language.

Deﬁnition 44. Let S be a nonempty set. A partition of S is a set of

nonempty, pairwise disjoint subsets of S whose union is S.

Deﬁnition 45. Let ≈ be an equivalence relation on a nonempty set S.

Denote by S/≈ denote the set of all equivalence classes of S under ≈.

Assuming we read ≈ as “equivalence,” we read S/ ≈ as “S mod

equivalence.” After the following exercise, we call S/≈ the partition of S

induced by ≈.

Exercise 46. Prove that if ≈ is an equivalence relation on a nonempty set

S, then S/≈ is a partition of S.

We have gone from equivalence relations to partitions. Next we go in

the other direction.

Deﬁnition 47. Let C be a partition of a nonempty set S. Deﬁne a relation

R on S by s R t if and only if there exists C ∈ C such that s, t ∈ C. R is

called the equivalence relation induced by the partition C and is denoted

by S/C.

We read S/C as “S mod C” and s S/Ct as “s is S mod C related to t .”

Of course, it must be veriﬁed that S/C actually is an equivalence relation.

Exercise 48. Let C be a partition of a nonempty set S. Prove that S/C is

an equivalence relation.

Of course, since we can pass froman equivalence relation to a partition

and then back to an equivalence relation, we can ask how the original

relation and the induced relation are related. Actually they are the same.

One can do this starting with a partition as well.

100 Chapter 6. Relations

Theorem 49. If ≈ is an equivalence relation on a nonempty set S, then

S/(S/≈) = ≈.

Proof. By Exercise 46, S/≈is a partition of S and, by Exercise 48, S/(S/≈

) is an equivalence relation on S. Since a relation on S is a subset of S S,

it sufﬁces to show that S/(S/≈) ⊂ ≈ and ≈ ⊂ S/(S/≈).

Suppose (s, t ) ∈ S/(S/≈); that is, s S/(S/≈) t . By Deﬁnition 47,

there exists C ∈ S/≈ such that s, t ∈ C. By Deﬁnition 45, there exists

u ∈ S such that C = [u]. Since s, t ∈ [u], u ≈ s and u ≈ t . Hence, s ≈ t .

Therefore, S/(S/≈) ⊂ ≈.

The remainder of the proof is left for Exercise 50.

Exercise 50. Complete the proof of Theorem49: prove that ≈⊂ S/(S/≈).

Theorem 51. If C is a partition of a nonempty set S, then S/(S/C) = C.

Proof. By Exercise 48, S/C is an equivalence relation on S, and, by Ex-

ercise 46, S/(S/C) is a partition of S. Since a partition of S is a subset of

P(S), it sufﬁces to show that S/(S/C) ⊂ C and C ⊂ S/(S/C).

Suppose C ∈ C. Choose an element s ∈ C. Since S/(S/C) is a

partition of S, there exists C

/

∈ S/(S/C) such that s ∈ C. C

/

= [s] with

respect to the equivalence relation S/C. We must show that C = [s].

First, ﬁx t ∈ C. By Deﬁnition 47, s S/Ct . By Exercise 42, t ∈ [t ] =

[s]. So C ⊂ [s].

Next, ﬁx t ∈ [s]. So s S/Ct . By Deﬁnition 47, there exists C

//

∈

S/(S/C) such that s, t ∈ C

//

. Since S/(S/C) is a partition and s ∈ C ∩C

//

,

C

//

= C. So t ∈ C and [s] ⊂ C.

Hence, C ∈ S/(S/C). Therefore, C ⊂ S/(S/C).

The remainder of the proof is left for Exercise 52.

Exercise 52. Complete the proof of Theorem 51: prove that S/(S/C) ⊂ C.

Supplemental Exercises 101

Supplemental Exercises

Deﬁnition Review. There were 12 deﬁnitions in this chapter. Let S be a

set with subset A and let R, ≺, -, and ≈ be relations on S. Deﬁne each of

the following and give an example of each:

(1) R is reﬂexive

(1) R is nonreﬂexive

(1) R is symmetric

(1) R is asymmetric

(1) R is antisymmetric

(1) R is transitive

(1) R is connected

(1) R is trichotomous

(8) ≺ is a strict partial ordering

(8) S is a strictly partially ordered set

(9) - is a partial ordering

(9) S is a partially ordered set

(16) ≺ is a strict total ordering

(16) S is a strictly totally ordered set

(17) - is a total ordering

(17) S is a totally ordered set

(19) m ∈ S is a maximal element

(20) m ∈ S is a greatest element

For 27–34, let S be a partially ordered set with partial ordering -.

(27) m ∈ S is an upper bound on A

(27) A is bounded above

(28) m ∈ S is a least upper bound on A

(34) S has the least upper bound property

For 36, let S be a totally ordered set with total ordering -.

(36) S is well-ordered

(36) - is a well-ordering

(37) ≈ is an equivalence relation

(41) the equivalence class of x under ≈, an equivalence relation

(44) a partition of a nonempty set, S

For 45, let ≈ be an equivalence relation on S.

(45) S/≈, the set of all equivalence classes of S under ≈

For 47, let C be a partition of S.

(47) S/C, the equivalence relation induced by C

102 Chapter 6. Relations

Exercise S1. Let X be the set of all 2 2 matrices with real entries.

Recall that the determinant of a matrix

a b

c d

**equals ad − bc; denote
**

the determinant of a matrix M by [M[. Deﬁne a relation < on X by A < B

iff [ A[ < [B[. Prove that < is a strict partial ordering on X. Is < a total

ordering? Explain your answer.

a

b

c

δ

ζ

103

Chapter 7

Cardinality of Sets

1. Introduction.

If we consider the two sets

A = { a, b, c } and B = { δ, ε, ζ },

it is clear that they have the same “size.” Perhaps we should say what

“size” means exactly. If you think about this for a moment, you may say

something like “Of course, both sets have exactly three elements.” You

would be showing your heritage and knowledge. The idea of counting is a

very advanced concept compared to what is needed here.

Figure 1: A one-to-one correspondence

A more primitive idea would be to compare the two sets by matching

their elements as in the following:

a ↔δ b ↔ε c ↔ζ.

Perhaps you recognize that this is just the concept of producing a one-to-

one correspondence, or bijective function, between the two sets. We think

this is a fancy description for a fairly simple idea.

The comparison of inﬁnite sets such as N, Z, Q, Rand Cis trickier. In

fact, many people have been intimidated by the notion of inﬁnity. The ideas

of one-to-one correspondence and counting, which we considered for ﬁnite

sets, lead to analogous ideas about inﬁnite sets. In the inﬁnite case, the

notion of one-to-one correspondence is virtually no more difﬁcult, while

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... N

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 ... E

104 Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets

the notion of “inﬁnite numbers” to represent the “size” of inﬁnite sets is far

more difﬁcult.

To see why people have been intimidated by inﬁnity for a long time,

consider the paradox of Zeno, an ancient Greek philosopher. According

to Zeno, you can never reach the end of a racecourse since you must ﬁrst

cover the ﬁrst half before you can cover the whole course, and half of the

remainder before covering the second half of the course, and so on, ad

inﬁnitum. That is, you cannot start from 0, go through

1

2

,

3

4

,

7

8

,

15

16

, etc., and

arrive at 1 in ﬁnite time. This paradox, though often forgotten or ignored,

has been around for nearly 2500 years. It points to the very foundations of

mathematics and issues unresolved until the end of the nineteenth century.

2. Finite Sets.

We would like to formalize the deﬁnition of the “size” of a set, but

rather we will do something a little different.

Deﬁnition 2. Sets A and B have the same cardinality iff there exists a

one-to-one correspondence f : A → B.

As indicated above, the sets A = { a, b, c } and B = { δ, ε, ζ } have

the same cardinality since f : A → B deﬁned by

f (a) = δ f (b) = ε f (c) = ζ

is a one-to-one correspondence. But you should notice that we did not

say what “cardinality” is, only what “same cardinality” is. That is, we are

saying that A and B have the same number of elements without ever saying

what that number is!

Example 3. Inﬁnite sets are more interesting. Consider

N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . } and E = { 2, 4, 6, 8, . . . }.

Figure 4: A one-to-one correspondence from N to E

Of course, E N. If you think that E and N are not the same “size,”

then you are not thinking of the cardinality of the sets! In fact, it is easy to

see that f : N → E given by f (n) = 2n is a one-to-one correspondence.

Hence E and N have the same cardinality.

Let us turn our attention to ﬁnite sets now.

Section 2. Finite Sets 105

Exercise 5. Let A be a set. Prove that A and ∅ have the same cardinality

if and only if A = ∅.

The next three exercises are easy and important consequences of facts

about bijective functions. These properties are called, respectively, reﬂex-

ivity, symmetry, and transitivity; these are the properties of equivalence

relations, which we studied in Section 3 of Chapter 6.

Exercise 6. Let A be a set. Prove that A and A have the same cardinality.

Exercise 7. Let A and B be sets. Prove that A and B have the same

cardinality if and only if B and A have the same cardinality.

Exercise 8. Let A, B and C be sets. Prove that if A and B have the same

cardinality and B and C have the same cardinality, then A and C have the

same cardinality.

For n ∈ N, consider the sets Z

n

= { 1, 2, 3, . . . , n }. We will use these

to further our understanding of ﬁnite sets. For example, if A and Z

n

have

the same cardinality, then we can think of Z

n

as an index for A, that is, A

must look like { a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

n

}.

So how do we know if { a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

m

} and { b

1

, b

2

, b

3

, . . . , b

n

}

have the same cardinality? Clearly, the answer should be whenever m = n.

You may try to prove this by taking one element at a time away from each

set until one is reduced to the empty set. Then you check if the other is also

reduced to the empty set. We will turn this into an induction argument. We

do this ﬁrst for the following special case.

Theorem 9. Z

m

and Z

n

have the same cardinality if and only if m = n.

Proof. That m = n implies Z

m

and Z

n

have the same cardinality follows

from the fact that the identity function on Z

m

is a bijection.

The proof in the other direction is by induction on n; that is, n is ﬁxed

while m is variable. Consider the step n = 1. Then there exists a one-to-

one correspondence f : Z

1

→ Z

m

. Assume m ,= n. Hence, m ≥ 2 and

1, 2 ∈ Z

m

. Since f is onto, f (1) = 1 and f (1) = 2. This contradiction

shows that m = n.

To prove the inductive step, we suppose the induction hypothesis that

Z

m

and Z

n

have the same cardinality implies m = n. Suppose that Z

m

and Z

n÷1

have the same cardinality. Thus, there exists a one-to-one cor-

respondence f : Z

n÷1

→ Z

m

. Since 1 ,= n ÷ 1, f (1) and f (n ÷ 1) are

distinct elements of Z

m

, m −1 ∈ N. Let g be the permutation of Z

m

which

106 Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets

exchanges f (n ÷ 1) and m while leaving everything else ﬁxed; that is,

g : Z

m

→Z

m

is deﬁned by

g(x) =

⎧

⎨

⎩

f (n ÷1), if x = m

m, if x = f (n ÷1)

x, otherwise

.

(If f (n ÷ 1) = m, then g = I

Z

m

.) Since f and g are bijections, g ◦ f :

Z

n÷1

→Z

m

is a one-to-one correspondence. Since

g( f (n ÷1)) = m,

we can deﬁne h : Z

n

→ Z

m−1

by h(x) = g( f (x)). This is a one-to-

one correspondence. By the induction hypothesis, m − 1 = n. Hence,

m = n ÷1.

We are now in a position to deﬁne what a ﬁnite set is.

Deﬁnition 10. A set S is ﬁnite iff either S = ∅ or there exists some n ∈ N

such that S and Z

n

have the same cardinality. We say that S has cardinality

0 or n, respectively, and denote this by [S[ = 0 or [S[ = n.

Exercise 11. Suppose A and B are ﬁnite sets with cardinalities n and m,

respectively. Prove that A and B have the same cardinality if and only if

n = m.

Exercise 12. Let A be a set with [ A[ = n and suppose x / ∈ A and y ∈ A.

(a) Prove that [ A ∪ { x }[ = n ÷1.

(b) Prove that [ A −{ y }[ = n −1.

Exercise 13. Let B be a ﬁnite set. Prove that if A ⊂ B, then A is ﬁnite and

[ A[ ≤ [B[.

The results of this section now enable us to prove the following

theorem. Before looking at the proof, you should read the statement and

try to prove it for yourself. While this elementary statement may appear

obvious, it is not so easy to prove; in fact, the “counting elements”-type

argument you might envision has been isolated in Exercise 13.

Theorem 14. Suppose A B. If B is ﬁnite, then A and B do not have the

same cardinality.

Proof. Pick x ∈ B − A. Now A ⊂ B −{ x }. By Exercise 12(b),

[B −{ x }[ = [B[ −1.

Section 3. Inﬁnite Sets 107

By Exercise 13,

[ A[ ≤ [B −{ x }[ = [B[ −1 < [B[.

Hence, [ A[ ,= [B[. By Exercise 11, A and B do not have the same cardi-

nality.

This theorem and its proof reﬂect one of the most important ideas

which we presented in Chapter 3. It is an example of breaking a proof into

smaller, easier pieces. These pieces, usually called lemmas, are easier to

work on in isolation from the remainder of the theorem. Here the lemmas

are the earlier exercises in this section: Exercises 12, 13 and 11.

Now that we understand ﬁnite sets, we can prove things like the fol-

lowing, which seem “obvious.” For the moment, you can suppose that the

familiar inﬁnite sets, such as N and R, really are inﬁnite.

Exercise 15. Let f : A → B be a one-to-one function.

(a) Prove that if B is ﬁnite, then A is ﬁnite.

(b) Give a counterexample to: if A is ﬁnite, then B is ﬁnite.

Exercise 16. Let f : A → B be an onto function.

(a) Prove that if A is ﬁnite, then B is ﬁnite.

(b) Give a counterexample to: if B is ﬁnite, then A is ﬁnite.

3. Inﬁnite Sets.

The deﬁnition of inﬁnite sets is obvious.

Deﬁnition 17. A set S is inﬁnite iff S is not ﬁnite.

The next exercise establishes the existence of inﬁnite sets.

Proposition 18. N is an inﬁnite set.

We will consider three different proofs of this statement. The ﬁrst two

are similar, while the third is quite different and will come later (Exercise

27).

Proof #1. Assume that N is a ﬁnite set. Then we can write N in the form

{ n

1

, n

2

, n

3

, . . . , n

k

}.

Hence, N has a largest element, n

j

for some j . Now n

j

÷ 1 > n

j

and,

therefore, n

j

÷ 1 / ∈ N. But, since n

j

is a natural number, n

j

÷ 1 is also a

natural number. Contradiction!

108 Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets

You may object to the proof above, asking how we know that the set

{ n

1

, n

2

, n

3

, . . . , n

k

}

has a largest element or how we know that n

j

÷1 > n

j

or, for that matter,

howwe knowthat n

j

÷1 is a natural number. These questions are answered

by the construction of the natural numbers in Chapter 10. If you ﬁnd this

proof reasonable now, that is OK. Here is a different, but similar proof.

Proof #2. Assume that N is a ﬁnite set. Then we can write N in the form

{ n

1

, n

2

, n

3

, . . . , n

k

}.

We knowthat 1, 2 ∈ N. Consider the number N = n

1

÷n

2

÷n

3

÷· · ·÷n

k

. N

is a natural number. However, N > n

j

for all j since n

j

÷2 > n

j

÷1 > n

j

and 1, 2 and n

j

are at least two different elements of N. So N / ∈ N.

Contradiction!

You may have similar objections to Proof #2 as to Proof #1. Adifferent

proof is contemplated in Exercise 27 based on the following important

characterization theorem for ﬁnite and inﬁnite sets.

Theorem 19. Let S be a set.

(a) S is inﬁnite if and only if it has a proper subset of the same cardinality.

(b) S is ﬁnite if and only if it has no proper subset of the same cardinality.

As in the proof of Theorem 14, the proof of Theorem 19 is also com-

pleted in steps. Theorem 14 provided half of part (b); half of part (a) is to

be proved in the following exercise.

Exercise 20. Prove that if a set B has a proper subset with the same

cardinality, then B is inﬁnite.

Our next goal is to prove the converses of Theorem 14 and Exercise

20, thereby completing the proof of Theorem 19.

Deﬁnition21. Aset S is denumerable iff S and Nhave the same cardinality.

Sets which are denumerable are also called countably inﬁnite.

Deﬁnition 22. A set S is countable iff S is either ﬁnite or denumerable.

Since a denumerable set is in one-to-one correspondence with N, we

can can think of it as an inﬁnite list indexed by the natural numbers such as

{ a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . }.

Section 3. Inﬁnite Sets 109

Theorem 23. Every inﬁnite set contains a denumerable subset.

Proof. Let A be an inﬁnite set. We wish to construct a denumerable subset

D = { a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . }

by identifying elements a

1

, a

2

, etc., in that order. The proof is by induction

on the index of the elements. Choose a

1

∈ A; this is the ﬁrst step, n = 1,

of the induction. Next we wish to prove the inductive step: if D

k

=

{ a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

k

} ⊂ A, then there exists a

k÷1

∈ A − D

k

. The induction

hypothesis is that this is true for k = n; we need to show that it is then true

for k = n ÷ 1. Assume that it is false for k = n ÷ 1. That means that

A − D

n

= ∅. Hence A = D

n÷1

is ﬁnite. This is a contradiction.

That is, we have constructed a sequence of distinct elements of A:

{ a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . },

as desired.

We should pause here to consider the last sentence of the proof of

Theorem 23. It looks deceptively simple. The induction actually provides

a sequence of ﬁnite sets D

1

, D

2

, D

3

, . . . and not a denumerable set. In fact,

mathematicians isolated an axiom in the eighteenth century that is required

in circumstances exactly like this one. It is called the Axiom of Choice

and most, but not all, mathematicians use and accept this axiom. We do

not wish to delve into the intricacies of the Axiom of Choice. Sufﬁce it

to say that whenever an inﬁnite number of choices are made, the Axiom

of Choice is being implemented, unless a universal rule exists to make our

inﬁnitely many choices clear in one fell swoop. For example, to choose one

sock from each of an inﬁnite number of pairs of socks requires the Axiom

of Choice; to choose one shoe from each of an inﬁnite number of pairs of

shoes does not require the Axiom of Choice since we can choose all of the

left shoes.

Having said all of this, we now present a new proof of Theorem 23,

written as most mathematicians might write it.

Second Proof of Theorem 23. Let A be an inﬁnite set. Since A is inﬁnite,

A is nonempty. Choose a

1

∈ A. Now choose a

2

∈ A different from

a

1

; this can be done since A − { a

1

} is nonempty. Continue in this way:

havingchosena

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

k

we choose a

k÷1

∈ A−{ a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . , a

k

}

which can be done since the difference of a ﬁnite set from an inﬁnite set

is always nonempty. Continuing this process indeﬁnitely, we construct a

denumerable subset { a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . } of A.

The next exercise requests a proof of a useful lemma. You will then

use it to prove the converses of Exercise 20 and Theorem 14.

110 Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets

Exercise 24. Suppose D is denumerable and x ∈ D. Prove that D −{ x }

is denumerable.

Exercise 25. Prove that every inﬁnite set has a proper subset of the same

cardinality.

Exercise 26. Let S be a set. Prove that if no proper subset of S has the

same cardinality as S, then S is ﬁnite.

This completes the proof of Theorem 19.

If it interests you, you can keep in mind that the equivalent deﬁnitions

of ﬁnite and inﬁnite sets, as given in Theorem 19, depend on the Axiom of

Choice.

We now return to the proof that N is inﬁnite, Proposition 18. The

equivalent deﬁnition of inﬁnite in Exercise 25 gives us a new proof of this

fact.

Exercise 27. Use Theorem 19 to prove that N is inﬁnite.

The fact that R is inﬁnite now follows.

Exercise 28. Prove that R is inﬁnite.

4. Countable Sets.

As we noted, there are two kinds of inﬁnite sets: those which are

countable and those which are not countable, that is, uncountable. We

consider countable sets next, remembering that countable sets are either

ﬁnite or denumerable.

Theorem 29. Every subset of a countable set is countable.

Proof. Let A be a countable set. We have already settled the case where

A is ﬁnite in Exercise 13. So suppose that A is denumerable. Then we can

list the elements of A as, say,

A = { a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, . . . }.

Let B be a subset of A. Then, using the indices of the list of the elements

of A, we let

S = { n ∈ N [ a

n

∈ B } .

Then k .→ a

k

deﬁnes a one-to-one correspondence from S to B. Either S

is ﬁnite or inﬁnite. If S is ﬁnite, then B is ﬁnite and, therefore, countable.

Section 4. Countable Sets 111

Suppose S is inﬁnite. Since we can order the elements of S starting with

the smallest, we can call the elements of S

n

1

, n

2

, n

3

, . . .

in increasing order. Now k .→ n

k

deﬁnes a one-to-one correspondence

from N to S. Hence S and, therefore, B are denumerable.

We next ask the question whether all inﬁnite sets are countable? The

answer is negative. However, we will see that the sets N, Z and Q are all

countable.

Exercise 30. Prove that all denumerable sets have the same cardinality.

Despite the facts that N is a proper subset of Z and that Z appears to

have, roughly, twice as many elements as N, they are shown to have the

same cardinality by the following exercise.

Exercise 31. Prove that Z is denumerable.

Now consider Q, the set of rational numbers. An amazing theorem

proved by Georg Cantor in 1874 shows that Qalso has the same cardinality

as N. The proof depends on a diagonal argument that we present next.

Theorem 32. The set of positive rational numbers, Q

∗

÷

, is denumerable.

Proof. Consider the following table of the elements of Q

∗

÷

:

1

1

2

1

3

1

4

1

5

1

6

1

. . .

1

2

2

2

3

2

4

2

5

2

6

2

. . .

1

3

2

3

3

3

4

3

5

3

6

3

. . .

1

4

2

4

3

4

4

4

5

4

6

4

. . .

1

5

2

5

3

5

4

5

5

5

6

5

. . .

1

6

2

6

3

6

4

6

5

6

6

6

. . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

We use the pattern in Figure 33 on the table above to create a list of the

positive rationals, skipping over duplicate rationals in the table as we go

along.

...

...

...

...

...

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

112 Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets

Figure 33: Cantor’s scheme

That list is

Q

∗

÷

=

¸

1, 2,

1

2

,

1

3

, 3, 4,

3

2

,

2

3

,

1

4

,

1

5

, 5, 6,

5

2

, . . .

¸

.

Hence, Q

∗

÷

is denumerable.

Exercise 34. Prove that Q is denumerable.

Exercise 35. Prove that a countable union of countable sets is countable.

Exercise 36. Prove that a ﬁnite product of countable sets is countable.

It turns out that countable products of ﬁnite sets need not be countable;

this will be shown in Exercises 54 and 55.

Deﬁnition37. The set of algebraic numbers is the union of the real solution

sets of all polynomial equations (in one variable) with integer coefﬁcients.

Exercise 38. Prove that the set of algebraic numbers is denumerable.

5. Uncountable Sets.

To complete this chapter we will consider uncountable sets. Yes, they

do exist; that is, there are different orders of inﬁnity!

Deﬁnition 39. A set S is uncountable iff S is not countable.

So, every set is exactly one of the following properties: ﬁnite or

denumerable or uncountable. The existence of uncountable sets is shown

next. The proof below is again due to Georg Cantor in 1891.

Section 5. Uncountable Sets 113

Theorem 40. The subset [0, 1] ⊂ R is uncountable.

Proof. Assume that [0, 1] is countable. Then we can list the elements of

[0, 1] as

[0, 1] = { r

1

, r

2

, r

3

, . . . }.

Every real number can be written as an inﬁnite decimal; those in [0, 1] can

be written with 0 to the left of the decimal point. Therefore, the elements

of [0, 1] can be written in the form

r

1

= 0.a

1,1

a

1,2

a

1,3

a

1,4

a

1,5

. . .

r

2

= 0.a

2,1

a

2,2

a

2,3

a

2,4

a

2,5

. . .

r

3

= 0.a

3,1

a

3,2

a

3,3

a

3,4

a

3,5

. . .

r

4

= 0.a

4,1

a

4,2

a

4,3

a

4,4

a

4,5

. . .

r

5

= 0.a

5,1

a

5,2

a

5,3

a

5,4

a

5,5

. . .

.

.

.

where the a

i, j

’s are the j

th

decimal places of r

i

. Deﬁne the number

r = 0.b

1

b

2

b

3

b

4

b

5

. . . where b

n

=

¸

3, if a

n,n

,= 3

4, if a

n,n

= 3

.

Clearly, r ,= r

n

for all n ∈ N since they differ in the n

th

decimal place.

Therefore, r ∈ [0, 1], but r / ∈ { r

1

, r

2

, r

3

, . . . }. This is a contradiction.

**In the sense of cardinality, there are more real numbers between any
**

two given rational numbers than there are rational numbers!

Exercise 41. Prove that R is uncountable.

There are lots of examples of uncountable sets. With the following

six exercises, we will show that all nonempty open intervals (including R)

have the same cardinality, and are therefore uncountable.

Exercise 42. Prove that R and (0, 1) have the same cardinality.

Exercise 43. Prove that R and (0, ÷∞) have the same cardinality.

Exercise 44. Prove that, for all real numbers a, (a, ÷∞) and (0, ÷∞)

have the same cardinality.

114 Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets

Exercise 45. Prove that, for all real numbers a, (−∞, −a) and (a, ÷∞)

have the same cardinality.

Exercise 46. Prove that, for all real numbers a and b with a < b, (a, b)

and (0, 1) have the same cardinality.

Exercise 47. Prove that all nonempty open intervals have the same cardi-

nality.

In fact, all nonempty and non-singleton intervals are uncountable and

have the same cardinality.

Exercise 48. Prove that (0, 1), [0, 1), (0, 1] and [0, 1] have the same

cardinality.

Exercise 49. Prove that all nonempty and non-singleton intervals have the

same cardinality.

Recall that a number is irrational if it is not rational. That is, the set

of irrational numbers is R −Q.

Exercise 50. Prove that the set of irrational numbers is uncountable.

Recall that a number is transcendental if it is not algebraic.

Exercise 51. Prove that the set of transcendental numbers is uncountable.

The next three exercises show that uncountable sets naturally arise

from countable processes. First, we must deﬁne products of inﬁnite collec-

tions of sets. In Section 2 of Chapter 5, we deﬁned ﬁnite products. Actually,

we only considered products of two sets and R

3

, a product of three sets;

this is easily generalized to ﬁnite products.

A collection, S, of sets is indexed by a set K if

S = { S

k

[ k ∈ K } .

In an indexed collection, the elements need not be distinct; that is, an

indexed collection may not be a set. For example,

{ Z [ k ∈ N }

is an indexed collection consisting of denumerably many copies of Z.

Section 5. Uncountable Sets 115

Deﬁnition52. Suppose S = { S

k

[ k ∈ K } is a collectionof sets indexedby

a set K. The product of the sets in S is the set of all functions f : K →∪S

with f (k) ∈ S

k

for all k ∈ K.

Suppose S is a set of sets; every set in S appears exactly once. In this

case, we can think of the product of the sets in S as the set of all functions

f : S → ∪S with f (S) ∈ S for all S ∈ S. You may think of this as S

being indexed by S since S is a set. As long as you distinguish multiple

occurrences of a set S in S, you can do this.

As for notation, we use

¸

k∈K

S

k

or

¸

S∈S

S

to denote the product of the sets in S. Some mathematicians call this a

direct product and some use the notation

×

k∈K

S

k

or

×

S∈S

S.

It is one of the most amazing facts in mathematics that the product

of inﬁnitely many non-empty sets cannot generally be proven non-empty

except by using the Axiom of Choice. The notation

Y

X

=

¸

x∈X

Y

is also commonly used for the set of all functions from X to Y.

Example 53. The collection S = { S

1

, S

2

} is indexed by Z

2

. By deﬁnition,

¸

k∈Z

2

S

k

is the set of all functions f : { 1, 2 } → S

1

∪ S

2

with f (k) ∈ S

k

for both k ∈ Z

2

. That is, for k = 1, 2, an element of the product depends

on elements s

1

= f (1) ∈ S

1

and s

2

= f (2) ∈ S

2

. We can think of this

as the ordered pair (s

1

, s

2

). Of course, this is a generic element of S

1

S

2

according to Deﬁnition 1 of Chapter 5.

In light of Example 53, though this is not technically correct, when K

is a ﬁnite set such as K = Z

n

= { 1, 2, . . . , n }, then we write

S

1

S

2

· · · S

n

=

¸

k∈Z

n

S

k

.

We ask you to believe that this is not circular: products of collections of

sets are deﬁned in terms of functions that are deﬁned in terms of products

of two sets.

116 Chapter 7. Cardinality of Sets

Exercise 54. Let S = { 0, 1 } and let P =

¸

n∈N

S = S S S . . . . (P

is a denumerable product of copies of S.) Prove that P is uncountable.

Exercise 55. Prove that the denumerable product of ﬁnite sets, each with

two or more elements, is uncountable.

Exercise 56. Prove that the power set of N is uncountable.

Moreover, P(N) and R have the same cardinality. The proof of this

depends on showing that every element of (0, 1) has a (unique) binary rep-

resentation, corresponding to a sequence of 0’s and 1’s (which corresponds

to an element of P(N) as suggested by the hint for Exercise 56).

The following result is often called Cantor’s Theorem.

Exercise 57. Let S be a nonempty set. Prove that the power set P(S) and

S do not have the same cardinality.

Remark. It is interesting to note that it is not clear, from what we have

done here, whether there exists an uncountable subset of R that does not

have the same cardinality as R. The rejection of this possibility is called

the Continuum Hypothesis. It turns out that, as is true for the Axiom of

Choice, the Continuum Hypothesis is an independent axiom; that is, both

its acceptance and its rejection are consistent with our usual set of axioms.

117

PART III

CONSTRUCTION OF

NUMBER SYSTEMS

118

Chapter 8

Algebra of Number Systems

1. Primary Properties of Number Systems.

The goal of Part III is to construct the familiar sets of numbers, together

with the usual arithmetic operations and the usual ordering. We do this by

starting with known concepts from set theory. The empty set will give us

our starting number, zero. Fromzero, we use set theoretic tools to construct

the natural numbers. Zero and the natural numbers lead us to the integers,

then to the rational numbers, then to the real numbers and, ﬁnally, to the

complex numbers. This succession of constructions creates each new set

such that it extends the previous set.

In each construction, except the complex numbers, a total ordering

will be given. Indeed, we will see that there is no ordering of the complex

numbers that extends the properties of the ordering of the real numbers.

In each construction, we will also have two operations, addition and

multiplication. We have already made precise what it means for ≤ to be

a total ordering (or, equivalently, what it means for < to be a strict total

ordering) in Section 2 of Chapter 6. The following deﬁnition makes precise

what it means to have an operation like addition or multiplication.

Deﬁnition 1. Abinary operation on a set X is a function : X X → X.

For x

1

, x

2

∈ X, we denote (x

1

, x

2

) by x

1

x

2

.

We will call a binary operation, more simply, an operation. Some

mathematicians prefer binary operator or operator. You should recognize

addition and multiplication as operations. Notice the comment on notation

in the deﬁnition of operation: the functional notation for addition, ÷(x, y),

looks strange compared with the more natural x ÷ y.

Remark 2. We always use the symbol ÷ to denote addition. We also will

follow the usual conventions by writing multiplication in numerous ways:

x · y = x y = (x)(y) = xy.

The usual order of operations applies: multiplications have priority over

additions. Hence, x ÷ yz = x ÷(yz) and (usually!) x ÷ yz ,= (x ÷ y)z.

Section 1. Primary Properties of Number Systems 119

Remark 3. Consider the following properties on a set X with addition and

multiplication operations:

(A0) Closure of Addition: for all x, y ∈ X, x ÷ y ∈ X

(M0) Closure of Multiplication: for all x, y ∈ X, xy ∈ X

The closure properties are often listed as special properties of addition and

multiplication. Since we have deﬁned operations as functions from X X

to X, the closure properties are redundant. That is,

÷ : X X → X and · : X X → X

are functions. Therefore, if x, y ∈ X, then (x, y) ∈ X X and, hence,

÷(x, y) ∈ X and · (x, y) ∈ X.

This notation is clumsy and we revert to the usual notation for addition and

multiplication:

x ÷y = ÷(x, y) and xy = ·(x, y).

In this chapter and throughout Part III of this text, we will concern

ourselves with the algebraic properties of addition and multiplication op-

erations on totally ordered sets of numbers.

Deﬁnitions 4 and 8, given below, mimic the familiar properties of the

real numbers. You should pay careful attention to the properties given in

these deﬁnitions. We will not give the most general deﬁnitions for the

terms being deﬁned, which are ﬁeld and ordered ﬁeld, since we are only

interested in whether our constructions satisfy the individual properties.

Deﬁnition4. Aset X withtwooperations, ÷and·, is a ﬁeld iff the following

properties are satisﬁed, for all x, y, z ∈ X:

(AC) Commutativity of Addition:

x ÷ y = y ÷ x

(AA) Associativity of Addition:

(x ÷ y) ÷ z = x ÷(y ÷ z)

(AZ) Existence of a Unique Additive Identity:

there exists a unique 0 ∈ X such that 0 ÷ x = x ÷0 = x

(AI) Existence of Unique Additive Inverses:

there exists a unique −x ∈ X such that x ÷(−x) = (−x) ÷x = 0

(MC) Commutativity of Multiplication:

xy = yx

(MA) Associativity of Multiplication:

(xy)z = x(yz)

(MU) Existence of a Unique Multiplicative Identity:

120 Chapter 8. Algebra of Number Systems

there exists a unique 1 ∈ X, with 1 ,= 0, such that 1x = x1 = x

(MI) Existence of Unique Multiplicative Inverses:

if x ,= 0, there exists a unique x

−1

∈ X suchthat xx

−1

= x

−1

x = 1

(DP) Distributive Properties:

(x ÷ y)z = xz ÷ yz and x(y ÷ z) = xy ÷ xz

The two letters between parentheses before each property name should

be suggestive of the name of the property. For example, (AC) stands for

Addition is Commutative. The additive identity of a ﬁeld is often called a

zero and the multiplicative identity of a ﬁeld is often called a unity: (AZ)

refers to Zero and (MU) refers to Unity.

Remark 5. According to Deﬁnition 4, 0 ,= 1 in a ﬁeld. Suppose all of

the other ﬁeld properties hold and 0 = 1; it will follow from Exercise 20,

which shows that multiplication by 0 yields 0, that X = { 0 } since, for all

x ∈ X,

x = 1x = 0x = 0.

To avoid this trivial case, most authors include the property that 0 ,= 1 in

their deﬁnitions of ﬁeld, as we have done in (MU).

Remark6. Notice that the twoDistributive Properties, if writtenas follows,

might be called Factoring Properties:

xz ÷ yz = (x ÷ y)z and xy ÷ xz = x(y ÷ z).

Remark 7. Notice that if X has a commutative multiplication, then the

two Distributive Properties are equivalent. These are often called the left

and right distributive properties. Such choices are arbitrary and are not

made consistently. In our constructions of N, Z, etc., we will always have

a commutative multiplication. Similar remarks are in order for identity

elements and inverses. One can deﬁne things like left identity and right

inverse; for a commutative operation, lefts and rights are equal and we

simply call them identity and inverse, respectively.

Next, we add an ordering to the mix.

Deﬁnition 8. A ﬁeld X with a total ordering < is an ordered ﬁeld iff the

following properties are satisﬁed, for all x, y, z ∈ X:

(PP) Product of Positives:

if x > 0 and y > 0, then xy > 0

(IX) Additive Cancellation in Inequalities:

if x ÷ y < x ÷ z, then y < z

Remark 9. Consider property (IX). That y < z implies x ÷ y < x ÷ z

should strike you as obvious. But how do we know this? Perhaps you

Section 1. Primary Properties of Number Systems 121

would say that this is just “substitution.” We need not appeal to an Axiom

of Substitution; in Exercise 25, we prove this type of substitution is implied

by two kinds of cancellation properties.

Remark 10. Any element z that satisﬁes z ÷ x = x ÷ z = x for all

x ∈ X is called an additive identity of X. Any element y that satisﬁes

y ÷ x = x ÷ y = 0 for all x ∈ X is called an additive inverse of x in

X. Property (AZ) of a ﬁeld guarantees the existence of a unique additive

identity and property (AI) guarantees the existence of a unique additive

inverse for every element of the ﬁeld. The uniqueness actually follows

from the existence according to the following two propositions.

Proposition 11. If a set X with addition has an additive identity, then this

identity is unique.

Proof. Assume that there exist two distinct additive identities 0 and 0

/

.

Then

0

/

= 0

/

÷0 = 0.

Hence, 0

/

= 0. Contradiction! Therefore, 0 is the unique additive identity.

**The proof of Proposition 11 is a standard proof for many kinds of
**

identity elements. It is sometimes described as “letting the two identities

ﬁght it out.” The uniqueness of inverses is similarly proved by letting two

inverses ﬁght it out. You should compare this with Exercise 47 and 52 of

Chapter 5.

Proposition 12. Suppose X is a set with addition satisfying properties

(AA) and (AZ). If x ∈ X has an additive inverse, then this inverse is

unique.

Proof. Assume that −x and x

/

are distinct additive inverses of x. Then

x

/

= x

/

÷0 = x

/

÷(x ÷(−x)) = (x

/

÷ x) ÷(−x) = 0 ÷(−x) = −x.

So x

/

= −x. Contradiction! Therefore, −x is the unique additive inverse

of x.

The existence of multiplicative identity and multiplicative inverses (of

nonzero elements) similarly implies their uniqueness.

Exercise 13. Prove that if a set X with multiplication has an multiplicative

identity, then this identity is unique.

122 Chapter 8. Algebra of Number Systems

Exercise 14. Suppose X is a set with multiplication satisfying properties

(MA) and (MU). Prove that if x ∈ X has a multiplicative inverse, then this

inverse is unique.

As we indicated above, it is not our purpose to study ﬁelds or ordered

ﬁelds in their full generality. You may already have realized that N and

Z are not ordered ﬁelds. So we will really study sets with addition and

multiplication operations and, possibly, a total ordering that satisfy some,

but not necessarily all, of the properties listed in this section.

2. Secondary Properties Involving Addition and Multiplication.

One of the most useful aspects of algebra is that the properties char-

acterize the structures, as suggested by the attempt, in the deﬁnition of

ordered ﬁeld, to characterize R. Moreover, the properties themselves may

be used to prove other properties, without ever using any direct knowledge

about the sets or operations involved.

We will consider a few secondary properties. At ﬁrst, we will assume

that X has only those properties—mostly primary properties—indicated.

Later we will simply let X be a ﬁeld or an ordered ﬁeld. We could give a

minimal list of conditions that imply the desired conclusion; however, there

may exist two or more distinct minimal lists. That is, a sufﬁcient condition

may not be necessary. (See the comments after Exercise 16.)

The following three properties depend only on addition.

Remark15. Suppose that X has an addition operation and that x, y, z ∈ X.

The following seems reasonable:

if y = z, then x ÷ y = x ÷ z.

You may regard this as a kind of substitution: z is substituted for y. How-

ever, you can also reason as follows: x = x and y = z imply (x, y) =

(x, z), which implies, since addition is a function, that x ÷ y = x ÷ z.

Similarly, if y = z, then y ÷ x = z ÷ x. These properties are sometimes

referred to as Adding Equals to Equals.

The converse of Adding Equals to Equals, for example, that x ÷ y =

x ÷z implies y = z, is called Cancellation; compare it with property (IX).

This property requires proof.

Exercise 16: (AX) Additive Cancellation in Equations.

Suppose X is a set with addition satisfying properties (AA), (AZ), and (AI).

(a) Prove that x ÷ y = x ÷ z if and only if y = z for all x, y, z ∈ X.

(b) Prove that y ÷ x = z ÷ x if and only if y = z for all x, y, z ∈ X.

In proving Exercise 16, you used additive inverses. Consider for a

moment whether additive cancellation holds in N. Of course, for y ∈ N,

Section 2. Secondary Properties Involving Addition and Multiplication 123

5 ÷ y = 5 ÷ z seems to imply that y = z. We will prove this is true in

Chapter 10. The proof will be very different from your proof of Exercise

16 since there are no additive inverses in N: for example, −5 / ∈ N. As we

noted at the beginning of this section, the conditions we give are not, in

general, necessary and sufﬁcient.

The next exercise gives a familiar property about double negatives.

Exercise 17: Double Additive Inverses.

Suppose X is a set with addition satisfying properties (AA), (AZ), and (AI).

Prove that, for all x ∈ X,

−(−x) = x.

If your proof of Exercise 17 followed the technique of making two

inverses ﬁght it out, then you gave the expected proof. However, there is

another proof that does not require (AA)! Notice that (AI) says that −x is

the unique inverse of x in X if and only if

x ÷(−x) = (−x) ÷ x = 0.

This same condition indicates that x is the unique inverse of −x in X. What

is −(−x)?

The following two properties depend only on multiplication and are

similar to the previous properties of addition except for the avoidance of

multiplication by 0.

Exercise 18: (MX) Multiplicative Cancellation in Equations.

Suppose X is a set with multiplication satisfying properties (MA), (MU),

and (MI).

(a) Prove that xy = xz if and only if y = z for all x, y, z ∈ X with x ,= 0.

(b) Prove that yx = zx if and only if y = z for all x, y, z ∈ X with x ,= 0.

In the proof of Exercise 18, you should have noticed that one direction

of the equivalences is easy; these are often referred to as Multiplying

Equals by Equals.

Exercise 19: Double Multiplicative Inverses.

Suppose X is a set with multiplication satisfying properties (MA), (MU),

and (MI). Prove that, for all x ∈ X with x ,= 0,

(x

−1

)

−1

= x.

Try to prove this without using (MA).

124 Chapter 8. Algebra of Number Systems

The remaining properties in this section use both addition and multi-

plication. The next property is the last one that we list depending on only

some of the properties of a ﬁeld.

In(MI) we consider multiplicative inverses of nonzeroelements. Does

0 have a multiplicative inverse? Can x

−1

= 0? The next exercise addresses

these issues.

Exercise 20: Multiplication by 0.

Suppose that X is a set with addition and multiplication satisfying properties

(AZ), (AX) and (DP). Prove that, for all x ∈ X,

0x = x0 = 0.

Since 1 ,= 0, 0 has no multiplicative inverse. Also, a multiplicative

inverse cannot equal 0. In a ﬁeld X, since all of the assumed properties

hold, 0x = x0 = 0 for all x ∈ X. Consider the following statement, the

converse of Exercise 20.

Exercise 21: 0 Product Property.

Suppose that X is a ﬁeld. Prove that, for all x, y ∈ X,

if xy = 0, then x = 0 or y = 0.

In a ﬁeld X, the following are equivalent for all x, y ∈ X:

• if x ,= 0 and y ,= 0, then xy ,= 0 ,

• if x ,= 0 and xy = 0, then y = 0 for all x, y ∈ X,

• if y ,= 0 and xy = 0, then x = 0 for all x, y ∈ X.

Combining the Multiplication by 0 and the 0 Product Properties, we see

that in a ﬁeld X, for all x, y ∈ X,

xy = 0 if and only if x = 0 or y = 0.

The following two properties depend on the Uniqueness of Additive

Inverses.

Exercise 22: Factoring a Minus Property.

Suppose that X is a ﬁeld. Prove that, for all x, y ∈ X,

(−x)y = x(−y) = −(xy).

Section 3. Secondary Properties Involving Order 125

Exercise 23: Product of Negatives Property.

Suppose that X is a ﬁeld. Prove that, for all x, y ∈ X,

(−x)(−y) = xy.

3. Secondary Properties Involving Order.

The properties in this section involve operations, addition and multi-

plication, as well as an order relation.

Given an ordering, <or ≤, on a set X, we have three transitive relations

on X: <, ≤, and =. (Recall, from Exercise 14 of Chapter 6, that we can

always derive < from ≤ or vice versa.) The following proposition may

seem obvious by “substitution,” but we can prove it.

Proposition 24. Suppose X is a set with a strict partial ordering < and

x, y, z ∈ X. If x < y and y = z, then x < z.

Proof. By the deﬁnition of ≤, x < y implies x ≤ y and y = z implies

y ≤ z. Hence, by transitivity of ≤, x ≤ z.

Assume that x = z. By symmetry of =, z = y. By transitivity of =,

x = y. However, x < y, contradicting the trichotomy of <. Hence, x ,= z.

Therefore, x < z.

Since the preceding proposition involves both an order relation (<) and

an equivalence relation (=), it is not simply a transitive property. Similar

properties, involving other permutations of <, ≤, and =, are given in

Exercise 51.

The following property is the converse of property (L2) Additive Can-

cellation in Inequalities. It is more complicated than the property of Adding

Equals to Both Sides of an Equation.

Exercise 25: Adding Equals to Both Sides of an Inequality.

Suppose that X is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that, for all x, y, z ∈ X,

if y < z, then x ÷ y < x ÷ z.

In the following exercises, we explore the dualities between less than

and negative and between greater than and positive.

Exercise 26: Negation Reverses Order Property.

Suppose that X is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that

x > 0 if and only if −x < 0 for all x ∈ X.

126 Chapter 8. Algebra of Number Systems

Exercise 27: Product by Positive Preserves Order Property.

Suppose that X is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that

if x > 0 and y < z, then xy < xz for all x, y, z ∈ X.

Exercise 28: Product by Negative Reverses Order Property.

Suppose that X is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that

if x < 0 and y < z, then xy > xz for all x, y, z ∈ X.

Exercise 29: Squares of Nonzero Numbers are Positive.

Suppose that X is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that

if x ,= 0, then x

2

= xx > 0 for all x ∈ X.

Exercise 30: Multiplicative Inverses Reverse Order Property.

Suppose that X is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that

if y > x > 0, then 0 < y

−1

< x

−1

for all x, y ∈ X.

4. Isomorphisms and Embeddings.

In mathematics, one often studies structures which are the same in

all respects except for the names of the elements, relations, operations,

etc. which deﬁne them. Such structures are called isomorphic structures.

To better understand what kind of structure we are referring to, consider R

as the underlying set of our structure with the order relation and operations

of addition and multiplication providing the structure.

Consider the following deﬁnition.

Deﬁnition 31. Let X and Y be totally ordered sets together with addition

and multiplication. We denote the strict orderings by < and the operations

by ÷ and for both X and Y. X and Y are isomorphic structures iff there

exists a bijective function f : X → Y, called an isomorphism, satisfying

the following three conditions for all x

1

, x

2

∈ X:

x

1

< x

2

if and only if f (x

1

) < f (x

2

),

f (x

1

÷ x

2

) = f (x

1

) ÷ f (x

2

),

f (x

1

x

2

) = f (x

1

) f (x

2

).

We call the three conditions in the deﬁnition of an isomorphism

order-preserving, addition-preserving, and multiplication-preserving, re-

spectively. Taken collectively, we say that an isomorphism is structure-

preserving.

Section 4. Isomorphisms and Embeddings 127

The following example and the discussion and exercises following it

should shed some light on the nature of isomorphisms.

Example 32. Let E be the set of even integers. Deﬁne a function f : Z →

E by f (n) = 2n. f is clearly bijective. f is order- and addition-preserving

since

m < n if and only if f (m) = 2m < 2n = f (n)

and f (m ÷n) = 2(m ÷n) = 2m ÷2n = f (m) ÷ f (n).

However, f is not multiplication-preserving since f (1 · 1) = f (1) = 2

while f (1) · f (1) = 2 · 2 = 4. Note that this shows that f is not an

isomorphism; it does not show that Z is not isomorphic to E using some

other function as an isomorphism.

The following exercise lists some of the many ways that isomorphisms

preserve structure.

Exercise 33. Suppose that X and Y are sets together with addition and mul-

tiplication (no order relations are assumed here). Suppose that f : X →Y

is an isomorphism, that is, a bijection which preserves addition and multi-

plication. Prove each of the following:

(a) If 0 is the additive identity in X, then f (0) is the additive identity in Y.

(b) If 1 is the multiplicative identity in X, then f (1) is the multiplicative

identity in Y.

(c) If −x is the additive inverse of x in X, then f (−x) is the additive inverse

of f (x) in Y.

(d) If x

−1

is the multiplicative inverse of x in X, then f (x

−1

) is the multi-

plicative inverse of f (x) in Y.

Results such as those of the previous exercise are useful in showing

that structures are not isomorphic.

Example 34. We know that 1 is the multiplicative identity of Z. Does E

have a multiplicative identity? Since 1 / ∈ E, the answer appears to be no.

However, this does not prove it since another element of E could be the

multiplicative identity.

Assume n ∈ E is the multiplicative identity in E. Therefore, 2n = 2.

Since 2, n ∈ E and E ⊂ Z, 2, n ∈ Z. In Z, 2 = 2(1). Hence, 2n = 2(1)

and, by Multiplicative Cancellation, n = 1. This implies that 1 ∈ E, a

contradiction. (We will check that all necessary properties of Z hold in

Chapter 11.)

Exercise 35. Prove that Z is not isomorphic to E.

128 Chapter 8. Algebra of Number Systems

Since we think of isomorphic structures as the same, the following

idea is natural.

Exercise 36. Consider “is isomorphic to” as a relation on a collection of

sets with addition and multiplication. Prove that this is an equivalence

relation.

The equivalence classes for the relation in Exercise 36 are called iso-

morphism classes.

Consider the following deﬁnition.

Deﬁnition 37. Let X and Y be totally ordered sets together with addition

and multiplication. X is embedded in Y if there exists Z ⊂ Y and an

isomorphism f : X → Z. The function g : X → Y deﬁned by g(x) =

f (x) is called an embedding.

Notice that an embedding is a one-to-one function that is order-pre-

serving, addition-preserving, and multiplication-preserving. We could

have done this differently by deﬁning an embedding this way. Then the

existence of the isomorphism f : X → g(X) is assured. (You should

verify this.)

Supplemental Exercises 129

Supplemental Exercises

Exercise 38. Give reasons for every step in the proof of Proposition 11.

Exercise 39. Give reasons for every step in the proof of Proposition 12.

Exercise 40. In Exercise 20, we essentially showed that the distributive

properties imply 0x = x0 = 0. Consider the two distributive properties

separately. Which one implies that 0x = 0 and which one implies x0 = 0?

Exercise 41. Suppose that X = { 0 }. How many different operations can

you ﬁnd on X? Deﬁne addition and multiplication on X in the obvious

way. Verify that X with this addition and multiplication is a ﬁeld.

Exercise 42. Before continuing beyond this chapter, use your knowledge

of the sets N, Z

÷

, Z, Q, R, and C to complete the following table. For

each set, with the usual addition, multiplication, and ordering, write Yes

or No for each property of an ordered ﬁeld. For every No, try to give

a reason or counterexample. (For example, N does not satisfy property

A3, the existence of an additive identity, since 0 / ∈ N and Z does not

satisfy property M4, the existence of multiplicative inverses, since 2 has no

multiplicative inverse in Z.)

Property N Z

÷

Z Q R C

(AC) Commutative Addition

(AA) Associative Addition

(AZ) Additive Identity 0

(AI) Additive Inverses

(MC) Commutative Multiplication

(MA) Associative Multiplication

(MU) Multiplicative Identity 1

(MI) Multiplicative Inverses

(DP) Distributive Properties

(IX) Cancellation in Inequalities

(PP) Product of Positives

Exercise 43. Let X be the set of all 2 2 matrices with real entries. Using

ordinary addition and multiplication of matrices, determine which of the

properties of a ﬁeld hold. (Check each property for addition, (AC), (AA),

(AZ), and (AI), for multiplication, (MC), (MA), (MU), and (MI), and the

distributive properties (DP).)

Exercise 44. Suppose X has addition and multiplication operations. Prove

that if multiplication is commutative, then the First Distributive Property is

equivalent to the Second Distributive Property.

130 Chapter 8. Algebra of Number Systems

Exercise 45. Explain why a multiplication operation is closed. Explain

why any binary operation is closed.

Exercise 46. Prove that in a ﬁeld X, (−1)x = x(−1) = −x for all x ∈ X.

Exercise 47. Suppose that Z

3

= { 1, 2, 3 } and addition and multiplication

are deﬁned by the following tables.

÷ 1 2 3

1 2 3 1

2 3 1 2

3 1 2 3

· 1 2 3

1 1 2 3

2 2 1 3

3 3 3 3

Prove that Z

3

is a ﬁeld.

Exercise 48. Consider the ﬁeld Z

3

from Exercise 47. Prove that the only

ﬁeld automorphism of Z

3

is the identity function, I

Z

3

.

Exercise 49. Suppose that V = { 0, 1, a, b } andadditionandmultiplication

are deﬁned by the following tables.

÷ 0 1 a b

0 0 1 a b

1 1 0 b a

a a b 0 1

b b a 1 0

0 1 a b

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 a b

a 0 a a 0

b 0 b 0 b

Is V a ﬁeld? If not, indicate all properties in the deﬁnition of a ﬁeld that

fail.

Exercise 50. Consider V = { 0, 1, a, b } with the addition and multiplica-

tion operations given in Exercise 49. Prove that the function f : V → V

deﬁned by f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1, f (a) = b and f (b) = a is an automor-

phism; i.e., the two operations are preserved.

Exercise 51. Suppose X is a set with a partial ordering ≤ and x, y, z ∈ X.

(a) Prove that if x = y and y < z, then x < z.

(b) Prove that if x < y and y ≤ z, then x < z.

(c) Prove that if x ≤ y and y < z, then x < z.

(d) Prove that if x ≤ y and y = z, then x ≤ z.

(e) Prove that if x = y and y ≤ z, then x ≤ z.

Exercise 52. Suppose F is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that, for all x, y ∈ F,

x < y if and only if −y < −x.

Exercise 53. Suppose X is an ordered ﬁeld. Prove that if 0 ,= 1, then

1 > 0.

Exercise 54. Suppose X is a ﬁeld. Prove that −(x ÷ y) = (−x) ÷(−y).

131

Chapter 9

Archimedean Ordered Fields

1. The Main Goal and Archimedean Principle.

In constructing the number systems, we will check which of the prop-

erties of an ordered ﬁeld are satisﬁed and whether the least upper bound

property is satisﬁed. As we progress towards the real numbers, the newcon-

structs will possess more of these properties than their predecessors. This

culminates in the construction of the real numbers; the complex numbers

form an interesting digression or continuation, depending on your personal

point of view.

The main goal of Part III of this text is to prove the following theorem,

which is proved in Section 5 of Chapter 13.

Main Theorem (Theorem 28 of Chapter 13): The Uniqeness of R.

There exists, up to isomorphism, a unique ordered ﬁeld with the least upper

bound property.

By “unique up to isomorphism” we mean unique isomorphism class.

From the constructions, we will see that R, with the usual ordering and

operations, is the ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

Let us now prove two important properties of ordered ﬁelds with the

least upper bound property. Let F be an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper

bound property. We denote the sets of natural, integral and rational ﬁeld

elements of F, respectively, by

F

N

= { m ∈ F [ m = 1 ÷1 ÷· · · ÷1 for ﬁnitely many 1’s } ,

F

Z

= { m ∈ F [ m = 0 or m ∈ F

N

or −m ∈ F

N

} , and

F

Q

=

¸

mn

−1

[ m ∈ F

Z

and n ∈ F

N

¸

.

The following result is usually called the Archimedean Principle.

Theorem1. Let F be an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

If x, y ∈ F and x > 0, then there exists n ∈ F

N

such that nx > y.

0

2x x 3x mx

y s s-x

(m+1)x

132 Chapter 9. Archimedean Ordered Fields

Figure 2: The set S in the proof of Theorem 1

Proof. Let S = { nx [ n ∈ F

N

}. Since x ∈ S, S is nonempty. Assume

that nx ≤ y for all n ∈ F

N

. Then y is an upper bound of S. Since F has

the least upper bound property, S has a least upper bound, s. Now x > 0

implies s − x < s. Thus, s − x is not an upper bound of S. Hence, there

exists m ∈ F

N

such that s − x < mx. Therefore, s < (m ÷ 1)x. This

contradicts the fact that s is an upper bound of S.

The Archimedean Principle is intimately related to the fact that the

natural numbers are not bounded.

Exercise 3. Let F be an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

Prove that F

N

is not bounded.

The following corollary of the Archimedean Principle is a useful,

stronger version of the Archimedean Principle.

Corollary 4. Let F be an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

If x, y ∈ F and x > 0, then there exists m ∈ F

Z

such that

mx ≤ y < (m ÷1)x.

Proof. By the Archimedean Principle, there exists q ∈ F

N

such that qx >

y. Next, we show that there exists p ∈ F

Z

such that px < y. Consider two

cases: either y ≥ 0 or y < 0.

Case 1. If y ≥ 0, then −x < 0 ≤ y. Set p = −1 so that px < y.

Case 2. If y ≥ 0, then, by the Archimedean Principle, there exists n ∈ F

N

such that nx > −y. Hence, (−n)x < y. Set p = −n so that px < y.

So, there exist p, q ∈ F

Z

with p < 0 and q > 0 such that

px < y < qx.

Consider the set

S = { n ∈ F

Z

[ n ≥ p and nx ≤ y } .

S is nonempty since p ∈ S. If n ∈ S, then nx < y < qx and, hence,

n < q. So q is an upper bound of S and S is a ﬁnite set. Since a ﬁnite,

totally ordered set has a greatest element, let m be the greatest element of

Section 1. The Main Goal and Archimedean Principle 133

S. Since m ∈ S, mx ≤ y. Since m÷1 > m, m÷1 / ∈ S. So (m÷1)x ,≤ y.

Therefore, mx ≤ y < (m ÷1)x.

Exercise 5. Let F be an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

If x, y ∈ F and x < 0, then there exists m ∈ F

N

such that mx ≤ y <

(m −1)x.

For the following theorem, we sometimes say “the rational ﬁeld set

F

Q

is dense in the ﬁeld F.”

Theorem6. Let F be an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

If x, y ∈ F and x < y, then there exists r ∈ F

Q

such that x < r < y.

Proof. We will use the Archimedean Principle and Corollary 4 to produce

m, n ∈ F

N

so that mn

−1

is the desired element r of F

Q

.

Since x < y, y − x > 0. By the Archimedean Principle, there exists

n ∈ F

N

such that n(y − x) > 1. Thus,

nx ÷1 < ny. (7)

By Corollary 4, there exists m ∈ F

Z

such that m −1 ≤ nx < m. Hence,

m ≤ nx ÷1 and nx < m. (8)

Putting together the inequalities in (7) and (8) yields

nx < m ≤ nx ÷1 < ny.

Therefore nx < m < ny and multiplying all three terms by n

−1

gives the

desired result:

x < mn

−1

< y.

134

Chapter 10

The Natural Numbers

1. Introduction.

We nowbegin a long journey. We have used numbers (natural, integer,

rational, and real) in the previous chapters. A fundamental question is to

ask if these objects that we have been using even exist. One must go to

the very foundation of our axiomatic system to answer this fundamental

question. In our journey we will not quite go back to the beginning; instead

we will take a more na¨ıve approach and assume certain constructions are

already known to be realizable in our axiomatic development. The ﬁrst

such na¨ıve construction is the immediate successor of a set.

The following collection of “axioms” will be helpful. Depending on

where we start in our development of set theory, these statements can be

proved.

Theorem 1(Peano Axioms). (1) ∅ exists.

(2) For every n ∈ Z

÷

, there exists Succ(n) = n ∪ { n } ∈ Z

÷

.

(3) For every n ∈ Z

÷

, 0 ,= Succ(n).

(4) For every m, n ∈ Z

÷

, if m ,= n, then Succ(m) ,= Succ(n).

(5) If S ⊂ Z

÷

, 0 ∈ Z

÷

, and, for every n ∈ Z

÷

, Succ(n) ∈ S, then S = Z

÷

.

Deﬁnition 2. The immediate successor of a set S is the set S ∪ { S }. The

immediate successor of S will be denoted by Succ(S).

In our construction, we will actually start with 0. While we do not

regard 0 as a natural number, it will be more natural for our construction to

do this. In effect, we will construct the set { 0 } ∪N which we have decided

to call Z

÷

. In the developement of numbers, the natural numbers came into

use ﬁrst; the number 0 did not come into use until much later. The notion

of constructing the numbers is far more recent yet; it is due to the work in

set theory initiated in the nineteenth century by Georg Cantor and others.

The second na¨ıve notion will be the principle of induction. Here, since

we do not yet have the set N of natural numbers, we will use induction to

prove a sequence of statements P(k) where

k = n, Succ(n), Succ(Succ(n)), . . . .

Section 2. Zero, the Natural Numbers and Addition 135

That is, we prove the “ﬁrst” step P(n) and prove the inductive implication

P(k) implies P(Succ(k)).

2. Zero, the Natural Numbers and Addition.

First we deﬁne 0.

Deﬁnition 3. Let 0 be ∅.

Next we use the immediate successor of a set to deﬁne the natural

numbers inductively; this is another incidence of our na¨ıvet´ e.

Deﬁnition 4. Let 1 be Succ(0), 2 be Succ(1), 3 be Succ(2), 4 be Succ(3)

and so on. The set of all of the numbers constructed in this way is N, the

set of natural numbers.

So you may have started to compile a list that looks something like

the following:

0 = ∅

1 = 0 ∪ { 0 } = { ∅}

2 = 1 ∪ { 1 } = { ∅, { ∅} }

3 = 2 ∪ { 2 } = { ∅, { ∅}, { ∅, { ∅} } }

. . .

Unfortunately, having done this will not help us in the development of the

natural numbers.

Deﬁnition 5. Let n ∈ N. The set of successors of n or descendency set of

n is the subset

Desc(n) = { Succ(n), Succ(Succ(n)), Succ(Succ(Succ(n))), . . . }.

For p ∈ N, we will use the notation Succ

p

(n) to denote the p

th

successor

of n, which is

Succ(. . . (Succ(n)) . . . ),

where the Succ is taken p times.

Note that n / ∈ Desc(n). Otherwise, there would exist p ∈ N such that

n = Succ

p

(n). ............................

Deﬁnition 6. We deﬁne a relation < on N by n < m if and only if m ∈

Desc(n).

Exercise 7. Prove that < is a strict total ordering on N and, in fact, N is

well-ordered.

Using < and the usual rules for a strict total ordering, we can write

n ≤ m, m > n and m ≥ n.

Before deﬁning the operation of addition, we consider a type of inverse

operation to the immediate successor.

136 Chapter 10. The Natural Numbers

Deﬁnition 8. Let n ∈ N. The number m ∈ Z

÷

is the immediate predeces-

sor of n iff the immediate successor of m is n. We denote the immediate

predecessor of n by Pred(n). That is, if the immediate predecessor of n

exists, then n = Succ(Pred(n)).

Lemma 9. For all n ∈ Z

÷

, n = Pred(Succ(n)).

Proof. Consider Pred(Succ(n)). By deﬁnition of the immediate predeces-

sor, it is the number whose immediate successor is Succ(n), that is, n.

**Next we deﬁne addition. The deﬁnition is again inductive.
**

Deﬁnition 10. Let m, n ∈ Z

÷

. Deﬁne m ÷n to be

m ÷n =

¸

m, if n = 0

Succ(m ÷Pred(n)), if n > 0

m ÷n is called the sum of m and n. This deﬁnes addition on Z

÷

.

Lemma 11. For all n ∈ Z

÷

and p ∈ N, n ÷ p = Succ

p

(n). Moreover,

Desc(n) = { n ÷1, n ÷2, n ÷3, . . . }.

Proof. We proceed by induction on p. For p = 1,

n ÷1 = Succ(n ÷Pred(1)) = Succ(n ÷0) = Succ(n).

For the inductive step, assume the inductive hypothesis n ÷ p = Succ

p

(n).

Now

n ÷Succ( p) = Succ(n ÷Pred(Succ( p))) = Succ(n ÷ p)

= Succ(Succ

p

(n)) = Succ

p÷1

(n).

Exercise 12. Prove that, for all m, n ∈ N, m < n if and only if there exists

a unique p ∈ N such that m ÷ p = n.

Let us consider some of the properties of addition in Z

÷

.

Section 2. Zero, the Natural Numbers and Addition 137

Theorem 13. Addition on Z

÷

is associative.

Proof. We wish to prove that for all m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

, (m ÷ n) ÷ p = m ÷

(n÷p). Let m and n be arbitrary elements of Z

÷

. We proceed by induction

on p.

Consider p = 0. By the deﬁnition of addition, (m ÷n) ÷0 = m ÷n

and m÷(n÷0) = m÷n. Since =is an equivalence relation, (m÷n)÷0 =

m ÷(n ÷0).

For the inductive step, we assume the inductive hypothesis

(m ÷n) ÷ p = m ÷(n ÷ p).

Now, by deﬁnition of addition, Lemma 9 and the induction hypothesis,

(m ÷n) ÷Succ( p) = Succ

(m ÷n) ÷Pred

Succ( p)

= Succ

(m ÷n) ÷ p

= Succ

m ÷(n ÷ p)

.

Also, using the deﬁnition of addition twice and Lemma 9 twice,

m ÷(n ÷Succ( p)) = Succ

m ÷Pred

n ÷Succ( p)

= Succ

m ÷Pred

Succ

n ÷Pred

Succ( p)

= Succ

m ÷(n ÷ p)

.

Using the fact that = is an equivalence relation yields the desired result.

**We next wish to show that addition on Z
**

÷

is commutative. Recall that

m ÷0 = m for all m ∈ Z

÷

by deﬁnition of addition. The next exercise is

the ﬁrst step in the proof of commutativity.

Exercise 14. Prove that 0 ÷m = m for all m ∈ Z

÷

.

The following is a corollary.

Exercise 15. Prove that n = Succ

n

(0) for all n ∈ N.

Together with the deﬁnition m ÷0 = m, Exercise 14 shows that 0 is

the additive identity element of Z

÷

. The following exercise justiﬁes use of

the deﬁnite article when we say “the” additive identity.

Exercise 16. Prove that 0 is the unique additive identity element in Z

÷

.

Moreover, N does not have an additive identity.

138 Chapter 10. The Natural Numbers

Exercise 17. Prove that addition on Z

÷

is commutative.

We will refer to the following as the additive cancellation property for

equality.

Exercise 18. Let m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

. Prove that m ÷n = m ÷ p if and only if

n = p.

Next we consider the relationship between the total ordering < and

addition.

Exercise 19. Let m, n ∈ Z

÷

. Prove that m ÷ n = 0 if and only if

m = n = 0.

Exercise 20. Let m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

. Prove that m÷n < m÷ p implies n < p.

We will refer to the previous as the additive cancellation property for

inequality. When we say the cancellation properties for addition, we will

mean both for equalities and for inequalities. Of course, the operation may

change!

3. Multiplication.

Next we tackle multiplication in Z

÷

.

Deﬁnition 21. Let m, n ∈ Z

÷

. Deﬁne mn to be

mn =

¸

0, if n = 0

mPred(n) ÷m, if n > 0

mn is called the product of m and n. This deﬁnes multiplication on Z

÷

.

We next examine the properties of multiplication. Since the deﬁnition

of multiplication resembles the distributive property, it seems the natural

place to start.

Exercise 22. Prove that, for m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

, (m ÷n) p = mp ÷np.

Exercise 23. Prove that 1 is the multiplicative identity for Z

÷

.

Exercise 24. Prove that multiplication on Z

÷

is commutative.

Combining the distributive and commutative properties yields the sec-

ond distributive property: for all m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

, m(n ÷ p) = mn ÷mp.

Section 3. Multiplication 139

Exercise 25. Prove that multiplication on Z

÷

is associative.

Exercise 26. Let m, n ∈ Z

÷

. Prove that mn = 0 if and only if m = 0 or

n = 0.

The following is known as the multiplicative cancellation property.

Theorem 27. Let m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

. Prove that if mn = mp and m ,= 0, then

n = p.

Proof. Assume n ,= p. By trichotomy, either n < p or n > p. First, let

us suppose that n < p. Hence, there exists q ∈ N such that p = n ÷q (by

Exercise 12). Now

mn ÷0 = mn = mp = m(n ÷q) = mn ÷mq.

By additive cancellation, 0 = mq. By Exercise 26, m = 0 or q = 0. Since

m ,= 0, we must have q = 0. This contradicts that q ∈ N. The case n > p

also leads to a contradiction. Therefore, n = p.

Exercise 28. Complete the proof of Theorem 27: consider the case of

n > p.

Next we have the other cancellation property for multiplication.

Exercise 29. Let m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

and m ,= 0. Prove that n < p if and only

if mn < mp.

140

Summary of the Properties of the Non-negative Integers

The set Z

÷

= { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . }, with addition, multiplication and an

order relation, satisﬁes all of the following properties, for all m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

:

(AC): m ÷n = n ÷m

(AA): (m ÷n) ÷ p = m ÷(n ÷ p)

(AZ): 0 is the unique element such that 0 ÷m = m ÷0 = m

(AX): m ÷n = m ÷ p if and only if n = p and

n ÷m = p ÷m if and only if n = p

(MC): mn = nm

(MA): (mn) p = m(np)

(MU): 1 is the unique element such that 1m = m1 = m

(MX): for m ,= 0, mn = mp if and only if n = p and

for m ,= 0, nm = pm if and only if n = p

(DP): (m ÷n) p = mp ÷np and m(n ÷ p) = mn ÷mp

(PP): if m > 0 and n > 0 then mn > 0

(IX): n ÷m < p ÷m if and only if n < p and

n ÷m < p ÷m if and only if n < p

Despite the fact that there are no additive inverses for nonzero elements of

Z

÷

, the following Difference Property holds: for all m, n ∈ Z

÷

,

there exists a unique d ∈ Nsuch that m÷d = n if and only if m < n.

This property can be thought of as the deﬁnition of the relation <. Recall

that m ≤ n is deﬁned by m < n or m = n.

141

Chapter 11

The Integers

1. Introduction: Integers as Equivalence Classes.

In Chapter 10, we constructed the following set:

Z

÷

= { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . . }.

We called this the set of non-negative integers. We constructed two oper-

ations, addition and multiplication, on Z

÷

and a strict order relation <. In

this chapter, you will not need to refer back to the construction in Chapter

10; rather, we have listed on the previous page all of the relevant properties

of the construction. These properties of Z

÷

are all that we will need in this

chapter.

Addition and multiplication were the two operations deﬁned on Z

÷

.

Notice that subtraction and division were never mentioned. In fact neither

operation can be deﬁned universally on Z

÷

. The deﬁciency of Z

÷

with

respect to subtraction vis-` a-vis addition necessitated its extension to the set

of the integers which will be discussed in this chapter. For each pair of

numbers m and n we wish the difference m −n to have a meaning, that is,

we require the existence of a number q such that m = n ÷q.

A natural way to proceed would be to attempt to expand Z

÷

into Z.

One way to do this is to assume that, for each m ∈ Z

÷

, there exists a number

m

/

such that m ÷m

/

= 0; we call m

/

the (additive) inverse of m. Then the

set of all integers Z would be the set of all natural numbers together with

their inverses and 0.

Setting aside for a moment the problem of deﬁning the new negative

elements, it turns out that this approach makes it difﬁcult to give even a

cumbersome deﬁnition of addition. Such a deﬁnition, with several different

cases, makes the proofs of the basic properties of the operations in Z quite

tedious.

Therefore, it is preferable to start with the following notion. We note

that, for example,

−1 = 0 −1 = 1 −2 = 2 −3 = 3 −4 = 4 −5 = . . .

142 Chapter 11. The Integers

Similar statements can be made for all negative integers and, in fact, for

all integers. We can therefore formulate a deﬁnition of the integers as

equivalence classes of pairs of nonnegative integers.

This new construction has the obvious disadvantage that Z no longer

contains Z

÷

as we had previously deﬁned it. However, in Section 4, we

show that Z

÷

is embedded in Z; this allows us to think of our previously

constructed set Z

÷

as a “subset” of Z.

We start with a deﬁnition of a set which we will call Z, the set of

integers.

Deﬁnition 1. Deﬁne a relation ∼ on Z

÷

Z

÷

by (m, n) ∼ ( p, q) if and

only if m ÷q = p ÷n.

Exercise 2. Prove that the relation ∼on Z

÷

Z

÷

is an equivalence relation.

Deﬁnition 3. The set of integers is (Z

÷

Z

÷

)/∼. We denote this set as

Z. We denote the equivalence class of (m, n) by [m, n]; this is an element

of Z.

2. A Total Ordering of the Integers.

First, let us deﬁne a relation on Z that we will show is a total ordering.

Deﬁnition 4. Deﬁne the relation < on Z by [m, n] < [ p, q] if and only if

m ÷q < p ÷n.

It is important to realize that the symbol <is used in two different ways

in the deﬁnition above. The ﬁrst is a new relation which we are deﬁning on

Z. The second is our old strict total ordering on Z

÷

. We could use different

symbols for each, e.g., use subscripts as in <

Z

÷

and <

Z

, but we ﬁnd these

too hideous. With care, there need be no confusion.

As with any operation on equivalence classes, we must check that

this is well-deﬁned. That is, we must check that all representatives of the

equivalence classes of (m, n) and ( p, q) satisfy the deﬁning condition for

the operation <. Before doing this, we remind you of Proposition 24 in

Chapter 8: if x < y and y = z, then x < z for all x, y, z ∈ X and a strict

partial ordering < on X.

Proposition 5. The relation < on Z is well-deﬁned.

Proof. Suppose that [m, n], [ p, q] ∈ Z and [m, n] < [ p, q]. Thus, m ÷

q < n ÷ p. We must show that if (m

/

, n

/

) ∈ [m, n] and ( p

/

, q

/

) ∈ [ p, q],

then m

/

÷q

/

< n

/

÷ p

/

. Since (m

/

, n

/

) ∈ [m, n] and ( p

/

, q

/

) ∈ [ p, q],

m

/

÷n = m ÷n

/

and p

/

÷q = p ÷q

/

,

Section 2. A Total Ordering of the Integers 143

respectively. Adding these two equations gives us the following:

(m

/

÷n) ÷( p ÷q

/

) = (m ÷n

/

) ÷( p

/

÷q).

Using the commutative and associative properties of addition in Z

÷

yields:

(m

/

÷q

/

) ÷(n ÷ p) = (n

/

÷ p

/

) ÷(m ÷q). (6)

Since m ÷q < n ÷ p,

(m

/

÷q

/

) ÷(m ÷q) < (m

/

÷q

/

) ÷(n ÷ p). (7)

Now, (6) and (7) imply

(m

/

÷q

/

) ÷d) ÷(m ÷q) < (n

/

÷ p

/

) ÷(m ÷q).

By cancellation in Z

÷

,

m

/

÷q

/

< n

/

÷ p

/

.

Notice that we used only properties (A1), (A2) and (L3) for Z

÷

in the

proof above.

Exercise 8. Prove that < is a strict total ordering on Z.

As for any strict total ordering <, there is an associated total ordering

≤: deﬁne [m, n] ≤ [ p, q] iff [m, n] < [ p, q] or [m, n] = [ p, q].

Recall that Z

÷

is well-ordered. That is, Z

÷

is totally ordered and

every nonempty subset of Z

÷

has a least element. This total ordering on

Z

÷

extends to (or induces) a total ordering on Z, but ≤is not a well-ordering

on Z.

Exercise 9. Prove that < is not a well-ordering on Z.

Theorem 10. For all [m, n] ∈ Z, there exists a unique p ∈ Z

÷

such that

[m, n] =

¸

[ p, 0], m ≥ n

[0, p], m ≤ n

.

Proof. If m = n, then m ÷ 0 = n ÷ 0 = 0 ÷ n. Hence, [m, n] = [0, 0]

and p = 0.

If m > n, then, by the Difference Property for Z

÷

, there exists a

unique p such that m = n ÷ p. Hence, m÷0 = n ÷ p and [m, n] = [ p, 0].

If m < n, then there exists a unique p such that n = m ÷ p. Hence,

m ÷ p = n ÷0 and [m, n] = [0, p].

At this point in our discussion we tire of writing [m, n] for an integer

and go back to the more usual looking form p ∈ Z. We will write p for

[ p, 0], 0 for [0, 0] and −p for [0, p]. You should be very careful here.

Nothing has changed; elements of Zare still equivalence classes of ordered

pairs!

144 Chapter 11. The Integers

Deﬁnition 11. Let m ∈ Z. m is positive iff m > 0 and m is negative iff

m < 0.

Exercise 12. Let m ∈ Z. Prove that exactly one of the following holds: m

is positive, m is negative, or m = 0.

3. Addition of Integers.

We next deﬁne the operation of addition on Z. The idea behind the

deﬁnition is that we want (m −n) ÷( p −q) = (m ÷ p) −(n ÷q).

Deﬁnition 13. Deﬁne addition in Z by

[m, n] ÷[ p, q] = [m ÷ p, n ÷q]

for all [m, n], [ p, q] ∈ Z.

It is important to realize that the symbol ÷ is used in two different

ways in the deﬁnition of addition. The ﬁrst is addition in Z, that is, addition

of equivalence classes. The second and third are our old addition in Z

÷

.

As with any operation on equivalence classes, we must check that this

is well-deﬁned. That is, we must check that the equivalence class of the

sum (m ÷ p, n ÷q) is independent of the choice of representatives of the

equivalence classes [m, n] and [ p, q].

Exercise 14. Prove that addition on Z is well-deﬁned.

Recall that additioninZ

÷

is commutative andassociative witha unique

identity. The corresponding properties for addition in Z follow.

Exercise 15. Prove that addition on Z is commutative.

Exercise 16. Prove that addition on Z is associative.

Exercise 17. Prove that 0 is the unique additive identity for Z.

For algebraic structures, we usually denote the additive identity ele-

ment as 0. Recall that 0 = [0, 0]. Again you should see that there are two

meanings of 0 in the previous statement.

We come to the punch line of this chapter now: the purpose of deﬁning

negative integers was to have additive inverses.

Exercise 18. Prove that every element of Z has a unique additive inverse.

Section 4. Multiplication of Integers 145

As one might expect, the additive inverse of m is denoted by −m. We

can now deﬁne subtraction: m −n = m ÷(−n) for all m, n ∈ Z.

Exercise 19. Prove that, for every m ∈ Z, −(−m) = m.

The proof of the cancellation properties is now much simpler than it

was for Z

÷

.

Exercise 20. Prove that, for all m, n, p ∈ Z, if m ÷ n = m ÷ p, then

n = p.

Commutativityof additionandExercise 20implythat, for all m, n, p ∈

Z, if n ÷m = p ÷m, then n = p.

Exercise 21. Prove that, for all m, n, p ∈ Z, if m ÷ n < m ÷ p, then

n < p.

4. Multiplication of Integers.

Next, we consider multiplication. Since we want (m − n)( p −q) =

mp −mq −np ÷nq, we deﬁne multiplication as follows.

Deﬁnition 22. Deﬁne multiplication in Z by

[m, n][ p, q] = [mp ÷nq, np ÷mq]

for all [m, n], [ p, q] ∈ Z.

Proposition 23. Multiplication on Z is well-deﬁned.

Proof. Suppose (m

/

, n

/

) ∈ [m, n] ∈ Z and ( p

/

, q

/

) ∈ [ p, q] ∈ Z. Hence,

m

/

÷n = n

/

÷m and p

/

÷q = q

/

÷ p. We will use properties of addition

in Z

÷

. Multiplying the previous equations by equals yields the following:

m(q

/

÷ p) = m( p

/

÷q)

n( p

/

÷q) = n(q

/

÷ p)

(n

/

÷m) p

/

= (m

/

÷n) p

/

(m

/

÷n)q

/

= (n

/

÷m)q

/

By the distributive properties,

mq

/

÷mp = mp

/

÷mq

np

/

÷nq = nq

/

÷np

n

/

p

/

÷mp

/

= m

/

p

/

÷np

/

m

/

q

/

÷nq

/

= n

/

q

/

÷mq

/

146 Chapter 11. The Integers

By adding these equations, we obtain

(mq

/

÷mp) ÷(np

/

÷nq) ÷(n

/

p

/

÷mp

/

) ÷(m

/

q

/

÷nq

/

)

= (mp

/

÷mq) ÷(nq

/

÷np) ÷(m

/

p

/

÷np

/

) ÷(n

/

q

/

÷mq

/

).

By the associative and commutative properties, we rewrite this as

(mp ÷nq) ÷(n

/

p

/

÷m

/

q

/

) ÷(mq

/

÷np

/

÷mp

/

÷nq

/

)

= (np ÷mq) ÷(m

/

p

/

÷n

/

q

/

) ÷(mq

/

÷np

/

÷mp

/

÷nq

/

).

By the cancellation property,

(mp ÷nq) ÷(n

/

p

/

÷m

/

q

/

) = (np ÷mq) ÷(m

/

p

/

÷n

/

q

/

),

which implies

[m, n][ p, q] = [mp ÷nq, np ÷mq]

= [m

/

p

/

÷n

/

q

/

, n

/

p

/

÷m

/

q

/

]

= [m

/

, n

/

][ p

/

, q

/

]

Therefore, multiplication is well-deﬁned.

Exercise 24. Prove that multiplication on Z is commutative.

Exercise 25. Prove that multiplication on Z is associative.

Exercise 26. Prove that 1 is the unique multiplicative identity for Z.

Notice that we again have labeled a multiplicative identity 1. However,

Zis lacking multiplicative inverses. To prove this, we will use the following

exercises.

Exercise 27. Prove that the distributive property holds in Z.

Exercise 28. Prove that mn > 0 if and only if m > 0 and n > 0, or m < 0

and n < 0.

Alas, Z still has deﬁciencies, as the following indicates.

Section 5. Embedding the Natural Numbers in the Integers 147

Proposition 29. 2 has no multiplicative inverse in Z.

Proof. Assume that there is an m ∈ Z such that 2m = 1. If m ≤ 0, then

2m ≤ 0 and, hence, 2m ,= 1. If m > 0, then 2m = (1 ÷1)m = m ÷m >

m ≥ 1. In any case, 2m ,= 1 and hence 2 has no multiplicative inverse in

Z.

We end this section with two more standard algebraic properties.

Exercise 30. Prove that, for all m ∈ Z, 0m = 0.

Exercise 31. Prove that, for all m, n ∈ Z, m(−n) = (−m)n = −(mn).

5. Embedding the Natural Numbers in the Integers.

It is important to realize that, contrary to what you might have ex-

pected, N and Z

÷

, as constructed in Chapter 10, are not subsets of Z =

(Z

÷

Z

÷

)/∼. This is obviously true since an element of Z is deﬁned as

the equivalence class of a pair of elements of Z

÷

.

However, this poses no problem, since we can think of Z

÷

as a subset

of Z in a very natural way. Recall the discussion of isomorphic structures

in Section 4 of Chapter 8. In our case, we have Z

÷

and Z as the underlying

sets of our structures and the order relations and operations of addition and

multiplication providing the organization of these structures.

Do you see an isomorphic copy of Z

÷

in Z? If so, you are now in a

position to prove the following exercise.

Exercise 32. Prove that there exists an embedding of Z

÷

into Z.

Since isomorphic structures can be thought of as identical, we will

simply say, from now on, that Z

÷

is a subset of Z. To be more precise, we

could have called our original Z

÷

something else and called its isomorphic

image Z

÷

! That would be OK until we deﬁne the rational numbers, when

we will have to repeat the process of ﬁnding an embedding yet again (and

again for real numbers and yet again for complex numbers).

148 Chapter 11. The Integers

Supplemental Exercises

Exercise 33. Explain what is wrong with the notation [−p, 0] ∈ Z. (The

statement [ p, 0] ÷[−p, 0] = 0 is nonsense!)

Exercise 34. Explain what is wrong with the following proof of the ex-

istence of additive inverses in Z (Exercise 18): For every [ p, 0] ∈ Z,

[ p, 0] ÷ [0, p] = [ p, p] = [0, 0] = 0. Similarly, [0, p] ÷ [ p, 0] =

[ p, p] = [0, 0] = 0.

149

Summary of the Properties of the Integers

The set of integers, Z, with addition (÷), multiplication (·) and a strict total

ordering (<), satisﬁes all of the following properties, for all m, n, p ∈ Z:

(AC): m ÷n = n ÷m

(AA): (m ÷n) ÷ p = m ÷(n ÷ p)

(AZ): 0 is the unique element such that 0 ÷m = m ÷0 = m

(AI): −m is the unique element such that −m ÷m = m ÷(−m) = 0

(AX): m ÷n = m ÷ p if and only if n = p and

n ÷m = p ÷m if and only if n = p

(MC): mn = nm

(MA): (mn) p = m(np)

(MU): 1 is the unique element such that 1m = m1 = m

(MX): for m ,= 0, mn = mp if and only if n = p and

for m ,= 0, nm = pm if and only if n = p

(DP): (m ÷n) p = mp ÷np and m(n ÷ p) = mn ÷mp

(PP): if m > 0 and n > 0 then mn > 0

(IX): n ÷m < p ÷m if and only if n < p and

n ÷m < p ÷m if and only if n < p

The following properties also hold: for all m, n, p ∈ Z

÷

,

Multiplication by 0: 0m = m0 = 0

Factoring a Minus: (-m) n = m(-n) = -(mn)

Negation Reverses Order: m > 0 if and only if −m < 0

150

Chapter 12

The Rational Numbers

1. Introduction: Rationals as Equivalence Classes.

We nowturntothe constructionof the rationals which, froma historical

point of view, were actually identiﬁed before the integers; it seems easier to

understand what one half of a melon means than to understand zero melon

or minus one melon.

As we commented in the introduction of the previous chapter, to make

division between any two integers as universally possible as multiplication,

we need an extension of our number system. The construction of Q from

Z is quite similar to the construction of Z fromZ

÷

in the previous chapter.

For each pair of integers m and n, we require the existence of a unique

rational number q (to be viewed as the quotient m/n), such that

m = nq.

Division by n = 0 is not allowed for the following reasons. Suppose n = 0.

Since any product with 0 in Z equals 0 we would get

m = 0q = 0.

By the transitivity of equality on Z, m would have to be 0. This is no good

either since

0 = 0q

has inﬁnitely many solutions in Z.*

Given a rational number q, the numbers m and n satisfying the equality

m = nq, i.e.,

m

n

= q, are not uniquely determined. For example

1

2

=

2

4

=

3

6

=

4

8

=

5

10

= . . . .

Therefore, we deﬁne the rationals to be equivalence classes of pairs of

integers.

Recall that Z

∗

= Z −{ 0 }, the set of all nonzero integers.

*So if anyone asks you “What is 0 divided by 0?” you can answer with any number you

like! More seriously, this may remind you of limits like lim

x→0

kx

x

= k for every k ∈ R.

Section 2. A Total Ordering of the Rationals 151

Deﬁnition 1. Deﬁne a relation ∼on ZZ

∗

by (m, n) ∼ ( p, q) if and only

if mq = pn.

Exercise 2. Prove that ∼ is an equivalence relation on Z Z

∗

.

Deﬁnition 3. The set of rational numbers is the set (ZZ

∗

)/∼. We denote

this set by Q. The equivalence class of (m, n) is denoted by [m, n]; that is,

[m, n] is an element of Q.

We could have chosen to deﬁne rational numbers differently, only

allowing positive n (for the “denominator”). The following two exercises

show that this is possible.

Exercise 4. Prove that, for all (m, n) ∈ Z Z

∗

, [m, n] = [−m, −n].

Exercise 5. Prove that, for all [m, n] ∈ Q, there exists ( p, q) ∈ [m, n] with

q > 0.

Remark 6: Important! For the remainder of this chapter, when we con-

sider a rational number [m, n], we will assume that n > 0. It does not

much matter whether you think that Q = (ZN)/∼or you think we only

choose representatives (m, n) of rational numbers with n ∈ N.

2. A Total Ordering of the Rationals.

We now deﬁne a total ordering on Q. The deﬁnition is suggested by

the following statement:

m

n

<

p

q

implies mq < pn.

Notice that Remark 6 is crucial here: since n and q are positive, this works.

On the contrary,

−1

2

<

1

−3

does not imply (−1)(−3) < (2)(1).

Deﬁnition 7. Deﬁne the relation < on Q by [m, n] < [ p, q] if and only if

mq < pn.

Again, note that the symbol < is used in two different ways in Deﬁ-

nition 7.

Exercise 8. Prove that the relation < on Q is well-deﬁned.

152 Chapter 12. The Rational Numbers

Next, we check that < is a strict total ordering on Q.

Exercise 9. Prove that < is a strict total ordering on Q.

Remember that a strict total ordering is trichotomous. Of course, we

can deﬁne a total ordering ≤ in terms of < and =. As was the case for the

total ordering on Z, < is not a well-ordering.

Exercise 10. Prove that < is not a well-ordering on Q. Moreover, Q has

no least element.

Let 0 = [0, 1]; we will see in Exercise 17 that 0 is the unique additive

identity. Since n > 0, we wish that

m

n

>

0

1

implies m = (m)(1) > (n)(0) = 0.

Deﬁnition 11. Suppose [m, n] ∈ Q. [m, n] is positive if and only if m > 0

and [m, n] is negative if and only if m < 0.

Instead of always writing an element in Q as the equivalence class of

a pair of integers, we can simply write q ∈ Q. Nothing has changed: there

is a pair (m, n) such that q = [m, n].

Exercise 12. Let q ∈ Q. Prove that exactly one of the following holds: q

is positive, q is negative, q = 0.

3. Addition of Rationals.

You remember that addition of rationals (fractions) is a bit more dif-

ﬁcult than multiplication of rationals (fractions). Nevertheless, let us start

with addition. Following the idea that

m

n

÷

p

q

=

mq ÷np

nq

,

we next deﬁne addition.

Deﬁnition 13. Deﬁne addition in Q by

[m, n] ÷[ p, q] = [mq ÷np, nq]

for all [m, n], [ p, q] ∈ Q.

In the deﬁnition above, the ÷ sign on the ﬁrst side is understood to

denote the operation of addition in Q, which differs from the operation of

Section 4. Multiplication of Rationals 153

addition in Z that appears on the second side and is denoted by the same

symbol.

Since Deﬁnition 13 depends on the choice of equivalence class repre-

sentatives, we must check that addition is well-deﬁned.

Exercise 14. Prove that addition on Q is well-deﬁned.

The following four exercises establish properties (AC), (AA), (AZ)

and (AI) for addition in Q.

Exercise 15. Prove that addition on Q is commutative.

Exercise 16. Prove that addition on Q is associative.

Exercise 17. Prove that 0 = [0, 1] is the unique additive identity for Q.

Exercise 18. Prove that every element of Q has a unique additive inverse.

Again, we denote the additive inverse of a number x ∈ Q by −x.

Subtraction is deﬁned as with the integers: for all x, y ∈ Q,

x − y = x ÷(−y).

Property (AX) is established by the following exercise.

Exercise 19. Prove that the cancellation properties hold for addition in Q:

(a) for all x, y, z ∈ Q, x ÷ y = x ÷ z if and only if y = z and

(b) for all x, y, z ∈ Q, y ÷ x = z ÷ x if and only if y = z.

4. Multiplication of Rationals.

Since we want

m

n

p

q

=

mp

nq

,

we next deﬁne multiplication as follows.

Deﬁnition 20. Deﬁne multiplication in Q by

[m, n][ p, q] = [mp, nq]

for all [m, n], [ p, q] ∈ Q.

Again, since Deﬁnition 20 depends on the choice of equivalence class

representatives, we must check that multiplication is well-deﬁned.

154 Chapter 12. The Rational Numbers

Exercise 21. Prove that multiplication on Q is well-deﬁned.

The following four exercises establish properties (MC), (MA) and

(MU) for multiplication in Q.

Exercise 22. Prove that multiplication on Q is commutative.

Exercise 23. Prove that multiplication on Q is associative.

Exercise 24. Prove that [1, 1] is the unique multiplicative identity for Q.

We set 1 = [1, 1]. By now you should realize the special nature of the

rationals of the form [m, 1].

Set Q

∗

= Q−{ 0 }. The following exercise establishes property (MI)

for multiplication in Q.

Exercise 25. Prove that, for each x ∈ Q

∗

, there exists a unique multiplica-

tive inverse.

Again, we denote the multiplicative inverse of a number x ∈ Q by

x

−1

. Division is deﬁned, for all x ∈ Q and y ∈ Q

∗

, by

x y =

x

y

= x/y = xy

−1

.

The following exercise establishes property (MX) for multiplication in Q.

Exercise 26. Prove that the cancellation properties hold for multiplication

in Q:

(a) for all x ∈ Q and y, z ∈ Q, xy = xz if and only if y = z and

(b) for all x ∈ Q and y, z ∈ Q, yx = zx if and only if y = z.

5. An Ordered Field Containing the Integers.

To show that Q is a ﬁeld, all that remains is to verify the distributive

property (DP). First, we give an exercise that will be needed in the proof

of the distributive property.

Exercise 27. Prove that [mp, np] = [m, n] in Q for all m ∈ Z and

n, p ∈ Z

∗

.

While you probably proved Exercise 27 by using the arithmetic of Z,

we could argue as follows. We can show that [mp, np] = [m, n][ p, p] and

that [ p, p] = 1 (see Exercise S12). The result follows froma property of the

Section 5. An Ordered Field Containing the Integers 155

multiplicative identity. That is, Exercise 27 simply states that (x)(1) = x

for all x ∈ Q.

Exercise 28. Prove that the distributive property holds in Q.

Exercise 28 completes the proof that Q is a ﬁeld.

We next show that Q is an ordered ﬁeld. We need to verify that

properties (PP) and (IX) hold.

Exercise 29. Suppose x, y ∈ Q. Prove that xy > 0 if and only if either

x > 0 and y > 0, or x < 0 and y < 0.

Exercise 30. Prove that cancellation in inequalities holds in Q:

(a) for all x, y, z ∈ Q, x ÷ y < x ÷ z if and only if y < z and

(b) for all x, y, z ∈ Q, y ÷ x < z ÷ x if and only if y < z.

This shows that Q is an ordered ﬁeld.

Of course, we “think” of Z as a subset of Q even though it is not.

Exercise 31. Prove that there exists an embedding of Z into Q.

The next twoexercises showthat Qsatisﬁes the ArchimedeanPrinciple

and as well as a stronger version of the Archimedean Principle.

Exercise 32. Prove that if x, y ∈ Q and x > 0, then there exists n ∈ N

such that nx > y.

Exercise 33. Prove that if x, y ∈ Q and x > 0, then there exists n ∈ Z

such that nx ≤ y < (n ÷1)x.

The next exercise shows that there are many rational numbers using a

“denseness” type of property.

Exercise 34. Prove that if x, z ∈ Q and x < z, then there exists y ∈ Q

such that x < y < z.

As discussed in Chapter 6, Q does not have the least upper bound

property. We postpone a proof of this fact until we have constructed the

real numbers. At that point we will be able to show that

√

2 ∈ R and use

the denseness of Q in R to derive a contradiction from the assumption that

the least upper bound property holds for Q.

It is interesting to note that Qis an ordered ﬁeld without the least upper

bound property that nevertheless satisﬁes the Archimedean Principle. You

should compare this with Theorem 1 of Chapter 9.

156 Chapter 12. The Rational Numbers

Supplemental Exercises

Exercise S1. Explain why [1, 0] is not an element of Q.

Exercise S2. Verify the following using Deﬁnition 3 of elements of Q:

(a) [1, 2] = [2, 4] in Q,

(b) [−11, −6] = [11, 6] in Q,

(c) [−3, 5] = [3, −5] in Q.

Exercise S3. Use Deﬁnition 3 to do the following:

(a) ﬁnd (m, n) ∈ [5, −7] in Q such that n > 0,

(b) ﬁnd ( p, q) ∈ [−16, 3] in Q such that q < 0,

(c) ﬁnd (r, s) ∈ [−6, −13] in Q such that s > 0.

Exercise S4. Show that [0, n] = [0, 1] in Q for all n ∈ Z

∗

.

Exercise S5. Show that [2, 3] = [2n, 3n] in Q for all n ∈ Z

∗

.

Exercise S6. Verify the following using Deﬁnition 7 of order on Q:

(a) [1, 2] < [2, 3] in Q,

(b) [−10, 3] > [−7, 2] in Q,

(c) [−10, 3] > [7, −2] in Q. [Be careful!]

Exercise S7. Prove that (m, n) ∈ Z Z

∗

represents a positive rational

number if and only if mn > 0 and (m, n) represents a negative rational

number if and only if mn < 0.

Exercise S8. Suppose that m, n ∈ N. For each of the following pairs of

elements of Q, determine which is greater:

(a) [m, n] and [m, n ÷1]

(b) [m, n] and [m ÷1, n]

Exercise S9. Repeat Exercise S8 with m ∈ Z

∗

−

(i.e., m < 0) and n ∈ N.

Exercise S10. Suppose that m, n ∈ N. Under what condition on m and n

is it true that [m, n ÷1] ≤ [m −1, n]?

Exercise S11. Compute the following using Deﬁnition 13 of addition on

Q:

(a) [2, 3] ÷[3, 4] in Q,

(b) [−2, 5] ÷[−7, 3] in Q,

(c) [−4, 8] ÷[9, 18] in Q.

Exercise S12. Show that [n, n] = [1, 1] in Q for all n ∈ Z

∗

.

Exercise S13. Show that 0 ,= 1 in Q.

Supplemental Exercises 157

Exercise S14. Compute the following using Deﬁnition 20 of multiplication

on Q:

(a) [2, 3][3, 4] in Q,

(b) [−2, 5][−7, 3] in Q,

(c) [−4, 8][9, 18] in Q.

158

Summary of the Properties of the Rationals

The set of rationals, Q, with addition, multiplication and an order relation

is an ordered ﬁeld. That is, all of the following properties are satisﬁed, for

all x, y, z ∈ Q:

(AC): x ÷ y = y ÷ x

(AA): (x ÷ y) ÷ z = x ÷(y ÷ z)

(AZ): 0 is the unique element such that 0 ÷ x = x ÷0 = x

(AI): −x is the unique element such that −x ÷ x = x ÷(−x) = 0

(AX): x ÷ y = x ÷ z if and only if y = z and

y ÷ x = z ÷ x if and only if y = z

(MC): xy = yx

(MA): (xy)z = x(yz)

(MU): 1 is the unique element such that 1x = x1 = x

(MI): x

−1

is the unique element such that x

−1

x = xx

−1

= 1

(MX): for x ,= 0, xy = xz if and only if y = z and

for x ,= 0, yx = zx if and only if y = z

(DP): (x ÷ y)z = xz ÷ yz and x(y ÷ z) = xy ÷ xz

(PP): if x > 0 and y > 0, then xy > 0

(IX): y ÷ x < z ÷ x if and only if y < z and

y ÷ x < z ÷ x if and only if y < z

159

Chapter 13

The Real Numbers

1. Dedekind Cuts.

The set of rationals, Q, has the defect that it does not have the least

upper bound property. Another way of looking at this is to say that the

polynomial x

2

− 2 has no rational roots. In this chapter we construct the

familiar real numbers. The ﬁrst constructions were given, independently,

by Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor in 1872. In this chapter, we will

present the construction due to Dedekind.

We saw, in Chapter 6, that

¸

x ∈ Q

0 < x

2

< 2

¸

does not have a

least upper bound in Q. We want a set like this to represent the real number

√

2 for us. In this spirit, what set should represent −

√

2? We modify our

original idea somewhat to let

¸

x ∈ Q

x < 0 or x

2

< 2

¸

and

¸

x ∈ Q

x < 0 and x

2

> 2

¸

to represent

√

2 and −

√

2, respectively. That is, a real number is to be

represented by the set of all rational numbers that we wish to be less than

the given real number. Then it makes sense to let

{ x ∈ Q [ x < q }

represent the rational number q. Let us formalize this.

Deﬁnition 1. A Dedekind cut is a set D ⊂ Q satisfying

(1) D ,= ∅,

(2) D ,= Q,

(3) if x ∈ D, y ∈ Q and y < x, then y ∈ D,

(4) if x ∈ D, then there exists y ∈ D such that x < y.

A Dedekind cut is also called a cut or a real number. The set of all cuts is

denoted R.

160 Chapter 13. The Real Numbers

We have deﬁned a cut D to be a nonempty, proper subset of Q with

no greatest element containing all rational numbers less than any number

in D. Note that another reasonable candidate to represent q is

D

/

= { x ∈ Q [ x ≤ q } .

Since we are trying to connect real numbers with the least upper bounds of

sets of rational numbers that are bounded above, sets like D

/

are not useful.

Note that the least upper bound of D

/

is the greatest element, q. Property

(4) precludes cuts from having a greatest element.

Throughout this chapter you should keep in mind that real numbers

are deﬁned as sets of rational numbers; two real numbers are equal if and

only if they are the same subset of Q.

Important Remark. It will be useful in this chapter to denote all rational

numbers by lower case letters and all cuts by upper case letters. We will

assume this to be the case unless otherwise speciﬁed.

2. Order and Addition of Real Numbers.

Before continuing with the construction, let us consider property (3)

of a cut D that x ∈ D and y < x implies y ∈ D. This means that D

contains all rational numbers which are less than some rational number in

D. Two statements equivalent to this are given in the following exercise.

Exercise 2. Suppose D ∈ R and x, y ∈ Q. Prove that the following are

equivalent.

(a) If x ∈ D and y < x, then y ∈ D.

(b) If x ∈ D and y / ∈ D, then y > x.

(c) If x / ∈ D and x < y, then y / ∈ D.

First, we deﬁne a total ordering on R in the natural way.

Deﬁnition 3. Deﬁne the relation < on R by A < B iff A B.

You may ﬁnd it more appealing to rewrite the condition as A ≤ B if

and only if A ⊂ B.

Exercise 4. Prove that < is a total ordering on R.

Exercise 5. Prove that R has the least upper bound property.

Next we deﬁne addition, whose deﬁnition is also quite natural.

Section 2. Order and Addition of Real Numbers 161

Deﬁnition 6. Deﬁne addition on R by

X ÷Y = { x ÷ y [ x ∈ X and y ∈ Y } .

Unlike our previous constructions, we must prove that X ÷ Y ∈ R,

that is, the closure property of addition.

Exercise 7. Prove that addition on R is closed.

Exercise 8. Prove that addition on R is commutative.

Exercise 9. Prove that addition on R is associative.

Exercise 10. Prove that { x ∈ Q [ x < 0 } is the unique additive identity on

R.

As always, we denote the additive identity as 0.

The existence of additive inverses is more difﬁcult. Intuitively, we

might let the additive inverse of X be the set of all x such that −x / ∈ X.

This will not quite work since this set may have a greatest element. For

example, consider

X = { x ∈ Q [ x < 0 } .

The set

{ x ∈ Q [ −x / ∈ X } = { x ∈ Q [ −x ,< 0 } = { x ∈ Q [ x ≤ 0 }

has 0 as its greatest element and hence is not a cut.

We deﬁne the following set:

−X = { x ∈ Q [ −x / ∈ X and −x is not the least element of Q− X }

= { x ∈ Q [ there exists y > 0 such that −x − y / ∈ X } .

We must show that −X ∈ R, and X ÷(−X) = 0 or −X ÷ X = 0.

Lemma 11. For all X ∈ R, −X ∈ R.

Proof. Recall the 4 properties in Deﬁnition 1 of a cut. By property (2),

X ,= Q. So there exists y ∈ Q such that y / ∈ X. Set x = −y −1. Hence,

y = −x − 1 = −(x ÷ 1) / ∈ X. Since −(x ÷ 1) < −x, −x / ∈ X and

x ∈ −X. This proves property (1), −X ,= ∅.

If y ∈ X, then −y / ∈ −X. This proves property (2), −X ,= Q.

Choose x ∈ −X and w > 0 such that −x −w / ∈ X. Suppose y < x.

Then −y − w > −x − w and hence −y − w / ∈ X. Therefore, y ∈ −X

and property (3) is proved.

For x and w as in the previous paragraph, z = x ÷

w

2

> x and

−z −

w

2

= −x −w / ∈ X. Therefore, z ∈ −X and property (4) is proved.

**162 Chapter 13. The Real Numbers
**

Lemma 12. For all X ∈ R, X ÷(−X) = 0.

Proof. Let x ∈ X and y ∈ −X. Thus, −y / ∈ X. By Exercise 2, −y > x.

Therefore, x ÷ y < 0 and X ÷(−X) ≤ 0.

On the other hand, choose v ∈ 0. Let w = −

v

2

. Since v < 0, w > 0.

By Exercise 33 of Chapter 12, a strong version of the Archimedean Property

of Q, there exists n ∈ Z such that nw ∈ X but (n ÷1)w / ∈ X. Set x = nw

and y = −(n ÷ 2)w. Since −y − w = (n ÷ 2)w − w = (n ÷ 1)w / ∈ X,

y ∈ −X. Now x ÷ y = nw − (n ÷ 2)w = −2w = v. Therefore,

0 ≤ X ÷(−X).

Combining the above results gives us X ÷(−X) = 0.

Exercise 13. Complete the proof that every element of R has a unique

additive inverse.

Having proved the properties for addition, we know from Chapter 8,

that several secondary properties hold.

Exercise 14. Prove that cancellation in inequalities holds: X ÷Y < X ÷Z

if and only if Y < Z for all X, Y, Z ∈ R.

3. Multiplication of Real Numbers.

Deﬁning multiplication in R is a little less natural. First we consider

the product of positive real numbers. We use the desired rules of signs to

deﬁne products involving negative real numbers.

Deﬁnition 15. Let X, Y ∈ R. If X > 0 and Y > 0, then

XY = { xy [ x ∈ X and y ∈ Y } .

Otherwise, deﬁne the product as follows:

XY =

⎧

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎨

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎩

0, if X = 0 or Y = 0

−[(−X)Y], if X < 0 and Y > 0

−[X(−Y)], if X > 0 and Y < 0

(−X)(−Y), if X < 0 and Y < 0

We will prove the primary properties for multiplication on the set

R

∗

÷

= { X ∈ R [ X > 0 }

of positive real numbers ﬁrst.

Section 4. Embedding the Rationals in the Reals 163

Exercise 16. Prove that multiplication on R

∗

÷

is closed.

This also proves the product of positives property: if X > 0 and

Y > 0, then XY > 0 for all X, Y ∈ R.

Exercise 17. Prove that multiplication on R

∗

÷

is commutative.

Exercise 18. Prove that multiplication on R

∗

÷

is associative.

Exercise 19. Prove that { x ∈ Q [ x < 1 } is the multiplicative identity on

R

∗

÷

.

As always, we denote the multiplicative identity as 1.

Exercise 20. Prove that every X ∈ R

∗

÷

has a multiplicative inverse.

Second, prove the primary properties for multiplication on R.

Exercise 21. Prove that multiplication on R is closed.

Exercise 22. Prove that multiplication on R is commutative.

Exercise 23. Prove that multiplication on R is associative.

Exercise 24. Prove that 1 is the multiplicative identity on R.

Exercise 25. Prove that every X ∈ R with X ,= 0 has a multiplicative

inverse.

As always, we denote the multiplicative inverse of X as X

−1

. We have

now shown that R is an ordered ﬁeld.

4. Embedding the Rationals in the Reals.

Once again, we have not deﬁnedRtoextendQ. However Qis naturally

embedded in R. By renaming things, we can think of Q as a subset of R.

Exercise 26. Prove that there exists an embedding of Q into R.

Collecting the results of this chapter thus far, we have proved the

following theorem. [A subﬁeld of a ﬁeld is a subset which is also a ﬁeld

under the operations on the ambient set.]

164 Chapter 13. The Real Numbers

Theorem 27. R is an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property

and with Q as a subﬁeld of R.

From Theorem 1 of Chapter 9, we know that R satisﬁes the Archime-

dean Principle and from Theorem 6 of Chapter 9, we know that Qis dense

in R. That is:

• if x, y ∈ R and x > 0, then there exists n ∈ N such that nx > y

and

• if x, y ∈ Rand x < y, then there exists q ∈ Qsuchthat x < q < y.

5. Uniqueness of the set of Real Numbers.

So far we have shown that R has certain properties. Now we will

show that those properties completely characterize R; that is, every X with

these properties is isomorphic to R. This is the Main Theorem mentioned

in Section 1 of Chapter 9.

Theorem 28 (Main Theorem). There exists, up to isomorphism, a unique

ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

The proof of the Main Theorem is long; we will break it into eight

steps! Suppose F is an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

We will write everything having to do with F—its elements, order relation

and operations—in bold. We will prove Theorem 28 by constructing an

isomorphism f : R →F. Here is an outline of the construction:

Step 1: construct a function f

Z

: Z →F

Step 2: extend f

Z

to a function f

Q

: Q →F

Step 3: extend f

Q

to a function f : R →F

Step 4: show that f preserves order

Step 5: show that f is one-to-one

Step 6: show that f is onto

Step 7: show that f preserves addition

Step 8: show that f preserves multiplication

Step 1. Deﬁne f

Z

inductively by f

Z

(0) = 0 and

f

Z

(n) =

⎧

⎪

⎪

⎨

⎪

⎪

⎩

n times

. .. .

1 + . . . + 1, if n > 0

−(1 + . . . + 1)

. .. .

[n[ times

, if n < 0

Let us give some obvious notation for the n-fold sums and its negation:

n = 1 + . . . + 1 and −n = −(1 + . . . + 1).

Section 5. Uniqueness of the set of Real Numbers 165

Exercise 29. Prove that f

Z

: Z →F preserves operations.

Step 2. We will write all rational numbers in the form m/n where m ∈ Z

and n ∈ N. (Of course, n = n/1.) We extend the function f

Z

of Step 1 to

f

Q

: Q →F by deﬁning

f

Q

(m/n) = mn

−1

.

By the following exercise, the right-hand side is deﬁned.

Exercise 30. Prove that if n ∈ N, then f

Q

(n) = f

Z

(n) = n ,= 0.

The function f

Q

is well-deﬁned since

m

n

=

p

q

=⇒ mq = np =⇒ mq = np =⇒ mn

−1

= pq

−1

,

by ﬁeld properties of Q and F and Exercise 29. Note that f

Q

extends f

Z

since m ∈ Z implies

f

Q

(m/1) = m1

−1

= m1 = m= f

Z

(m).

Exercise 31. Prove that f

Q

: Q →F preserves operations.

Step 3. Let x ∈ R. Thinking of x as a cut, x = { q ∈ Q [ q < x }. Extend

the function f

Q

of Step 2 to f : R →F by

f (x) = sup f

Q

({ q ∈ Q [ q < x }) = sup

¸

f

Q

(q) [ q ∈ Q and q < X

¸

.

If the least upper bound exists, it is unique and f is well-deﬁned.

Exercise 32. Prove that sup f

Q

({ q ∈ Q [ q < x }) exists.

Recall from Section 1 of Chapter 9, the deﬁnitions of the sets F

N

, F

Z

and F

Q

of natural, integral and rational ﬁeld elements of F, respectively.

Exercise 33. Prove that f

Q

(N) = F

N

, f

Q

(Z) = F

Z

and f

Q

(Q) = F

Q

.

We next prove that f extends f

Q

, that is, for all q ∈ Q, f (q) = f

Q

(q).

Since, by Exercise 31, f

Q

( p) < f

Q

(q) for all p < q, we know that

f (q) = sup

¸

f

Q

( p) [ p ∈ Q and p < q

¸

≤ f

Q

(q).

166 Chapter 13. The Real Numbers

Assume that f (q) < f

Q

(q). Since F

Q

is dense in F (Theorem6 of Chapter

9) and by Exercise 33, there exists r ∈ Q such that

f (q) < f (r) < f

Q

(q).

Exercise 34. Complete the proof that f extends f

Q

by deriving a contra-

diction.

Step 4.

Exercise 35. Prove that f preserves order.

Step 5.

Exercise 36. Prove that f is one-to-one.

Step 6.

Exercise 37. Prove that f is onto.

Step 7.

Exercise 38. Prove that f preserves addition.

Step 8.

Exercise 39. Prove that f preserves multiplication.

Proof of Theorem 28. Since we have shown that every ordered ﬁeld with

the least upper bound property is isomorphic to R, Theorem 28 follows

from the fact that isomorphism is an equivalence relation.

The construction of the isomorphism above may seem a bit contrived

to you at ﬁrst. Nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, it is natural

and unique, as the following exercises demonstrate.

Exercise 40. Prove that the only isomorphismof Ronto itself is the identity

function.

Section 5. Uniqueness of the set of Real Numbers 167

Deﬁnition 41. Suppose X is a ﬁeld (respectively, ordered ﬁeld). An iso-

morphism from X onto X is called an automorphism of X.

The result of Exercise 40 can be stated that the identity function I

R

is

the unique (ordered) ﬁeld automorphism of R.

Exercise 42. Let F be an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound property.

Prove that the function f , constructed above to prove the Main Theorem,

is the unique isomorphism from R onto F.

168

Chapter 14

The Complex Numbers

1. Introduction.

In this chapter, we will consider a rigorous construction of the ﬁeld C

of complex numbers. The addition and multiplication operations on Cwill

be deﬁned to preserve the operations on R. We will show that C is a ﬁeld

containing R as a subﬁeld. Let us start informally.

Complex numbers arise when we consider solutions of equations like

x

2

= −1. We declare that there is a solution i to this equation. Having

deﬁned i , we allowthe standard algebraic operations on the real numbers to

work on (the closure of) the set containing the real numbers together with

the newnumber i , always obeying the property that i

2

= −1. The complex

numbers, deﬁned in this way, are of the form a ÷bi , where a and b are real

numbers. Of course, we should be careful to deﬁne the multiplication bi

and the addition a ÷bi .

For a moment, let us suppose that we have deﬁned the complex num-

bers. Using familiar algebraic properties, we see that

(−i )

2

= (−1)

2

(i )

2

= (1)(−1) = −1.

So, our original equation, x

2

= −1, has two solutions! Actually, this agrees

with the notion that a generic quadratic polynomial should have two roots.

The choice in the deﬁnition of i appears in Deﬁnition 14 below. However,

this choice is inconsequential as Exercise 20 will show.

While addition and multiplication of complex numbers is quite natural,

ordering the complex numbers is a different story. Suppose we have a total

ordering on C which agrees with the usual ordering on the subset R. Since

a total ordering is trichotomous, either i = 0 or i > 0 or i < 0. Of course,

i = 0 is just absurd. Suppose for a moment that i > 0. If C is to be an

ordered ﬁeld, then multiplying positives yields a positive. That is, i

2

> 0.

But −1 ,> 0 in R. The other case is no better, as you can check. This also

will be made precise below, in Exercises 17 and 18.

Section 2. Algebra of Complex Numbers 169

2. Algebra of Complex Numbers.

We must ﬁrst deﬁne the set, C, of complex numbers as well as the

operations of addition and multiplication on C.

Deﬁnition 1. The set of complex numbers is the set C = R

2

.

Deﬁnition 2. Addition of complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d) is deﬁned by

(a, b) ÷(c, d) = (a ÷c, b ÷d).

Deﬁnition 3. Multiplication of complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d) is de-

ﬁned by

(a, b)(c, d) = (ac −bd, ad ÷bc).

These operations are clearly well-deﬁned; unlike the constructions of

the integers and the rationals, this construction does not use equivalence

classes. We next verify that C is a ﬁeld.

Let us start with the properties of addition.

Exercise 4. Prove that addition on C is commutative.

Exercise 5. Prove that addition on C is associative.

Exercise 6. Prove that there exists a unique additive identity for C.

As before, we let 0 denote the additive identity; that is, 0 = (0, 0).

Exercise 7. Prove that every element of C has a unique additive inverse.

Denote the additive inverse of a number z ∈ C by −z.

Now, let us continue with the properties of multiplication.

Exercise 8. Prove that multiplication on C is commutative.

Exercise 9. Prove that multiplication on C is associative.

Exercise 10. Prove that there exists a unique multiplicative identity 1 for

C.

Once again, we let 1 denote the multiplicative identity (1, 0).

Exercise 11. Prove that every nonzero z ∈ C has a unique multiplicative

inverse.

170 Chapter 14. The Complex Numbers

Denote the multiplicative inverse of a number z ∈ C by z

−1

.

It remains to prove the distributive property.

Exercise 12. Prove the distributive property for C.

This completes the proof that C is a ﬁeld. We will come back to the

question of order on C and whether C is an ordered ﬁeld or not in the next

section.

Consider the following computation of a product of real numbers:

(a, 0)(b, 0) = (ab, 0).

Since this looks a lot like the equation a · b = ab for multiplication of

real numbers, we will write a for (a, 0) and b for (b, 0). This suggests a

candidate for an embedding of the ﬁeld Rin the ﬁeld C, which is postponed

until Exercise 19.

Next, we will identify the imaginary number i .

Exercise 13. Show that (0, 1)

2

= −1. Is there any other complex number

whose square equals −1?

Deﬁnition 14. The element (0, 1) ∈ C is called i .

Of course, we have made a choice in Deﬁnition 14 since (0, −1)

2

=

−1 also. The nature of this choice will be explained by Exercise 20.

Since

(a, b) = (a, 0) ÷(0, b) = (a, 0)(1, 0) ÷(b, 0)(0, 1)

= (a, 0) · 1 ÷(b, 0) · i = a · 1 ÷b · i,

we will write a ÷ bi for (a, b) ∈ C. We call a the real part of (a, b) and

b the imaginary part of (a, b). For all b ∈ R, the numbers (0, b) ∈ C are

called imaginary.

3. Order on the Complex Field.

Let us look at order relations on C. Whenever we take products of

ordered sets, we can deﬁne an order relation on the product called the

lexicographic or dictionary order. We will do this speciﬁcally for C rather

than the general situation.

Deﬁnition 15. Deﬁne the lexicographic ordering ≺ by (a, b) ≺ (c, d) iff

a < c, or a = c and b < d.

Exercise 16. Prove that ≺ is a total ordering on C and that (a, 0) ≺ (b, 0)

if and only if a < b.

Section 4. Embedding the Real Numbers in the Complex Numbers 171

Exercise 17. Prove that ≺ does not make C an ordered ﬁeld.

Unfortunately, the lexicographic ordering is not a bad choice since

no other ordering makes C an ordered ﬁeld either. To prove this you can

consider the both of the following possibilities: −1 < 0 or −1 > 0.

Exercise 18. Prove that there is no total ordering on C which makes it an

ordered ﬁeld.

4. Embedding the Real Numbers in the Complex Numbers.

Of course, R is not a subset of C as we have deﬁned C. Again, we

can ﬁnd an embedding of R into C which preserves the operations so that

we may consider R as a subﬁeld of C.

Exercise 19. Prove that there exists an embedding of R into C.

Perhaps, we were a bit terse in Exercise 19; let us elaborate. So far,

our embeddings have all had the property of preserving order as well as

operations. In fact, if you thought of Cwith the lexicographic ordering, then

the ordering on R is quite compatible. However, since C does not have a

natural ordering (i.e., one which makes it an ordered ﬁeld), we really have

in mind a weaker kind of embedding which does not include the order-

preserving property, an embedding of a ﬁeld rather than an ordered ﬁeld.

We would be done with complex numbers now except for one small

detail. The deﬁnition of i left us some wiggle roomas the following exercise

explains.

Exercise 20. Prove that there are exactly two automorphisms f : C →C

such that f (x) = x for all x ∈ R.

Since the automorphisms in Exercise 20 induce the identity I

R

when

restricted to R, we say that these automorphisms of C extend the identity

on R.

By Exercise 40 of Chapter 13, I

R

is the unique automorphism on R.

Suppose f : C → C is an automorphism such that f (R) = R. The

induced function on R preserves operations (and order) and is one-to-one

since f has these properties, making it an isomorphismonto its range R; the

induced function is an automorphism of R, hence, equal to I

R

. Therefore,

the statement in Exercise 20 can be strengthened: there are exactly two

automorphisms f : C →C such that f (R) = R.

In fact, this result can be strengthened further. This is done in the

following exercise.

172 Chapter 14. The Complex Numbers

Exercise 21. Prove that if f : C →C is an isomorphism, then f (R) = R.

Hence, there are exactly two automorphisms on C.

173

Chapter 15

The Real Numbers According

to Cantor

1. Convergence of Sequences of Rational Numbers.

In Chapter 13, we constructed the set of real numbers from the set of

rational numbers using the method of Dedekind cuts. We saw that these

cuts formed a type of “completion” of the rationals with respect to the least

upper bound property. In this chapter, we will give a second construction of

the reals from the rationals using the method of Cauchy sequences devised

by Cantor. This construction will emphasize another way in which the

reals “complete” the rationals. If the construction by cuts can be regarded

as essentially algebraic, then the construction by Cauchy sequences can be

regarded as analytic.

Recall that a sequence can be regarded as a denumerable list of num-

bers, not necessarily distinct. Since we will only be interested in rational

numbers and how they deﬁne real numbers, we restrict our attention to

sequences of rational or real numbers, that is, sequences in Q or R.

Deﬁnition 1. Let X be a set. A sequence in X is a function from N to X.

Of course, you will very rarely see a sequence denoted as, for instance,

f : N →Q. Usually a sequence will be denoted as either

{ q

n

} or { q

1

, q

2

, q

3

, q

4

, . . . }.

The connection between f and this notation is that q

n

= f (n) for all n ∈ N.

You should note that the notation for sequences looks like a set. This is

misleading since a term in the sequence may repeat. On the other hand, we

use the same notation to represent the range of the sequence, which is a set.

Example 2. A = { n } and B = { 1, 1, 1, 1, . . . } denote two sequences in

Q. The range of A is N and the range of B is { 1 }. Of course, we could

also write the sequences as A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . } and B = { 1 }.

174 Chapter 15. The Real Numbers According to Cantor

If you have seen sequences before, you will recall the major issue

was the convergence of sequences. This will be our primary concern also,

especially since they do not converge in general. To explain, we need a

deﬁnition and some examples.

Deﬁnition 3. A sequence { q

n

} in Q (respectively, R) converges to q iff

for every ε > 0 there exists a natural number N such that [q

n

− q[ < ε

whenever n ≥ N. A sequence { q

n

} in Q is convergent if there is some

q ∈ Q such that { q

n

} converges to q. A sequence { q

n

} in R is convergent

if there is some q ∈ R such that { q

n

} converges to q.

The idea is that a sequence { q

n

} in Q converges to the limit q if

the terms q

n

get closer and closer to q as n gets larger, that is, as you go

further into the endless tail of the sequence. Note, a sequence in Q is also

a sequence in R. However, a sequence in Q may converge in R but not in

Q.

Example 4. (a) The sequence { 0 } converges to 0 since the difference from

0 is always 0.

(b) The sequence {

1

n

} also converges to 0 since

1

n

can be made as small

as we wish, simply by choosing n large enough; this is the Archimedean

Property of Q: for any positive ε ∈ Q there exists n ∈ N such that nε > 1

(that is, 0 <

1

n

< ε).

(c) The sequence

{ 2, 1.5, 1.42, 1.415, 1.4143, 1.41422, 1.414214, . . . }

(in which the successive terms are derived by reducing the last decimal

place of its predecessor by one and appending, in the next decimal place,

one plus the corresponding decimal place in the decimal representation of

√

2) does not converge in Q.

The goal of the construction in this chapter is to make sequences like

the one in the last example convergent in the larger set; that is, convergent

to

√

2 ∈ R.

Before continuing with sequences, we must prove an important in-

equality known as the Triangle Inequality. It will be very useful for us

since it deals precisely with expressions like [q

n

− q[ in the deﬁnition of

convergent sequence.

Exercise 5. Prove that, for all p, q ∈ R, [ p ÷ q[ ≤ [ p[ ÷ [q[. Moreover,

[ p ÷q[ ≥ [ p[ −[q[.

Properties like the followingabout convergent sequences canbe useful.

Section 2. Cauchy Sequences of Rational Numbers 175

Exercise 6. Suppose { x

n

} is a sequence in Rwhich converges to x and { y

n

}

is a sequence in R which converges to y. Prove that { x

n

÷ y

n

} converges

to x ÷ y.

Exercise 7. Suppose { x

n

} is a sequence in Rwhich converges to x and { y

n

}

is a sequence in R which converges to y. Prove that { x

n

− y

n

} converges

to x − y.

Exercise 8. Suppose { x

n

} is a sequence in R which converges to x and

{ y

n

} is a sequence in Rwhich converges to y. Prove that { x

n

y

n

} converges

to xy.

Exercise 9. Suppose { x

n

} is a sequence in Rwhich converges to x and { y

n

}

is a sequence in R which converges to y. Prove that { x

n

/y

n

} converges to

x/y provided that y

n

,= 0 for all n ∈ N and y ,= 0.

2. Cauchy Sequences of Rational Numbers.

What is it about convergent sequences which makes themconvergent?

In some sense, a convergent sequence requires two things. First, it requires

the existence of a limit q, in our set, Q or R, for the sequence to converge

to. Second, it requires the behavior of the sequence which makes q the

number to which it converges. Notice that if the terms q

n

get closer and

closer to q, then they also get closer and closer to each other. The following

exercise should help to explain this better.

Exercise 10. Suppose that { q

n

} is a convergent sequence in either Q or

R. Prove that for every ε > 0 there exists a natural number N such that

[q

m

−q

n

[ < ε whenever both m ≥ N and n ≥ N.

Sequences with the property in the exercise above were ﬁrst considered

by A. Cauchy.

Deﬁnition 11. A sequence { q

n

} in Q or in R is called a Cauchy sequence

iff for every ε > 0 there exists a natural number N such that [q

m

−q

n

[ < ε

whenever both m ≥ N and n ≥ N.

The converse of Exercise 10 is, of course, false. Consider again the

following sequence.

{ 2, 1.5, 1.42, 1.415, 1.4143, 1.41422, 1.414214, . . . }

given in Example 4(c).This sequence is Cauchy since terms past the k

th

term

differ in, at worst, the k

th

decimal place, that is, by at most

1

10

k

. However,

this sequence fails to converge in Q; of course, it converges to

√

2 in R.

176 Chapter 15. The Real Numbers According to Cantor

By Exercise 10, every sequence in Qor Rwhich converges is Cauchy.

By the previous example the converse is false in Q. In the remainder of

this section, we will prove that the converse is true in R.

The sequence { n } is clearly not Cauchy. In fact, Cauchy sequences

never have this kindof unboundedcharacter, as we showinthe next exercise.

First, we give some deﬁnitions.

Deﬁnition 12. A sequence { q

n

} in Q or in R is bounded iff there exists

q ∈ Q such that [q

n

[ ≤ q for all n ∈ N. { q

n

} is bounded above iff there

exists q ∈ Q such that q

n

≤ q for all n ∈ N. { q

n

} is bounded below iff

there exists q ∈ Q such that q

n

≥ q for all n ∈ N.

Clearly, a sequence is bounded if and only if it is both bounded above

and bounded below. On the other hand, a sequence can be bounded above

and not bounded, or bounded below and not bounded as the sequences

{ −n } and { n } demonstrate.

Exercise 13. Suppose { q

n

} is a Cauchy sequence in Q (or R). Prove that

{ q

n

} is bounded.

Deﬁnition 14. A sequence { q

n

} in Q or in R is increasing iff q

n÷1

≥ q

n

for all n ∈ N. { q

n

} is decreasing iff q

n÷1

≤ q

n

for all n ∈ N. { q

n

} is

monotone iff it is either increasing or decreasing.

Note that a constant sequence { q } is both increasing and decreasing!

Of course, you can imagine how a strictly increasing or strictly decreasing

sequence should be deﬁned.

A subsequence is much like a subset: a subsequence of a sequence

{ a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

, . . . } is a sequence

{ a

n

1

, a

n

2

, a

n

3

, a

n

4

, . . . }

where n

1

< n

2

< n

3

< n

4

< . . . . The following is usually called the

Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem.

Theorem 15. Every bounded monotone sequence in R is convergent.

Proof. Suppose { x

n

} is an increasing sequence in R which is bounded

above. By the least upper bound property, the range of the sequence has a

least upper bound x. We wish to show that the sequence converges to x.

Since x is an upper bound, x

n

≤ x for all n ∈ N. Fix an ε > 0. There

exists an N ∈ N such that x − ε < x

N

≤ x, since otherwise x − ε would

be a smaller upper bound than the least upper bound x. Since the sequence

is increasing,

x −ε < x

N

≤ x

n

≤ x

Section 3. Cantor’s Set of Real Numbers 177

for all n ≥ N. This proves the convergence of { x

n

} to x.

The other case is left as an exercise.

Exercise 16. Complete the proof of Theorem 15.

Lemma 17. Every sequence in R has a monotone subsequence.

Proof. Suppose { x

n

} is a sequence in R. Consider the set

P = { n ∈ N [ x

n

≥ x

m

for all m > n } .

(If you graph the sequence, the n’s in P indicate “peaks” in the graph which

are higher than all later points.) Either P is inﬁnite or ﬁnite.

In the case when P is inﬁnite, write P = { n

1

, n

2

, n

3

, n

4

, . . . }, where

n

k÷1

> n

k

for all k ∈ N. Then the subsequence { x

n

1

, x

n

2

, x

n

3

, x

n

4

, . . . } is

decreasing.

In the case when P is ﬁnite, set n

1

greater than any n ∈ P, for example,

1 ÷ max P. Since n

1

/ ∈ P, there exists n

2

> n

1

such that x

n

1

< x

n

2

.

Continue in this way to produce a subsequence which is strictly increasing.

**The following is also sometimes called the Bolzano-Weierstrass The-
**

orem.

Exercise 18. Prove that every bounded sequence in R has a convergent

subsequence.

We can now prove the converse of Exercise 10 in R.

Theorem 19. Every Cauchy sequence in R is convergent.

Proof. Suppose { x

n

} is a Cauchy sequence in R. By Exercise 13, { x

n

}

is bounded. By Lemma 17, there is a monotone subsequence { x

n

k

}. By

Theorem 15, { x

n

k

} converges; let x be the limit of the subsequence.

Let us ﬁx ε > 0. Since { x

n

} is Cauchy, there exists a natural number

N such that [x

m

−x

n

[ <

1

2

ε whenever both m ≥ N and n ≥ N. Since { x

n

k

}

converges to x, there exists a natural number M such that [x

n

k

− x[ <

1

2

ε

whenever k ≥ M. Pick k such that k ≥ M and n

k

≥ N. By the Triangle

Inequality (Exercise 5), for all n ≥ N,

[x

n

−x[ = [(x

n

−x

n

k

)÷(x

n

k

−x)[ ≤ [x

n

−x

n

k

[ ÷[x

n

k

−x[ <

1

2

ε÷

1

2

ε = ε.

Therefore, the Cauchy sequence { x

n

} also converges to x.

178 Chapter 15. The Real Numbers According to Cantor

3. Cantor’s Set of Real Numbers.

For Dedekind cuts, we deﬁned a real number x as the set of all rational

numbers less than x. Now, we wish to deﬁne a real number x using Cauchy

sequences via those sequences which converge to x.

Deﬁnition20. Suppose that x = { x

n

} and y = { y

n

} are Cauchysequences

in Q. Deﬁne a relation ∼on the set of all Cauchy sequences in Qby x ∼ y

if and only if the sequence { x

n

− y

n

} converges to 0.

To rephrase the above deﬁnition, x ∼ y if and only if for every rational

number ε > 0 there exists a natural number N such that [x

n

− y

n

[ < ε

whenever n ≥ N.

Exercise 21. Prove that the relation ∼is an equivalence relation on the set

of all Cauchy sequences in Q.

Deﬁnition 22. The set of equivalence classes of ∼ is the set of Cantor’s

real numbers which we denote by R

C

.

Of course, we wish to show that Rand R

C

are isomorphic, both being

the set of all real numbers. First, we need to deﬁne order and operations

on R

C

.

It is natural to think that [x] < [y] should mean that [y] − [x] > 0

and, hence, [y] −[x] > ε for some positive rational ε.

Deﬁnition 23. Deﬁne a relation < on R

C

by [x] < [y], for Cauchy se-

quences x = { x

n

} and y = { y

n

} of rational numbers, if and only if, there

exists a rational number ε > 0 and there exists a natural number N such

that x

n

÷ε < y

n

whenever n ≥ N.

Notice that Deﬁnition 23 of [x] < [y] seems to depend on the choices

of representatives of the equivalence classes [x] and [y].

Exercise 24. Prove that the relation < on R

C

is well-deﬁned.

From here on we will assume that { x

n

} is a representative sequence

in [x] and so on for other elements of R

C

.

As always, we deﬁne [x] ≤ [y] to mean [x] < [y] or [x] = [y].

Example 25. Let x

n

= −

1

n

and y

n

=

1

n

for all n ∈ N. Then [x] = [y] = 0

since [x

n

− y

n

[ =

2

n

converges to 0. Note that x

n

< y

n

for all n ∈ N. That

is, there does not exist an N ∈ N such that such that y

n

≤ x

n

whenever

n ≥ N. Therefore, we could not deﬁne ≤ by comparing the terms x

n

and

y

n

directly.

Exercise 26. Prove that < is a (strict) total ordering on R

C

.

Next we deﬁne the operations in the obvious way.

Section 4. The Isomorphism from Cantor’s to Dedekind’s Reals 179

Deﬁnition 27. Deﬁne addition on R

C

by [x] ÷[y] = [{ x

n

÷ y

n

}].

Exercise 28. Prove that addition on R

C

is well-deﬁned.

Deﬁnition 29. Deﬁne multiplication on R

C

by [x][y] = [{ x

n

y

n

}].

Exercise 30. Prove that multiplication on R

C

is well-deﬁned.

By the way, R

C

completes Q in the way desired in Section 1. If

q ∈ Q, then it is represented by the constant sequence in R

C

, that is,

q = [{ q }] ∈ R

C

is the embedded image of q ∈ Q. So a sequence { x

n

} in

Q can be viewed as a sequence { x

n

} in R

C

.

Exercise 31. If x = { x

n

} is a Cauchy sequence in Q, then { x

n

} converges

to [x] in R

C

.

Next we could check that R

C

with this ordering and these operations

has all of the properties of an ordered ﬁeld with the least upper bound

property and that Q embedded as a subﬁeld. Only the least upper bound

property would give us any serious work. We know all such structures are

isomorphic and, in particular, R

C

is isomorphic to R.

However, we will construct the isomorphism directly.

4. The Isomorphism from Cantor’s to Dedekind’s Reals.

We next wish to give an isomorphism f : R → R

C

. Take a cut

representing some x in R. If we can extract a sequence from the cut which

converges to x, this gives us a waytodeﬁne a candidate for our isomorphism.

By the way, it is much harder to deﬁne the isomorphism in the opposite

direction. This makes sense since we knowall about Rbut we knowalmost

nothing about R

C

. You will make frequent use of the properties of R in

proving the existence of the isomorphism.

Recall that the cut x is the set { q ∈ Q [ q < x in R }. Pick q

1

∈ x.

Set q

2

= q

1

÷1 if q

1

÷1 < x or q

2

= q

1

÷

1

2

if q

1

÷

1

2

< x < q

1

÷1 or etc.

Continue in the same way to deﬁne q

3

, q

4

, etc. This deﬁnes an increasing

sequence { q

n

} in Q. We will check that this sequence is Cauchy and then

deﬁne f : R →R

C

by f (x) = [{ q

n

}].

Exercise 32. Prove that the process in the previous paragraph actually

deﬁnes a sequence and that it is Cauchy in Q and converges to x in R.

We deﬁne f : R → R

C

by f (x) = [{ q

n

}]. We must check that this

is well-deﬁned, that is, independent of the initial choice q

1

.

180 Chapter 15. The Real Numbers According to Cantor

Exercise 33. Prove that f is well-deﬁned.

It remains to show that f is an isomorphism, that is, a structure-

preserving bijection.

Exercise 34. Prove that f is order-preserving and, hence, one-to-one.

Exercise 35. Prove that f is addition-preserving.

Exercise 36. Prove that f is multiplication-preserving.

Exercise 37. Prove that f is onto.

This completes the proof that the structure R

C

we constructed in this

chapter is really the same set of real numbers R with its order relation and

operations.

181

PART IV

HINTS

182

Chapter 16

Hints for (and Comments on)

the Exercises

Hints for Chapter 1.

Exercises 3, 4 and 5. These are meant to inspire thought rather than

speciﬁc answers.

Exercise 10. Think trilateral rather than triangle; that is, use line

segments, not angles.

Exercise 12. Use scale and length of line measure for betweenness

and congruence of segments, respectively. Use angle measure similarly.

Hints for Chapter 2.

Exercise 18. That is, if p and q is true, then p is true and if p is

true, then p or q is true. Of course, p ∧ q ⇒ q and q ⇒ p ∨ q are also

tautologies.

Exercise 19. That is, if p implies q is true, then p is false or q is true.

Exercise 20. These are known as the reﬂexive, symmetric, and tran-

sitive properties of equivalence, respectively.

Exercise 21. This is why the phrases ”if and only if” and ”necessary

and sufﬁcient” make sense.

Exercise 22. The point of this exercise is to make sure that you un-

derstand the value of truth tables! Every row in a truth table represents an

entire paragraph in words.

Exercise 24. Be careful! (d) is impossible!

Exercise 27. You can do this in words or with truth tables. This is a

very important tool for constructing proofs.

Exercise 29. (a) is exactly Exercise 27 after a change in variables.

You can disprove with a counterexample or with truth tables.

Exercise 30. This is the same kind of algebra exercise as you have

often seen before.

Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises 183

Hints for Chapter 3.

Exercise 3. Mimic the ﬁrst part of the proof of Proposition 1.

Exercise 5. Mimic the proof of Proposition 4.

Exercise 6. Use proof by brute force.

Exercise 7. Use proof by brute force.

Exercise 8. Use proof by brute force.

Exercise 11. Consider when 2x ÷ 1 is nonnegative and when it is

positive.

Exercise 12. You may use the facts that products of positive real

numbers are positive and (−1)

2

= 1.

Exercise 14. Try proof by contraposition. You may assume that, for

integers p and q, q ,= 0 implies that p

2

÷q

2

,= 0; this is proved in Exercise

23.

Exercise 15. Since this is the converse of Exercise 12, that does not

help to prove it. Try proof by contraposition.

Exercise 16. Break the equivalence into two implications: use direct

proof for one and contraposition for the other.

Exercise 22. For each, mimic the proof of Theorem 18. The phrase

“is even” can be replaced by “is divisible by 2;” this becomes “is divisible

by 3” Similarly, the condition m = 2k becomes m = 3k.

Exercise 23. Use proof by brute force for one direction and proof by

contradiction for the other. You can use Exercise 12.

Exercise 24. Multiply both sides of an inequality by x.

Exercise 25. Suppose there are n ≥ 2 people. Use proof by contra-

diction. Consider the set of numbers of people that each person knows.

Show that someone must know no one else while someone else must know

every one.

Exercise 33. Where is the ﬁrst step in the induction?

Exercise 34. Examine how the situation is different when n ÷1 = 2

from when n ÷1 = 3.

Exercise 35. Consider

¸

1 ÷3 ÷5 ÷· · · ÷(2n −1)

¸

÷(2(n ÷1) −1)

in a proof by induction.

Exercise 36. Use

n÷1

¸

k=1

1

k(k÷1)

=

n

¸

k=1

1

k(k÷1)

÷

1

n÷1

(n÷1)÷1

in a

proof by induction.

Exercise 37. Use proof by induction.

Exercise 38. Use proof by induction (on n).

Exercise 41. Examine the ﬁrst application of the inductive step, going

from 10

0

= 1 to 10

0÷1

= 1.

Exercise 42. Given n, n is either prime or the product of two integers

strictly between 1 and n.

184 Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises

Exercise 43. Consider 0.

Exercise 44. Consider f (x) = [x[.

Hints for Chapter 4.

Remember Venn diagrams and logic!

Exercise 6. Is it true that if x ∈ ∅, then x ∈ X? Recall that statements

such as ∅ ⊂ X are sometimes called vacuously true.

Exercise 7. Remember that ⊂ does not mean proper subset.

Exercise 8. You could use ( p ⇒q) ∧ (q ⇒r) ⇒( p ⇒r) (Supple-

mental Exercise S5 of Chapter 2), but this is actually straightforward.

Exercise 11. Use ( p ⇔ q) ⇔ ( p ⇒ q) ∧ (q ⇒ p) (Exercise 21 of

Chapter 2).

Exercise 13. Use Exercises 7, 8, and 11.

Exercise 16. Use Exercises 6 and 11; use the tautology p ∧ F ⇔ F,

where F is always false (Supplemental Exercise S33 of Chapter 2).

Exercise 17. Use the tautology p ∧ p ⇔ p (Supplemental Exercise

S22 of Chapter 2).

Exercise 21. Use the tautology p ∨ F ⇔ p (Supplemental Exercise

S32 of Chapter 2).

Exercise 22. Use the tautology p ∨ p ⇔ p (Supplemental Exercise

S21 of Chapter 2).

Exercise 23. Break the compound statement into A ∩ B ⊂ A and

A ⊂ A ∪ B. Use Exercise 8 for the second part.

Exercise 24. You could use Exercise 23 (A ∩ B ⊂ B) to show that

A ∩ B ⊃ A implies A ⊂ B.

Exercise 25. You could use Exercise 23 (A ⊂ A ∪ B) to show that

A ∪ B ⊂ B implies A ⊂ B.

Exercise 26. Use both parts of Exercises 25 and 24.

Exercise 27. Use p ∧q ⇔q ∧ p and p ∨q ⇔q ∨ p (Supplemental

Exercises S15 and S16 of Chapter 2).

Exercise 28. Use ( p∧q)∧r ⇔ p∧(q∧r) and ( p∨q)∨r ⇔ p∨(q∨r)

(Supplemental Exercises S17 and S18 of Chapter 2).

x ∈ A∩(B ∪C) means x ∈ A and x ∈ (B ∪C), which means x ∈ A,

and x ∈ B or x ∈ C. Notice how the comma plays the role of parentheses.

Be careful! It is unclear what the following means: x ∈ A and x ∈ B or

x ∈ C.

Exercise 29. Use p ∧(q ∨r) ⇔( p ∧q) ∨( p ∧r) and p ∨(q ∧r) ⇔

( p ∨ q) ∧ ( p ∨r) (Supplemental Exercises S19 and S20 of Chapter 2).

Exercise 36. Recall that [a, b) = { x ∈ R [ x ≥ a and x < b } and use

the deﬁnition of intersection.

Exercise 37. See Figure 31 and Example 34.

Exercise 39. Recall the deﬁnitions of [a, b), (a, b), and union.

Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises 185

Exercise 40. Compare with Exercise 29.

Exercise 43. Recall the deﬁnition of A − B.

Exercise 44. Consider B = ∅ and A = B.

You have been using Venn diagrams, right?

Exercise 45. Recall the deﬁnition of A−B; logical and is commutative

and associative.

Exercise 46. Try ∅, { 1 } and { 1, 2 }

Exercise 47. Follow the Venn diagram.

Exercise 48. This is similar to Exercise 47.

Exercise 50. Recall the deﬁnitions of A − B and B

/

.

Exercise 51. (B

/

)

/

= B is analogous to ¬(¬p) ⇔ p. Use Exercise

50.

Exercise 52. Follow the Venn diagram.

Exercise 54. Remember that ∅ and X are always subsets of X. You

must prove that ∅ is the only subset of ∅!

Exercise 55. We have seen that [P(∅)[ = 1 = 2

0

, [P(Z

1

)[ = 2 = 2

1

,

and [P(Z

1

)[ = 4 = 2

2

. Power, get it?

Exercise 56. Use Exercise 8.

Exercise 57. Both are true: P(A) ∩ P(B) = P(A ∩ B).

Exercise 58. Only one is true. X ⊂ A∪ B does not imply that X ⊂ A

or X ⊂ B.

Exercise 59. Neither one holds! Check ∅; compare with Supplemental

Exercise S35.

Hints for Chapter 5.

Exercise 3. They are, respectively, 3-dimensional space, a 2-dimen-

sional lattice of points, 2 horizontal parallel lines, and 2 vertical parallel

lines (given that the plane has the standard orientation).

Exercise 4. Assume that A B ,= ∅; assume that A ,= ∅ and B ,= ∅.

Exercise 5. Assume that (A B) ∩ (B A) ,= ∅; assume that

A ∩ B ,= ∅.

Exercise 15. This is probably the more familiar deﬁnition; it is just a

matter of the meaning of f (x).

Exercise 18. Graph the half-parabola y =

√

x.

Exercise 19. Use your knoweldge of precalculus and/or calculus.

Exercise 23. If y ∈ f (A), then there exists x ∈ A such that y = f (x).

Exercise 24. Suppose y ∈ f (A ∪ B); suppose y ∈ f (A) ∪ f (B).

Exercise 26. Suppose y ∈ f (A ∩ B).

Exercise 28. Use contraposition.

Exercise 29. Compare with Example 25 and Exercise 26.

Exercise 31. This is probably the more familiar deﬁnition.

Exercise 33. Use the same rule anddomainwitha “smaller” codomain.

186 Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises

Exercise 34. Compare with Exercise 31; uniqueness comes from one-

to-one.

Exercise 35. Think about functions you know: polynomial, trigono-

metric, exponental, etc.

Exercise 37. Unravel g( f (x)).

Exercise 40. That is, show (( f ◦ g) ◦ h)(x) = ( f ◦ (g ◦ h))(x).

Exercise 41. Start with f : X → Y, g : W → Z, Y ⊂ W, and

x

1

,= x

2

in X.

Exercise 42. Notice that the codomain and range of f equals the

domain of g. Determine g( f (X)).

Exercise 44. Bydeﬁnitionof function, g(y

1

) ,= g(y

2

) implies y

1

,= y

2

.

Consider functions on small ﬁnite sets for your counterexample.

Exercise 45. By deﬁnition of function, f (X) ⊂ Y.

Exercise 47. Assume there is another identity function i : X → X.

Show that i ◦ I

X

= i and i ◦ I

X

= I

X

.

Exercise 49. What are the domains and codomains of f ◦g and g ◦ f ?

Exercise 51. Compare with Exercises 44 and 45.

Exercise 52. Assume f has another inverse function g. Consider

g ◦ f ◦ f

−1

in two ways using the associative property.

Exercise 55. If x

1

, x

2

∈ f

−1

(y), then f (x

1

) = y = f (x

2

).

Exercise 56. x ∈ f

−1

(A ∩ B) is equivalent to f (x) ∈ A ∩ B is

equivalent to f (x) ∈ A and f (x) ∈ B, etc.

Exercise 57. By (c), for (b), f cannot be one-to-one; use small ﬁnite

sets for your counterexample. (d) is false!

Exercise 58. By (c), for (b), f cannot be onto. (d) is false!

Exercise 62. No! State the domains and codomains explicitly.

Exercise 63. You must show that the domains are equal.

Exercise 64. Be sure that the range of f is not a subset of the domain

of g.

Hints for Chapter 6.

Exercise 4. This is different from Exercise 3; ⊂ is different from

and the structure of R is different from that of P(U).

Exercise 5. Consider the relation =.

Exercise 6. You may try to consider relations on small ﬁnite sets.

Exercise 7. Since there are eight properties, this means to give 2

8

=

256 examples! Since relations cannot be both reﬂexive and nonreﬂexive,

cannot be both symmetric and asymmetric, and trichotomous implies con-

nected, this eliminates more than half of the cases. Give at least a few, if

not all.

Exercise 10. Check reﬂexive and nonreﬂexive.

Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises 187

Exercise 11. Compare the symbols ≺ and - with < and ≤, respec-

tively; recall that our ⊂ is denoted ⊆ by some authors.

Exercise 14. x - y and y - x imply x - x, which implies x = x;

x ≺ x implies x ,= x.

Exercise 18. Connected but not trichotomous contradicts nonreﬂex-

iveness.

Exercise 23. Assume there are two candidates for greatest element.

Use antisymmetry to show that they must be equal.

Exercise 24. Assume that a greatest element is not maximal. Use

nonreﬂexivity of ≺.

Exercise 25. Assume there exists a greatest element andshowmaximal

elements are equal.

Exercise 26. Use connectedness.

Exercise 31. Assume there are two least upper bounds. Use antisym-

metry to show that they must be equal.

Exercise 32. Consider intervals in R.

Exercise 33. Check the properties.

Exercise 40. See Chapter 7, Section 2.

Exercise 42. Use s ≈ t to show that [s] ⊂ [t ] and [t ] ⊂ [s].

Exercise 43. Show that if x ∈ [s] ∩ [t ], then [s] = [t ].

Exercise 46. Check the properties.

Exercise 48. Check the properties.

Exercise 50.

Exercise 52.

Hints for Chapter 7.

Exercise 5. Show that any function f : ∅ →∅ satisﬁes the conditions

of a bijection vacuously.

Exercise 6. Consider I

A

.

Exercise 7. Consider the inverse of a one-to-one correspondence.

Exercise 8. Consider the composition of two one-to-one correspon-

dences.

Exercise 11. Use Exercise 7, Exercise 8 and Theorem 9.

Exercise 12. For (a), extend a one-to-one correspondence Z

n

→ A

by n ÷1 .→ x. (b) follows from (a).

Exercise 13. Proceed by induction on [B[.

Exercise 15. f induces a one-to-one correspondence onto a subset of

B.

Exercise 16. There exists a one-to-one correspondence between B

and a subset of A.

188 Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises

Exercise 18. If f : Z

n

→ N (n ≥ 2) is a one-to-one correspon-

dence, show that the sum of the elements of the range is not in the range,

contradicting that f is onto.

Exercise 20. Compare with Theorem 14.

Exercise 24. For a one-to-one correspondence f : N → D, set

k = f

−1

(x). Map n .→ f (n ÷1) for n ≥ k.

Exercise 25. Suppose X is an inﬁnite set. By Theorem 23, there is a

denumerable subset D of X. Choose x ∈ D. By the proof of Exercise 24,

D and D − { x } have the same cardinality. Use the identity function on

X − D to complete the construction of a bijection from X onto X −{ x }.

Exercise 26. Compare with Exercise 25.

Exercise 30. By transitivity.

Exercise 31. Deﬁne a one-to-one correspondence by, for example,

alternating positive and negative.

Exercise 34. Use the one-to-one correspondence of Theorem 32 to

deﬁne a one-to-one correspondence by alternating positive and negative.

Exercise 35. Make an array of lists of the countable sets and use the

“zig-zag” method of the proof of Theorem 32.

Exercise 36. Use induction.

Exercise 38. For polynomials of a ﬁxed degree there are countably

many algebraic numbers.

Exercise 41. See Theorem 29.

Exercise 42. Consider a tangent function.

Exercise 43. Consider “half of” a tangent function.

Exercise 44. Consider a translation function (that is, of the form

f (x) = x ÷t ).

Exercise 45. Consider the negation function.

Exercise 46. Consider an afﬁne function (that is, of the form f (x) =

mx ÷b).

Exercise 47. Use Exercises 42–46.

Exercise 48. For (0, 1) and [0, 1) and for (0, 1] and [0, 1], use the

technique of the proof of Exercise 25.

Exercise 49. Generalize Exercise 48, considering different cases.

(This is similar to the method of Exercises 42–47.)

Exercise 50. Assume R − Q is countable. Then Q ∪ (R − Q) is

countable.

Exercise 51. Similar to Exercise 50.

Exercise 54. Assume it is countable. Use the diagonal technique used

in the proof that (0, 1) is uncountable (Theorem 40).

Exercise 55. Use Exercise 54.

Exercise 56. Assume it is countable. A subset S of N, that is, an

element of P(N), can be represented by a sequence of 0’s and 1’s where the

Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises 189

n-th entry, s

n

, in the sequence indicates n / ∈ S if s

n

= 0 or n ∈ S if s

n

= 1.

Use the diagonal technique on the list of such sequences.

Exercise 57. Assume that there is a one-to-one correspondence f :

S → P(S). Let A = { s ∈ S [ s / ∈ f (s) }. Show that A ∈ P(S) but

A / ∈ f (S).

Hints for Chapter 8.

Exercise 13. This is similar to Exercise 11.

Exercise 14. This is similar to Exercise 12.

Exercise 16. Add −x.

Exercise 17. Use Exercise 12.

Exercise 18. This is similar to Exercise 16.

Exercise 19. This is similar to Exercise 17.

Exercise 20.

Exercise 21.

Exercise 22.

Exercise 23.

Exercise 25.

Exercise 26.

Exercise 27.

Exercise 28.

Exercise 29.

Exercise 30.

Exercise 33.

Exercise 35. Show that E has no multiplicative identity element.

[Compare with the proof of Proposition 29 in Chapter 11.]

Exercise 36.

Hints for Chapter 9.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 5.

Hints for Chapter 10.

Exercise 7. Use proof by contradiction to show that Nis well ordered:

assume S is a nonempty subset with no least element and showby induction

that 1 and its successors Succ

P

(1) are all in the complement of S.

Exercise 9.

Exercise 11.

Exercise 12.

Exercise 13.

190 Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises

Exercise 14. Use induction.

Exercise 15.

Exercise 16. Assume there is another additive identity z. Consider

0 ÷ z.

Exercise 17. For the inductive step, it is easiest to convert to powers

of Succ.

Exercise 18.

Exercise 19.

Exercise 20.

Exercise 22. Use induction on p.

Exercise 23. Show1m = m by induction. Remember to showunique-

ness!

Exercise 24. Show 0m = 0 by induction. For the inductive step, use

Exercise 23.

Exercise 25.

Exercise 26.

Exercise 27.

Exercise 29.

Hints for Chapter 11.

Exercise 2. Use (AC) for Z

÷

to showthat ∼is reﬂexive and symmetric

on Z

÷

Z

÷

; use (AC) and (AA) for Z

÷

to show that ∼ is transitive on

Z

÷

Z

÷

.

Exercise 8.

Exercise 9. Show that, for any [m, n] ∈ Z, [m, n ÷1] < [m, n].

Exercise 12.

Exercise 14.

Exercise 15. Use (AC) for Z

÷

.

Exercise 16. Use (AA) for Z

÷

.

Exercise 17. Remember to showboth existence and uniqueness. Also,

cf., Proposition 11 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 18. It is easier to start with [m, n] than p or −p. Remember

to showboth existence and uniqueness. Also, cf., Proposition 12 of Chapter

8.

Exercise 19. Cf., Exercise 17 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 20. Cf., Exercise 16 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 21. Use (PP) for Z

÷

. ?????

Exercise 24. Use (MC) and (MA) for Z

÷

.

Exercise 25. Use (MC) and (MA) for Z

÷

.

Exercise 26. Remember to showboth existence and uniqueness. Also,

cf., Exercise 13 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 27. Cf., Exercise 14 of Chapter 8.

Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises 191

Exercise 28.

Exercise 30.

Exercise 31.

Exercise 32. Given p ∈ Z

÷

, what element of Z resembles p?

Hints for Chapter 12.

Exercise 2. Use (MC) for Z to show that ∼is reﬂexive and symmetric

on ZZ

∗

; use (MC), (MA) and (MX) for Z to show that ∼is transitive on

Z Z

∗

.

Exercise 4. Use the Negation Reverses Order and Factoring a Minus

Properties for Z.

Exercise 5. For n < 0, use Exercise 4.

Exercise 8. Use (MC), (MA) and (IX) for Z.

Exercise 9. Use (MC), (MA) and (MX) for Z to show that < is

transitive; use the trichotomy of < on Z to show that < is trichotomous.

Exercise 10. Show that [m −1, n] < [m, n] for any [m, n] ∈ Z.

Exercise 12. Use the trichotomy of <.

Exercise 14. Use (MC), (MA), (MX) and (DP) for Z.

Exercise 15. Use (AC) and (MC) for Z.

Exercise 16. Use (AA), (MA) and (DP) for Z.

Exercise 17. Remember to showboth existence and uniqueness. Also,

cf., Proposition 11 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 18. Remember to showboth existence and uniqueness. Also,

cf., Proposition 12 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 19. Cf., Exercise 16 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 21. Use (MC) and (MA) for Z.

Exercise 22. Use (MC) for Z.

Exercise 23. Use (MA) for Z.

Exercise 24. Use (MC) and (MA) for Z. Also, cf., Exercise 13 of

Chapter 8.

Exercise 25. Use (MC) and (MA) for Z. Also, cf., Exercise 14 of

Chapter 8.

Exercise 26. Cf., Exercise 18 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 27. Use (MC) and (MA) for Z.

Exercise 28. Use (MC), (MA), (MX) and (DP) for Z.

Exercise 29. Use (PP) for Z.

Exercise 30. Cf., Exercise 25 of Chapter 8.

Exercise 31. You already know that 0 .→[0, 1] and 1 .→[1, 1].

Exercise 32. Use the Archimedean Principle on Z.

Exercise 33. Cf., Exercise 4 of Chapter 9.

Exercise 34. Take the average of p and q.

192 Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises

Hints for Chapter 13.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 4.

Exercise 5. Suppose S ⊂ R is nonempty and bounded above by U;

that is, S ⊂ U for all S ∈ S. Set L = ∪S. Show that S ∈ R and S is the

least upper bound of S.

Exercise 7.

Exercise 8.

Exercise 9.

Exercise 10. Show that X ÷ 0 ⊂ X and X ⊂ X ÷ 0. Similarly for

0 ÷ X.

Exercise 11.

Exercise 12.

Exercise 13.

Exercise 14. Use the Cancellation Property for Addition (Exercise 16)

to show strict inequality.

Exercise 16.

Exercise 17.

Exercise 18.

Exercise 19.

Exercise 20.

Exercise 21.

Exercise 22.

Exercise 23.

Exercise 24.

Exercise 25.

Exercise 26.

Exercise 27.

Exercise 28.

Exercise 29.

Exercise 30.

Exercise 31.

Exercise 32.

Exercise 33.

Exercise 34.

Exercise 35. Thinking of cuts, x < y implies f (x) ≤ f (y). By

density of rationals, there exists q, r ∈ Q such that x < q < r < y.

Exercise 36. Use Exercise 35.

Exercise 37. For q ∈ F, set S = { q ∈ Q [ f (q) < a } and x = sup S.

Show that f (x) = q.

Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises 193

Exercise 38. If x, y ∈ R and q ∈ Q such that f (x ÷ y) < f (q) <

f (x) ÷ f (y), then there exist q

1

, q

2

∈ Q such that q

1

÷ q

2

= q, x < q

1

,

and y < q

2

.

Exercise 39. Start with positive real numbers.

Exercise 40. Use the properties of isomorphisms to show that f (x) =

x for all x ∈ Z, then for all x ∈ Q, and ﬁnally for all x ∈ R.

Exercise 42. Consider g

−1

◦ f for isomorphisms f, g : R →F.

Hints for Chapter 14.

Exercise 4.

Exercise 5.

Exercise 6.

Exercise 7.

Exercise 8.

Exercise 9.

Exercise 10.

Exercise 11.

Exercise 12.

Exercise 13.

Exercise 16. Use Deﬁnition 3 to prove the properties of a total order-

ing. To see this is not an ordered ﬁeld, compare i with 0 and 0 with −1 and

consider the product of positives property of ordered ﬁelds.

Exercise 17.

Exercise 18. Either i > 0 or i < 0. (Why?) Use Exercise 26 of

Chapter 8.

Exercise 19.

Exercise 20. Consider the image of i and the preservation of multipli-

cation.

Exercise 21.

Hints for Chapter 15.

Exercise 5.

Exercise 6.

Exercise 7.

Exercise 8.

Exercise 9.

Exercise 10.

Exercise 13.

Exercise 15.

Exercise 16.

Exercise 17.

194 Chapter 16. Hints for (and Comments on) the Exercises

Exercise 18.

Exercise 19.

Exercise 21.

Exercise 24.

Exercise 26.

Exercise 28.

Exercise 30.

Exercise 31.

Exercise 32.

Exercise 33.

Exercise 34. Use the denseness of Q in R.

Exercise 35.

Exercise 36.

Exercise 37.

195

Postscript and Selected Ref-

erences

Completion of Part II of these notes, together with a sequence in

calculus, should provide a student with more than adequate preparation for a

course in linear algebra or abstract algebra or number theory. Actually, Part

II alone should sufﬁce; however, calculus may provide for some examples

in all such courses.

Completion of Parts II and III of these notes, together with a sequence

in calculus, should provide a student with more than adequate prepara-

tion for a course in analysis (or advanced calculus) or general (point-set)

topology or axiomatic set theory or logic.

Conway, Lakatos, Knuth

References

[Bell] Bell, E. T., The Development of Mathematics, Dover, New York, 1945, 1972.

[Halmos] Halmos, Paul, Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces, Springer-Verlag, New York,

19??.

[Herstein] Herstein, I. N., Topics in Algebra, Ginn, Waltham, MA, 1964.

[Rudin] Rudin, Walter, Principles of Mathematical Analysis, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill,

New York, 1976.

[Spivak] Spivak, Michael, Calculus, Second Edition, Publish or Perish, Wilmington, DE,

1980.

196

Index

The numbers after the keywords refer to item numbers; for example, 3.2

refers to Deﬁnition 2 (or Example 2, or Remark 2, etc.) in Chapter 3. The

notation “iv” refers to page iv, concerning notation, which appears before

the Preface; there are no other page numbers yet—sorry!

Symbols

, iv

⊂, iv, 4.3

, iv

∅, 4.2

∈, 4.1

{ }, 4.2

(a, b), iv

[a, b), iv

(a, b], iv

[a, b], iv

C, iv, 14.1

i , 14.14

N, iv, 10.4

Q, iv, 12.3

Q

÷

, iv

Q

∗

÷

, iv

R, iv, 13.1, 15.22

R

÷

, iv

R

∗

÷

, iv

Z, iv, 11.3

Z

n

, iv

Z

÷

, iv, 10.4

Z

∗

, iv

A

Addition on C, 14.1

Addition on Q, 12.13

Addition on R, 13.6

Addition on Z

÷

, 10.10

Index 197

Addition on Z, 11.13

Algebraic Nnumbers, 7.37

And, 2.3

Antisymmetric relation, 6.1(d)

Archimedean Principle, 8.1

B

Bijective function, 5.32, 5.55

Birkhoff, G.D., 1.6

Bolzano-Weierstrass property, 15.15

Bounded sequence, 15.12

C

Cardinality of sets, same, 7.2

Cartesian product of sets, 5.1, 7.52

Cauchy sequence, 15.11

Codomain of a function, 5.10

Complex numbers, set of, iv, 14.1

Composition of two functions, 5.36, 5.60

Contradiction, 2.ContradictionDef

Contraposition, proof by, 3.13

Connected relation, 6.1(f)

Convergent sequence, 15.3

Countable set, 7.22

Cut, 13.1

D

Decreasing sequence, 15.14

Dedekind cut, 13.1

Denumerable set, 7.21

Dense, 8.6

Descendency set, 10.5

Difference of sets, 4.42

Disjoint sets, 4.18, 4.33

Domain of a function, 5.10

E

Element, 4.1

Embedding, 11.37

Empty set, 4.2

Equal functions, 5.20

Equal sets, 4.9

Equivalence class, 6.41

Equivalence relation, 6.37

F

198 Index

Field, 8.4

Finite set, 7.10

Function, 5.10

G

Greatest element, 6.20

H

I

Identity function, 5.46

Iff, 3.10

Image of a set under a function, 5.13

Inclusive or, 2.4

Increasing sequence, 15.14

Induction, 3.26

Inﬁnite set, 7.17

Injective function, 5.27, 5.55

Integers, set of, iv, 11.3

Intersection of two sets, 4.14

Intersection of a collection of sets, 4.30

Inverse image of a set under a function, 5.53

Invertible function, 5.48

Isomorphism, 8.31

J

K

L

Least upper bound, 6.28

Least upper bound property, 6.34

Less than on C, 14.15

Less than on Q, 12.7

Less than on R, 13.3, 15.23

Less than on Z

÷

, 10.6, 10.12

Less than on Z, 11.4

Lexicographic ordering, 14.15

M

Mathematical or, 2.4

Maximal element, 6.19

Mod, for an equivalence relation, 1.6, 6.45

Mod, for a partition, 6.47

Monotone sequence, 15.14

Multiplication on C, 14.1

Multiplication on Q, 12.20

Multiplication on R, 13.15

Index 199

Multiplication on Z

÷

, 10.21

Multiplication on Z, 11.22

N

Natural numbers, set of, iv, 10.4

Negative integer, 11.11

Nonnegative integers, set of, iv

Nonnegative rational numbers, set of, iv

Nonnegative real numbers, set of, iv

Nonreﬂexive relation, 6.1(b)

Nonzero integers, set of, iv

Not, 2.2

O

One-to-one function, 5.27, 5.55

Onto function, 5.30, 5.55

Or, 2.4

Ordered ﬁeld, 8.8

Ordering on C, 14.15

Ordering on Q, 12.7

Ordering on R, 13.3, 15.23

Ordering on Z

÷

, 10.6

Ordering on Z, 11.4

P

Pairwise disjoint collection of sets, 4.32

Partial ordering, 6.9

Partition, 6.44

Positive integer, 11.11

Positive rational numbers, set of, iv

Positive real numbers, set of, iv

Power set, 4.53

Predecessor, 10.8

Principle of Induction, 3.26

Product of sets (cartesian), 5.1, 7.52

Proper subset, 4.4

Q

Quantiﬁer, Hidden, 3.33

R

Range of a function, 5.14

Rational numbers, set of, iv, 12.3

Real numbers, set of, iv, 13.1, 15.22

Reﬂexive relation, 6.1(a)

Relation, 6.6

Relation, properties of a, 6.1

200 Index

S

Same cardinality, 7.2

Sequence, 15.1

Set, 4.1

Set difference, 4.42

Strict partial ordering, 6.8

Strict total ordering, 6.16

Subset, 4.3

Subset, proper, 4.4

Successor, 10.2

Surjective function, 5.30, 5.55

Symmetric relation, 6.1(c)

T

Tautology, 2.TautologyDef

Total ordering, 6.17

Transitive relation, 6.1(e)

Trichotomous relation, 6.1(g)

U

Uncountable set, 7.39

Union of two sets, 4.19

Union of a collection of sets, 4.38

Upper bound, 6.27

V

W

Well ordered set, 6.36

X

Y

Z

Zero, 10.3

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