Intel® Atom™ Processor N450, D410 and D510 for Embedded Applications

Thermal Design Guide February 2010 Revision 1.0

Document Number: 323439-001 EN

INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL® PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, BY ESTOPPEL OR OTHERWISE, TO ANY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IS GRANTED BY THIS DOCUMENT. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN INTEL’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE FOR SUCH PRODUCTS, INTEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, AND INTEL DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, RELATING TO SALE AND/OR USE OF INTEL PRODUCTS INCLUDING LIABILITY OR WARRANTIES RELATING TO FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Intel products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustaining applications. Intel may make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time, without notice. Designers must not rely on the absence or characteristics of any features or instructions marked "reserved" or "undefined." Intel reserves these for future definition and shall have no responsibility whatsoever for conflicts or incompatibilities arising from future changes to them. The information here is subject to change without notice. Do not finalize a design with this information. The products described in this document may contain design defects or errors known as errata which may cause the product to deviate from published specifications. Current characterized errata are available on request. This document contains information on products in the design phase of development. Hyper-Threading Technology requires a computer system with a processor supporting HT Technology and an HT Technology enabled chipset, BIOS and operating system. Performance will vary depending on the specific hardware and software you use. For more information including details on which processors support HT Technology, see http://www.intel.com/info/hyperthreading. Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Copyright © 2010, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.

2

Thermal Design Guide

Contents
1  Introduction .....................................................................................................5  1.1  1.2  2  2.1  2.2  3  3.1  3.2  3.3  3.4  3.5  3.6  3.7  3.8  3.9  3.10  3.11  3.12  4  4.1  4.2  5  5.1  5.2  5.3  5.4  5.5  Reference Documents .............................................................................5  Terminology ..........................................................................................6  Thermal Design Power .......................................................................... 10  Package Mechanical Requirements .......................................................... 10  Processor Power Dissipation ................................................................... 11  Thermal Monitor Implementation ............................................................ 11  3.2.1  Thermal Monitor 2 ................................................................... 13  PROCHOT # Signal ............................................................................... 14  Thermal Control Circuit ......................................................................... 15  Operation and Configuration .................................................................. 16  On-Demand Mode ................................................................................ 16  System Consideration ........................................................................... 17  Operating System and Application Software ............................................. 17  THERMTRIP# Signal.............................................................................. 17  Cooling System Failure Warning ............................................................. 18  Digital Thermal Sensor .......................................................................... 18  Thermal Diode ..................................................................................... 18  Characterizing the Thermal Solution Requirement ..................................... 21  Example: Calculating the Required Thermal Performance ........................... 23  Thermal Solution Design Considerations .................................................. 25  Thermal Solution Design Factors............................................................. 25  Natural Convection Heatsink Experimental Test Setup ............................... 26  Mechanical Design ................................................................................ 28  Fanless System Design Examples ........................................................... 29  5.5.1  System Level Simulations for Print Imaging ................................ 29  5.5.2  System Level Simulations for Industrial PC ................................. 33  Reference Heatsink for Forced Convection ................................................ 36  Active Heatsink .................................................................................... 38  Keep Out Zone Requirements ................................................................. 38  Digital Thermal Sensor measurement (TJUNCTION- MAX Methodology) ........ 39  Local Ambient Temperature Measurement Guidelines................................. 39 

Package Information .........................................................................................7 

Processor Thermal Features .............................................................................. 11 

Thermal Solution Requirement .......................................................................... 21 

Reference Thermal Solution .............................................................................. 25 

5.6  5.7  5.8  6  6.1  6.2 

Thermal Metrology .......................................................................................... 39 

Appendix A: Thermal Solution component supplier .................................................................. 43 
Thermal Design Guide 3

Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings ......................................................................................... 44  B.1: B.2: B.3: B.4: B.5: B.6: Mini –ITX Forced Convection Heatsink Assembly (40 x 40 mm) ....................... 45  Mini –ITX Forced Convection Heatsink Drawing ............................................. 46  PCB Keep-Out Zone for Forced Convection Heatsink ...................................... 47  Mini-ITX Natural Convection Heatsink Assembly (64 x 64 mm) ....................... 48  Mini-ITX Natural Convection Heatsink drawing .............................................. 49  PCB Keep- Out Zone for Natural Convection Heatsink .................................... 50 

Figures

Figure 1. Intel® Atom™ Processor D510 micro-FCBGA Package ...............................8  Figure 2. Intel® Atom™ Processor N450 and D410 micro-FCBGA Package .................9  Figure 3. Thermal Monitor 2 Frequency and Voltage Ordering ............................... 14  Figure 4. Concept of Clocks under Thermal Monitor Control ................................... 15  Figure 5. Processor Thermal Characterization Parameter Relationships.................... 22  Figure 6. Isometric View of Natural Convection Test Chamber ............................... 27  Figure 7. Mini-ITX Natural Convection Reference Heatsink Assembly (Natural Convection) Intel part # E85767-001........................................................... 28  Figure 8. Model setup ...................................................................................... 30  Figure 9. Isometric view of model setup ............................................................. 30  Figure 10. Natural Convection Airflow Plot for Vertical Chassis Configuration............ 31  Figure 11. Isometric view of horizontal orientation ............................................... 32  Figure 12. Natural Convection Airflow Plot for Horizontal Chassis Configuration ........ 33  Figure 13 Vertical Fanless system for Industrial PC .............................................. 34  Figure 14. Direct Chassis Conduction for Industrial PC: simplified drawing for gap pad and heat spreader stackup for ICH8M .......................................................... 34  Figure 15. Isometric view of Inductrial PC simulation .......................................... 35  Figure 16. Natural Convection Airflow plot for Vertical Chassis Configuration........... 35  Figure 17. Mini –ITX Forced Convection Reference Thermal Solution Assembly ........ 37  Figure 18. Mini-ITX Forced Convection Reference Heatsink Thermal Performance versus Airflow Rate ................................................................................... 37  Figure 19. Mini-ITX Active Heatsink ................................................................... 38  Figure 20. Locations for measuring TLA with Active heatsink ................................... 41  Figure 21. Locations for Measuring TLA , Passive Heatsink ...................................... 41 

Tables

Table 1. Thermal Specification .......................................................................... 10  Table 2. Processor Loading Specification ............................................................. 10  Table 3. Thermal Diode Interface ...................................................................... 19  Table 4. Thermal Diode Parameters using Transistor Model ................................... 19  Table 5. Required Thermal Solution Performance (ΨJA) ........................................ 24  Table 6. Experimental Thermal Solution Performance for 64 x 64mm Heatsink (Intel part # E85767-001) .................................................................................. 28  Table 7. Experimental Thermal Solution Performance for 40 x 40 mm Heatsink (Intel part# E85766-001) ................................................................................... 29  Table 8. Experimental Thermal Solution Performance for Active Heatsink (Intel part# E59451-001) ............................................................................................ 38  Table 9. Suppliers ........................................................................................... 43  §

4

Thermal Design Guide

Introduction

1

Introduction
This document describes the thermal characteristics of the Intel® Atom™ Processor N450, D410 and D510 and provides guidelines for meeting the thermal requirements imposed on a single-processor system. The goals of this document are to: • • Identify the thermal and mechanical specification for the device Describe a reference thermal solution that meets the specifications

A properly designed thermal solution adequately cools the device die temperature at or below the thermal specification. This is accomplished by providing a suitable local ambient temperature, ensuring adequate local airflow, and minimizing the die to local ambient thermal resistance. Operation outside the functional limits can degrade system performance and may cause permanent changes in the operating characteristics of the component. This document describes thermal and mechanical design guidelines for the Intel® Atom™ processors in the micro Flip Chip Ball Grid Array (micro-FCBGA) package. For thermal design information on other Intel® components, refer to the respective component datasheets.

1.1

Reference Documents
Document Document No./Location http://www.intel.com/assets/pdf/dat asheet/313056.pdf

Intel® ICH8 Family Datasheet

Intel® Atom™ Processor D400 and D500, Thermal Mechanical See Note 1 Specifications and Design Guideline Intel® Atom™ Processor (Pineview) Thermal Model User’s Guide Intel® Atom™ Processor N450 and Intel® Atom Processor D410 Desktop SKUs: Intel® Atom™ Processor D400 and D500 Datasheet Volume 1 and 2 Mobile SKUs: Intel® Atom™ Processor N400 Datasheet Volume 1 and 2 See Note 1 See Note 1 See Note 1 See Note 1

Note: 1. For the latest revision and order number of this document, contact your Intel field sales representative.

Thermal Design Guide

5

Heatsink Temperature measured at geometric center of heatsink base. as specified in the processor datasheet (°C) The minimum junction temperature of the processor. approximately 1” upstream from a component heatsink. Thermal Interface Material – the thermally conductive compound between the heatsink and processor. This material fills air gaps and voids. and enhances spreading of the heat from the processor to the heatsink.Introduction 1. Defined as (TS – TLA) / TDP Junction-to-ambient thermal characterization parameter. This is the temperature measured inside the chassis.2 Terminology Term Description °C EDS FCBGA in. PCB TJ-MAX TJ-MIN Degrees Celsius External Design Specification Flip Chip Ball Grid Array Inches Printed Circuit Board The maximum junction temperature of the processor. as specified in the processor datasheet (°C) Junction Temperature of Processor Local ambient temperature (°C). Defined as (TJ – TS) / TDP Sink-to-ambient thermal characterization parameter. Defined as (T J-MAX – TLA) / TDP TJ TLA TS TIM TDP W ΨJS ΨSA ΨJA 6 Thermal Design Guide . Thermal Design Power Watt Junction-to-sink thermal characterization parameter.

Although the die-side capacitors are slightly shorter than the silicon die. Note that there are capacitors near the die. The data provided in this section is for reference purposes only. In the event of conflict. be careful to avoid contacting the capacitors with electrically conductive materials or a heatsink base. D410 and D450 all utilize a 22 x 22 mm. Thermal Design Guide 7 . Refer to the device’s most recent datasheet for up-to-date information.Package Information 2 Package Information The Intel® Atom Processor N450. Consider using an insulating material between the capacitors and heatsink to prevent capacitor shorting. the device’s datasheet supersedes data shown in these figures. 559 ball microFCBGA package as shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Package Information Figure 1. Intel® Atom™ Processor D510 micro-FCBGA Package 8 Thermal Design Guide .

Package Information Figure 2. Intel® Atom™ Processor N450 and D410 micro-FCBGA Package Thermal Design Guide 9 .

The thermal solution must ensure that the processor junction temperature limit is never exceeded under TDP conditions. 3 NOTES: 1.4 lbf] Maximum 67N [15 lbf] Notes 1. which should not be exceeded during their respective stress conditions. Thermal Specification CPU SKU Intel® Atom™ Processor N450 Intel® Atom™ Processor D410 Intel® Atom™ Processor D510 # of Cores 1 1 2 Frequency (GHz) 1.2 Package Mechanical Requirements The processor package has mechanical load limits. it should remain in the minimum/maximum range specified.66 1. removal. Table 2. TDP is the recommended design point for the thermal solution’s power dissipation and is based on running worst-case. This is the minimum and maximum static force that can be applied by the heat-sink and retention solution to maintain the heat-sink and processor interface. 2.1 Thermal Design Power Thermal Design Power (TDP) specifications for the Intel® Atom processors N450.866 2. 3. • No portion of the substrate should be used as a mechanical reference or loadbearing surface for the thermal or mechanical solution. These include heat-sink installation.Package Information 2.66 TDP (W) 5.659 0. Loading limits are for the package only. D410 and D510 are listed in Table 1. real-world applications and benchmarks at maximum component temperature.659 0. These specifications apply to uniform compressive loading in a direction normal to the processor die. 4. 2. mechanical stress testing. • When a compressive static load is necessary to ensure thermal performance of the thermal interface material between the heat-sink base and the processor die. Table 1. • When a compressive static load is necessary to ensure mechanical performance. maximum static and dynamic load limits.5 10 13 TJ-MAX (°C) 100 100 100 TJ-MIN (°C) 0 0 0 Die Size (cm2) 0. 10 Thermal Design Guide . and standard shipping conditions. it should not exceed the corresponding specification. Processor loading specifications are for dual and single core.66 1. These specifications are based on limited testing for design characterization. Processor Loading Specification Parameter Static Compressive Load Minimum 24N [5.

An on-die thermal management feature called Thermal Monitor is available on the processor.2 Thermal Monitor Implementation The Thermal Monitor helps control the processor temperature by activating the TCC (Thermal Control Circuit) when the processor silicon reaches its maximum operating temperature. The Intel® Thermal Monitor uses two modes to activate the TCC: automatic mode and on-demand mode. The temperature at which the Intel® Thermal Monitor activates the TCC is not user configurable. it is anticipated that the TCC would only be activated for very short periods of time when running the most power intensive applications. Bus traffic is snooped in the normal manner and interrupt requests are latched (and serviced during the time that the clocks are on) while the TCC is active. The relationship between frequency and power is generalized in the following equation: P = CV2F (where P = power. a thermal solution that is significantly under designed may not be capable of cooling the processor even when the TCC is active continuously. C = capacitance. decreasing the operating voltage. An under designed thermal solution that is not able to prevent excessive activation of the TCC in the anticipated ambient environment may cause a noticeable performance loss and may affect the long-term reliability of the processor. reducing unnecessary transistor activity.Processor Thermal Features 3 3. For example. By using a highly accurate on-die temperature sensing circuit and a fast acting Thermal Control Circuit (TCC). In the absence of power saving technologies. Fortunately. With a properly designed and characterized thermal solution. The Intel® Thermal Monitor controls the processor temperature by modulating (starting and stopping) the processor core clocks when the processor silicon reaches its maximum operating temperature.1 Processor Thermal Features Processor Power Dissipation An increase in processor operating frequency not only increases system performance. there are numerous ways to reduce the power consumption of a processor. 3. The processor performance impact due to these brief periods of TCC activation is expected to be minor and hence not detectable. The Thermal Monitor can reduce cooling solution cost. In addition. automatic Thermal Design Guide 11 . V = voltage. but also increases the processor power dissipation. and Intel is aggressively pursuing low power design techniques. and using more power efficient circuits can significantly reduce processor power consumption. ever increasing frequencies will result in processors with power dissipations in the hundreds of watts. by allowing thermal designs to target TDP. it is evident that power increases linearly with frequency and with the square of voltage. F = frequency) From this equation. It provides a thermal management approach to support the continued increases in processor frequency and performance. If both modes are activated. the processor can rapidly initiate thermal management control.

the duty cycle of the clock modulation is programmable via bits 3:1 of the same ACPI Intel Thermal Monitor control register. if the system tries to enable the TCC via on-demand mode at the same time automatic mode is enabled and a high temperature condition exists. If bit 4 of the ACPI Intel® Thermal Monitor control register is written to a 1. When TM1 is enabled and a high temperature situation exists. three MSR. hence. or interrupt handling routines. A small amount of hysteresis has been included to prevent rapid active/inactive transitions of the TCC when the processor temperature is near the trip point. The Intel® Thermal Monitor automatic mode must be enabled through BIOS for the processor to be operating within specifications. The duty cycle is factory configured and cannot be modified. This mode is selected by writing values to the MSRs of the processor. Intel recommends TM1 be enabled on the processors. After automatic mode is enabled. the TCC will be activated immediately independent of the processor temperature. automatic mode will take precedence. Also. the Intel Thermal Monitor also includes one ACPI register.5% increments.Processor Thermal Features mode takes precedence. and one I/O pin (PROCHOT#). At this point the THERMTRIP# signal will go active. PROCHOT# (processor hot) is asserted when the processor detects that its temperature is above the thermal trip point. The Intel Thermal Monitor can be configured to generate an interrupt upon the assertion or de-assertion of PROCHOT#. the automatic mode does not require any additional hardware. All are available to monitor and control the state of the Intel Thermal Monitor feature. PROCHOT# will remain asserted until the processor exits the Stop Grant power state and the processor junction temperature drops below the thermal trip point. the thermal diode reading must be used as a safeguard to maintain the processor junction temperature within maximum specification. Bus snooping and interrupt latching are also active while the TCC is active.5% off in 12. THERMTRIP# activation is 12 Thermal Design Guide . software drivers. If the processor enters one of the above power states with PROCHOT# already asserted.5% off. In automatic mode. Processor performance will be decreased by the same amount as the duty cycle when the TCC is active. If Intel Thermal Monitor automatic mode is disabled. the clocks will be modulated by alternately turning the clocks off and on at a 50% duty cycle. one performance counter register. There is only one automatic mode called Intel® Thermal Monitor 1 (TM1).5% on/ 87. When using the on-demand mode to activate the TCC.5% on/12. modulation ceases and TCC goes inactive. however. On-demand mode may be used at the same time automatic mode is enabled. Cycle times are processor speed dependent and will decrease linearly as processor core frequencies increase. Intel recommends TM1 be enabled on Intel® Atom™ processors. however in on-demand mode. The TCC may also be activated via on-demand mode. the processor will be operating out of specification. TM1 feature can be referred to as Adaptive Thermal Monitoring features. to 87. the TCC will be activated only when the internal die temperature reaches the maximum allowed value for operation. in the event of a catastrophic cooling failure. 50% off. PROCHOT# will not be asserted when the processor is in the Stop Grant power states. The Intel® Thermal Monitor automatic mode must be enabled through the BIOS for the processor to be operating within specifications. Regardless of mode. An external signal. the duty cycle can be programmed from 12. the system must initiate an orderly shutdown to prevent damage. the duty cycle is fixed at 50% on. If the platform thermal solution is not able to maintain the processor junction temperature within the maximum specification. Once the temperature has returned to a non-critical level. the processor will automatically shut down when the silicon reaches a temperature of approximately 125°C. Besides the thermal sensor and thermal control circuit.

The enhanced TCC causes the processor to adjust its operating frequency (by dropping the bus-to-core multiplier to its minimum available value) and input voltage identification (VID) value. • • 3. the processor will transition to the new core operating voltage by issuing a new VID code to the voltage regulator. the enhanced TCC will be activated. When THERMTRIP# is asserted. and a high temperature situation is detected. the processor automatically transitions to the new frequency. Each step will be one VID table entry (i. this capability is known as Thermal Monitor 2. all bus traffic is blocked. and a minimum activation time has expired. Once the processor has sufficiently cooled.2. the processor is unable to service any bus requests. the processor core voltage must be shut down within the time specified in the Intel® Atom Processor D510 External Design Specification. Edge-triggered interrupts will be latched and kept pending until the processor resumes operation at the new frequency. The processor continues to execute instructions during the voltage transition.e. providing a temperature reduction. When the TCC is activated. During the frequency transition. the operating frequency and voltage transition back to the normal system Thermal Design Guide 13 . The voltage regulator must support VID transitions to support Thermal Monitor 2. 12.1 Thermal Monitor 2 Note: Intel® Atom Processor D410 and D510 support TM1 Intel® Atom Processor N450 supports TM1 and TM2 The processor supports an enhanced Thermal Control Circuit. each consisting of a specific operating frequency and voltage..Processor Thermal Features independent of processor activity and does not generate any bus cycles. This combination of reduced frequency and VID results in a reduction in processor power consumption. it will be necessary to transition through multiple VID codes to reach the target operating voltage. The Thermal Monitor consists of the following components: • • A highly accurate on-die temperature sensing circuit A bi-directional signal (PROCHOT#) that indicates if the processor has exceeded its maximum temperature or can be asserted externally to activate the Thermal Control Circuit (TCC) A Thermal Control Circuit that will attempt to reduce processor temperature by rapidly reducing power consumption when the on-die temperature sensor indicates that it has exceeded the maximum operating point. Operation at the lower voltage reduces the power consumption of the processor. This transition occurs very rapidly (to the order of 5 microseconds). When Thermal Monitor 2 is enabled. A processor enabled for Thermal Monitor 2 includes two operating points. During the voltage change. In conjunction with the existing Thermal Monitor logic.5 mV steps). Registers to determine the processor thermal status. The first operating point represents the normal operating condition for the processor. The second operating point consists of both a lower operating frequency and voltage. This enhanced TCC provides an efficient means of reducing the power consumption within the processor and limiting the processor temperature. Once the new operating frequency is engaged.

Refer to Figure 3 for an illustration of this ordering. As an input. Thermal Monitor 2 Frequency and Voltage Ordering TTM2 Temperature PROCHOT# fMAX fTM2 VID VIDTM2 Time VID Frequency 3. Transition of the VID code will occur first.Processor Thermal Features operating point. assertion of PROCHOT# will activate the TCC for both cores. This indicates the TCC has been activated. The TCC will remain active until the system de-asserts PROCHOT# As an output. Figure 3. PROCHOT# will go active when the processor temperature of either core exceeds its maximum operating temperature.3 PROCHOT # Signal The primary function of the PROCHOT# signal is to provide an external indication that the processor has exceeded its maximum operating temperature. System designers can create a circuit to monitor the VR temperature and activate the TCC when the temperature limit of the VR is reached. the temperature at which the PROCHOT# signal is asserted is not re-configurable. The power dissipation of each processor affects the set point temperature and once configured in the manufacturing process. the TCC will be active. By asserting PROCHOT# (pulled-low) 14 Thermal Design Guide . PROCHOT# can be configured via the BIOS as an output or bi-directional signal. It is asserted any time the processor die temperature reaches the trip point. While PROCHOT# is asserted. in order to ensure proper operation once the processor reaches its normal operating frequency. the temperature at which the PROCHOT# signal becomes active is individually calibrated during manufacturing. One possible application is the thermal protection of voltage regulators (VR). Assertion of the PROCHOT# signal is independent of any register settings within the processor. As an output.

will attempt to lower the processor temperature by reducing the processor power consumption.Processor Thermal Features which activates the TCC. the VR can cool down as a result of reduced processor power consumption. This time period is frequency dependent and higher frequency processors will disable the internal clocks for a shorter time period. Figure 4 illustrates the relationship between the internal processor clocks and PROCHOT#. and the PROCHOT# output pin are available to monitor the Thermal Monitor behavior. status bits in model specific registers (MSRs). resulting in a lower effective frequency. The duty cycle is processor specific. Concept of Clocks under Thermal Monitor Control PROCHOT# Normal clock Internal clock Duty cycle control Resultant internal clock Thermal Design Guide 15 . The maximum time period the clocks are disabled is ~3 μs. The Thermal Monitor’s TCC. and rely on bi-directional PROCHOT# signal only as a backup in case of system cooling failure. When active. In the original implementation of thermal monitor this is done by changing the duty cycle of the internal processor clocks. Bi-directional PROCHOT# can allow VR thermal designs to target maximum sustained current instead of maximum current. when active. Performance counter registers. the TCC turns the processor clocks off and then back on with a predetermined duty cycle. Figure 4. Systems should still provide proper cooling for the VR. 3. Note: A thermal solution designed to meet the thermal specifications should rarely experience activation of the TCC as indicated by the PROCHOT# signal going active.4 Thermal Control Circuit The Thermal Control Circuit portion of the Thermal Monitor must be enabled for the processor to operate within specifications. and is fixed for a particular processor.

OEMs are required to enable the Thermal Control Circuit while using various registers and outputs to monitor the processor thermal status. PROCHOT# will always indicate the thermal status of the processor.6 On-Demand Mode For testing purposes. The Thermal Control Circuit is enabled by the BIOS setting a bit in an MSR (model specific register).Processor Thermal Features 3. the fixed duty cycle determined by automatic mode would take precedence. the maximum time period the clocks are disabled is ~3 μs. and a duty cycle of ¼ (25%) is selected.5%. The Thermal Control Circuit and PROCHOT# transitions to inactive once the temperature has been reduced below the thermal trip point. the clock on time would be extended to 21 μs [21 ÷ (21 + 3) = 7/8 duty cycle]. the clock on time would be reduced to approximately 1 μs [on time (1 μs) ÷ total cycle time (3 + 1) μs = ¼ duty cycle]. if the thermal control circuit and ACPI MSRs (automatic and on-demand modes) are used simultaneously.6 for details on this feature.. the Thermal Control Circuit may also be activated by setting bits in the ACPI MSRs. although a small time-based hysteresis has been included to prevent multiple PROCHOT# transitions around the trip point.e.5% to 87. Refer to Section 3. Regardless of the configuration selected. This time period is frequency dependent. an interrupt generated after a system event). PROCHOT# can also be configured to generate an internal interrupt which would initiate an OEM supplied interrupt service routine. processor power consumption will be reduced after the thermal sensor detects a high temperature (i. 16 Thermal Design Guide . In a high temperature situation. Activating the thermal control circuit may be useful for thermal solution investigations or for performance implication studies. the length of time that the clocks are disabled remains constant. For example. This is referred to as “on-demand” mode. To achieve different duty cycles. For any duty cycle. the duty cycle is configurable in steps of 12. the Thermal Control Circuit portion of Thermal Monitor is disabled by default. The power reduction mechanism of the thermal monitor can also be activated manually using an “on-demand” mode. Enabling the Thermal Control Circuit allows the processor to attempt to maintain a safe operating temperature without the need for special software drivers or interrupt handling routines.g. When the Thermal Control Circuit has been enabled. 3. from 12.5%). PROCHOT# assertion). External hardware can monitor PROCHOT# and generate an interrupt whenever there is a transition from active-toinactive or inactive-to-active. When using the MSRs to activate the on-demand clock modulation feature. for a duty cycle of 7/8 (87. Thermal Monitor must be enabled to ensure proper processor operation.5%. if the clock disable period is 3 µs. and decreases as frequency increases. The MSRs may be set based on a particular system event (e. Similarly.5 Operation and Configuration To maintain compatibility with previous generations of processors. During the boot process. which have no integrated thermal logic. and the time period that the clocks are enabled is adjusted to achieve the desired ratio. or may be set at any time through the operating system or custom driver control thus forcing the thermal control circuit on. The Thermal Control Circuit feature can be configured and monitored in a number of ways. the BIOS must enable the Thermal Control Circuit..

Thermal Design Guide 17 . These applications are then evaluated in a controlled thermal environment to determine their sensitivity to activation of the thermal control circuit. although the profile has some variability due to loop decisions. Each application program has its own unique power profile. Moreover. The temperature at which the THERMTRIP# signal becomes active is individually calibrated during manufacturing. The Thermal Monitor feature is transparent to the application software since the processor bus snooping. Thermal Monitor should not be relied upon to compensate for a thermal solution that does not meet the thermal profile up to the thermal design power (TDP). 3.7 System Consideration Intel requires the Thermal Monitor and Thermal Control Circuit to be enabled for all processors. The processor TDP is based on measurements of processor power consumption while running various high power applications. if a system is significantly under designed.Processor Thermal Features 3.9 THERMTRIP# Signal In the event of a catastrophic cooling failure. the temperature at which the THERMTRIP# signal is asserted is neither re-configurable nor accessible to the system. I/O activity and interrupts. At this point the system bus signal THERMTRIP# becomes active and power must be removed from the processor. and interrupts is active at all times. The thermal control circuit is intended to protect against short term thermal excursions that exceed the capability of a well designed processor thermal solution. ACPI timer. Systems that do not meet these specifications could be subject to more frequent activation of the thermal control circuit depending upon ambient air temperature and application power profile. compute intensive applications with a high cache hit rate dissipate more processor power than applications that are I/O intensive or have low cache hit rates. there is a risk that the Thermal Monitor feature will not be capable of maintaining a safe operating temperature and the processor could shutdown and signal THERMTRIP#. Refer to the processor datasheet for more information about THERMTRIP#. Once configured. the processor will automatically shut down when the silicon temperature reaches its operating limit. In general. This data is used to determine those applications that are interesting from a power perspective. This data is used to derive the TDP targets published in the processor datasheet. THERMTRIP# activation is independent of processor activity and does not generate any bus cycles.8 Operating System and Application Software The Thermal Monitor feature and its thermal control circuit work seamlessly with ACPI compliant operating systems. 3. A system designed to meet the thermal specification of TJUNCTION-MAX values published in the processor datasheet greatly reduces the probability of real applications causing the thermal control circuit to activate under normal operating conditions. The temperature at which THERMTRIP# becomes active is roughly parallel to the thermal profile and greater than the PROCHOT# activation temperature.

Processor Thermal Features 3. the silicon temperature may exceed the operating limits. a temperature offset value must be read from a processor MSR and applied. The Intel® Atom™ processors’ DTS can only be accessed via an MSR. Time based variations can occur when the sampling rate of the thermal diode (by the thermal sensor) is slower than the rate at which the TJ temperature can change. When using the thermal diode. Since the DTS is factory set on a per-part basis there is no need for the health monitor components to be updated at each processor family. The digital thermal sensor is easier to place in thermally sensitive locations of the processor than the thermal diode. with its collector shorted to ground.11 Digital Thermal Sensor The Intel® Atom Processors N450. Regardless of the system design requirements or thermal solution ability.12 Thermal Diode The processor incorporates an on-die PNP transistor whose base emitter junction is used as a thermal “diode”. causing THERMTRIP# to activate and shut down the processor. The thermal diode can be read by an off-die analog/digital converter (a thermal sensor) located on the motherboard or a stand-alone measurement kit. The DTS monitors the same sensor that activates the TCC (see Section 3. D410 and D510 introduce the Digital Thermal Sensor (DTS) as the on-die sensor to use for processor temperature monitoring. and time based variations in the die temperature measurement. This is achieved due to a smaller foot print and decreased sensitivity to noise. The DTS value where TCC activation occurs is 0 (zero). on-die temperature gradients between the location of the thermal diode and the hottest location on the die. This temperature offset must be taken 18 Thermal Design Guide .10 Cooling System Failure Warning It may be useful to use the PROCHOT# signal as an indication of cooling system failure. The readings from the DTS are relative to the activation of the TCC. The thermal diode may be used to monitor the die temperature of the processor for thermal management or instrumentation purposes but is not a reliable indication that the maximum operating temperature of the processor has been reached. Multiple digital thermal sensors can be implemented within the package without adding a pair of signal pins per sensor as required with the thermal diode. The reading of the external thermal sensor (on the motherboard) connected to the processor thermal diode signals will not necessarily reflect the temperature of the hottest location on the die. 3. the Thermal Monitor feature must be enabled to ensure proper processor operation. The Processor will have both the DTS and thermal diode enabled. This is due to inaccuracies in the external thermal sensor.4). Messages could be sent to the system administrator to warn of the cooling failure. Offset between the thermal diode based temperature reading and the Intel Thermal Monitor reading may be characterized using the Intel Thermal Monitor’s Automatic mode activation of the thermal control circuit. If no thermal management action is taken. 3. The value read via the MSR is an unsigned number of degrees C away from TCC. while the thermal control circuit would allow the system to continue functioning or allow a normal system shutdown.

5. Calculating the temperature is then accomplished using the equations listed under Table 4. Given that most diodes are not perfect. Thermal Diode Parameters using Transistor Model Symbol IFW IE nQ Beta RT Series Resistance Parameter Forward Bias Current Emitter Current Transistor Ideality Min 5 5 0. The ideality factor. 2. Intel does not support or recommend operation of the thermal diode under reverse bias.997 0.3 2. The series resistance. This offset is different than the diode Toffset value programmed into the Intel® Atom™ processor Model Specific Register (MSR). Table 3.000. VBE = voltage across the transistor base emitter junction (same nodes as VD).5 NOTES: 1. If the designer of the temperature sensing device assumes a perfect diode.001 Typ Max 200 200 1.015 0. Table 3 and Table 4 provide the diode interface and specifications. an expected value for the diode ideality is designed into the temperature calculation equation.52 1. nQ.65 6. The transistor model parameters shown in Table 4 provide more accurate temperature measurements when the diode ideality factor is closer to the maximum or minimum limits. and T = absolute temperature (Kelvin). the designers usually select an ntrim value that more closely matches the behavior of the diodes in the processor. provided in the Diode Model Table (Table 4) can be used for more accurate readings as needed. Most devices measure the diode ideality and assume a series resistance and ideality trim value. although are capable of also measuring the series resistance. represents the deviation from ideal transistor model behavior as exemplified by the equation for the collector current: IC = IS * (e qVBE/nQkT –1) where IS = saturation current. RT.79 4. Thermal Diode Interface Signal Name • THERMDA_1 • THERMDA_2 • THERMDC_1 • THERMDC_2 Pin/Ball Number D30 C30 E30 D31 Signal Description Thermal diode anode Thermal diode anode (on D510 only) Thermal diode cathode Thermal diode anode (on D510 only) Table 4. Contact your external sensor supplier for their recommendation.3. If the processor diode ideality deviates from Thermal Design Guide 19 . When calculating a temperature based on the thermal diode measurements. k = Boltzmann Constant.Processor Thermal Features into account when using the processor thermal diode to implement power management events. q = electronic charge. In most sensing devices. 3.25 2. the ideality value (also called ntrim) will be 1.4 2. The thermal diode is separate from the Thermal Monitor’s thermal sensor and cannot be used to predict the behavior of the Thermal Monitor. Not 100% tested. Characterized across a temperature range of 50–100°C. a number of parameters must be either measured or assumed.24 Ω Unit μA μA Notes 1 1 2. 4. Specified by design characterization.

nactual is the measured ideality of the diode. Tmeasured is in Kelvin.Processor Thermal Features that of the ntrim. This temperature offset can be calculated with the equation: Terror(nf) = Tmeasured * (1 .nactual/ntrim) where Terror(nf) is the offset in degrees C. each calculated temperature will be offset by a fixed amount. and ntrim is the diode ideality assumed by the temperature sensing device. 20 Thermal Design Guide .

which includes the thermal interface material thermal characterization parameter.Local Ambient Thermal Charaterization Parameter (ΨJA) ΨJA = Where: TJ −MAX −TLA TDP ΨJA =Junction-to-local ambient thermal characterization parameter (°C/W) TJ. and measured in units of °C/W: Equation 4-1. whereas actual thermal resistance.MAX = Maximum allowed device temperature (°C) T LA= Local ambient temperature near the device (°C) TDP=Thermal Design Power (W). etc). ΨJA. Measuring actual power dissipated into a heatsink is difficult. board and surrounding air. since some of the power is dissipated via heat transfer into the package. assumes all power dissipates through the top surface of the device. is calculated using actual power dissipated between two points. local ambient conditions.e. Junction. the sink-to-local ambient thermal characterization parameter. The junction-to-local ambient thermal characterization parameter. A thermal characterization parameter is calculated using total package power. heating source..1 Thermal Solution Requirement Characterizing the Thermal Solution Requirement The idea of a “thermal characterization parameter”. is a convenient way to characterize the performance needed for the thermal solution and to compare thermal solutions in identical situations (i. comprises ΨJS. and ΨSA. Ψ (Greek letter Psi). It is defined by the following equation.to. Θ (theta). The junction-to-local ambient thermal characterization parameter (ΨJA) is used as a measure of the thermal performance of the overall thermal solution.Thermal Solution Requirement 4 4. Thermal Design Guide 21 .

to. hence the heatsink dimension increases or the airflow needs to be increased so that the thermal solution target performance can be met. Processor Thermal Characterization Parameter Relationships TA Heatsink ΨSA ΨJA TS TIM TJ ΨJS Device PCB 22 Thermal Design Guide . ΨSA depends on the heatsink material.Thermal Solution Requirement Equation 4-2. and geometry. Figure 5. thermal conductivity. It is also depends strongly on the air velocity through the fins of the heatsink. Figure 5 illustrates the combination of the different thermal characterization parameters. ΨSA is a measure of the thermal characterization parameter from the geometric center of the heatsink base to the local ambient air.Local Ambient Thermal Charaterization Parameter ΨJA = ΨJS + ΨSA Where: ΨJS= Thermal characterization parameter of the package and TIM (°C/W) ΨSA= Thermal characterization parameter from heatsink-to-local ambient (°C/W) ΨJS is strongly dependent on the thermal conductivity and thickness of TIM between heatsink and die. As the ambient temperature increases. the required ΨSA decreases. Junction.

Thermal Solution Requirement 4. TLA=35°C Then the following could be calculated using Equation 4-1 for the given processor frequency: ΨJA = TJ −MAX − TLA 100 . If the heatsink solution were designed to work with TIM material performing at ΨJS ≤ 0. the same calculation can be carried out to determine the new thermal solution performance requirement. Thermal Design Guide 23 . Table 5 summarizes the thermal budget required to adequately cool the processor. heatsink size. 0 − ( 0 . This effect can increase cost. 55 ) = 4 .40 = = 4. and Equation 4-2 to determine the required thermal performance needed to cool the device The following example illustrates how to determine the appropriate performance targets: Assume: • • TDP= 15.35 o = =5 C / W TDP 13 W To determine the required heatsink performance. Since the data is based on air data at sea level.55°C/W solving from Equation 4-2. the performance of the heatsink required is: o Ψ SA = Ψ JA − Ψ JS = 5 .6oC / W TDP 13 It is evident from the above calculations that an increase in the local ambient temperature has a significant effect on the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance requirement. 45 C W If the local processor ambient temperature is increased to 40°C.2 Example: Calculating the Required Thermal Performance The process to determine the required thermal performance needed to cool the device includes: • • • Define a target component temperature TJ-Max and corresponding TDP Define a target local ambient temperature TLA Use Equation 4-1. a heatsink solution provider would need to determine ΨJS performance for the selected TIM and mechanical load configuration. ΨJA = TJ −MAX − TLA 100 . a correction factor would be required to estimate the thermal performance at other altitudes. heatsink weight.0W and TJ-MAX= 100°C (Available from processor datasheet) Local processor ambient temperature. or a higher system airflow rate.

2 8.50 5. 10W Intel® Atom™ processor D510. 2. 13W 11.2 Intel® Atom™ processor N450.Thermal Solution Requirement Table 5.00 Ψ JA (ºC/W) at TLA = 55ºC1. 24 Thermal Design Guide . so this value will change if any parameter changes. TLA is defined as the local (internal) ambient temperature measured approximately 1” upstream from the device. Required Thermal Solution Performance (ΨJA) SKU.18 4. 5.46 1.81 6.5 W Intel® Atom™ processor D410. TDP Ψ JA (ºC/W) at TLA = 35ºC1.50 3. ΨJA is determined by (TJ-MAX – TLA)/TDP.

this is the surface of the processor (bare die). The length. the quality of the contact between the die surface and the heatsink base has a greater impact on the overall thermal solution performance as processor cooling requirements become stricter. and conductivity of the conduction path from the heat source to the fins directly impact the thermal performance of the heatsink. Thermal Interface Material (TIM): TIM fills the gap between die and the bottom surface of the heatsink. Thermal design power (TDP) and ambient temperature: The TDP for a component is probably the biggest factor in determining whether a component can be cooled in a fanless system. The conduction path from the heat source to the heatsink fins: Providing a direct conduction path from the heat source to the heatsink fins and selecting materials with higher thermal conductivity typically improves heatsink performance. A heatsink can increase the effective heat transfer surface area by conducting heat from the die and into the surrounding air through fins attached to the heatsink base.1 Reference Thermal Solution Thermal Solution Design Considerations The thermal solution in a fanless system can be placed into two general categories: stand-alone natural convection heatsink and conduction cooling system. improving the overall performance of the stackup (TIM-heatsink). One method to improve thermal performance to attach a heatsink to the bare die. With an extremely poor heatsink interface flatness or roughness. The heatsink contacts only the component that it is cooling. In most cases. The next section explains the major factors that influence a fanless thermal solution design. A conduction cooled system is one in which the heat dissipating component(s) are attached to the chassis and rely on a majority of the heat being conducted into the chassis.2 Thermal Solution Design Factors 1. This type of solution relies on natural convection to remove heat from the chassis. Thermal Design Guide 25 . In this case. 5. Intel® Atom™ processors N450. This thermal solution is placed inside the chassis and relies on natural air movement created by a temperature difference instead of forced convection from an airflow source to remove the heat. a target power for fanless cooling is less than 10 W. 4. but this depends on the target ambient temperature. thickness. The area of the surface on which the heat transfer takes place: Without enhancements.Reference Thermal Solution 5 5. the heat dissipating components are usually directly attached to the chassis or utilize a heatpipe to transfer the heat to the chassis. In particular. 3. extruded heatsink. D410 and D510 are good candidates for fanless cooling even though the power is slightly above 10 W. A stand-alone natural convection heatsink is similar to a typical. The TIM thermal 2. the TIM may not adequately fill the gap.

D510 and D510 product line available for these software packages. To analyze all these design factors it is recommended that designers utilize third-party CFD thermal analysis software such as Flotherm* and Icepak*. System thermal solution designers must take into account this potential impact to temperature inside the chassis. 26 Thermal Design Guide . Location of venting in the chassis: The vents in the chassis allow for heat to escape and for external air that is at a lower temperature to enter the chassis. Due to the amount of heat transfer to the outer chassis there is potential for the surface to burn a user who comes in contact with the device. This placement facilitates the movement of air caused by thermodynamic effects. 8. not all heat sources have direct heat conduction to the heatsink(s) or chassis. Maximum allowable chassis temperature: The external chassis temperature should be considered in applications where a fanless system will have potential users come in contact with the chassis. the air flow is induced by the phenomenon of hot air moving to the opposite of gravitational direction. Heat trapped inside fully enclosed system: For fanless systems that are fully enclosed. Intel has package models for the Intel® Atom™ processors N450. it is important to optimize the heat distribution from heat source(s). Heat Distribution: In the case of conduction cooled system thermal solutions.Reference Thermal Solution performance depends on its thermal conductivity and the pressure applied to it. These heatsinks were tested in a test chamber as shown in Figure 6. System designers need to monitor the surface temperature of the chassis to ensure that end users will not be harmed and the chassis temperature meets applicable standards 6. Contact your Intel Field representative for more information.3 Natural Convection Heatsink Experimental Test Setup Intel has developed reference thermal solutions that are suitable for the Intel® Atom™ processor in natural convection environments. Fin thickness and fin pitch: In a natural convection solution. 9. This can be achieved by using multiple heatpipes to transport the heat to a larger area of the system chassis. Therefore. Thermal solution designers need to optimize these parameters to obtain the best performance while designing for manufacturability. the heat generated could eventually lead to internal heat accumulation until system failure results due to raising the internal local ambient temperature (TLA). Critical components with the highest amount of power generation (usually the processor) need to be placed close to the chassis vents. Therefore. 5. These tests were performed on the component level to characterize the performance of the heatsink. which is best achieved through CFD computer simulations. 7. System designers will have to use this performance data apply it to their system design. the fin to fin spacing and the thickness of the fins play a critical role in improving the air flow and reducing thermal resistance. 5.

The TTV is placed in the natural convection test chamber and Figure 6 shows the dimensions of the test chamber. The test chamber is open at the bottom and top to allow air to enter and exit the chamber. but also prevents outside factors from influencing the test data (such as air conditioning). By using a TTV a thermal engineer can have confidence in the heatsink thermal performance.25 ºC-cm2/W. However. Figure 6. it is difficult to measure the power dissipated by the processor into the heatsink. One has a footprint of 64 x 64 mm and the other 40 x 40 mm. it has a heat resistor and temperature sensors within the die. When testing on a real system. This test setup is used to determine key thermal solution parameters ΨJS and ΨSA.Reference Thermal Solution The heatsinks were tested using a processor Thermal Test Vehicle (TTV). instead of being a functional processor. Table 6 and Table 7 summarize thermal characterization performance for the Intel® Atom™ Processor reference heatsinks in the natural convection environment. A TTV is a device that thermally and physically represents the processor package. Isometric View of Natural Convection Test Chamber Natural convection chamber PCB Passive heatsink 12 inches 12 inches 12 inches Two different heatsink designs for the Intel® Atom™ processor were tested. Based on lab testing the TIM Ψ JS obtained is 0.PCM45F was used as thermal interface material between the die and the heatsink. This value could increase over Thermal Design Guide 27 . The top part of the chamber has a top plate and vents to allow air to escape. A TTV is used to characterize a thermal solution because the amount of power dissipated can be accurately controlled and the temperature can be monitored.

4 Mechanical Design Heatsinks are attached to the board using 2 pushpins Figure 7 illustrates an example of the thermal solution assembly.17 3.Reference Thermal Solution time due to degradation of the material. TDP Intel® Atom™ processor N450. 13W Ψ SA (ºC/W) 2.36 2. Table 6. Mini-ITX Natural Convection Reference Heatsink Assembly (Natural Convection) Intel part # E85767-001 28 Thermal Design Guide . Experimental Thermal Solution Performance for 64 x 64mm Heatsink (Intel part # E85767-001) SKU. 5. Figure 7.17 3.09 The above results are based on lab testing.5 W Intel® Atom™ processor D410. 5. 10W Intel® Atom™ processor D510. It is recommended that system designers work with their TIM suppliers to obtain TIM thermal performance.36 2.36 Ψ JA (ºC/W) 3.

Thermal Design Guide 29 . Z=61mm) both in vertical and horizontal orientation for an ambient temperature of 55°C and for a TIM thermal impedance of R = 0. Fanless designs are custom designs and each application needs to be modeled and tested. It is important for system designers to analyze the movement of heat within the system.77 6. TDP Intel® Atom™ processor N450. Experimental Thermal Solution Performance for 40 x 40 mm Heatsink (Intel part# E85766-001) SKU.40 °C-cm2/W. 5. 5.22 5. The following figures show the board component layout and resulting airflow movement created through natural convection.5 Fanless System Design Examples This section details case studies for fanless system design for the Intel® Atom™ processor D510 in a ventilated system environment.1 System Level Simulations for Print Imaging Cooling feasibility analysis was performed for a print imaging chassis (X. 5.5 W Intel® Atom™ processor D410.5. Refer to Figure 17 for Intel part # E85766-001. A system designer wishing to develop a stand-alone natural convection thermal solution would apply the same design principles.22 5.Reference Thermal Solution Table 7. It is very important to note that there is not a one size fits all fanless thermal solution. 13W Ψ SA (ºC/W) 5.22 Ψ JA (ºC/W) 6. The location and size of the chassis vents will affect the movement of airflow and the ability to create a system level thermal design will help to meet component temperature requirements.77 6.Y=181mm.50 Based on the above thermal performance of the heatsink. 10W Intel® Atom™ processor D510. the design engineer can determine if the heatsinks will meet their specific thermal design requirements.

5.1 Vertical Orientation Vent (50% FAR) ICH8M (2.1.Reference Thermal Solution 5.4W) Figure 8. Model setup Intel® Atom ™Processor D510 (13W) PCB (6W) • • • 6 USB Video/lAN VGA/Parallel • So DIMM (2W) PS2 Harddrive (2W) Vent (50% FAR) Figure 9. Isometric view of model setup Vent (FAR 50 %) I/O ICH8M AL Heatsink SODIMMS Harddrive Vent (FAR 50%) 30 Thermal Design Guide .

Reference Thermal Solution Figure 10. Based on thermal simulation and analysis. orientations. This is based on the fact that the vents and heatsink fins are in the same direction as gravity and it is much easier for the airflow to enter and exit the chassis. This software also allows a Thermal Design Guide 31 . and geometries so the end product will have optimized performance and meet all component specifications. CFD thermal simulation software allows a design engineer to try different component placements.43° C/W in the horizontal configuration for the Intel® Atom™ processor D510 (13W) Processor. this system thermal solution can achieve a junction-to-ambient (ΨJA) thermal resistance of 3. A vertical configuration will almost always perform better than a horizontal configuration. The system integrator must test and validate the entire thermal solution to ensure that it meets thermal specifications and requirements.13° C/W in the vertical configuration and 3. Natural Convection Airflow Plot for Vertical Chassis Configuration The airflow plot in Figure 10 shows an increase in airflow velocity when compared to the chassis in a horizontal configuration (Figure 12).

a system designer can develop a fanless system. D410 and D510 are ideally suited for fanless applications.2 Horizontal Orientation Figure 11.1.Reference Thermal Solution designer to potentially identify opportunities to reduce cost in the case of a solution that has a lot of thermal margin. Isometric view of horizontal orientation Vent (FAR 53 %) Vent (FAR 53%) Pineview AL Heatsink ICH8M Heatsink I/O Vent (FAR 53%) SODIMMS Harddrive Vent (FAR 53%) 32 Thermal Design Guide . With diligent analysis and using the recommendations in this document. Intel® Atom™ processors N450. 5.5.

Reference Thermal Solution Figure 12.alone natural convection thermal solution would apply the same design principles. Heat from the components is dissipated into the chassis and then the heat dissipation from the chassis takes place via natural convection and radiation to the surrounding ambient air.2 System Level Simulations for Industrial PC The following is an example of an Industrial PC system which has no vents that allow external ambient air to enter the chassis. Thermal Design Guide 33 . Natural Convection Airflow Plot for Horizontal Chassis Configuration 5. This is an example of a chassis conduction cooled system.5. A system designer who wishes to develop a stand.

Direct Chassis Conduction for Industrial PC: simplified drawing for gap pad and heat spreader stackup for ICH8M First level TIM material is used as surface contact between the Intel® Atom™ processor D510 and the copper heat spreader. 34 Thermal Design Guide . ICH8M is very low power part and hence only Al pedestal is used to transfer heat to the chassis.Reference Thermal Solution Figure 13 Vertical Fanless system for Industrial PC Figure 14. and in order to improve the thermal resistance a second level interface is used as the gap pad between the copper heat spreader and Al pedestal touching the chassis wall.

Isometric view of Inductrial PC simulation Figure 16. Natural Convection Airflow plot for Vertical Chassis Configuration Thermal Design Guide 35 .Reference Thermal Solution Figure 15.

The data shown in Figure 18 is based on experimental test data. A third party active heatsink (fan included) is available. attach method. and geometries so the end product will have optimized performance and meet all the component specifications.98 C/ W for Intel® Atom™ ⁰ processor D510 and 13. The system integrator must test and validate the entire thermal solution to ensure that it meets thermal specifications and requirements. D410 and D510 with an ambient temperature of 55 °C. With diligent analysis and using the recommendations in this document. Heatsinks are attached to the board using two pushpins. the heatsink will meet the thermal performance needed to cool Intel® Atom™ processor N450. this system thermal solution can achieve a ⁰ junction to ambient (Ψja) thermal resistance of 2. Detailed mechanical drawings of the heatsinks are provided in Appendix B. with current configuration Intel® Atom™ ⁰ ⁰ processor D510 had a margin of 6.25 C and ICH8M had a margin of 16 C. See Figure 18 for performance curve for various airflows. it is up to the system designer to validate the entire thermal solution (heatsink. 5. A system designer may choose to use a different TIM as long as the thermal performance requirements and the component temperature specifications are satisfied. D410 and D510 are ideally suited for fanless applications. TIM) in its final intended system. CFD thermal simulation allows a designer to try different component placements. “Mechanical Drawings”. Appendix A. orientation.5 C/ W for ICH8M in a fully closed vertical configuration with ⁰ external ambient temperature of 55 C hence. The performance curves for each reference heatsink are based on using EOLine TIM (PCM45F) Performance. Based on the boundary conditions. D410 and D510 in an embedded form factor application. a system designer can develop a fanless system according to their requirements. Figure 17 illustrates an example of the thermal solution assembly. The system designer must ensure that suitable airflow is provided when using the forced convection reference heatsinks. However. “Thermal Solution Component Suppliers” contains vendor information for each component. The software also allows the designer to potentially identify opportunities to reduce cost in the case of a solution that has a lot of thermal margin. Intel® Atom™ processor N450.6 Reference Heatsink for Forced Convection Intel has developed reference heatsinks designed to meet the cooling needs for Intel® Atom™ processor N450.Reference Thermal Solution Based on thermal simulation and analysis. 36 Thermal Design Guide .

25 2.25 4.25 0.0 300.75 0.Ψ (C/W) 3.50 1.50 4.75 2.00 Thermal Resistanc.0 800.50 2.00 2.Reference Thermal Solution Figure 17.0 900. Mini –ITX Forced Convection Reference Thermal Solution Assembly Pushpin retention Figure 18.50 0.75 3.25 1. Mini-ITX Forced Convection Reference Heatsink Thermal Performance versus Airflow Rate Mini -ITX Forced Convection Reference Heatsink Thermal Performance 5.0 400.00 1.0 Approach Velocity (LFM) Psi_ja for D510 Psi_ja for D410 & N450 Psi_sa Thermal Design Guide 37 .00 200.00 0.75 1.25 3.50 3.0 700.0 600.75 4.0 500.00 4.

TDP Intel® Atom™ processor N450.Reference Thermal Solution 5. 10W Intel® Atom™ processor D510.13 2.56 1. Experimental Thermal Solution Performance for Active Heatsink (Intel part# E59451-001) SKU. 13W Ψ SA (ºC/W) 1.08 Above results are based on limited lab testing. 5.13 2.7 Active Heatsink Figure 19.5 W Intel® Atom™ processor D410.56 Ψ JA (ºC/W) 2. 38 Thermal Design Guide . 5. Mini-ITX Active Heatsink Table 8.56 1.8 Keep Out Zone Requirements The PCB keep-out zones for this heatsink assembly are shown in Appendix B. “Mechanical Drawings”.

Measurements should be taken at four different locations uniformly placed at the center of the annulus formed by the fan hub and the fan housing to evaluate the uniformity of the air temperature at the fan inlet. Please check RS – Intel® Atom™ Processor N450. D410 and D510 (Formerly Pineview) BIOS Writer's Guide (BWG) Volume 1 and 2. the thermal solution should be able to maintain TJUNCTION in the processor to be at or below the maximum temperature listed in Table 5. it is suggested to monitor the processor’s junction temperature (TJUNCTION).Thermal Metrology 6 Thermal Metrology This section discusses guidelines for testing thermal solutions. TA is best measured by averaging temperature measurements at multiple locations in the heat-sink inlet airflow. it is the temperature of inlet air to the active cooling fan. it is important to avoid taking measurement in the dead flow zone that usually develops above the fan hub and hub spokes. please refer to Section 3.11. To ensure functionality and reliability. Even without Intel’s SW tool. For active heat-sinks.for more details. This method helps reduce error and eliminate minor spatial variations in temperature. Intel will support system designer with a software tool to read out the DTS value in real time when conducting thermal tests. system designer can always access DTS value via MSR. including measuring processor temperatures. The thermocouples should be placed approximately 3 mm to 8 mm [0. For the definition of DTS value. 6. for an actively cooled heat-sink. For a passive heat-sink. The following guidelines are meant to enable accurate determination of the localized air temperature around the processor during system thermal testing. to validate their thermal solution design on Intel® Atom™ processor D510.1 Digital Thermal Sensor measurement (TJUNCTIONMAX Methodology) For the system integrator or designer. It is worthwhile to determine the local ambient temperature in the chassis around the processor to understand the effect it may have on the die temperature. It is with reasonable accuracy and aligned with the Intel Thermal Monitor function to use DTS as an indicator of TJUNCTION temperature and validate thermal design via DTS value. 6.2 Local Ambient Temperature Measurement Guidelines The local ambient temperature TA is the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the processor.1 to 0. please contact your Intel representatives for more detail and getting this tool. TA is defined as the heat-sink approach air temperature. To provide a more convenient way for system designer to monitor DTS value.3 in] above the fan hub vertically and halfway between the fan Thermal Design Guide 39 .

Otherwise. it may be useful to add a thermocouple taped to the barrier above the location of the temperature sensor used by the fan to check its speed setting against air temperature. Note: Testing an active heat-sink with a variable speed fan can be done in a thermal chamber to capture the worst-case thermal environment scenarios. When measuring TA in a chassis with a live motherboard. Typical distance from the motherboard to the barrier is 81 mm [3. the fan regulation prevents the heatsink from operating at its maximum capability.Thermal Metrology hub and the fan housing horizontally as shown in Figure 20 (avoiding the hub spokes). extending at least 100 mm [4 in] in all directions beyond the edge of the thermal solution. However. and usually ensures more uniform temperatures at the fan inlet. To characterize the heat-sink capability in the worst-case environment in these conditions. and other system components.0 in] away from processor and heat-sink as shown in Figure 21. half way between the fan hub and the fan housing. graphic card. when doing a bench top test at room temperature. Using an open bench to characterize an active heat-sink can be useful. For passive heat-sinks.0 in] above the baseboard. the motherboard should be populated with significant elements like memory cards. 40 Thermal Design Guide . based on guidance from the fan supplier. it is likely that the TA measurements will reveal a highly non-uniform temperature distribution across the inlet fan section. If a variable speed fan is used. and chipset heat-sink. The thermocouples should be placed approximately 51 mm [2. add-in cards.2 in]. If a barrier is used. the thermocouple can be taped directly to the barrier with a clear tape at the horizontal location as previously described. additional tests that include a solid barrier above the test motherboard surface can help evaluate the potential impact of the chassis. This barrier is typically clear Plexiglas*. it is then necessary to disable the fan regulation and power the fan directly. This placement guideline is meant to minimize the effect of localized hot spots from baseboard components.5 to 1. For even more realistic airflow. thermocouples should be placed approximately 13 mm to 25 mm [0.

Passive Heatsink Thermal Design Guide 41 .Thermal Metrology Figure 20. Locations for measuring TLA with Active heatsink Figure 21. Locations for Measuring TLA .

around 80ºC (using an appropriate temperature source). Intel recommends checking the meter probe set against known standards. Wire gauge and length also should be considered as some less expensive measurement systems are heavily impacted by impedance. 42 Thermal Design Guide . This should be done at 0ºC (using ice bath or other stable temperature source) and at an elevated temperature. There are numerous resources available throughout the industry to assist with implementation of proper controls for thermal measurements.Thermal Metrology It is recommended that full and routine calibration of temperature measurement equipment be performed before attempting to perform temperature measurement.

com yuchin_lai@cooler master. Suppliers Part Forced Convection Heatsink (40 x 40 mm) Natural Convection Heatsink (64 x 64 mm) Active Heatsink Intel Part number Supplier/ Part number CHC-00005-01-GP Contact Information yuchin_lai@cooler master.com E85766-001 E85767-001 CHC-00006-01-GP E59451-001 ECB-00697-01-GP Thermal Design Guide 43 .Appendix A: Thermal Solution component supplier Appendix A: Thermal Solution component supplier Table 9.com yuchin_lai@cooler master.

Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings This appendix contains following Mechanical Drawings B 1: Mini –ITX Forced Convection Heatsink Assembly (40 x 40 mm) B 2: Mini –ITX Forced Convection Heatsink Drawing B 3: PCB Keep-Out Zone for Forced Convection Heatsink B 4: Mini-ITX Natural Convection Heatsink Assembly (64 x 64 mm) B 5: Mini –ITX Natural Convection Heatsink Drawing B 6: PCB Keep-Out Zone for Natural Convection Heatsink 44 Thermal Design Guide .

1: Mini –ITX Forced Convection Heatsink Assembly (40 x 40 mm) DEPARTMENT R SIZE CAGE CODE DRAWING NUMBER REV - 2200 MISSION COLLEGE BLVD. REPRODUCED. DISPLAYED OR MODIFIED. CA 95052-8119 B SCALE:1:1 X Mini-ITX Forced Convection Heastsink Assembly DO NOT SCALE DRAWING SHEET 1 OF 3 4 3 2 1 45 . IT IS DISCLOSED IN CONFIDENCE AND ITS CONTENTS MAY NOT BE DISCLOSED. BOX 58119 SANTA CLARA. WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF INTEL CORPORATION.Thermal Design Guide 4 3 1 B Top View Pushpins ISOMETRIC VIEW AL Heatsink Push pin TIM Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings THIS DRAWING CONTAINS INTEL CORPORATION CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION. P.O. B A A B.

P.5 ° ± 0.46 7 DWG.2: Mini –ITX Forced Convection Heatsink Drawing B A - DESIGNED BY DRAWN BY DATE . WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF INTEL CORPORATION.0039"]ON HEATSINK BASE 6. CA 95052-8119 A THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION APPROVED BY BottomView .09/22/09 DATE TITLE UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED INTERPRET DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14. GREASES AND/ OR SOLVENT AFTER MACHINING AND FIN ASSEMBLY 5. D TOPVIEW C C B Front View 6 B.09/22/09 DATE CHECKED BY DEPARTMENT R .XX ± 0. D Notes: 1. 4. CRITICAL TO FUNCTION DIMENSION.09/22/09 DATE MATERIAL Mini-ITX Forced Convection Heatsink .5M-1994 DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES TOLERANCES: .O. DIMESNIONS STATES IN MILLIMETERS. IT IS DISCLOSED IN CONFIDENCE AND ITS CONTENTS MAY NOT BE DISCLOSED.X ± 0. REPRODUCED.5 Angles ± 0. Anodized AL HEATSINK. K=177 W/m K.005 . 2. LOCAL FLATNESS ZONE 0. DISPLAYED OR MODIFIED.XXX 2200 MISSION COLLEGE BLVD.1MM [0. ALL DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PER ANSI Y 14.09/22/09 SEE NOTES FINISH SIZE DRAWING NUMBER D 001 SEE NOTES SCALE: 2:1 REV 0 DO NOT SCALE DRAWING SHEET 2 OF 3 Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings Thermal Design Guide 7 6 8 5 4 3 2 1 . REMOVE ALL BURRS. NO 8 EXPORT DATE APPR SHT.5-1994 3. SHARP EDGES.01 . BOX 58119 SANTA CLARA. 6 1 REV REVISION 0 HISTORY ZONE REV - 5 4 3 1 THIS DRAWING CONTAINS INTEL CORPORATION CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION.

WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF INTEL CORPORATION.20 Ø R 22.078"]MAXIMUM COMPONENT HEIGHT BELOW HEATSINK) B 22.Thermal Design Guide 4 3 1 THIS DRAWING CONTAINS INTEL CORPORATION CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION. Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings GENERIC BOARD OUTLINE SHOWN FOR REFERENCE B HEATSINK AREA 2 MM[0.O.00 0.3: PCB Keep-Out Zone for Forced Convection Heatsink A PACKAGE LOCATION: NO COMPONENT PLACEMENT ALLOWED A NOTES: DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETERS SIZE CAGE CODE DRAWING NUMBER REV DEPARTMENT R - 2200 MISSION COLLEGE BLVD.20 B. DISPLAYED OR MODIFIED.00 0. CA 95052-8119 B SCALE:1:1 X Mini-ITX Forced Convection Heatsink KOZ DO NOT SCALE DRAWING SHEET 3 OF 3 4 3 2 1 47 . P. REPRODUCED. BOX 58119 SANTA CLARA. IT IS DISCLOSED IN CONFIDENCE AND ITS CONTENTS MAY NOT BE DISCLOSED.

Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings B.4: Mini-ITX Natural Convection Heatsink Assembly (64 x 64 mm) 48 Thermal Design Guide .

XX .LOCAL FLATNESS ZONE 0.5 ° ± 0.CRITICAL TO FUNCTION DIMENSION MAY NOT BE DISCLOSED. NO 7 EXPORT SHT.ANODIZED AL HEATSINK. BOX 58119 SANTA CLARA.DIMENSIONS STATES IN MILLIMETERS 2.0039"] ON HEATSINK BASE 6. DISPLAYED OR MODIFIED.8 DWG. GREASES AND/OR SOLVENT AFTER MACHINING AND FIN ASSEMBLY. IT IS DISCLOSED IN CONFIDENCE AND ITS CONTENTS HISTORY Thermal Design Guide NOTES 1. CA 95052-8119 A THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION DATE APPROVED BY MATERIAL 09/22/09 DATE Mini-ITX Natural Convection Heatsink .XXX ± 0. SHARP EDGES.5-1994 3.ALL DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PER ANSI Y 14.5 Angles .09/22/09 TITLE UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED INTERPRET DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.005 2200 MISSION COLLEGE BLVD.5M-1994 DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES TOLERANCES: ± 0. REPRODUCED.O.01 . Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings D D C C TOP VIEW 6 B.09/22/09 DATE CHECKED BY DEPARTMENT R . K=177 W/mK 4. 6 1 REV 5 0 4 3 REVISION ZONE REV DATE - 1 APPR THIS DRAWING CONTAINS INTEL CORPORATION CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION.5: Mini-ITX Natural Convection Heatsink drawing B B FRONT VIEW BOTTOM VIEW DESIGNED BY DATE A DRAWN BY . 5. P.09/22/09 SEE NOTES FINISH SIZE DRAWING NUMBER D SEE NOTES 001 SCALE: 2:1 DO NOT SCALE DRAWING SHEET 2 OF 3 REV 0 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 49 .X ± 0. WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF INTEL CORPORATION.1mm[0.REMOVE ALL BURRS.

6: PCB Keep.Appendix B: Mechanical Drawings B.Out Zone for Natural Convection Heatsink 50 Thermal Design Guide .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful