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Integrated Land-use and Transportation Models Martin Lee­Gosselin and Sean Doherty Urban Transport and the Environment: An International Perspective World Conference on Transport Research Society (Lyon, France) and the Institute for Transport Policy Studies (Tokyo, Japan) Logistics Systems for Sustainable Cities: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on City Logistics (Madeira, Portugal, 25–27 June, 2003) Eiichi Taniguchi and R. G. Thompson Handbook of Transport Strategy, Policy & Institutions (Handbooks in Transport 6) Kenneth J. Button and David A. Hensher Handbook of Transport Geography and Spatial Systems (Handbooks in Transport 5) David A. Hensher, Kenneth J. Button, Kingsley E. Haynes, and Peter Stopher

Related Journals
Transportation Research Part A, Policy and Practice Editor: P.B. Goodwin Transport Policy Editor: M. Ben­Akiva Land Use Policy Editor: G. Robinson Journal of Transport Geography Editor: Richard D. Knowles Transportation Research Part D: Transport and the Environment Editor: Kenneth Button


European Research Towards Integrated Policies

Edited by STEPHEN MARSHALL Bartlett School of Planning, University College London, London, UK DAVID BANISTER Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Oxford, UK

Amsterdam – Boston – Heidelberg – London – New York – Oxford Paris – San Diego – San Francisco – Singapore – Sydney – Tokyo

Elsevier The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands First edition 2007 Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN: 978­0­08­044891­6 For information on all Elsevier publications visit our website at Printed and bound in the United Kingdom 07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Contributors Biographies 1 Introduction Stephen Marshall and David Banister Context Land Use and Transport: The Context David Banister, Stephen Marshall and David Blackledge Themes and Relationships Michael Wegener Policy Perspectives Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies Carlo Sessa Planning Urban Structures for Sustainable Transport Philine Gaffron, Uwe Schubert, Franz Skala and Tina Wagner Promoting Cycling for Public Health Pascal J.W. van den Noort A Land­Use – Transport Vision Ann Jopson Policy Assessment Integrated Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development Kari Lautso and Michael Wegener Urban Sprawl and Transport Sylvia Gayda and Kari Lautso Assessing Life Quality in Transport Planning and Urban Design Linda Steg, Judith de Groot, Sonja Forward, Clemens Kaufmann, Ralf Risser, Karel Schmeidler, Lucia Martincigh and Luca Urbani Assessing and Mapping Urban Freight Distribution Initiatives Eric Monami, Sander Kooijman and Hugues Duchâteau

vii ix 1

Part I 2 3

5 7 19

Part II 4

35 37

5 6 7

71 105 133

Part III 8 9 10

151 153 177 217



vi Contents Part IV 12 13 14 15 Policy Tools Arterial Streets: Towards an Integrated Approach Åse Svensson and Stephen Marshall Promotion of Walking: A Complex Interdisciplinary Task Kari Rauhala Software for Assessing Environmental Effects of Policies Emanuele Negrenti Improving Decision­Making for Sustainable Urban Transport Anthony D. May and Bryan Matthews Outcomes Lessons for Policy David Blackledge, Anthony D. May and Michael Wegener A Research Agenda David Banister, Stephen Marshall and Anthony May 275 277 293 313 335

Part V 16 17

363 365 375





Transport Studies Unit, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Oxford, OX1 3QY Transport and Travel Research Ltd (TTR), Minster House, Minster Pool Walk, Lichfield, Staffordshire, WS13 6QT, UK STRATEC s.a. Avenue A. Lacomblé, 69–71 B­1030 Brussels, Belgium University of Groningen, Experimental and Work Psychology, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS Groningen, The Netherlands Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, 581 95 Linköping, Sweden Hamburg University of Technology, AB 1­10 Transportation and Logistics, Schwarzenbergstr. 95, 21071 Hamburg, Germany STRATEC s.a. Avenue Adolphe Lacomblé, 69–71 B­1030 Brussels, Belgium Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT FACTUM OHG, Danhausergasse 6/4, A­1040 Wien, Austria BUITEN Consultancy, Economy & Environment, Achter St. Pieter 160, 3512 HT Utrecht, The Netherlands WSP LT Consultants, Heikkiläntie 7, 00210 Helsinki, Finland Bartlett School of Planning, University College London, Wates House, 22 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0QB, UK DiPSA­Dipartimento di Progettazione e Studio dell’Architettura, Facoltà di Architettura ­ Università degli Studi Roma Tre, P.zza della Repubblica, 10 ­ 00185 Roma, Italy Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, 38 University Road, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK STRATEC s.a. Avenue A. Lacomblé, 69–71, box 8 B­1030 Brussels, Belgium ENEA – ENE – TEC, C. R. CASACCIA , Via Anguillarese 301, S. Maria di Galeria ­ 00060, Rome, Italy Asematie 14 B 9, FIN­02700 Kauniainen, Finland FACTUM OHG, Danhausergasse 6/4, A­1040 Wien, Austria Head of Social and Human Aspects of Transport Section, Transport Research Centre – CDV, Vinohrady 10, Brno CZ – 639 00, Czech Republic Institute for Regional Development and Environment, Department for Social Sciences, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Nordbergstrasse 15, B/4 A­1090, Vienna



viii Contributors
CARLO SESSA FRANZ SKALA Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems, Via Flaminia 21, 00196 Rome, Italy Institute for Regional Development and Environment, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Nordbergstrasse 15, B/4 A–1090, Vienna University of Groningen, Department of Psychology, Grote Kruisstraat 2/I, 9712 TS Groningen, The Netherlands Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, Box 118, SE­22100 LUND, Sweden IBV – Willi Hüsler Ag, Olgastrasse 4, CH­8001 Zurich, Switzerland Velo Mondial, Kleine­Gartmanplantsoen 20, 1017 RR Amsterdam, The Netherlands Hamburg University of Technology, AB 1­10 Transportation and Logistics, Schwarzenbergstr. 95, 21071 Hamburg, Germany Spiekermann & Wegener, Urban and Regional Research (S&W), Lindemannstrasse 10, 44137 Dortmund, Germany


David Banister is Professor of Transport Studies at the Oxford University Centre for the Environment. Until recently he was Professor of Transport Planning at University College London. He has also been Research Fellow at the Warren Centre in the University of Sydney (2001–2002) on the Sustainable Transport for a Sustainable City project and was Visiting VSB Professor at the Tinbergen Institute in Amsterdam (1994–1997). He will be a visiting Professor at the University of Bodenkultur in Vienna in 2007. He is a Trustee of the Civic Trust and Chair of their Policy Committee (2005–2009). Prof. Banister has authored and edited 18 books that summarise his own research and some of the international projects that he has been involved with. He has also authored (or co­authored) more than 100 papers in international refereed journals, together with a similar number of other papers in journals or as contributions to books. David Blackledge is Corporate Director of Transport & Travel Research Ltd, UK. He is a transport economist with more than 30 years experience in public transport planning and economics. He has worked with many local authorities in UK, providing advice and managing projects involving strategic planning, concessionary fares, alternative fuels, advanced vehicle technologies, personal security, and passenger information. He has directed a number of projects for the UK Department for Transport including research into information systems, Accessible Coaches and Kneeling Buses. He has also directed a number of collaborative research and demonstration projects involving cities across Europe, including CATCH (transport and environment), EDICT (evaluation and demonstration of Personal Rapid Transit) and PLUME (land­use and transport planning). Hugues Duchâteau is Chief Executive Officer of STRATEC, Brussels. He graduated in Civil Engineering from the Faculté Polytechnique de Mons and has almost 30 years of experience in leading transportation planning, travel behaviour studies, land use and regional planning, and environmental assessment of projects in Belgium as well as abroad. He started his career in the Department of Public Economy Studies at the Société d’Economie et de Mathématique Appliquée (SOBEMAP), which he left in 1984 to found STRATEC. Judith de Groot is a PhD candidate in Department of Psychology at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. Her main fields of expertise are social, traffic and environ­ mental psychology. She has conducted several studies on car use, and more generally, sustainable transportation. Her dissertation focuses on the relationship between values, attitudes and prosocial and proenvironmental behaviour. Judith de Groot is interested in applied as well as fundamental research. Sonja Forward is a Director of Research at The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. She is Deputy Chairperson at the Swedish pedestrian association and a member of TRB’s Pedestrian committee. Her main research interest includes the use

x Biographies of psychological models to predict modal choice and traffic violations but also how to modify deviant behaviours. Philine Gaffron is working as a senior researcher at the Transportation and Logis­ tics Group of the Hamburg University of Technology, Germany. She has moved from a degree in ecology via a postgraduate qualification as a landscape designer to a dissertation in transport planning. She has gathered research experience in national and international projects on implementation issues in (integrated) urban transport planning, interdependencies and evaluation of transport and space as well as infrastructure financing. She is also involved in teaching engineering and town planning students and is a member of the German association for regional and town planning (SRL). Homepage: http://www.vsl.tu­ i_mitarbeiterx?welche_id=4&liste=0. Sylvie Gayda is Senior Project Manager in the consultancy company STRATEC based in Brussels, specialised in transport planning and urban/regional development. She has more than 15 years experience in the field of trip demand modelling and demand management policies. She has developed a thorough expertise in two fields: first, stated preference surveys and discrete choice models ; secondly, land­use/transport modelling and planning. In relation with stated preference, she led among others several studies on traffic forecasts for new High Speed Lines in France, the mode choice modelling for the future Seine North Europe canal and the demand forecast study for the future Charles de Gaulle Express (dedicated rail service between the CDG airport and Paris – Gare de l’Est). On the other hand, she took part in many European research projects, among other projects in relation with land­use/transport (ESTEEM, TRACE, PROPOLIS, SCATTER). In particular, she was coordinator of the SCATTER project. Dr Ann Jopson is a Research Fellow at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. Her research interests are in travel behaviour psychology, transport market­ ing, planning and policy (including land­use transport interactions), with emphasis on attitudinal and behavioural measures, and social aspects of transport. Specifically, her expertise are in the role of social psychology in enhancing our understanding of human reactions to land­use and transport policies, and appraisal of qualitative policy objec­ tives, with regard to improving effectiveness of sustainability measures. She has worked on European and UK research projects for the European Commission, UK Department for Transport and research councils. Clemens Kaufmann studied Sociology at the University of Vienna. From 1998 to 1999, he was a freelancer at FACTUM, and since 1999, he is an employee of FACTUM. He is involved in several national and international projects (e.g. communication strategies for increased motorcyclist safety, alternative public transport in Austria, Assess implementa­ tion in the frame of Cities of Tomorrow, implementation work in Vienna, etc.), specialist on qualitative survey techniques like in­depth interviews, behaviour observation (Wiener Fahrprobe) and workshops. He is secretary of the International Co­operation on Theo­ ries and Concepts in Traffic Safety.

Biographies xi Sander Kooijman, after his study of Spatial Planning at Nijmegen University, joined Buck Consultants International (BCI), a Dutch consultancy in the fields of economy, freight transport and regional development in 1989. In 1994, Sander took the position of Senior Consultant Economics, Spatial Planning, Transport and Infrastructure at BCI. He conducted and co­ordinated numerous studies in the field of freight transport, both at a national and international level. From 2004 to 2005, Sander acted as chairman of the ELITE­network, a professional network of renowned European consultancies in the fields of logistics, infrastructure and transport. At the end of 2005, Sander became partner and (co) managing director in BUITEN Consultancy for Economy & Environment, Utrecht, The Netherlands, where he is responsible for project management and co­ordination, product development and general management tasks. Kari Lautso is an urban and transport research and planning specialist with extensive experience of transport­related research and planning on international, national and local levels. At WSP LT­Consultants Ltd. he is Member of Board and Deputy CEO in charge of international operations of the company’s research activities. In addition to consulting, Mr. Lautso has been employed by Helsinki University of Technology as laboratory engineer, leader of postgraduate courses and associate professor (traffic and transport planning). He has worked on several national and international projects involving integrated land­use and transport planning research, including the EC projects SPARTACUS and PROPOLIS that he co­ordinated. Other EC projects include SCAT­ TER, CITY FREIGHT and PLUME. In Finland, he has worked for Rail and Road Administrations and the Helsinki Metropolitan area Council in several strategic trans­ port research and planning projects. Mr. Lautso has published about 70 conference papers in national and international conferences. Stephen Marshall is Senior Lecturer at the Bartlett School of Planning, University College London, UK. Dr Marshall has 15 years’ experience in transport and planning fields. He has worked on several UK and international projects involving integrated land use and transport planning research, including the EC projects TRANSLAND, TRANSPLUS, ARTISTS and PLUME; and the UK project SOLUTIONS (Sustainability Of Land Use and Transport In Outer Neighbourhoods). He has several publications encompassing urban design, planning and transport fields, and has authored or contributed to seven books, including Encouraging Transport Alternatives and Streets and Patterns. Lucia Martincigh is an architect, Associate Professor of Technology of Architecture at the University of Roma Tre, Rome, Italy. She is a lecturer at Doctorate and Post graduation national and international courses and also a National Delegate in various Actions of the EC Cost Program. Lucia Martincigh is responsible for Italian and European researches on sustainable mobility and urban upgrading and design, including PROMISING, PROMT and SIZE. She is also a scientific co­ordinator, chairperson and lecturer at several national and international conferences and exhibitions. Her works include articles in specialized magazines, essays and books at national and international level. She is also a co­ordinator of interdisciplinary groups in DiPSA for the elaboration Pilot Projects. Bryan Matthews is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Transport Studies at the University of Leeds, UK. He has 10 years research and consultancy experience focused

xii Biographies on transport economics. Much of his work has been on international research projects, including the EC projects PROSPECTS, ASTRAL and PLUME; and the international Knowledgebase on Sustainable Land­Use and Transport (KonSULT). He has several publications encompassing transport economics and planning, and served as contributor and co­editor (with Chris Nash) for volume 14 of the Research in Transport Economics series on “Measuring the Marginal Social Cost of Transport” (2005). Tony May has over 35 years’ experience in transport planning and traffic engineering. His principal research interests at Leeds have focused on urban transport and sustain­ ability. He has served as Director of ITS, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Pro Vice Chancellor for Research. He was elected to Fellowship of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1995 and awarded the OBE for services to transport engineering in 2004. Between 1985 and 2001, he maintained a link between research and teaching at Leeds and practical experience in consultancy with MVA Ltd, of which he was a director. Eric Monami, during his 15 years as researcher, consultant and ministerial advisor in transport and environment, he has contributed to or co­ordinated several projects for the European Commission, the American Transportation Research Board and a number of ministries and businesses in Belgium. His work has centred mainly on contracting mechanisms and service quality and environmental impacts assessments in both freight and passenger transports. Dr Monami has been an advisor to the Belgian Minister of Mobility and Transport, the Walloon Minister of Transport and the Brussels Minister for the Environment. He is the author of several articles on European railway reforms. Emanuele Negrenti is Project Manager at ENEA, the Italian Agency for Energy, Environ­ ment and Innovative Technologies. Dr Negrenti has 14 experiences in transport impacts and planning fields. He has worked on several Italian and international projects involv­ ing transport planning, transport impacts, pollutant emissions modelling, evaluation of transport and transport telematic systems. The European experience is based on FP3 QUARTET and KITE Projects, THERMIE JUPITER Project, COST319 and COST 346 Actions, FP4 COMMUTE, ESTEEM, CAPITALS and CAPITALS PLUS Projects, FP5 ISHTAR (Co­ordinator), HEARTS, INTEGAIRE, ASTRAL and PLUME Projects. He has several international publications on transport impacts fields. Kari Rauhala is architect, lately Senior Research Scientist at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) Building and Transport. Kari Rauhala worked at VTT from 1974 until his retirement in summer 2005. His specialities have been urban planning economics, urban energy consumption, climate and housing, urban quality, environmental impacts, urban shape and transport, pedestrian environment as well as design methods and principles. He has participated in several EC projects, the latest being PROMPT (New Means to Promote Pedestrian Traffic in Cities) and ECOCITY (Urban development towards Appropriate Structures for Sustainable Transport). He was the co­ordinator of the PROMPT project. He has written several publications and articles as well as papers on national and international conferences. Ralf Risser is an Assistant Professor and Lecturer at the University of Vienna and at the Technical University of Vienna. He is visiting professor at the Institute of Technology

Biographies xiii and Society, Technical University Lund, Sweden. He works in several EU Projects. Secretary International Co­operation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic safety; Chair­ ing committee member of the NORBIT group (Nordic Organisation for Behaviour in Traffic). His work involves attitude and acceptance, marketing and motive research as a basis for social management. He is a specialist on qualitative survey techniques, behaviour observation (Developer of the Wiener Fahrprobe and derivatives), heuristic procedures like workshops etc., and group­dynamics­based creative and training mea­ sures. Karel Schmeidler is Senior Researcher and Head of the S15 Department at CDV – Trans­ port Research Centre and Associated Professor for Urban Design and Planning at the Faculty of Architecture, Technical University Brno, Czech Republic. Dr Schmeidler has 30 years’ experience in transport and planning fields. He has worked on several national and international research projects involving architecture, design, urban planning, inte­ grated land­use and transport planning research, including the EC projects SIZE, ASI, ADVISORS, COST 616 CITIAIR, COST 349, COST 352 and COST 355 projects, Central European University Fellowships (Soros Foundation Projects) and HUMANIST Centre of Excellence and many important national CZ projects funded by the Czech Grant Agency and some Czech ministries and universities. He has dozens of publications encompassing architecture, urban design, urban sociology, planning and transport fields, and has authored or contributed to several books, including Sociologie v architektonicke a urbanisticke tvorbe (Brno 1997 and reprinted 2001). Uwe Schubert studied law and economics in Vienna and San Diego, California. Until 2006, he was chairman of the Institute of Economic Geography, Regional Development and the Environment at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administra­ tion. He held the chair in Environmental Economics and Management. His main research fields are urban development and environmental economics and policy. Since 1975, he has been active in comparative development research. He served as co­ordinator of sev­ eral national as well as European projects (e.g. ENVINNO, EASY­ECO, ECOCITY). Now he is Professor Emeritus. Carlo Sessa was in charge of the co­ordination of the European research project TRANSPLUS – Transport Planning Land Use and Sustainability. He is president of ISIS – Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems of Rome. Before joining ISIS in 1983, he has conducted research at NYU, where he worked with Nobel Prize winner Wassily Leontieff. He was project co­ordinator or partner in several EU research projects, includ­ ing ACT­VILL and ESTEEM for DGXII, and recently the RAISE Citezens Conference on EU research for the City of Tomorrow and Cultural Heritage. Franz Skala studied civil engineering at the Technical University Vienna (not com­ pleted); he is co­author of publications in the field of transport and environment – for example, Flexibility in Public Transportation (Flexibler Oeffentlicher Verkehr, VCOE Verkehrsclub Oesterreich 1996), co­operated in projects (e.g. Study for a pilot project for integrated transport in rural areas for the region Waidhofen an der Thaya) and initiated the multi­disciplinary association “Institute of Ecological Urban Development”. For the

xiv Biographies ECOCITY–project, he was employed at the Department of Environmental Economics and Management of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration. Linda Steg is lecturer in Environmental Psychology at the University of Groningen. She conducted many studies within the field of Environmental and Traffic Psychology, and is particularly interested in studying individual and corporate behaviour related to sustainable development from a multidisciplinary perspective. Her research focuses on measuring, understanding and changing environmentally significant behaviour, like household energy use and car use. Steg is president­elect of Division 4 ‘Environmen­ tal Psychology’, and treasurer of Division 13 ‘Traffic Transportation Psychology’ of the international Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP). Furthermore, she coordi­ nates the sustainability network of the International Association of People­Environment Studies (IAPS). Åse Svensson is Senior Lecturer at the Department of Technology and Society, Lund University, Sweden. Dr Svensson’s main background is in the area of traffic safety research, validation of the Swedish Traffic Conflicts Technique and further development of the concept towards general severity rating of interactive behaviour. She was co­ ordinator of EC project ARTISTS and is now project leader of a doctoral student project with the aim of adapting and developing ARTISTS concepts to Swedish conditions. She is also heading a doctoral student project in the area of developing and utilising cognitive vision for studies and analysis of road user behaviour. Luca Urbani is expert in the field of transport planning, transport infrastructures and traffic safety, now by IBV – Ingenieurbüro für Verkehrplannung – Zurich. Luca Urbani has almost 10 years of research experience in the field of traffic safety with particular regard to behavioural patterns and vulnerable road users. He has worked in several Italian and international research projects, including the EC founded PROMISING – Promoting of Measures for vulnerable road users (1997), PROMPT – New means to PROMote Pedestrian Traffic in cities (2003) and ASI – Assessing Implementation (2005) as external senior researcher within the Department of Design and Study of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, University Roma Tre. On these and other topics. Dr Urbani has several publications presented at international conferences. Pascal J.W. van den Noort is Executive Director of Master Plan BV and of Velo Mondial and Velo.Info. He has vast experience in founding (inter)national and global organiza­ tions, projects, conferences and events. He was the founder and Executive Director of the Dutch Aids Foundation and of the Global Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (GNP+). For Master Plan BV, he is involved in the setting up of research projects that promote sustainable urban development and specializes in making information for sus­ tainability better available. For Velo Mondial and Velo.Info, he initiates, promotes and organizes innovative developments with passion. Tina Wagner is working as a researcher at the Transportation and Logistics Group of the Hamburg University of Technology, Germany. Tina Wager is a younger transport planner with experiences in research and consulting on the European, national and regional level. Her research focus is on integrated planning. She has worked on several

Biographies xv projects involving sustainable land use and transportation (e.g. ECOCITY), integration of transport infrastructure into urban environments, air traffic and commercial and goods traffic. Michael Wegener was until 2003, Director of the Institute of Spatial Planning and Professor at the Faculty of Spatial Planning of the University of Dortmund, Germany. Since 2003, he is a partner in Spiekermann & Wegener, Urban and Regional Research in Dortmund. His main research fields are planning theory, urban and regional develop­ ment, European urban systems and trans­European networks. His specialisation is urban and regional modelling, in particular of the land­use transport interface in cities and regions and of the regional impacts of European large transport infrastructure projects.

The Projects and Initiatives Featured in This Book LUTR PLUME Land Use and Transport Research (cluster of projects) ( PLanning and Urban Mobility in Europe (network) ( Individual Projects ARTISTS ASI Arterial Streets Towards Sustainability ( Assess Implementations in the frame of the Cities of Tomorrow Programme ( CITYFREIGHT ECOCITY Inter­ and Intra­ CityFreight Distribution Networks ( Urban Development Towards Appropriate Structures for Sustainable Transport ( ISHTAR Integrated Software for Health, Transport Efficiency and Artistic Heritage Recovery (http://www.ishtar­fp5­ PROMPT PROPOLIS New Means to Promote Pedestrian Traffic in Cities ( Planning and Research for Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability ( PROSPECTS Procedures for Recommending Optimal Sustainable Planning of European City Transport Systems (http://www­ SCATTER Sprawling Cities and Transport: from Evaluation to Recommendations ( SUTRA TRANSPLUS VELOINFO Sustainable Urban Transportation ( Transport Planning, Land Use and Sustainability ( The European Network for Cycling Expertise (

Land Use and Transport S. Marshall & D. Banister (Editors) Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1 Introduction
Stephen Marshall and David Banister

The distribution of different land uses in different locations stimulates the demand for transport, and the supply of transport enables the distribution of different land uses in different locations. In this simple statement are bound up the logic of transport geography, accessibility, land management and property markets, an implied division of labour and associated economic geography; and hence the professional concerns of various kinds of urban and spatial planner, transport planner and highway engineer, public transport and logistics operator, employer, retailer and developer; and ultimately the travel and location decisions made by every citizen. Despite the inherent logical complementarity of land use and transport – the inter­ connectedness of their causes and effects – each has tended to be pursued within different spheres of professional attention: in particular, land use planning and transport planning. These disciplines have not always been as well integrated as they might be. From the point of view of knowledge, there is not always a clear understanding of land use and transport relationships and the complex effects of policies on outcomes. From the point of view of action, there is not necessarily a clear consensus of how best to link the different kinds of land use and transport policy instruments, institutions and infrastructures; how to link incentives to ‘more sustainable’ outcomes with disincentives to ‘less sustainable’ ones; or what are the potential benefits of the different combinations of possible measures. The challenge of how to link land use and transport policy has existed for many years, but has remained unsolved, in part due to the inter­professional divide between land use planning and transport planning and in part due to inadequate channels of commu­ nication between researchers, planning officials and policy­makers. This can result in frustrated causes: state­of­the­art projects based on out­of­date research, novel research addressing old problems, new data feeding old models and generally ‘left hands’ not knowing what ‘right hands’ are doing. It is against this backdrop that there has been a recognition of the need to undertake research that fills gaps and forges new links between land use planning and transport 1

2 S. Marshall and D. Banister planning, while also disentangling and hence clarifying the complex web of issues that is currently known to bind different aspects of land use and transport planning. This book offers a collection of results from a recent programme of research into integrated land use and transport issues to contribute to this fundamental and ongoing debate. The intention is to be able to contribute to better understanding and ultimately to better land use and transport integration. The book draws from the Land Use and Transport Research (LUTR) cluster of the European Union (EU) ‘Cities of Tomorrow’ programme. In total, there are 12 individual projects in the LUTR programme, in addition a 13th initiative – a network known as PLUME (PLanning and Urban Mobility in Europe) which has served to synthesise results across different research themes and to engage with end­user cities, in order to inform the policy­making process (for more details, see Box page in Prelims; Table 2.3, Chapter 2). The 12 LUTR projects comprise the work of dozens of partners, featuring dozens of cities across almost every European Commission (EC) country, taking place largely over a 6­year period (2000–2005). This book does not attempt to provide a comprehensive summary of findings from this programme, since these are already available elsewhere. Each project has its own web site and set of reports detailing the project research, methods and findings. Additionally, PLUME provides a series of ‘synthesis reports’ on specialised themes that cut across the subject matter of the individual LUTR projects (for more details, see Chapter 3). Rather, the intention of this book is to provide an introduction to this body of research, in two principal ways. First, the book provides a general overview of the main issues and implications of the research, which draws primarily from the LUTR projects themselves and also integrates this with wider knowledge of land use and transport planning in the European context. Secondly, the book provides more detailed insights into specific issues drawn from individual projects. It is hoped that both of these approaches offer useful points of entry to the larger body of research from which they are drawn. The remainder of this book is arranged in five parts: with Parts I and V dealing with the more general issues referred to above, and Parts II, III and IV focusing on specific LUTR projects. Part I provides an introduction to the context of the topic of land use and transport, and the LUTR research programme (Chapter 2), together with a presentation of the main issues and findings from the research (Chapter 3). Part II is broadly focused on policy perspectives. Chapter 4 discusses existing best practice for integrated policies (TRANSPLUS); Chapter 5 addresses the realisation of an urban vision for a sustainable settlement based on sustainable mobility and accessibility (ECOCITY); Chapter 6 addresses planning for promoting cycling (VELOINFO), while Chapter 7 presents a future vision of a sustainable settlement in 2030, looking back on what has been achieved (PLUME).

Introduction 3 Part III then shifts to the assessment of policies. Chapters 8 and 9 present the results of modelling­based studies evaluating the results of testing different policy combinations, the former for urban areas in general (PROPOLIS), the latter focusing on urban sprawl and public transport (SCATTER). The second two chapters in this section then address some aspects that are sometimes under­represented in integrated land use trans­ port research: Chapter 10 addresses the assessment of ‘Quality of Life’ issues (ASI), while Chapter 11 addresses the assessment of urban freight distribution initiatives (CITYFREIGHT). We then move to look at some specific tools and methods that have been developed within the LUTR projects. Chapter 12 discusses approaches appropriate for the man­ agement of arterial streets (ARTISTS), while Chapter 13 discusses a particular approach to generating solutions to problems, dealing with pedestrians from a human perspective (PROMPT). Chapter 14 reports on an integrative software tool devised to support land use and transport planning (ISHTAR), while Chapter 15 reports on means of improv­ ing decision­making for sustainable urban transport, culminating in the development of guidebooks for decision­makers (PROSPECTS). Finally, Part V provides some final reflections on the LUTR research programme: first, providing lessons for policy (Chapter 16) and finally providing suggestions for a future LUTR agenda (Chapter 17). Part I provides a general introduction to the rest of the book, while Part V leads out from the book to address further policy and research spheres. The chapters in Parts II–IV may be read selectively and not necessarily in the order presented. Chapter 3 provides a convenient reference point relating all of the individual projects reported in the other chapters. The LUTR projects, although having the common theme of integrating land use and transport planning issues, and although covering a breadth of issues across this common theme (Chapter 3), necessarily deal with different aspects with different emphases and levels of detail. As research projects are commissioned to address outstanding research gaps, these are in effect complementary to existing knowledge, and therefore are to some extent a selective collection of topics. Accordingly, the book does not cover to any great extent the economic, fiscal, financial and land value levers available – that are associated with either the transport or land use issues in isolation – although many of these measures (particularly pricing) are embedded in the quantitative and qualitative approaches used in each of the chapters. Nor does the book address the technological futures covered by alternative fuels, new vehicle design and materials and the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). All these can obviously contribute strongly to the City of Tomorrow; however, the main focus here is on policies integrating land use and transport planning. Just as the LUTR projects themselves are selectively focused, the issues addressed in individual chapters in Parts II–IV are also in turn selective and are reflections on and complementary to the projects’ formal outputs. Of those chapters addressing a specific

4 S. Marshall and D. Banister LUTR project, each has been prepared by the project co­ordinator and its topic selected to give the most useful focus to serve the purpose of the book, whether by summarising key findings or by focusing on details of particular interest. The editors are thankful to all those who contributed to realising this book, not least the 27 contributing authors, and Chris Pringle, Philip Tite and Zo¨ La Roche at Elsevier, and e Sumi Poduri of Integra Software Services Pvt Ltd. We should also like to thank Michael Wegener for providing constructive comments on the draft manuscript. Together, we are all thankful to our colleagues from the 12 projects and over 50 cities who have provided the original material from which the research in the book draws, including all the participants in surveys and workshops whose contribution have also benefited the book. We would also like to acknowledge the funding support for this research provided by the EC FP5 Cities of Tomorrow programme, and in particular the co­ordinating role and personal support of Eric Ponthieu. Fuller details of the research programme and projects are given in Table 2.3, Chapter 2.

Part I Context

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Land Use and Transport S. Marshall & D. Banister (Editors) Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chapter 2 Land Use and Transport: The Context
David Banister, Stephen Marshall and David Blackledge

Across Europe, cities face common challenges relating to air quality, noise, urban sprawl, traffic congestion, waste and security, while promoting wealth creation and social inclusion and maintaining the built environment, cultural heritage and a deteriorating infrastructure. The challenge is to improve the quality of life in urban communities, maintaining economic viability while promoting sustainable development. This involves developing competitive cities that benefit from the economic advantages brought about by globalisation, increasing GDP and higher levels of personal income. But it is also equally important to address social issues relating to the distribution of wealth and opportunity and to ensure that all people are ‘engaged’ in the inclusive city. Land use and transport issues intersect with these challenges – whether as part of the problem or as part of the solution. Central here is the fundamental question of how to improve land use and urban planning and to strengthen the links with sustainable urban transport. The principle barriers are institutional, legislative, financial, social and cultural (Banister and Marshall, 2000; ECMT, 2002). The new question is how to inte­ grate these distinct barriers at the policy level and operationally, given the different actors involved. It is against this backdrop that this book offers a dedicated analysis of integrated land use and transport issues to contribute to this fundamental and ongoing debate.

During the Industrial Revolution over 200 years ago, there was a mass exodus of people from the countryside seeking work, new opportunities and greater wealth in the cities. The social structure of these new and growing cities was not able to meet the needs for shelter, for public services (like water and waste disposal), or for the treatment of 7

8 D. Banister et al. health. The public health requirements formed the original focus for action in the cities. For example, as a result of the cholera epidemics which swept Britain in 1832, 1848 and 1866, and the high infant mortality rates that followed, a series of Public Health Acts (1848 and 1875) set up the administrative and financial arrangements, which together with the Local Government Acts of 1888 and 1894, formed the statutory basis for planning in Britain (Hall, 2002). Since that time, urban planning has continuously struggled for its own identity as it has interfaces with so many aspects of society. Early in the century, it was grappling with market forces that were transforming the city into a more complex entity. This was replaced later with the decline of the central city and the decentralisation of people and activities to the suburbs. Various problems such as housing and the homeless, the unemployed and the underclass, and the construction of new infrastructure and urban renewal have repeatedly been central to the concerns of planning, but often in different guises. In the USA, urban planning has evolved from city planning and social science, but in continental Europe, the tradition is based more on physical design, while in the UK there is a mixed approach (Alonso, 1966). The nature of planning is also different to many other disciplines as the methods and processes are eclectic, often being borrowed from other disciplines. Similarly, there is a strong desire for action, not just knowledge. More recently, the environment has become a new focus for land use and urban plan­ ning. This is not the slum environment of the nineteenth century which sought to provide housing, clean water and sewerage for the burgeoning industrial cities, but a new con­ cern over the quality of the built and natural environment. People and business are now leaving the city as the perceived quality of life has deteriorated, and as modern lifestyles and activities no longer require such close proximity of homes, workplaces and other activities. Transport, particularly suburban rail and above all the car, has had an instrumental role in this decentralisation process. The city is thus a source of concern. From the viewpoint of urban economists, the city is involved in a permanent struggle between economies of scale and scope (localisation advantages, economies of density, etc.) and agglomeration diseconomies (congestion, pollution, criminality, etc.). Urban land use is reflecting this structural conflict of interest through the patterns of residential and locational ramifications (Fujita, 1989). As a result, the city is faced with a dynamic movement where compact ways of living and working on the one hand and deconcentrated patterns of living and working on the other hand (e.g. urban sprawl, the edge city) are in turn advocated. This has also provoked new debates on optimal city size (Abdel­Rahman and Fujita, 1990; Anas, 1990; Arnott et al., 1998; Gordon and Richardson, 1997). This new urban economic discussion on the optimal pattern and size of urban activities is directly and indirectly playing a major role in the current debate on sustainable cities. This debate has been most active with respect to the crucial role that transport has in achieving sustainable development. The catalyst for the debate was the study of 32 major world cities (Newman and Kenworthy, 1991) which claimed to demonstrate clear links between transport and urban form, at least at the city level. It was suggested that economic factors, such as petrol prices and income levels, were less important than

Land Use and Transport: The Context 9 direct interventions from planners through location strategies and investment in public transport. The reaction from the USA was strong, both on criticising the quality of the empirical analysis and on questioning the implications for urban policy. The basic disagreement is whether the promotion of compact cities is an appropriate planning goal (Ewing, 1997; Gordon and Richardson, 1997). On the one hand, there are those (principally Gordon and Richardson) who are strongly in favour of market forces for the allocation of land for development, for the decisions on residential densities, for the achievement of energy resource savings, for the promotion of city centre development, for the maintenance of competition between cities, for the examination of the equity implications of compactness and for the balancing of the impacts of suburbanisation. On the other hand, there are those (Banister, 1997; Cervero and Landis, 1997; Ewing, 1997) who take a less extreme position and focus on the means to reduce trip lengths, encourage moderate concentration, the provision of local facilities and mixed land uses. The empirical evidence is complex and causality is difficult to demonstrate. There does seem to be some limited impact on land markets from joint developments at rail transit stations (Cervero, 1994), mainly in the form of slightly higher rents and lower vacancy rates. But in the most comprehensive study over 20 years of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) in San Francisco, Cervero and Landis (1997) have not found compact, orderly growth with a multi­centred settlement pattern. Even in the longer term, the land use changes associated with BART have been localised and limited to downtown San Fran­ cisco and Oakland, together with a few suburban stations. Most of the growth in the region has been linked to the freeway system, not the rail system. At the city level in the UK, the links between travel patterns, energy use and urban form in terms of its physical, economic and social structure have been examined (Banister et al., 1997). It is the physical characteristics that link most closely with energy use in transport through density, size and amount of open space. Yet even here data limitations make comparison difficult, and this is further complicated by the social and economic structures of cities which are so different. The sustainable city needs to be examined within its region, to encompass its labour mar­ ket area and its wider sphere of influence. This is what Breheny and Rookwood (1993) call the social city region, which in turn is an adaptation of the terminology used by Ebenezer Howard, one of the early generation of great planning thinkers. Howard (1898) published his seminal text To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, in which he advocated a polycentric social city linked by public transport (Howard et al., 2003). It has taken a century to come full circle. There is no single solution to the sustainable city, but there must be a range of policies linked to the different current situations found in the diver­ sity of the cities around the world – a ‘MultipliCity’ approach to sustainability (Steele, 2004). To the extent that European cities face similar challenges, research and practice in different countries can learn from each other, converting knowledge into action.

To explore the means to integrate land use and transport, it is necessary to break with the tradition that sees them as essentially separate activities with some limited overlap

10 D. Banister et al. and move towards a richer and more varied set of perspectives on common issues that help understand the range and complexity of the interfaces between land use and transport. Table 2.1 identifies a set of seven perspectives on land use and transport. These perspectives cut across and interlink with each other, and they should not be looked at in isolation. The table can assist in understanding the similarities and oppositions between land use and transport issues within and across the seven perspectives, and each of them is now discussed in more detail.

Table 2.1: Alternative perspectives on land use and transport issues Perspectives
Human activities and purposes Costs and benefits Network

Land Use and Transport: Similarities and Differences
Human activities and purposes are the ultimate drivers for land use, transport and their planning Destination activities (land uses) are associated with benefits Travel is primarily associated with costs The separation and distribution of people, activities and land uses gives rise to need for travel Land uses are represented by zones Transport network represented by nodes and links Land uses influenced by location and land value Transport creates a web of accessibility that stimulates and supports value of land and location Transport seen as ‘just another land use’ Transport land uses connect up contiguously and connect all other land uses Land use planning and transport planning are distinct professions These may be integrated, fail to connect, or be in conflict Overall objectives of land use planning and transport planning are often similar, with differences in detail or emphasis Land use planning and transport planning policies may be disparate or integrated

Land value, location and accessibility Infrastructure and land area The professional dimension The policy dimension

2.3.1 Human Activities and Purposes
Although often dealt with in terms of abstract elements such as land use classifications or trip matrices, land use and transport are ultimately concerned with fulfilling human needs and desires. In this respect, travel is just like any other urban activity that may be done for its own sake or as a means to an end. Shopping, for example, may be to some extent a means to an end (to access products) but may also be an attractive pastime in its own right. Similarly, work may also be seen as a means to an end (labour in return for wages) but also as an activity that directly contributes to an individual’s self­fulfilment. And although travel is conventionally regarded as a derived demand – a non­productive activity essentially undertaken for the sake of reaching a destination – travel may be undertaken for its own sake. This may be the main purpose of a trip – such as with walking, cycling or motoring for pleasure, or undertaking travel in the sense of ‘seeing the world’ – or may be inextricably bound up with another activity, such as with ‘going out

Land Use and Transport: The Context 11 on the town’, ‘going shopping’ or ‘going on holiday’ – where the ‘going’ is substantially part of the ‘doing’. In this sense, travel seen as a human activity or purpose is very similar to many other urban activities, and from this perspective, there is no intrinsic conflict, or fundamental difference in kind, between land use and transport – no intrinsic conflict between ‘going’ and other forms of ‘doing’ – but rather a spectrum of activities with different immediate and ultimate purposes.

2.3.2 Costs and Benefits
Land uses are associated with productive or attractive activities that may be associated with benefits, which give rise to the desire or demand for travel. Travel itself is con­ ventionally associated with cost, namely the cost necessary to make a trip to access the benefit at the destination. In reality, in some circumstances (as noted above), the travel itself may be an attractive or desirable activity, in which case the travel itself would include a component of benefit in addition to the component of cost. Either way, a common cost–benefit mechanism applies: If the cost associated with the trip is less than the benefit, the trip may be expected to take place. Conventionally, the direct benefit component of travel for its own sake is often not accounted for in cost–benefit calculations. As a result, an asymmetry is created, where transport and travel are seen ideally to be minimised relative to other land uses or activi­ ties. Hence, the land use as benefit and transport as cost assumption are approximations which place land use and transport conceptually in opposition to one another.

2.3.3 The Network Model
In conventional transport analysis and modelling, the transport system is considered as a network comprising a series of nodes and links to which are connected zones representing trip origins and destinations. From this perspective, the land use and transport components are quite distinct, although parts of the same ‘model’. Operationally, the land uses are regarded as trip genera­ tors – that is, they give rise to the demand for travel in the first place. The links and nodes represent the supply side that provide the essential connections between the zones representing the origins and destinations. This ‘network model’ perspective of land use and transport is integrated in the sense that both land use and transport components are represented, and may be used successfully to predict travel movements on the network, given certain land uses �LU→T�. However, this does not necessarily embody the full set of interactions feeding back from transport to land use �T→LU� – nor for that matter, land use–land use interactions (LU→LU).

2.3.4 Land Value, Location and Accessibility
Land uses are influenced to some extent by location and land value. This locational or land value is partly connected to the quality and character of the land itself, the

12 D. Banister et al. buildings on it, and on the adjacent land and buildings. Land value is also supported and stimulated by the web of accessibility created by transport. This perspective recognises transport­generated accessibility as one component of the attractiveness of a location – and hence the influence of transport on land use �T→LU�. However, on its own, this perspective does not necessarily embody the full set of interactions feeding back from land use to transport �LU → T� – nor for that matter, transport–transport interactions (T→T). Note that in this perspective, transport although having an influence on land use is external to the land market per se, echoing the way that in the network perspective, land uses although represented as influencing transport are not part of the network proper. In both cases, the core focus of concern (the land market or transport network) could be analysed of itself, without necessarily considering the external mechanisms (transport­generated accessibility or land use­generated trips).

2.3.5 Infrastructure and Land Area
From another perspective, transport is a land use itself. The transport land use comprises (at least) roads, streets, paths, car parks, highways, petrol stations, railways, stations, railway yards and airports. This occupies a significant proportion of urban land – perhaps a quarter or a third of the total ground level land area (the exact figure will depend on what is included in the calculation; Southworth and Ben Joseph, 2003). In this sense, transport is like any other land use, and in principle may be treated in an integrated manner with other land uses. On the other hand, transport is also a special land use in that it forms a contiguous area, the essential connective tissue of the urban fabric: the single ‘land use’ through which all other land uses are linked (Marshall, 2005). This gives transport a unique pivotal role in the spatial organisation of urban areas – which is what gives the ‘network model’ perspective its significance.

2.3.6 The Professional Dimension
The twentieth century saw the emergence of separate spheres of professional concern, in particular, between the transport professionals (transport planners, traffic and highway engineers and logistics professionals) who looked after the routes, interchanges and terminal facilities, and the urban professionals (urban planners, urban designers and architects) who looked after the ‘people places’, buildings and land uses (Hebbert, 2005; Marshall, 2005). Although the ultimate objectives and societal values may be shared between the profes­ sions, their working methods, conceptual paradigms and institutional practices are often quite distinct and sometimes in conflict. Professional barriers need to be overcome to achieve the integration of land use and transport planning.

2.3.7 The Policy Dimension
The purpose of land use and transport policy­making is to intervene in the land develop­ ment and transport systems for the public good. This intervention could mean provision

Land Use and Transport: The Context 13 of infrastructure, control of land development, influencing the cost of travel or influenc­ ing people’s motivation to travel by particular modes of transport (i.e. applying to the different perspectives set out above). Overall, there is not necessarily any great gulf, here, between what is a transport or a land use policy – these may each involve some kind of physical design, or some kind of regulation, or some kind of financial investment or incentive. These kinds of policy may often be complementary or synergistic: In principle, land use planning can support transport objectives, and transport planning can support land use planning objectives. It is true that conflicts may arise where there is competition for use of scarce urban land, for municipal resources, or conflict between incompatible activities – but these conflicts can occur within either the transport or land use policy sphere (e.g. noise or pollution concern impacting from one land use to another, or from one transport mode to another) and are not intrinsically a function of transport versus land use policy. Clearly, policy links back to human activities and purposes, since policy acts to serve those activities and purposes, for the benefit of individuals and society as a whole.

‘City of Tomorrow and Cultural Heritage’ was the title of a key action of the European Commission’s Fifth Research Framework Programme, and this forms the background to the research used in this book. The aim of this programme was to obtain practical results for cities and to include all stakeholders, and the main output consisted of were practical tools for use by cities. Four interrelated themes were covered by this programme including • • • • Urban governance and sustainable resource management Cultural heritage Sustainable built environment Sustainable transport.

More than 140 research, development and dissemination programmes were funded, and about E170 million was committed during the period 1998–2002. Among the key features of these key actions were • A holistic approach and integration – which were absolute requirements at the proposal evaluation stage; • A strong focus on the practical nature of research and the development of afford­ able, effective and accessible tools for the application of sustainable development in urban areas; • Involvement of all key stakeholders – more than 1000 cities participated in the 140 projects as part of this research; • Main outcomes related to the improvement of the decision­making process. Within the Sustainable Transport theme, the PLUME initiative was a thematic network building on the work of various individual projects, which address issues of LUTR

14 D. Banister et al. (Land Use and Transport Research) together with outputs from a wide range of other national and international projects. The specific objective of PLUME was
To facilitate the transfer of innovation in the field of planning and urban mobility from the research community to end users in the cities of Europe in order to improve urban quality of life.

PLUME brought together researchers and end­users operating in the field of LUTR, and the PLUME End­User Group comprised a range of cities from across Europe supported by city networks with a far wider range of members (Table 2.2). Table 2.2: Participation of cities in the PLUME network
Cities or local authorities participating in PLUME Aalborg (Denmark) Athens (Greece) Barcelona (Spain) Brussels (Belgium) Clermont­Ferrand (France) Cologne (Germany) Dresden (Germany) Dublin (Ireland) Gdansk (Poland) Merseyside (UK) Naples (Italy) Rome (Italy) Southwark (UK) Stockholm (Sweden) Suceava (Romania) Surrey (UK) The Hague (Netherlands) Vienna (Austria) City networks participating in PLUME IMPACTS – representing the larger cities INSULA – representing the islands of Europe POLIS – representing cities with a particular interest in transport issues Swedish Association of Local Authorities

The individual ‘LUTR’ projects, which are reported in Parts II–IV in this book, were linked to these cities through case studies, bringing together a wide range of experience. The principal information source for PLUME has been the land use and transport cluster of research projects commissioned by DG Research within FP5. The research activities of this cluster focused on land transport, and its interaction with land use. The projects were all undertaken and completed between January 2000 and December 2004. In addition, we have drawn on other international and European research as appropriate. For exam­ ple, ASTRAL (Matthews, 2003) identified a large number of national projects and inter­ national networks, which were potentially relevant to PLUME. Another source has been KonSULT, a web­based knowledgebase maintained by ITS Leeds. It is regularly updated and covers a broad range of transport­related topics and forms an important information source for PLUME, as well as a means of disseminating PLUME outputs, as new material identified through PLUME can be used to keep KonSULT up to date (see Chapter 15).

Land Use and Transport: The Context 15 The objectives of the LUTR projects were to develop strategic approaches and method­ ologies in urban planning that contribute to the promotion of sustainable urban devel­ opment. These included issues of transport demand and related land use planning, the design and provision of efficient and innovative transport services including alternative means of transport, and the minimisation of negative environmental and socio­economic impacts. The cluster includes 12 research projects and covers a wide range of different topics. Short summaries of the objectives of these projects are presented in Table 2.3. The PLUME thematic network drew its findings from a wide range of case stud­ ies and research projects in Europe and worldwide. Cities can learn much from the detailed literature which is available via the gateway of the LUTR projects’ website ( Some of the general conclusions of PLUME are particularly rele­ vant to cities. A key point is that it remains important to increase the understanding of Table 2.3: Summary and objectives of projects reported in this book
ARTISTS (Arterial Streets Towards Sustainability) To improve decision­making regarding the reconstruction of arterial streets, taking into account a broad set of social, economic and environmental factors. This should enable European city authorities to redesign arterial streets to improve the physical environment of corridors while contributing to the implementation of more sustainable transport systems To improve assessment of quality of life and to make appropriate consideration of, quality of life assessment results in connection with urban transport and mobility policies. The focus of the project is on the subjective part of quality of life To identify innovations in freight transport that could contribute to a more sustainable development in European cities; to set up assessment methods; to build sustainable freight transport options for seven cities, assess these options with the proposed assessment tools, and finally propose best practices and initiate implementation in the seven cities To develop settlement patterns giving priority to the requirements of sustainable transport. Necessary conditions are compactness and a balanced mix of land uses at suitable sites. The aim is to design model settlements in seven participating countries and to derive general guidelines for planning To build an advanced software suite for the analysis of the effects of short­term actions and long­term policies to improve the quality of the environment, citizens’ health, conservation of monuments

ASI (Assess Implementations in the frame of the Cities of Tomorrow Programme) CITYFREIGHT (Inter­ and Intra­CityFreight Distribution Networks)

ECOCITY (Urban Development Towards Appropriate Structures for Sustainable Transport) ISHTAR (Integrated Software for Health, Transport Efficiency and Artistic Heritage Recovery) PROMPT (New Means to Promote Pedestrian Traffic in Cities)

To promote non­motorised transport in cities with particular focus on pedestrian traffic. The project seeks to identify, discover and disseminate innovative new tools and solutions for problem identification, problem solving, and implementation of measures in order to promote walking in cities To research, develop and test integrated land use and transport policies, tools and comprehensive assessment methodologies in order to define sustainable long­term urban strategies and to demonstrate their effects in European cities (Continued)

PROPOLIS (Planning and Research of Policies for Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability)

16 D. Banister et al. Table 2.3: (Continued)
PROSPECTS Procedures for Recommending Optimal Sustainable Planning of European City Transport Systems) SCATTER (Sprawling Cities and Transport: from Evaluation to Recommendations) SUTRA (Sustainable Urban Transportation) TRANSPLUS (Transport Planning, Land­Use and Sustainability) VELOINFO (The European Network for Cycling Expertise) To provide cities with guidance to generate optimal land use and transport strategies to meet the challenge of sustainability in their particular circumstances

To study the causes and consequences of urban sprawl in order to design and to assess the efficiency of measures aiming to prevent, mitigate or control this trend that threatens most European cities To develop a consistent and comprehensive approach and planning methodology for the analysis of urban transportation problems that helps to design strategies for sustainable cities To identify best practice in the organisation of land use and transport measures in order to reduce car dependency in European cities and regions and promote economic, social and environmental improvement To support local authorities and sustainable urban planning experts by establishing a web­based expertise centre on bicycle planning policies and bicycle use. European cities and transport planners represent supply/demand for expertise; VeloInfo is sustained by these users, ensuring optimal distribution of expertise

the public, politicians and the media about LUTR activities by directly involving them in future research programmes. End­User regions and cities should be involved in the process from the beginning in order to achieve a more integrated approach between land use and mobility planning. Demonstration projects are an important way of achieving this. The End­User cities participating in PLUME agreed that the network was of benefit and that European cooperation, networking and benchmarking are positive aspects for improving knowledge and key to the success of achieving integrated policies. While the LUTR programme has substantially increased our understanding of the requirements for sustainable urban land use and transport strategies, the barriers to implementing them and the potential benefits from doing so, several research needs remain. It is to be hoped that new cities will be interested to participate directly in the ongoing research through the provision of case studies, so that all cities can learn from each other, and through successful examples overcome the barriers to implementation.

Abdel­Rahman, H. and Fujita, M. (1990). Product variety, Marshallian externalities, and city size. Journal of Regional Science 30 (2), 165–183. Alonso, W. (1966). Cities, planners and urban renewal. In J. Q. Wilson (Ed.), Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy (pp. 437–453). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Land Use and Transport: The Context 17
Anas, A. (1990). Taste heterogenerity and urban spatial structure. Journal of Urban Eco­ nomics 28 (3), 318–335. Arnott, R., Anas, A. and Small, K. (1998). Urban spatial structure. Journal of Economic Literature 36 (3), 1426–1464. Banister, D. (1997). Reducing the need to travel. Environment and Planning B 24 (3), 437–449. Banister, D. and Marshall, S. (2000). Encouraging Transport Alternatives. Good Practice in Reducing Travel. London: The Stationery Office. Banister, D., Watson, S. and Wood, C. (1997). Sustainable cities: Transport, energy and urban form. Environment and Planning B 24 (1), 125–143. Breheny, M. and Rookwood, R. (1993). Planning in a sustainable city region. In A. Blowers (Ed.), Planning for a Sustainable Environment (pp. 150–189). London: Earthscan. Cervero, R. (1994). Rail transit and joint development: Land market impacts in Washington DC and Atlanta. Journal of the American Planning Association 60 (1), 95–106. Cervero, R. and Landis, J. (1997). Twenty years of the Bay area rapid transit system: Land use and development impacts. Transportation Research 31A (4), 309–333. European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT/OECD) (2002). Implementing Sus­ tainable Urban Travel Policies, ECMT/OECD: Paris. Ewing, R. (1997). Is Los Angeles style sprawl desirable? Journal of the American Planning Association 63 (1), 107–126. Fujita, M. (1989). Urban Economic Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Gordon, P. and Richardson, H. (1997). Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? Journal of the American Planning Association 63 (1), 95–106. Hall, P. (2002). Urban and Regional Planning. 4th edition. London: Routledge. Hebbert, M. (2005). Engineering, urbanism and the struggle for street design. Journal of Urban Design 10(1), 39–59. Howard, E. (1898). To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. London: Swan Sonnenschein. Howard, E., Hall, P., Hardy, D. and Ward, C. (2003). To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. London: Routledge. Marshall, S. (2005). Streets and Patterns. London: Spon Press. Matthews, B. (2003). Cooperation with International, National and Regional Projects. ASTRAL Deliverable 2. Available at Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. (1991). Transport and urban form in 32 of the world’s principal cities. Transport Reviews 11 (3), 249–272. Southworth, M. and Ben Joseph, E. (2003). Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Cities. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw­Hill. Steele, D. (2004). Spatial dimensions of global governance. Global Governance 10 (3), 373–394.

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Land Use and Transport S. Marshall & D. Banister (Editors) Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chapter 3 Themes and Relationships
Michael Wegener

After the presentation of the problems of urban land use–transport interaction and the research framework of the Land Use and Transport Research (LUTR) cluster in the previous chapter, this chapter gives an overview about the themes addressed in the 12 projects and how they are related to urban­change processes and the problems of land use–transport interaction. This chapter draws from ‘state­of­the­art’ knowledge assembled within the PLUME network, which includes reference to research outside as well as originating within the 12 LUTR projects.

The co­operation between the 12 projects of the LUTR cluster was organised around 23 themes structured hierarchically into three main groups, Problems, Policies and Processes which reflect typical domains of decision­making in cities in practice: A) Problems are deviations between existing and desirable states of the urban system that may give rise to planning interventions. In today’s cities, three major problem fields can be distinguished: 1. Environmental problems 2. Social problems 3. Economic problems. B) Policies are measures, policies or strategies to solve problems, that is, to reduce the gap between existing and desired states of the urban system. In today’s cities, the following major groups of policies are available: 1. Land use planning measures 2. Infrastructure provision 3. Infrastructure management 4. Public transport 19

20 M. Wegener 5. Travel demand management 6. Information measures 7. Pricing measures 8. Walking and cycling measures 9. Urban freight transport measures 10. Vehicle technology measures 11. Innovative modes 12. Integrated strategies. C) Processes are steps or phases of the model of rational planning passed through from problem perception to implementation: 1. Setting targets 2. Strategy development 3. Strategy impacts forecasting 4. Strategy appraisal 5. Public participation 6. Strategy implementation 7. Financing 8. Institutional issues Tables 3.1–3.3 indicate which themes are addressed in the 12 LUTR projects. In the tables, the themes are further subdivided into sub­themes. An inspection of the tables shows that the 12 projects cover the field of urban land use, transport and environment quite thoroughly, although there are different levels of emphasis.

A) Problems
Table 3.1 shows which problems were addressed in the 12 projects. It also shows that environmental, social and economic problems are not evenly covered by the 12 projects: 1. Environmental problems. Virtually all the 12 projects mention central environ­ mental problems, such as atmospheric pollution, noise, land capture and green­ house gas emission, as principal targets of their research. Adverse visual impacts, loss of cultural heritage and negative health impacts are addressed less frequently. Environmental problems of cities are the consequence of the increase in eco­ nomic activity and mobility caused by economic growth and therefore cannot be discussed without addressing the goal conflict between economic growth and environmental sustainability. However, there are also links between environmen­ tal and social problems because many solutions to environmental problems have equity implications. 2. Social problems. The social dimension of urban sustainability is less fre­ quently addressed by the 12 projects. Only ARTISTS, PROMPT, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and TRANSPLUS indicate that equal access, social exclusion and equity are important items on their agenda. The close relation­ ship between social and economic problems is obvious. However, there are also relationships between social and environmental problems, as in many cities envi­ ronmental problems are highest in low­income neighbourhoods.

Themes and Relationships 21 Table 3.1: Problems addressed in the 12 projects addressed in project




Theme/sub-theme... Air pollution Noise Land Greenhouse gases Visual impact Cultural heritage Health Access Social exclusion Mobility handicaps Equity Health Congestion Accidents Financial barriers Economic activity External costs Equity Health

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ● ● ● ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ● ● ● ○ ○ ○ ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ● ● ● ○ ○○
Minor theme.


● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ● ● ● ● ○ ● ○ ○



● ● ●

○ ○ ○ ● ● ○ ● ● ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ● ○ ○ ○


Major theme

3. Economic problems. Traffic congestion and traffic accidents are the most fre­ quently addressed economic problems in the 12 projects. The impacts of land use and transport policies on economic activity in the whole metropolitan area or parts of it are addressed in PROPOLIS and SCATTER. Economic problems in general have a strong social or distributional (equity) component. In many cases, solutions to economic problems are in conflict with the achievement of social and environmental objectives. However, economic equity aspects are considered only in PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS and SCATTER. Health aspects are referred to in many projects but explicitly considered only in ASI.

B) Policies
Table 3.2 shows which policies were addressed in the 12 projects. It can be seen that each of the projects addresses a certain group of policies: 1. Land use planning measures. Land use measures are addressed mainly in CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and










22 M. Wegener Table 3.2: Policies addressed in the 12 projects addressed in project




Theme/sub-theme... Settlement planning Settlement size/containment Concentration/densification Urban structure Location by accessibility PT-oriented development Car-free development Urban design Motorways Local roads Walkways Cycling lanes Public transport Freight infrastructure Parking Better public transport Park and ride Parking management Road space management Traffic control systems New infrastructure Better service Fares Travel information Mixed-mode travel Marketing Company travel plans Ride sharing Car sharing Flexible work hours Teleworking Teleshopping Radio/TV-based services Internet-based services PT passenger information Navigation systems Mobility centres

Infrastructure provision

● ● ○ ○

● ● ● ○ ● ● ○ ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ● ○ ○ ● ○

○ ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ● ○ ○ ● ○ ● ○ ● ● ○ ○ ● ● ● ● ○ ● ● ● ○ ● ○ ● ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ●

● ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ● ●


Infrastructure management

Land use planning

● ● ○ ● ● ○ ● ○ ●

Public transport

● ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ○

Travel demand management


○ ● ● ● ●


Major theme

Minor theme










Themes and Relationships 23 Table 3.2: (Continued) addressed in project




Theme/sub-theme... Fuel taxes Car taxes Road pricing, motorways Road pricing, all roads Parking charges Rail network charges Public transport fares Walkways Pedestrianisation Safe crossings Cycling lanes Bicycle service stations Access constraints Loading zones Freight terminals City logistics Parcel delivery points Cleaner cars More energy-efficient cars Safer cars Hybrid cars Natural gas vehicles Alternative fuels Personal rapid transit Ultra-light rapid transit Cybercars Co-operative highway Infrastructure Infrastructure and pricing Infrastructure and land use Pricing and land use Infrastructure and TDM TDM and information Integrated programmes

Walking cycling

○ ○ ○

Innovative Vehicle technology modes

● ○ ○ ● ● ● ○ ● ● ● ● ● ○ ○ ○

● ○ ● ● ● ● ●

○ ○ ○ ○ ● ● ○ ○ ● ● ○ ○


● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ●

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● ●


Urban freight transport

○ ○ ○ ○

Integrated strategies

○ ○

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

○ ● ● ○ ● ○ ● ●

Major theme

Minor theme TDM travel demand management.










24 M. Wegener TRANSPLUS. It is recognised that land use measures strongly interact with the provision of transport infrastructure, such as roads or public transport routes as well as with travel demand management policies. Infrastructure provision. Infrastructure provision measures are dealt with in ARTISTS, CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, PROMPT, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SUTRA, TRANSPLUS and VELOINFO. With respect to transport policies, PROSPECTS and TRANSPLUS are similarly comprehensive. VELOINFO, not surprisingly, focuses on measures related to cycling. All projects emphasised the need to co­ordinate infrastructure provision with appropriate land use planning measures and also refers to travel demand management, transport pricing and urban freight measures as necessary accompanying measures. Infrastructure management. Issues of road and public transport infrastruc­ ture management were considered in ARTISTS, CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and TRANSPLUS. ARTISTS focused on road space management, whereas the other projects addressed management mea­ sures, including public transport service provision, walking and cycling facilities and travel demand management. Public transport. Public transport was addressed in virtually all projects. How­ ever, public transport strategies are explicitly addressed in PROMPT, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and TRANSPLUS. Improving public transport is one of the main policy fields of sustainable urban planning and is to become even more important with the prospect of rising energy prices and increasing car costs. Such measures are closely linked to infrastructure provision, pricing and travel demand management. Travel demand management – attitudinal and behavioural measures. Only a few projects looked into the potential of attitudinal and behavioural transport measures. PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS and TRANSPLUS are the most comprehensive in this respect; VELOINFO suggests marketing as a means to promote cycling. It is stressed that successful travel demand management depends on a not­too­dispersed land use system and needs to be accompanied by appropriate transport pricing policies and a well­developed network of public transport, walkways and cycling lanes. Information measures. Information measures, such as traffic or public trans­ port information systems were treated in ARTISTS, CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, ISHTAR, PROSPECTS, TRANSPLUS and VELOINFO. Providing relevant and timely information on travel opportunities to travellers before starting a trip and en route is important for mitigating road congestion and attracting new passengers to public transport. Pricing measures. Only PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER, SUTRA and TRANSPLUS looked into the impacts of pricing policies, such as fuel or car taxes, different schemes of road pricing, parking charges or changing public transport fares, impacts on mobility and environment and in some cases, impacts on land use and the spatial distribution of population and economic activities. This is surprising as these policies have been found to be by far the most effective in reducing car travel and the related environmental impacts. More than other policies, pricing measures depend on supporting measures in the field of land use planning, infrastructure provision, travel demand, walking and cycling and urban freight.







Themes and Relationships 25 8. Walking and cycling measures. Walking and cycling were dealt with in infrastruc­ ture provision and in this separate group of policies. Measures promoting walk­ ing were considered in ARTISTS, ECOCITY, PROSPECTS and TRANSPLUS. Cycling was dealt with in ECOCITY, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, TRANSPLUS and of course in VELOINFO. Successful promotion of the slow modes, walking and cycling, cannot be done in isolation but requires a high­density mixed­used land use system, supporting travel demand measures, taxation of car travel and a well­developed network of walkways and cycling lanes. 9. Urban freight measures. Only four projects explicitly dealt with urban freight transport. CITYFREIGHT dealt exclusively with urban freight transport. In ARTISTS, loading and unloading was considered as a function to be accommo­ dated in the street space. ECOCITY considered city logistics, and PROSPECTS discussed various freight­related policies. Sustainable urban freight transport is connected to land use planning, as well as infrastructure provision and management. 10. Vehicle technology measures. ECOCITY, PROPOLIS, SUTRA and TRANSPLUS considered the impact of cleaner cars on air quality or of more energy­efficient cars on greenhouse gas emissions and air quality. However, as these developments cannot be influenced by local government decisions, they were not generally con­ sidered in the projects. More energy­efficient cars become economically feasible only if fuel becomes more expensive. 11. Innovative modes. Innovative modes were not explicitly addressed in any of the 12 LUTR projects but were addressed in NETMOBIL, a sister research cluster. The EDICT, CYBERCARS, CYBERMOVE and STARDUST projects of NETMOBIL were devoted to these themes, although they addressed some of the issues of interaction of new modes and land use planning. New ways of using and combining travel modes are becoming more and more important to achieve synergies between modes and to maintain quality of access in low­density areas. 12. Integrated strategies. Only a few projects studied integrated land use and trans­ port policies: CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS and SCAT­ TER. However, in PROPOLIS and PROSPECTS, integrated strategies were a major concern.

C) Processes
Table 3.3 shows which processes were addressed in the 12 projects. This table reveals the distinction between ‘What’ projects and ‘How’ projects. ‘What’ projects are mainly interested in finding solutions to problems, that is, to find out what should be done. ‘How’ projects, on the other hand, are predominantly interested in how policies can be implemented. 1. Setting targets. CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS and SCATTER paid attention to the process of goal setting as a political and partici­ patory process. PROPOLIS and PROSPECTS developed their own goal systems, partly in co­operation with their client partners in their case study cities. Setting targets is closely linked to the subsequent steps of strategy development, strategy impact forecasting and strategy appraisal.

26 M. Wegener Table 3.3: Processes addressed in the 12 projects addressed in project




Theme/sub-theme... Defining objectives Defining indicators Soliciting preferences Updating targets Decision-making Public participation Specification of objectives Defining indicators Understanding barriers Combining policies Theoretical foundations Forecasting techniques Scenario building Simulation Policy optimisation Definition of sustainability Cost benefit analysis Multicriteria analysis Equity Presentation of strategies Barriers to implementation Overcoming barriers Implementation Monitoring Stages of participation Levels of participation Organisational aspects Participants Current practice Cost analysis Sources of funding Financing techniques Overcoming barriers Levels of government Vertical co-operation Horizontal co-operation Public–private partnerships Privatisation


Institutional issues


Public participation

Strategy implementation

Strategy appraisal

Strategy impact forecasting

Strategy development

Setting targets

Major theme

Minor theme.










Themes and Relationships 27 2. Strategy development. In a certain sense, all 12 projects developed strategies. But only ARTISTS, ASI, ECOCITY, PROMPT, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCAT­ TER and TRANSPLUS paid attention to the process and methodology of how strategies are developed. CITYFREIGHT, PROMPT, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and TRANSPLUS explicitly addressed the potential of combinations of policies, or policy packages. Strategy development is intrinsically linked to strategy appraisal, and in many cases, involves public participation. 3. Strategy impact forecasting. Only a few projects addressed issues of forecasting the impacts of land use and transport policies, as this is a task of extreme com­ plexity and, because of the many factors and interactions to be considered, of great methodological difficulty. CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, ISHTAR, PROPO­ LIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and TRANSPLUS reviewed the state of the art and developed innovative methods in this field. With the prospect of imminent energy shortages and climate change, long­range forecasting of economic, social and environmental impacts of planning policies becomes more important, in particular for integrated strategies. 4. Strategy appraisal. ARTISTS, ASI, CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, ISHTAR, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and SUTRA explored different types of strategy appraisal, such as cost–benefit analysis or multi­criteria analysis or, as ISHTAR and PROPOLIS, combinations of both. Only ASI, PROPOLIS and PROSPECTS addressed issues of measuring social and/or spatial equity. Strategy appraisal is intrinsically linked to strategy development. 5. Strategy implementation. Implementation issues were represented in CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, PROSPECTS, SCATTER and TRANSPLUS. Barri­ ers to implementation were addressed in CITYFREIGHT, ECOCITY, SCATTER and TRANSPLUS. Presentation of planning alternatives was considered in CITYFREIGHT, PROPOLIS, PROSPECTS and SCATTER. There is a strong link between strategy implementation and participation. 6. Public participation. Public participation was explicitly treated by only few projects. Only ARTISTS, ASI, ECOCITY, PROSPECTS and TRANSPLUS dealt extensively with public participation. Public participation addresses all aspects of urban planning. 7. Financing. Financing problems and methods were addressed only in a few of the projects. CITYFREIGHT, PROPOLIS and PROSPECTS addressed methods of cost analysis and TRANSPLUS looked into different financing methods. Financ­ ing of policies applies equally to land use planning and infrastructure provision, and pervades all phases of the planning process. 8. Institutional issues. Institutional issues of policy implementation were addressed in many of the projects, most notably in PROSPECTS and TRANSPLUS. Urban problems have long exceeded the jurisdictions of individual local governments. Therefore issues of centralisation/decentralisation and the role of public and private actors have to be reviewed. In summary, the projects of the LUTR cluster addressed an impressive range of themes related to land use and transport planning. The coverage of planning problems was quite comprehensive. Among the policies, conventional engineering, regulatory and manage­ ment policies, such as infrastructure and pricing, received more attention than attitudinal

28 M. Wegener and behavioural policies, or information. Integrated strategies were analysed in only a few projects. Among the different phases in the planning process, the early stages, such as strategy development and appraisal, were treated more extensively than the latter phases, such as implementation, public participation and financing.

Policy­makers are interested in knowing which policies or measures are most effective for achieving the objectives of land use and transport planning, that is, to provide attractive living conditions and high accessibility to all groups of society, to enhance the competi­ tiveness of urban economies and to protect the natural environment. However, in order to forecast which policies are most effective, one needs to have a clear understanding of how urban systems work, that is, about the manifold interactions and feedbacks occurring in urban systems. Understanding these interactions and feedbacks is necessary to assess the secondary and indirect effects of policy measures, which in some cases reinforce the effect expected from a policy measure but sometimes also act as negative, undesirable side effects. This section therefore summarises the main interactions between urban change processes found in the projects. Table 3.4 visualises the interactions between urban change processes that need to be taken into account when long­range impacts of planning policies are considered. In the table, rows and columns contain the most important change processes occurring in urban systems over time, where the rows represent causes and the columns effects – each process can be both cause and effect. The processes are ordered by speed of change: (i) Transport networks are the most permanent element of cities; they change only very slowly and have a lifetime of decades or centuries (although policy instruments applied to influence the way networks are used can have more immediate impacts). (ii) Buildings are the second most permanent element of cities; their lifetime can be hundreds of years, but they can be adapted to changing user needs through refurbishment. (iii) Agents, such as firms, households and individuals have life cycles counted in decades, but their needs change through events, such as growth or decline or birth, marriage or death. (iv) Location decisions of the firms, workers and households occur more frequently, such as very few years. (v) Transport decisions are much faster; they are made from every few years (vehicles) to daily (trips). (vi) Environmental impacts are the most rapid, but some have long­term irreversible consequences. Each entry in the table represents an impact (from row to column) based on a cause– effect relationship. To keep the table simple, only direct impacts are indicated. However,

Themes and Relationships 29 Table 3.4: Interactions between urban change processes
...causes change of... Network Buildings Agents Location Transport Environment

Household lifecycles

Industrial buildings

Industrial location

Housing mobility

Person lifecycles

Freight transport

Labour mobility

Office buildings

Retail buildings

Public transport

Firm lifecycles

Office location

Retail location

Road network

Energy, CO2

Air quality





Change of... Road network Public transport Industrial buildings Retail buildings Office buildings Housing Firm lifecycles Household lifecycles Person lifecycles Industrial location Retail location Office location Labour mobility Housing mobility Vehicles Freight transport Travel Energy, CO2 Air quality Noise Land Fast impact







Medium-speed impact

Slow impact.

secondary and indirect impacts can be deduced by following the circular structure of the table, as every effect (column) is also a potential cause (row): • Transport supply represented by the road and public transport networks affects location and travel decisions and also the environment. • Buildings, that is, the existing building stock, affect location decisions about new development and are the origins of environmental impacts. • Agents, such as firms and households, affect each other and generate the need for vehicles, goods transport and travel.


30 M. Wegener • Location decisions affect the location of buildings, work places and households and influence other location decisions. • Transport decisions about vehicles, freight transport and travel affect each other and the environment and also have impacts on transport supply in the form of congestion. • Environmental impacts affect location decisions of firms and households but have little impact on freight transport and travel decisions. The secondary or indirect effects implied by the table are sometimes more important than the direct effects shown. For instance, extensions of the road network permitting faster access to the countryside may initially lead only to more car trips into the city from rural locations at the expense of rail or bus. In the medium and long term, however, they will make the countryside more accessible and attractive for households as a place to live and so accelerate suburban housing development and urban sprawl and lead to more energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and loss of open space. This will attract new retail developments on suburban greenfield sites at the expense of inner­city locations, which will in turn generate more traffic, mostly by car.

Table 3.5 shows the relevance of particular policies for particular problems. Problems and policies are subdivided as in Tables 3.1 and 3.2, respectively. The symbols indicate a strong or weak impact of a policy on a problem. It would have been desirable to indicate also the direction of impact, that is, whether the impact is positive or negative with respect to urban sustainability. That would have required an even finer differentiation of policies. For instance building new roads relieves congestion and also induces more traffic and so in the long run increases congestion. However, because of the selection of policies in the list, it can be assumed that in most cases the impact is positive with respect to urban sustainability. As in Table 3.4, only direct impacts are indicated in Table 3.5. To include also indirect impacts would imply impacts in almost all cells of the matrix, as in a sense all elements of the urban system are connected. However, this would be of little value. Therefore, when using Table 3.5, the interactions between urban processes shown in Table 3.4 should be considered. If a policy has an impact on one problem in Table 3.5, it can be expected that it will produce indirect desirable or undesirable side effects as indicated in Table 3.4. The first impression from Table 3.5 is that land use planning, infrastructure provision and management, pricing, vehicle technology and integrated strategies stand out as the most efficient measures to improve urban sustainability (policies are numbered as in Section 3.2). 1. Land use planning. Land use planning, in general, affects all three dimensions of urban sustainability, that is, addresses environmental, social and economic problems, such as atmospheric pollution, noise, land capture, greenhouse gas

Themes and Relationships 31 Table 3.5: Impacts of policies on problems
...have impacts on problems Environmental Social Economic

Mobility handicaps

Economic activity

Greenhouse gases

Financial barriers

Cultural heritage

Social exclusion

Health impacts

Policies/measures... Settlement planning Settlement size/containment Concentration/densification Urban structure Location by accessibility PT-oriented development Car-free development Urban design Motorways Local roads Walkways Cycling lanes Public transport Freight infrastructure Parking Better public transport Park and ride Parking management Road space management Traffic control systems New infrastructure Better service Fares Travel information Mixed-mode travel Marketing Company travel plans Ride sharing Car sharing Flexible work hours Teleworking Teleshopping Radio/TV-based services Internet-based services PT passenger information Navigation systems Mobility centres


Travel demand management

Public transport

Infrastructure management

Infrastructure provision

Land use planning

Strong impact

Weak impact


Health impacts

External costs

Visual impact

Air pollution









32 M. Wegener Table 3.5: (Continued)
...have impacts on problems Environmental Social Economic

Mobility handicaps

Economic activity

Greenhouse gases

Financial barriers

Cultural heritage

Social exclusion

External costs

Visual impact

Air pollution








Policies/measures ... Fuel taxes Car taxes Road pricing, motorways Road pricing, all roads Parking charges Rail network charges Public transport fares Walkways Pedestrianisation Safe crossings Cycling lanes Bicycle service stations Access constraints Loading zones Freight terminals City logistics Parcel delivery points Cleaner cars More energy-efficient cars Safer cars Hybrid cars Natural gas vehicles Alternative fuels Personal rapid transit Ultra-light rapid transit Cybercars Co-operative highway Infrastructure Infrastructure and pricing Infrastructure and land use Pricing and land use Infrastructure and TDM TDM and information Integrated programmes

Integrated strategies

Innovative modes

Vehicle technology

Urban freight transport

Walking cycling


Strong impact

Weak impact.




Themes and Relationships 33 emissions, equal access to all groups of society and congestion. Specific land use policies, such as allocating development at locations with high accessibility, at commuter rail stations, or car­free residential areas, have much less impact but are efficient with respect to noise protection and providing equal access. Neighbourhood­scale urban design can be important for a pleasant and safe urban environment as well as for the mobility of physically impaired people. Infrastructure provision. Infrastructure provision has in many cases ambiguous effects. To build new roads may relieve congestion but may also induce more traffic and so in the long run increases congestion, pollution and noise. Building new public transport routes may attract riders, but many of these may be former pedestrians and cyclists. Also new radial public transport lines tend to accelerate decentralisation of residences and jobs, and so promote urban sprawl. Building walkways and cycling lanes have no negative side effects but will do only little to reduce car traffic unless supporting push measures make car driving less attractive (see integrated strategies). Infrastructure management. Better public transport, park­and­ride schemes, inner­city parking management and efficient traffic control systems reduce inner­ city and motorway congestion. Better road­space management serves other objec­ tives by making inner­city streets usable by pedestrians. Public transport. The policies addressing public transport have close links with those of infrastructure provision and infrastructure management. Like these, pub­ lic transport policies in general have positive effects on environmental indicators, accessibility, equity and accidents. However, public transport infrastructure, in particular rail infrastructure, reduces and fragments open space and can con­ tribute to further suburbanisation. Travel demand management. Travel demand management measures have become more popular in recent years as a way to make urban transport more sustainable. Marketing efforts, company travel plans, ride sharing (also known as car pools, or car sharing in some countries) and car clubs (confusingly referred to as car sharing in some countries) have been shown to contribute to at least slowing the increase of car travel. Flexible work hours contribute to decreasing peak­hour congestion but not to vehicle­kilometre travelled overall. There is recent evidence that teleworking, due to its interaction with residential location choice and other trip purposes, contributes only little to reducing vehicle­kilometre travelled per person per day, but on a weekly basis, teleworkers do travel less than non­ teleworkers. The effects of teleshopping (e­commerce) on urban sustainability are as yet less certain. Information. Radio, TV or Internet­based traffic information systems or on­ board navigation systems enable drivers to avoid congested areas, however it has yet to be ascertained whether the high expectations put into these technologies are justified. Public transport passenger information systems and mobility centres serve a different goal, to improve access to public transport also for people without local knowledge or mobility handicaps. Pricing. Making car travel more expensive, either by fuel taxes or taxes on car purchases, is the most effective way of reducing car travel and so congestion, road accidents, pollution, noise and greenhouse gas emissions. Road pricing on all or selected roads is equally effective but suffers from the risk of displacing rather







34 M. Wegener than suppressing car trips if applied selectively. Parking charges in inner­city areas are very effective in increasing pedestrian access and in no case have been found to endanger the vitality of city centre retailing. Reducing the cost of public transport through subsidies attracts more travellers to public transport but only a few of the new passengers are former car users. Only where there are simultaneous measures to make driving more expensive is there a notable modal switch from driving to public transport use. Walking/cycling. These policies have been already treated under the headings of infrastructure provision and travel demand management. The importance of slow modes regarding their contribution to reduce pollution, noise and greenhouse gas emissions seems to be underestimated. Reasons for that are methodological issues (unclear definition of trips made by slow modes, inadequate travel survey designs, etc.) and the lack of consideration of slow modes in existing transport models and transport strategies. Urban freight transport. Access constraints for heavy goods vehicles have positive effects on pollution, noise and pedestrian access in city centres. More compre­ hensive efforts to make urban freight transport more sustainable in the past have been less successful because of fragmentation and competition of both shippers and carriers. Vehicle technology. Cleaner cars (three­way catalysts) have in the past greatly contributed to reducing atmospheric pollution in cities. More energy­efficient cars are available on the market but have a small market share because fuel is still relatively inexpensive. The role of vehicle technology may become more important as fossil fuels will become more expensive in the future. Rising oil prices will also likely facilitate the market penetration of hybrid­propulsion cars, natural­gas cars or alternative renewable­energy cars. Technological advances making cars safer have contributed to reducing the number of fatal accidents. However, they tend to benefit those inside the vehicle more. Innovative modes. Personal rapid transit systems combine the advantages of public and private mobility, that is, offer some of the advantages of the private car without its environmental costs. Advanced driver assistance systems or automated vehicle guidance systems reduce congestion and accidents and to a certain extent also emissions. Integrated strategies. It has been shown that integrated land use and transport strategies are most successful in achieving sustainable urban development. This is based on the synergies between individual policies exploited in integrated strategies. In addition, integrated strategies serve the broadest range of efficiency and sustainability goals and are best suited to make rational trade­offs between conflicting objectives.






In summary, the projects of the LUTR cluster have revealed a wide range of land use and transport policies that can be applied to achieve sustainable urban development. In general, transport policies have been shown to be more effective in the short to medium term; however, land use policies are essential for achieving a settlement structure that is not too dispersed as a prerequisite for less car­dependent cities.

Part II Policy Perspectives

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Land Use and Transport S. Marshall & D. Banister (Editors) Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chapter 4 Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies
Carlo Sessa

As stated in the general introduction, “the intentional integration of transport and land use planning may achieve synergies between policies and their outcomes, and this in turn may optimise operational performance, efficiency and sustainability”. Finding empir­ ical evidence concerning the planning and implementation of intentionally integrated land use and transport strategies, the barriers to effective integration in different cities and regions across Europe as well as best practices and their impacts on sustainable urban development was the aim of comparative research undertaken by the project TRANSPLUS – TRANSport Planning, Land Use and Sustainability. The mission of TRANSPLUS was indeed to identify best practices in the organisation of land use and transport policies in order to reduce car dependency in European cities and regions and promote economic, social and environmental improvement. The findings are based on comparative research and analysis of a number of case studies of cities and regions in Europe: Vienna in Austria; the Brussels Capital and “Flemish Diamond” regions in Belgium; Aalborg in Denmark; Helsinki in Finland; Nantes and Orléans in France; Cologne, Dresden, Münster and Tübingen in Germany; Brescia and Rome in Italy; La Valletta (Malta); Warsaw and “Tri­city” in Poland; Evora and Lisbon in Portugal, Bucharest and Ploiesti in Romania; Barcelona and Bilbao in Spain; Bratislava in Slovakia; Amsterdam and Groningen in the Netherlands; Bristol, Merseyside and Croydon in the United Kingdom. The chapter will present a qualitative description of integrated land use and transport strategies and policies, based on the TRANSPLUS findings. 37

38 C. Sessa

4.2.1 Integrated Land Use and Transport Measures
The focus in the TRANSPLUS project was on integrated land use and transport measures, and it was soon revealed that many of these measures are also substantiated in the “transit village” approach, mostly considered in the US literature (Bernick et al., 1996). The transit village brings together ideas from the disciplines of urban design, transportation and market economics. It is partly about creating a built form that encourages people to ride transit more often. However, equally important, it embraces goals related to neighbourhood cohesion, social diversity, conservation, public safety and community revitalisation. Besides the transit village, which in the European context is better named “Public Trans­ port Oriented Development,” TRANSPLUS considered other two urban development perspectives, related respectively to walking and cycling – the “Short­Distance Struc­ ture Development” – and to regulation of space and infrastructure for car circulation and parking – the “Car Restriction Oriented Development.” These “perspectives” may be seen as ways to seek integration of Land Use and Transport (LUT) policies taking respectively Public Transport (PT), walking & cycling, and regulation of space for car use as pivotal elements.

Public Transport Oriented Development

Public Transport Oriented Development includes several mechanisms to intensify the location of housing and other activities near urban rail transport, subways and tram stations, in the inner cities, as well as in the metropolitan area to catch commuter flows. According to the case studies analysed, many present policies refer to the mobil­ isation of building land nearby rail corridors within urban areas. Furthermore, effec­ tive PT systems in conurbation areas are mostly based on the rail system. This may support high­density urban corridors which, compared to the areas of more diffuse settlement, are usually served by bus networks. The following are the most inter­ esting practices investigated in TRANSPLUS. They are presented by means of single case study results, which are however deemed to be representative of a more general typology. Improving Public Transport Accessibility in Existing Settlements in Orléans, France
At the core of this measure there is the revitalisation or extension of light rail lines and tramways – or the continuous development of bus systems in smaller cities. New stops with good transfer options are provided within walking distance of the existing settlements, to facilitate modal shift, although this is not always sufficient to change the consolidated habits of the population. The revival of a tram as well as the establishment of a new station can revitalise and enhance the function of city centres and smaller sub­centres, as well as create new development site opportunities in the periphery.

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 39 Orléans new tram service: In Orléans, public transport development and the redesign of the bus network are used as a stimulation for the conurbation’s planning policy in an existing settlement (Figure 4.1).

Figure 4.1: The tram route in Orleans

Land Use and Transport vision: The public transport network was based on bus services organised radially from the town centre. The number of journeys per inhabitant and per kilometre travelled was decreasing. Consequential the town’s various neighbourhoods were developed without any tram or light rail connections between them. The context to develop mobility policies has changed with the obligation to develop an Urban Mobility Master Plan (UMMP) for conurbations with over 100 000 inhabitants with

40 C. Sessa the compulsory objectives to reduce car traffic and improve public transport. Also the French state provided two billion French Francs in 2001 in support of actions to develop public transport. In Orléans, a polycentric structure of “support centres” to provide everyday services has been created, and this has become the main issue of the mobility policy. The urban development plan intends to establish a tram service as the main means of transport between each of the support centres and Orléans’ city centre. Urban reconstruction with a new tram layout—creation of a town centre in Fleury­ lès-Aubrais: Fleury­lès­Aubrais is the development’s second largest town, due to size and population and the main rail services located there. This commune with 20 000 inhabitants has no historical centre. After the Second World War, and during the rush of the reconstruction period, the projects in Fleury­lès­Aubrais were rather disorganised and without a vision of real harmonisation. The town’s various neighbourhoods were developed without any connections between them, and no trace of communal identity. The new tramway route goes through some of these areas bringing together sub­centres with central functions and supporting the creation of a true centrality near the town hall, the main shopping centre and public amenities. The new tram is meant to support the spatial development and sustain the adjacent sub­centres. To create a real centre, social and cultural amenities and dwellings are being put in place. Connection of main urban areas: The provision of a tram service to the “La Source University” campus, which is 10 km from the centre, is just one of the aims. The connection of the ring boulevards to the Aubrais railway station, which will be a future high­speed train (TGV) station, and the construction of university amenities, housing and sites for economic development are further objectives. A redesign for the Fleury­lès­ Aubrais is also involved in the future plans. Larry mixed housing development: The initial project comprised only of a housing development unit. The tramway routing has made it possible to go back over the layout plan and organise an area with a few small collective buildings, individual dwellings and amenities. Installations will be organised around the tramline, with a wedge of open space, public areas, etc. Timescale and financing: The new decision for the North–South tramline was made in 1995. At the end of 2000, the new tram was opened to the public. About 20% of the costs were financed by state subsidies, the remainder entirely by the Urban Community. New Public Transport Oriented Settlements in Vienna, Austria
This measure aims to concentrate urban growth and sub­centre development around PT nodes and corridors. Already existing centres are enlarged or new centres created only if a PT transport system is being developed simultaneously in the immediate vicinity. Existing rail networks are often recognised as important corridors for axial development, aiming to reduce the continuing urban sprawl and provide higher accessibility to collective transport modes. Activities are mostly focused on the revitalisation of undeveloped spaces in inner cities and also on the development of sub­centres in the urban regions. A new urban development strategy is to improve the accessibility of the means of PT by opening up new stations or reactivating former ones in combination with the

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 41 revitalisation of tramways or bus lines. These measures frequently go hand in hand with the improvement of possibilities for passengers to change from one means of transportation to another (passenger intermodality). However, in order to co­ordinate new residential and commercial settlements with PT networks, co­operation between adjacent municipalities is becoming a key factor. Two different approaches for sub-centre developments in Vienna: The strategy in Vienna is to reach a polycentric development. The basic principles for the cities future outlook were defined in the Urban Development Plan, which is prepared simultaneously with the Traffic Concept. As various locations seek for different strategies, two different approaches can be described in Vienna. One is the development of an existing area, while the other is a new development on a former industrial site. a) The Metro extension for the densified Eastern-Donaustadt (Vienna): In Eastern Donaustadt, a Master Plan Programme combines the creation of a higher density and a vital functional mix of the dwelling structure with an extension and upgrading of city rail lines. The situation of Donaustadt before the Master Programme: Donaustadt, the 22nd dis­ trict of Vienna, is the largest district of the town. Until now, the majority of the popu­ lation is living in the west of Donaustadt while the east is predominantly rural. Hence, Eastern Donaustadt is now an urban extension area, where it is planned to develop settlement axes together with polycentric structure. Settlement structure: In the past, the settlements were developed in a non­densified dwelling structure. Now, these new neighbourhoods will be implemented with a higher density, and it is tried to include and densify the old structures. The new areas should offer a vital mix of functions. The settlement should focus on existing local centres and new developed public transport nodes and lines. Extension of public transport: A prerequisite for future developments is the extension and prioritisation of public transport. It is planned to establish a high­standard public transport network there. Therefore, the metro line U2 will be extended, by 2008, from the city to Stadlau. The commuter train line S80 is to be upgraded to increase its capacity. The tramway line 25 is to be extended from Aspern to Essling. Bus lines will be established in addition to the rail network (Figure 4.2). b) The Gasometer City in Vienna: A former industrial site in Vienna is restructured into a sub­centre with exemplary accessibility. An axial development along existing public transport lines: The “Gasometer City” is one initial part of a project that aims at a revitalisation of a former industrial area, the “Erdberger Mais.” The “old” and the “new” are brought together on the historic ground of the Gasometers which are 102 years old and 70 m high. The “Gasometer City” offers a functional mix of housing, working, shopping, culture and entertainment. The complex consists of 615 new apartments, a dormitory for 230

42 C. Sessa

Figure 4.2: The extension of U2 and S80 students, a day care facility, the Vienna National Archive, office space, a shopping mall, an event hall and a cinema. The whole area has attracted approximately 1500 residents and 3500 jobs. Most of the population lives and works in Gasometer City and in the neighbouring offices of the immediate vicinity (Figure 4.3).

Figure 4.3: The extension and reconstruction of railway and the Gasometer Town in Vienna Accessibility: The Gasometer City can be reached by all means of transport. Since December 2000, Gasometer City has its own subway station on the U3 line, that is, it takes only 8 min from the city centre (Stephansplatz). For motorised traffic, there are

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 43 1200 parking spaces in underground garages with a direct access to the motorway A23. With such a good car accessibility, city planners missed currently the opportunity to set an example for a sustainable development. A close connection for non­motorised traffic to the nature area of the Prater is provided by the “Gaswerksteg,” a reconstructed bridge for pedestrians and cyclists. Evaluation: The “Gasometer City” concept as a whole was assessed by a survey among residents and visitors. The good accessibility in terms of traffic and transportation connections and the combination of multi­functionality were regarded positively. So far no specific evaluation has been made to illustrate the impact of the public transport accessibility for residents and visitors. However, the use of public transport is yearly investigated by the Viennese public transport company (Wiener Linien). Renovation of Railway Stations and Surrounding Areas in Münster, Germany
Railway stations are centres of mobility and gateways to the city, and these should no longer be poor and ugly backyards. In order to renovate the railway station, several measures are to be combined. First, the transparency and functionality of the station as a transport node must be ensured. Easy access to trains, and increasingly to other means of transport, for instance tramways, buses, bicycles and park­and­ride (P&R) facilities, has to be provided. In addition, the environment of stations, including the exterior appearance, has to be revalued. An appealing design of the station building, containing preservation of historic building structures, may enhance the integration into the urban environment. This includes, for instance, the creation of attractive public streets and squares between the station and the urban surrounding, as well as the establishment of a mix of functions around the station in order to concentrate urban life in the immediate surroundings. The station must provide good accessibility for pedestrians and cyclists. The quality of the immediate environment around the stations has to be completed with an attractive offer inside the stations. A functional mix with several public and private services and shops is desirable. With these facilities located around a station, the area gains more attractiveness and vitality for inhabitants of the adjacent neighbourhoods. Furthermore, the development of cheap housing may contribute to better mobility of people with lower incomes who are often dependent on good PT accessibility. In addition, a reduction of parking require­ ments in building regulations, or the introduction of maximum rather than minimum parking standards, related to the quality of PT supply can contribute to a higher degree of public transport utilisation. Another innovative accompanying strategy might be organ­ isational measures such as the inclusion of a public transport pass within the price for new housing in the vicinity of the station (Figure 4.4).

Munster-Mecklenbeck: Development of housing estates along a reactivated rail ¨ station: Munster’s approach if integrating land use and transportation in the ward of Mecklenbeck can be considered as exemplary. Removal of the station to the centre: In order to achieve adequate accessibility and an appropriate design and equipment of the station, the reconstruction has to be removed

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Figure 4.4: The axial system of Munster. Munster-Mecklenbeck: development of housing estates along a reactivated rail station

to another place near the centre of Mecklenbeck. Being abandoned already in the 1960s, the station of Mecklenbeck is not going to be reactivated before the completion of development in 2005 because extensive measures for infrastructure are delaying the process. 1000 new flats near to the railway station: In the ward of Mecklenbeck, which is accommodating around 80 000 inhabitants, approximately 1000 new flats – one­third realised as detached houses to supply housing for young families, the rest as multi­ storey housing, including a share for low income dwellers – are going to be built on two new development sites in direct vicinity to the railway line to Coesfeld and Recklinghausen. Projection from the 1970s, completion in 2005: With the emerging need for housing development in the beginning of the 1990s, plans for a new urban development dating back to the 1970s were taken into consideration again. With the preparatory land acquisition of most of the plots, the new development of the area could be processed according to the ideas of the city council without too much debit for the council’s treasury. These plots, still privately owned, have been included in the planning process by concluding an urban development contract in public–private partnership. The first building phases are realised meanwhile, the completion of the project was in 2005.

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 45 Removing a main road to smooth traffic organisation: Apart from this, new retail and community facilities will further improve the service quality within the ward. With the purpose of facilitating a smooth organisation of traffic, an important main road is going to be removed. All measures taken for transport improvement are subsidised by the federal state government of North Rhine­Westphalia. Preparatory acquisition of land slowing down the increasing land prices, in particular in public transport oriented sub-centres: A basic condition for the implementation of hous­ ing projects within the designated development areas was the preparatory acquisition of land from the city council of Münster. The real estate city administration was able in many cases to buy ground at moderate price, before the prices rise because of planning provisions. Because of this preparatory acquisition of land, the city was then able to offer sites at moderate prices and to develop them according to the demand and to the integrated land use and transport strategy. The results are clear: In the last year, the city was able to double its share of the sales of land. Over 50% of currently developable sites are in the ownership of the city. Thus it was possible to slow down the increasing land prices within “right locations.” The gains from the disposals are used to finance necessary infrastructure – like kindergartens, etc. – and purchase new sites linked with sustainable development priorities. Evaluation: In order to evaluate the policy focusing on urban development at railway stations, the mainly used indicator is the part of the city population living within a certain distance of a railway station. In Münster, because of the importance of the bicycle – which is frequently used to get to the railway station ­ the influence radius is 1.5 km. A similar kind of indicator, but easier to calculate, is the amount of the new housing built around the station. In Münster as a whole, the distance from planned housing estates to local railway stations was therefore investigated. About 75% of the planned housing areas are within 1500 m of the next railway station, and, in addition, 75% of the new residential areas are within a radius of 800 metres around a sub­centre.

Short-Distance Structure Development

Short­distance Structure Development aims to create a pedestrian and cycling friendly site development and to facilitate “door­to­door” travel without using the car but drawing on a mix of alternative transport modes. Short distance development may facilitate in particular walking and cycling, which are the most environmentally friendly, healthy and sustainable means of transport. Walking and cycling may represent a real alternative to motorised modes for many journeys (typically about 50% of urban journeys are less than 3 km). Promoting these modes is a way to reduce the negative impact of transport and, at the same time, increase citizen well­being and health. Short-Distance Mixed-Use Development (The “Compact City”) in Aalborg, Denmark
This measure recognises that, as short journey distance is a main reason for choosing non­motorised modes, the urban structure is of prime importance to promote walking

46 C. Sessa and cycling. Empirical evidence shows that in some of the large European cities bicycles are the fastest mode of transport for distances up to 3 km (door­to­door travel). In existing districts, density can be increased by building up top floors for dwellings and offices, filling up empty sites with new buildings, shopping areas, leisure facilities, and so on. However, this kind of option must mainly take place in cities with a continuously growing population. Additionally, high­density mixed­use structures can lead to positive social conditions as they are in most cases used throughout the whole day, reducing feelings of insecurity for people using non­motorised modes. Aalborg – compact city structure for the future development: The Master Plan is the core document of the land use planning process in Aalborg and indicates the main structures for the future development (1998–2009). In this document, activity centres and self­maintained living areas up to a certain level are described as main elements to build a “compact” city, which contributes also to promote non­motorised modes. Activity centres and increasing density in inner city areas: The Master Plan for Aalborg gives a definition of a clear typology of the activity centres in Aalborg and the whole surrounding region. The main goal of this is to obtain a good match between the functions of each area and the services located there in order to reduce the need for trips in the region. For each type of centre therefore a list is made containing services that should be present (e.g. schools, retail areas, industry, offices, etc.). This typology of activity centres acts as a backbone to planning new housing and to see if such areas can accommodate extra housing. As it is planned to increase the accessibility of sustainable modes and find a balance between placing new residential and working areas together to reduce the need to travel, new houses can only be constructed in the actual residential areas. The total number of residents is strictly defined up to 2009 in order to avoid the sprawling of houses, and the number of households should go together with the typology of the centres. New residential areas should be developed in areas accessible by bike or in walking distance to train stations. Measures concerning non-motorised modes: These efforts are supported by improve­ ments of the entire cycle network. Establishing a cohesive network should encourage people to use the bicycle between home and work. Furthermore, public institutions co­operated with private companies that provided company cycles as an alternative to company cars. The public transport structure has a clear link to the development of the city as new residential areas, shopping centres and working zones are to be designed and located with easy access to public transport in mind. There have also been physical infrastructure improvements at nodal points on the new public transport network including bike and ride facilities. Car-free central place at Østerågade: Østerågade is an area with attractive traditional buildings, shops and others, but traffic volumes and wide road space had led to a poor visual impression. The reconstruction of Østerågade was the most important part of the Traffic Circulation Plan, and in 1997, the reconstruction project was approved by the City Council. Among other things, the reconstruction of Østerågade comprised the

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 47 extension of the space available for pedestrians as well as the establishment of a high­ quality urban environment. Since the Traffic Circulation Plan for the city centre had already been approved when the Østerågade reconstruction project was started, many issues regarding the project had already been debated and settled. Therefore, the debate did not focus on the principles of how the traffic in the city centre should be organised, but on the future design. Thus, topics featured in the debate were cycle safety, access to shops in the area, blind and visually impaired persons’ requirements. and so on. Finally, it was decided to start out with minimal restrictions for private car traffic and to tighten them if the results were not satisfactory. The reconstruction works were finished in 1998. Compared to old Østerågade the most significant changes are a major reduction in the width of the traffic lanes, which have been converted to wider pavements and the use of high­quality granite surface materials. The whole Østerågade area is signed as a 30 km/h zone with limited access for private cars and distribution vehicles. The attractive pedestrian area is now completed and well used. Evaluation: The reconstruction of Østerågade is now completed and the area is attractive and well used. Concerning the aim to reach a compact urban structure, activity centres with the required mix were implemented. Unfortunately, no information is available on whether the objectives mentioned before have been achieved. Usage of Inner City Brownfield Sites in Tübingen, Germany
This measure gives priority, in urban development planning, to city areas that have lost their original function. Inner city locations provide short distances to the city centre as well as to existing cultural and public facilities. In addition, the usage of inner city brownfield sites influences the general image of the city and improves its attractiveness. Although it will hardly be possible to implement a sufficient number of working places for inhabitants in a quarter, shops, schools, green spaces, and others, should be offered within walking or cycling distance. A pedestrian and cyclist friendly urban redesign of these inner sites is recommended. This consists of various measures supporting each other. Green corridors (e.g. trees between streets and cycle tracks/footpaths) help to improve both the visual and the climatic situation reducing negative impacts of motorised modes. Tracks in an attractive urban environment may encourage people to walk or cycle even if trips are over longer distances. Altogether, planning for pedestrians requires high creative quality in a confined space and thus, conscious dealings with buildings, places between buildings, colours, vegetation, and so on. The promotion of walking is often combined with measures restricting car accessibility, such as traffic calming and limitation of speed. Redevelopment of a military area in Tübingen: Currently, a 60 ha covering area in the south of Tübingen is reused in an innovative way. The area is called Südstadt, and it is located within 5 km from the city centre. The area was formerly used by military. In 1990, the departure of the French garrison became known, leading to first reflections about the redevelopment of Tübingen Südstadt (Figure 4.5). In 1991, the city declared the intention to establish an urban development, and currently, the Südstadt is the main development area in Tübingen, and its conversion is based on several innovations, for instance strong participation of new inhabitants, narrow mixed use, a new parking concept, and so on.

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Figure 4.5: Time table of the project Tübingen Südstadt

Step by step implementation: The redevelopment did not start at once in the whole Süd­ stadt, but areas within the district are fixed to be redeveloped gradually according to the timetable. At the moment, the area “Stuttgarter Straße/Französisches Viertel” is coming into being and sites are offered to interested citizens. This step by step implementation ensures easily comprehensible development. Priority to pedestrians and implementation of mixed use: In the framework plan for the redevelopment of the area “Französisches Viertel/Stuttgarter Straße” various objectives are established of which a main aim is to provide short distances by implementing mixed use. A balanced ratio of working places and accommodation units is established in this plan offering the possibility to work and live in the same district. In the Südstadt, short distances for trips in the leisure time are offered as cultural and sports facilities, attractive open space, and others, are integrated in the vicinity of houses. Altogether, the aim is to create a living district and to include also social aspects such as the integration of minorities. Further, the public space is devoted to pedestrians while motorised individual traffic is restricted. Pedestrians are given priority and the needs of disabled persons are considered. It is aimed that as many daily trips as possible be undertaken by non­ motorised modes and therefore a corresponding walking and cycling infrastructure is provided (Figure 4.6). Co-ordination and implementation of the project: The whole project is co­ordinated by the urban redevelopment department. To facilitate the implementation of mixed use, the Südstadt is revealed as a mixed­use area and the planning tool “Städtebauliche Entwicklungsmaßnahme” is used in an innovative way. This tool offers the possibility for trying innovative procedures in town planning, especially for reusing areas, and provides a number of measures that can be combined. If certain objectives of the planning tool (e. g. re­using of an area, providing additional living space, etc.) are met, planners are less restricted by this tool in comparison to other tools of German building law.

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 49

Figure 4.6: Varied architecture and mixed use in buildings in Tübingen Südstadt

Further, to finance the infrastructure, the municipality purchases the sites at the value attached to the sites before the development. Afterwards, the sites are disposed at the current market value which is fixed by an expert committee and include increases in value due to the development. The development and infrastructure are mainly financed by these proceeds. Additionally, the project is also supported by the state (redevelopment programme). Evaluation: As it was supposed to be useful to start with the evaluation of impacts on the modal share when the multi­storey car parks as important elements of the project were finished there were no elements like planning indicators or elements of evaluation at the time of TRANSPLUS investigation. However, a qualitative appraisal of the overall process highlighted successful elements. Citizen participation was particularly effective, as the citizens were involved in a comprehensive way exceeding the legal participation and leading to high acceptance. Altogether, the project is regarded to be quite successful and mainly problems arise only because of the multi­storey car parks being not realised as planned. By the end of 1999, ca. 3000 persons got or created living space in the development area on their own. Additionally, about 40 000 m2 space for trade and social/cultural facilities were opened and users are still interested in getting suitable sites in the Südstadt. A variety of housing forms as well as narrow mixed use have already been realised, although the project is not finished yet. According to subjective assessment of the local department of urban redevelopment, there are less cars in the Südstadt than in other parts of Tübingen while non­motorised modes are represented more often than in other districts.

50 C. Sessa Development of a Walking Strategy in Bristol and a Cycling Strategy in Merseyside, UK
Specific strategies to promote a better awareness of walking and cycling opportunities in the city environment is to be considered, as the provision of short travel distances is on its own insufficient to encourage people to use non­motorised modes. The measures already mentioned have to be completed by an attractive network for pedestrian and cyclists, and the development of a comprehensive marketing campaign to influence mode choice. A hierarchical city­wide cycle network should be created in an attractive envi­ ronment connecting different locations and facilities. Cycling and pedestrian networks on a quarter level must be linked to networks of higher hierarchies. Simultaneously, conflicts between cyclists, pedestrians and motorised modes must be reduced to improve the safety and attractiveness of cycle tracks and footpaths. Improvement of information and orientation is also an important accompanying measure. Pedestrians and cyclists should feel that they are respected and welcome as travellers. Public relations work can help to make people aware of the advantages of walking and cycling, increasing the acceptability of these mobility options. Besides, as walking and cycling are very sensitive to detours, people should be informed how to reach destinations improving their navi­ gation in the city. Improved information systems can link together the different parts of the city and encourage people to walk, cycle or to take the bus. Bristol “Legible City”: In Bristol, walking is promoted providing clearer way finding and information by means of the project “Bristol Legible City,” which is an important element of the Local Transport Plan. Indeed, Bristol Legible City is one of the main priorities of the city council and its partners over the next 10 years. It is a unique concept that seeks to integrate a comprehensive programme of transportation, information, identity and arts projects to improve people’s understanding, experience and enjoyment of the city. The initiative is based on the relation between urban design and movement. A new sign and information system should provide a unified identity for the city being user­friendly to all, including those who are disabled. It targets linking together diverse parts of the city with a flow of consistently designed information. Further aims are to provide a cleaner greener environment and to encourage people to walk, cycle or to take the bus. Improvement of the legibility: Legibility of the city is considered to be important in terms of its use. However, in Bristol, there is a feeling that the city currently lacks a strong visual identity and that the situation fails to give people comfort or guide them to the wealth of attractions the city has to offer. Post­war development has broken up traditional neighbourhoods and eroded the legibility of the city. Low levels of information mean that visitors find it difficult to enjoy travelling within the central area. Therefore, the initiative should help to improve the legibility of Bristol, and people should enjoy the city using non­motorised modes. In the first phase of the initiative that aimed at pedestrians in the city centre, a new signage system and a large number of map panels have been arranged along key routes to help identify nearby attractions, public transport routes, and so on. The typeface of the signage has been designed to be clear, and interactive information points have been installed in the city centre providing online information about the city as well as a free internet and e­mail facility.

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 51 Future developments: In the future, the scheme will be extended to other areas of the city, including bus stops, information booths, telephone kiosks and markers at transport interchanges. It is anticipated to extend the signage system to cater for the needs of cyclists too. The interactive information points will be upgraded to provide a journey­ planning facility which is already available in some other cities. In addition, a public arts programme will integrate artists’ work into the community, creating areas with their own identities using sculpture, architecture and street furniture to provide easily recognisable navigation points. Management of Bristol Legible City: The initiative Legible City Bristol is developed by the City Council in partnership with a wide range of local business organisations and national government initiatives. The initiative is backed by the major partners in Bristol’s regeneration strategy: the South West Regional Development Agency, Bristol Chamber of Commerce and Initiative, Broadmead Board (representing the interests of the central shopping area), the Harbourside Sponsors Group and Bristol Tourism and Conference Bureau. The current partnership involves therefore both the public and the private sector and is facilitated by the City Council. The initiative is co­ordinated by a consultancy, City ID, on behalf of Bristol City Council. Staff from the city council, who have been involved in the initiative, come mainly from within the department of environment, transport and leisure. These include officers involved in urban design, planning, trans­ port engineering and arts development. However, because the initiative is cross­cutting different sectors, staff from other departments have also been involved (such as the department for neighbourhood and housing services). Furthermore, since the initiative is a partnership, it also involves collaboration with a number of external agencies, such as public transport operators, bus shelter manufacturers, car park operators/managers and tourism organisations. Evaluation: Evaluation was limited but the initiative co­ordinators recognised that this needs to be done. It is, however, difficult to quantify many of the benefits of the individual elements of such an initiative and identify how much of an impact they had for changes in, for example, walking and cycling. In the Local Transport Plan (July, 2000), a prospective monitoring programme was outlined. Accordingly, 30 new Automatic Traffic Count sites had to be installed and the size of the Automatic Cycle Counter network increased. Cycling data will be collected at a number of key workplaces three times per year. The city­wide programme of journey time surveys undertaken in 1993 and 1996/1997 will become biennial. Further, a programme of household interview surveys was starting and three study areas will be surveyed in a rolling programme, covering one area per year. Merseyside cycling strategy: Over the past 20 years the economy of Merseyside in the UK has undergone a period of structural decline in high employment industries which has contributed to a persistent negative image of the area. Due to the high rate of unemployment, a lot of people do not own a car and are dependent on low­cost modes of transport. Linking main residential areas and main employment sites by a cycle network: It is mainly planned to extend the cycle network of main routes to areas in the outskirts to

52 C. Sessa improve the accessibility to industrial and residential areas by non­motorised modes and to increase the share of cycling on working trips. There are also going to be District Cycling Strategies for each of the five districts of Merseyside. The implementation of a cycle network across Merseyside by 2012 is a target of the Local Transport Plan which aims to create a fully integrated and sustainable transport network for Merseyside. The core cycle network connects the residential areas to the main employment sites, and it was completed by the end of the first period (2001–2006), the remainder of the network by 2012. The measure aims to link the Special Investment Areas, which are the new focal points for employment initiatives, to the Pathway Areas being areas of social need. The network is dependent partly on funding through the Objective 1 Programme and is supported by the Single Programming Document. The Merseyside’s Objective 1 Programme contains a wide range of initiatives which aim to create 56 500 additional jobs over the Programme period (2000–2006). A main aim of the Local Transport Plan, therefore, is to ensure that transport provision is of the highest quality to serve these areas, and the cycle strategy will consequently focus on linking the Pathways and the Investment Areas. Development of the Merseyside Cycling Strategy: At the time of TRANSPLUS inves­ tigation, the Merseyside Cycling Strategy was undergoing a review of content. The Merseyside Cycling Strategy drawn up by the Transport Policy Group at Merseytravel (passenger transport executive) has got to be approved by the Merseyside Transport and Engineers Group comprising the Transport Managers from the five district authorities and Merseytravel. Afterwards, it had to be adopted by the district authorities; these authorities will each adopt a strategy based on the Merseyside Cycling Strategy but adapted to local circumstances. The measures target on increasing the share of cycling to 4% by 2006 and to 8% by 2012. Parts of the cycling network are already imple­ mented but altogether it was noticed that cycling by comparison receives a very low proportion of personnel as well as financial resources as compared to funds allocated to other modes. This causes the potential danger that the project will be “underdone” due to lack of resources, with a scaling down of the original cycle network. Evaluation: As the implementation has not been finished yet, there are no results by now. The target is to quadruple the modal share of cycling by 2012 which means an increase of the share to 4% by 2006 and to 8% by 2012. Concerning the monitoring of the modal share, currently, the baseline is taken from the countywide survey which is carried out every 5 years. This is thought to be too small a base (around a 1000 households), and there is a real problem in getting a monitoring framework and a baseline. The last results available showed that the levels of cycling were very small and had fallen, but this figure was not thought to be statistically accurate. Difficulties also occur due to insufficient resources. So far, a lack of personnel and financial resources has caused late delivery of the strategy and also a scaling down of the original cycle network. As money is allocated to other modes, cycling receives a very low proportion of the available resources.

Car Restriction Oriented Development

Car Restriction Oriented Development aims to limit the intrusion of cars in the urban environment and reduce by this way their negative impacts on noise, pollution, safety

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 53 and aesthetics of towns and neighbourhoods. The development of transport corridors within and between urban regions should avoid exclusively car­oriented developments. However, it is well known that corridor developments have grown in a very car­ dependent manner. Main road corridors always attracted activities and stores and other car attractive services due to their specific advantages (e.g. availability of space for build­ ing and car parking at low prices compared to urban centres). An integrated land use and transport management policy is therefore necessary to control the development of large car­oriented structures along main roads. At the town level, car restriction policies mainly aim to limit the extent of public and private parking space, and in particular, the use of parking places by non­resident user groups. Taking into account the findings of the TRANSPLUS case studies, two main approaches related to car restriction oriented development can be distinguished: projects related to new urban developments and projects dealing with reallocation of existing urban space. New Car Restricted Developments in Vienna, Austria
This measure, popularly known as “car­free developments,” is one of the more radical forms of car space restriction. The assumption behind this measure is that for non­car owners it is more attractive to live in an environment where the impact of cars on noise, pollution, safety or aesthetics is reduced or absent. There is also some evidence that a potentially wider market segment for car­free housing exists, despite the absence of an adequate offer by conventional housing development. However, there are also less radical forms of car­restricted neighbourhoods, ranging from the simple unavailability of parking places within the quarter to articles in the lease contracts prohibiting the dwellers to own their own car (sometimes this is coupled with a car sharing scheme). In any case, mobility in these new developments should be mainly based on PT, car sharing and on a good infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists. A comprehensive environmental concept is often associated to this type of development (e.g. low­energy buildings, high proportion of green area, etc.), which is generally supplemented by the emphasis on the social aspect (e.g. high number of facilities of common use, increment of the living standard, etc.). Car-free settlement Vienna Floridsdorf: The car­free neighbourhood is an ecological estate development project in the first place. The total number of flats is 245. Although Floridsdorf is not connected to the underground lines, it is linked very well to tram and cycle routes. Neighbourhood services and infrastructure facilities such as kindergarten, schools, surgery and shops are located on the vicinity and are accessible by foot. The only problem is that the project lies on the eastern side of the river Danube. It carries a slight stigma of being on “the wrong side of the river” (Transdanubien), which for too many Viennese is a psychological barrier. The selection of real estate developer started in 1996. The erection of the project was finished in 1999 (Figure 4.7). Car restriction measure: The project was conceived as a car­free settlement. The usual erection of garage buildings was left out. Where the usual relation of car boxes per flat is a ratio of 1:1, in the project, it is only 1:10. These car boxes are installed exclusively for the use of cars of the car­sharing company that is linked to the project. The inhabitants can only use these cars. The settlement is clearly addressed to inhabitants who prefer to

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Figure 4.7: Pictures of car-free neighbourhood Vienna – Floridsdorf (© 2001 Murdoch University)

live without a car. Therefore, inhabitants must sign a binding declaration not to own a car while living in Floridsdorf. This declaration includes all members of a household. Evaluation: The left out garages led to possibilities of alternative land use. The freed up space is used for installing more facilities for leisure and for common use, which goes far beyond the average amount. First, a large green area could be realised, not only because there was more space for it but also because leaving out garages saved financial resources that could be invested in another way. Second, the planning was orientated towards bicycles and public transport. An optimal connection with the cycle­route­network and the PT­network were the basic conditions concerning traffic planning. Parking Regulations in Location Policy and in Building Codes (ABC-Like)
This may be seen as ancillary to planning new car restricted developments or as an independent measure. The well known ABC­principle can be quoted as a major example of a location policy including parking regulations. According to this principle – invented and implemented on a large scale in the Netherlands – when an area can be reached by an optimal way through PT, the parking space will be reduced (A­locations). When

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 55 PT is available and car accessibility is good, parking space can be reduced to a limited extent (B­locations). Finally, PT is almost absent and car dependency is at a maximum for C­locations. The policy works both ways. It tries to allocate companies that are looking for a new place of business to locations with matching accessibility profiles. At the same time the policy tries to improve the accessibility of locations according to the mobility pro­ files of the present companies. In general, the parking policy is included in the spatial plans, but the ABC­parking norms are rarely fully implemented. At the local level, the parking policy isn’t as rigorously implemented as subscribed by the national author­ ity. Municipalities fear that a stringent parking policy will prevent companies from establishing themselves in the territory of the municipality and move to other locations in the neighbourhood with a less restricted policy. However, not all experiences are negative. The movement of Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Envi­ ronment to an A­location very close to the central station of The Hague was successful. While before the removal, about 40% of the employees used their car to commute, after the removal this percentage was only 28%, a decrease of 12%. The use of public transport grew from 30% to 65%. In total, around 70% of the employees changed their mode. Reallocation of existing urban public space includes several measures, such as private car accessibility regulation, parking policy or reallocation of road space. Accessibility Regulation in Tübingen, Germany
This measure allows only certain types of vehicles to enter in a specific area. Here, a selective restriction is usually made considering the characteristics of individual vehicles and/or their usage, such as time of day/week, vehicle type, user type or duration of stay. Application of such measures over a sufficiently large area is facilitated if traffic management tools are also used. Tübingen – Traffic policy for the historical city centre: In 1977, the council set up a framework plan concerning the redevelopment of the historical city centre. Among other things, this plan includes a new traffic policy for the city centre. An aim was that traffic disappears from the centre and is kept at the edge of it. Around the city centre, a circle of off­street parking facilities was planned which should catch car flows. The concept has been realised in a long period, completed by a Parking Space Management System. Although the plan was set up in 1977, the realisation was just finished in the 1990s. The city centre was planned as a pedestrian area with improved cycle facilities. Now the historical centre is divided in parts that are purely pedestrian zones and parts that are traffic restricted. The access for private cars is only possible in the early morning. Parking places are offered to a limited extent only. The off­street parking facilities have been realised in the form of an underground car park. An evaluation carried out in the 1990s has shown that the Parking Space Management System led to a reduction of 11% of cars entering the city centre. The Parking Space Management System covers the entire city centre, including the adjoining districts to avoid push­aside­effects within parking

56 C. Sessa behaviour. The concept includes short­time parking lots (between 15 min and 2 h) and long time parking as well, at appropriate areas. Parking Control Measures in Vienna, Austria
These measures are another way to reduce car traffic and the number of cars on the street in commercial or residential areas. Here, a number of different approaches have been identified, for example, reducing the supply of spaces, restricting the duration of parking or the opening hours, regulating their use through permits or charging and/or promoting the pre­booking of parking. Special measures may be adopted to target the needs of different groups such as local residents. However, the impact of this kind of measure depends very much on a gradual implementation, the coordination over time and space of parking restrictions, and the coupling with complementary measures (e.g. park and ride). Vienna Parking Space Management: Parking space management is an important priority measure of the Vienna Traffic Concept. The Parking Space Management of Vienna consists of the limitation of parking time. Beginning in the 1960s, the City of Vienna established the first time­limit parking zones in the city centre. Since then nine further city districts have become included in the Parking Space Management System as the picture shows (Figure 4.8).

Figure 4.8: Picture of boundaries of restricted parking policy – Vienna (© GEWOG) The main objectives concerning car restriction are reducing motorised individual traffic by reducing long­term parking by non­residents, as well as enhancing the appeal for PT use by giving it priority over individual motor traffic. Another important objective is to

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 57 improve traffic safety for pedestrians by reducing illegal parking and opening additional public space for pedestrians and cyclists. Evaluation: The results of the implementation of parking control in Vienna were as follows: • Noticeable reduction of slot capacity utilisation on public streets from 109% to 71%; • Marked decrease of illegal parking; • Noticeable reduction in the time spent to find a slot due to lower capacity utili­ sation; • The number of parking vehicles not registered in Vienna was decreased by over two­thirds in the daytime hours; • The somehow sceptical attitude of the population before the introduction of the system was transformed into a largely positive one. Reallocation of Road Space in Bristol, UK
This measure involves giving back space formerly used by car traffic to other uses (e.g. PT, cyclists, pedestrian). This can be realised through the removal of on­street parking located in key transport corridors and the introduction of further bus lanes, cycle lanes or pedestrian facilities. The aim is to reduce long stay parking spaces within or near the city centre, usually replacing them by parking at park­and­ride sites. Bristol – Road Hierarchy Review – “Scope Route”: The basis of Bristol’s plans for reallocating road space is the Road Hierarchy Review, which proposes two among five road categories to be featured as arteries for public transport, walking and cycling – rather than private vehicular traffic, especially through traffic – and the consequent reallocation of road space. The two categories are the roads within “Environmental Cells” and the so­called “Transport Greenways” for non­motorised modes. Based on that Bristol is promoting the idea of “environmental cells” combined with “home zones.” The idea of environmental cells is that main roads would form a strategic network and the spaces in between these routes would be termed environmental areas, where priority is given to pedestrian and non­transport urban functions. Home zones are residential streets in which the road space is shared between drivers of motor vehicles and other road users, including pedestrians and cyclists (Figure 4.9). An example of the re­prioritisation of part of the road network is seen in the case of the historic “Centre” area which is surrounded by the City Centre Loop – the “Scope Route” – which diverts traffic around the city centre. This is an example of the positive outcome of the Road Hierarchy Review. Six months after the opening of Bristol’s remodelled centre, a survey showed collectively a 15% fall in the traffic passing through. Further work will be required to ascertain whether traffic has really “evaporated” or whether all or most of it has diverted onto the City Centre Loop and elsewhere. The various land use and transport measures are summarised in Table 4.1 below.

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Figure 4.9: Picture of scope route – part of the road hierarchy review (© city of Bristol) Table 4.1: Land use and transport measures: summary table LUT Measure TRANSPLUS Case Studies’ evidence Diffusion Across Case Study Cities
Improving Public Transport accessibility in existing settlements New PT oriented settlement Nearly all the case study cities

Main Example

Likely Results or Potential Impact
Modal shift towards PT, although good accessibility is not always sufficient to change users’ behaviour Concentration of residents and jobs in the vicinity of PT stops

Orléans new tram service

Renovation of railway stations and surrounding areas

Amsterdam, Bilbao, Cologne, Ghent, Groningen, Helsinki, Lisbon, Merseyside, Orléans, Vienna Lisbon, Orléans, Ghent, Croydon, Helsinki, Amsterdam, Bristol, Rome, Cologne, Munster

Vienna Metro extension to the densified Easter­Donaustadt and the Gasometer city Munster­Mecklenbeck: Concentration of residents development of and jobs in the vicinity of housing estates along a railway stations reactivated rail station Aalborg: compact city structure for future development Mixed­use developments provide the inhabitants of the districts the possibility to avoid long­distance car trips

Short­distance Dresden, Bristol, mixed­use development Helsinki, Bilbao, Aalborg


Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 59 Table 4.1: (Continued) LUT Measure TRANSPLUS Case Studies’ evidence Diffusion Across Case Study Cities
Usage of inner city brownfield sites Lisbon, Vienna, Bilbao, Tübingen

Main Example

Likely Results or Potential Impact
Inner city locations provide short distances to the city centre as well as to existing cultural and public facilities Increasing modal share of walking and cycling

Tübingen: redevelopment of a city area

Development of walking and cycling strategies

Ghent, Dresden, Croydon, Nantes, Rome, Brescia, Vienna, Helsinki, Munster, Bristol, Merseyside Amsterdam, Cologne, Tübingen, Vienna

New car restricted developments (“car­free neighbourhoods”)

Bristol “Legible City” initiative (walking strategy) Merseyside cycling strategy Vienna: Floridsdorf car­free settlement

Parking regulation in location policy (ABC­like) and building codes Accessibility regulation

Amsterdam (more generally in Netherlands), Tübingen, Cologne General access limit for the city centre in Rome, Bilbao, Ghent and Helsinki; selective access limit only for certain streets and places in Aalborg, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Bristol, Brussels, Croydon, Evora, Groningen, Munster, Tübingen Lisbon, Evora, Rome, Brescia, Brussels, Bilbao, Amsterdam, Groningen, Ghent, Helsinki, Tübingen, Vienna

The Netherlands case

Saving of car boxes/parks space for other uses; reduced car ownership; increased safety for the children; increased social interaction Decreasing shares of car commuters, increasing shares of PT use Reduction of cars entering the limited access zone and their external impacts (congestion, pollution, noise)

Tübingen: traffic policy for the historical centre

Parking control measures

Vienna: parking space management scheme

Reallocation of road Aalborg, Bilbao, Brussels, space Cologne, Dresden, Ghent, Munster, Orléans, Rome, Nantes, Tübingen, Bristol

Bristol: Road Hierarchy Review

Reduction of slot capacity utilisation on public streets and related time saving in searching a slot; decreasing illegal parking; reduced number of commuters from outside the regulated area using their car and increased PT use (especially if combined with park and ride facilities) Decreased traffic passing through the target areas

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So far we have presented examples of integrated land use and transport measures. How­ ever, to be effective, the single measures have to be combined into coherent strategies. This is more easily said than done, because there are numerous barriers to the integration of different policies as needed, due to local circumstances and barriers which have been analysed in the TRANSPLUS case studies. These case studies also illustrate important processes and key factors of success for the implementation of integrated land use and transport strategies. In short, the basis for good implementation seems always to require: • the presence of a broad strategic concept for the city which integrates sectoral policies in a comprehensive strategy; • a high relevance given to co-operation between the different administrative depart­ ments within the city and across different tiers of government (municipal, regional, in some cases even national), and increasingly between public and private actors; • the involvement of stakeholders and inhabitants in the development of a vision for the City of Tomorrow or into planning processes. In addition, experiences in various case studies teach us that creating successful PT oriented and/or short distance urban developments hinges to a large degree on the kinds of supplementary regional policies that are introduced – those which, on the one hand, target public resources at creating high­quality station­area living environments throughout a region and those which, on the other hand, eliminate hidden subsidies to motorists. Any effective linkage of transportation and urban development is inher­ ently a regional enterprise. A decision to open a shopping mall in one jurisdiction, for example, will invariably have mobility repercussions on neighbouring jurisdictions. It is therefore essential that the planning and implementation of transport services and urban growth occur across multiple political boundaries. One or two locally developed PT or short distance developments within a region of almost exclusively automobile­ oriented growth will not only add up to very little but the developments themselves might be unsustainable. There is the need to achieve a critical mass of integrated land use and transport measures to reduce car dependency and stimulate alternative transport. Based on the TRANSPLUS case studies findings, the following are some key elements that may ensure the successful implementation of integrated land use and transport strategies. Integrated strategic concepts as a basis for policy implementation: The main goals and principles for the city development, for example, land use decisions, are usu­ ally agreed upon and presented in a structural plan. In some cases, this repre­ sents the main driver to co­ordinate the process between different departments (e.g. urban planning, traffic and environmental departments) and, in a number of cases, to combine the views of different authorities where responsibilities overlap.

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 61 Thus, the agreement on strategic concepts is achieved between the relevant administra­ tive and political authorities. Definition of a vision for the city development becomes a cornerstone to create common awareness of the main problems the city has to cope with, to focus goals before project realisation and to develop a comprehensive strategy. This was a huge motivational factor for some cities. On the contrary, in several exam­ ples of “bad practice” consensus on a common strategic concept was not achieved. In this case, a narrow approach to planning was taken, leading to the isolated treatment of some land use and transport issues, and not enabling a timely management of side effects.

4.3.1 An integrated strategic concept for Amsterdam: the Structure Plan
The municipality of Amsterdam is currently realising a new “structure plan.” This is one of the main planning instruments of local authorities in the Netherlands to present and integrate their spatial and sectoral planning policy. It outlines the chosen future developments, is descriptive and general, and has significance as a guideline for all spatial policy of the municipality. The plan serves as the framework to evaluate the more detailed and local land­use plans. It has a strategic function and mainly focuses on the long term. There are two important changes in the land use and transport policy of Amsterdam outlined in the new structure plan 2001/2002, “Choosing urbanity.” The first is the change of perspective on the integration of land use and transport that is made in the Netherlands nowadays. The second is the change of desired urban form. Indeed, Amsterdam is known for its starshaped “fingerstructure” and has for years adopted a rather monocentric compact city vision. New residential areas were to be realised inside or attached to the current built up area (infilling and expansion locations). From monocentric to polycentric structures: The new vision on the preferred urban form makes a shift from the compact monocentric agglomeration with one multifaceted urban centre to a polycentric region with a varied set of multi­functional urban centres. The main goal is to develop a limited number of good accessible, multi­functional urban centres, with a concentration of activities and high density settlement. The new plan outlines a large number of policies and spatial principles for the realisation of the new urban centres, amongst which the most important are: • Intensifying existing urban areas: a number of the new urban centres should be located inside the central city. Due to scarcity of development land, this requires imaginative solutions. The city has set out a range of measures to intensify current built­up area and especially the current mono­functional sub­centres. • Mixing functions within existing and new centres: The intensification of the existing sub­centres should include different functions. The local land use plans will allow residential, recreational and other functions within these new centres, and the city will actively pursue the inclusion of these functions in the project plans made for the several sub­centres. • Selective development/hierarchy in centres: The city has chosen to determine the size and function of the centres based on the position of the centre in public trans­ port networks (international, national, interregional and regional). The profile of the centres will be described in terms of specialisation, characteristics, and level

62 C. Sessa of ambition. The urban network should offer a metropolitan mix of functions, with differentiated centres (financial, leisure, tourism, etc.). • Policy integration between different sectors and/or tiers of government: Policy integration concerns the management of cross­cutting issues in policy­making that transcend the boundaries of established policy fields, and which do not correspond to the institutional responsibilities of individual departments. Integrated policy­ making refers to both horizontal sectoral integration (between different depart­ ments and/or professions in public authorities) and vertical inter­governmental integration in policy­making (between different tiers of governments) or com­ binations of both. Interdisciplinary co-operation is a basic requirement to cope with the impact that any integrated, comprehensive concept may have upon the areas of responsibility of different departments. Further, several planning hier­ archies can be involved in the definition of measures requiring administrative co­operation on different spatial levels, as well as with the stakeholders. The creation of interdisciplinary working groups can help to co­ordinate administra­ tive tasks and to ensure the realisation of projects. The main reason for their establishment is to clarify objectives and to obtain mutual consent in the pre­ liminary stages of project realisation. It is also a useful instrument to give new objectives and more power of enforcement. Further, new forms of co­operation as partnerships between the public and private sector (Public–Private Partnerships) can serve the purpose of delivering a project or service traditionally provided by the public sector. Finally, integrating land use development, urban and regional transport in large agglomerations is strongly dependent on the development of the whole region, and this claims for a stronger regional cooperation. Experience shows that official instruments at the state or regional level have few impacts on the land use and transport policies implementation, since that is very dependent on the interests of each municipality in the surrounding of the agglomeration. Most of the land use and transport policies investigated in the TRANSPLUS case studies aim to achieve regional co­operation, but co­ordination between different territorial jurisdictions (including adjacent municipalities) is still insufficient. In particular, the quality of PT is often not the most important aspect for land use decision­making in suburban municipalities, in the way that it is for the central city. However, an integrated land use and transport strategy intending to affect mobility behaviour towards sustainable modes is almost mandatory and needs to be supported by co­operation contracts across community borders.

4.3.2 Regional cooperation in Dresden
In 1996, the federal government passed an initiative researching mobility with the aim to preserve mobility and at the same time to reduce the unwelcome effects of traffic. In this context, the protection of mobility in agglomeration was considered to be of high importance. The project “intermobil region Dresden” is part of a national research programme concerning the mobility in the whole region (Figures 4.10 and 4.11). Intermobil region Dresden: With the project “intermobil region Dresden,” the Dresden city administration provides in co­operation with other partners a very comprehensive policy package to promote sustainable urban development. The strategy is not only

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 63

Figure 4.10: Intermobil region Dresden

Figure 4.11: Promotion of sustainable transport focused on Dresden but includes surrounding municipalities too. The concept consists of seven modules based on a mix of soft and hard policies to promote sustainable transport and urban development. Besides providing a lot of innovative projects in the field of transport (for instance “flexible light rail,” “electronic ticketing in public transport”), the soft policy modules of “intermobil region Dresden” are of main interest for integrated transport and land use planning. Integrated regional management of land use is an important element of the project. In this context, the investigation is about how to avoid spatial developments which generate traffic. After German re­unification in 1990, Dresden was an interesting

64 C. Sessa example of how the choice of locations for living and working affects the success of environmental friendly modes of transport. When choosing a new location for living, people are often not aware of the fact that the new location will have influences on their mode choice, for instance because the new location is not connected to public transport. Therefore, the module “demand management” consists of different work packages such as integrated regional management of land use, location and mobility management for private households, mobility behaviour, and so on. It supports the usage of the public transport system while giving advice for choice of locations and mode choice. Interdisciplinary co-operation: In the project, several partners – city of Dresden, local transport operators, the German railway company, universities and research institu­ tions, consulting enterprises, industrial partners – are involved working on different modules. As the project at the time of TRANSPLUS investigation had only just started, its implementation is still unsure and there are no results yet. Step by step implementation process: Often relevant policy changes cannot be imple­ mented at once in the whole city. This may be caused by a number of reasons, and thus only a step by step implementation process seems to be an effective way to proceed. Usu­ ally, the measures can be limited to a specific area where more favourable circumstances enable (or more stringent needs require) the implementation of land use and transport integrated concepts. For example, in some of the TRANSPLUS case studies, inner city areas lost their original function and are considered as suitable sites to implement com­ prehensive regeneration projects. These brownfield sites combine a lot of advantages and can be reused paying due consideration to the needs of pedestrians, cyclists and PT, and so on. Furthermore, redevelopment of these areas can be seen as pilot projects to highlight the advantages of compact structures and to try out new planning forms. Another positive aspect of a step by step implementation process is that it safeguards stakeholders from being confronted with extensive projects that substantially affect their usual patterns of mobility and, thus, their acceptance can be increased.

4.3.3 Successful realisation of the “Hinge project” (“Scharnierproject”) in Ghent
The department of urban and spatial planning of Ghent has elaborated a process plan to restructure the former industrialised urban area around the railway station Dampoort, situated on the frontier between the city centre and the harbour. The strategic position of this area provides unknown opportunities to create a second city centre. Urban redevelopment of a working-class district: The urban development project is situ­ ated between the inner urban area and the port area and functions thereby as a “hinge” between both areas. The area encloses the environment of the “Handelsdok,” making part of the nineteenth­ and early twentieth­century port. The area also encloses the working­class district “De Muide” which was and still is the home for many port labour­ ers. Because of its strategic position nearby the city centre and close to the Dampoort station and making part of the nineteenth century expansion zone around the centre, the area offers a great potential for revitalisation.

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 65 Proceedings and objectives: In this case, an integrated vision of urban redevelopment and upgrading of a railway station was in place, but no attempts were intentionally made to come to a “one­block” implementation plan for the entire project. The realisation of the project depended instead on the permanent attention of the administration for partial realisation whenever opportunities occurred. The project fits within the objectives of the “Spatial Structure Plan for Flanders,” aiming at qualitative housing (along the water), good accessibility with public transport and bicycles, high (or medium) density and proximity of and mixing with non­polluting industries. The project implementation started with the development of the environment of the railway station Dampoort and of Houtdok, the old part of the harbour and the building of the new bridge across the dockyard between Muidenlaan and Afrikalaan. High public transport accessibility of the future mixed-use area: For the restructuring of the former industrialised city part to a residential and retail area, a number of important infrastructure measures needed to be taken, including road projects and the upgrading of railway stations. In the Hinge project also some experiments with new transport systems, for example, people movers, can be considered. This connection will relieve pressure on the inner city ring way R40. Together with the development of the Dampoort station as a regional node, a number of tramways will be extended. Citizen and stakeholders participation, communication and information: Participation and communication issues are becoming more and more important in the field of public policies and, in particular, in land use and transport planning. Since citizens and stake­ holders are affected by or can influence decisions, thus it is crucial to consider them during all the stages of the planning process. A well­conceived and well­implemented public involvement programme can bring major benefits to the policy process and lead to better decision outcomes. But the authorities promoting communication and partici­ pation processes must be well aware of the objectives they pursue and the impacts they expect. In this regard, the scheme in Table 4.2 synthesises, the main pros and cons that can be assigned to LUT planning with and without participation processes. Empirical evidence from TRANSPLUS case studies shows that the benefits of promoting participation in LUT planning processes overcome the drawbacks that could be fore­ seen. The development of citizens’ ideas, the greater openness and transparency of the processes are major advantages. The main drawbacks are related with the delays caused by the time consuming public engagement process. Nevertheless, consultation and partic­ ipation are now becoming more widespread and expected as part of normal procedures in planning, development and implementation of integrated projects. Some examples of participation processes observed in the TRANSPLUS case studies are described below.

4.3.4 Processes to include citizen and stakeholders in policy development in Vienna
In Vienna citizens and stakeholders can participate in the planning and policy develop­ ment process both at the overall urban level and at the single project level.

66 C. Sessa Table 4.2: Advantages and disadvantages of participation and non-participation processes in LUT planning Non-participation
Low costs Relatively quick Clear leadership of the process Raises few conflicts Can be done with routine procedures Generates few expectations Easy management Enables high distribution/coverage Good very first step to get the attention for a policy/project Limited understanding of objectives by the public Limited commitment to implement Weak process for development Missing of important elements Risk of “information overload”

Strong understanding Strong commitment Increased acceptability Increased credibility of authority More transparency More equity Direct influence of stakeholders on decision­making Stronger identification with a policy/project Integration of end­users in development and design Higher costs Slower Leadership problems Difficult management Generation of conflicts and difficulties in reaching consensus generation of fatigue in actors Decreasing of credibility of authorities in case of failure Risk of increased inequity if only groups participate

The Urban Level: At this level, citizens and stakeholders are the target of several infor­ mation tools: • Exhibitions of the so­called Viennese Planning Workshop: These exhibitions deal with topics of urban development and transport planning of Vienna, its districts and environs, and of other European cities too. • Publications: Viennese urban development department publishes three different series of publications that provide visions and projects of urban development. • Citizens’ service office: There exists a central service office where citizens get all information about urban development. This service offers information about special projects and the possibilities of participation, about current land use and building regulation plans. The high acceptance of this service is proved by the high number of users. • Internet: The urban development is an important topic of the Viennese web service “Vienna Online”. Beside statistics and projects, there is information about tools and planning processes and explanations on how to understand for instance land use plans. Within the working process of the traffic concept 78 citizens’ initiatives and several individual citizens were included in several discussion forums and workshops and also in the development team. The Project level creation of a common consensus: On the project level, there exists a tool of citizen participation called “Bürgerbeteiligungsverfahren.” For projects co­ordinated by the municipality, this tool became a formal part of the planning process. The



Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 67 preparation phase consists of information campaigns, opinion polls and interviews, dis­ cussion forums and workshops about the planned project. After that a planning group is formed which integrates planners, politicians, people from city and district adminis­ tration, single citizens or citizens’ initiatives and representatives from the local economy. This planning group discusses the project in several meetings moderated by independent chairmen and develops solutions as a basis for policy decisions. Meeting minutes are published with the aim to inform all citizens and stakeholders about the progress of the planning. A common consensus can be found in this way on the project level.

4.3.5 Processes to include citizens and stakeholders in policy development in Amsterdam
The development of a vision for the new structure plan of Amsterdam entailed a large participation process, as depicted in the following figure taken from the draft plan which shows the entire process (Figure 4.12).




1st research report 2nd research report

Publication: Hub Amsterdam Discussion rounds Decisionmaking

3rd research report

Capita Selecta

Design and research

City Congres

Discussion paper

Individual reactions

Discussion meetings

Regular meetings

Elaboration for each district

Political approval of central choices

Concept structure plan

Concept provincial plan

Figure 4.12: Preparation of the structure plan in Amsterdam

68 C. Sessa Organisation of three discussion platforms: First, there were three rounds of explorative investigations into trends, preferences and interests. The material was published and opened for discussion. At the same time, the political level made a draft of their vision on Amsterdam (Hub Amsterdam), initiating three discussion platforms: a discussion among organised groups in the society, a discussion among experts and a discussion among polit­ ical entities. These discussions are synthesised in a publication called “Capita Selecta” and presented at a congress. After three years of explorations and discussions, the depart­ ment of urban planning made a discussion paper which included three alternative visions and a preference of the department itself for one of the three. On basis of this paper, a new participation phase started. There were large gatherings across the city, presenta­ tions on all regular meetings with other institutional bodies, expert meetings and so on. Final discussion on the district level: In the end, the department outlined a new concept paper with the central choices that have to gain political approval. This paper has been published in February 2001. It was then open for discussion with emphasis on co­ordination among the partners involved (neighbouring municipalities, etc.) at the district level.

4.3.6 Tübingen
Redeveloping the former military area in Tübingen, new concepts such as providing short distances, restriction of private cars and others were implemented. However, the implementation was discussed pragmatically with the people concerned. Particularly in the beginning, the local newspaper was used to make the project well­known. The urban redevelopment department described the Südstadt development plans as a supplement in the local newspaper (received by every household) and added a questionnaire that the citizen should send back commenting their opinion. The response was predominantly positive. There were workshops on different themes. Altogether, the discussion was good, and all problems were mentioned and not circumvented. The people knew what they got involved in (e.g. that it is not possible to park in front of the house), and as a result, the inhabitants of Südstadt are proud of their quarter. Altogether, the participation of citizens led to higher acceptance. A committee consisting of representatives of the city council as well as informed citizens has been established. The citizens are not entitled to vote but can discuss in the committee.

Integrated land use and transport planning is considered one of the instruments to promote a more rational use of private cars and sustainable land use and transport in European cities and regions. The selected case studies showed that there is a transport problem and that integrated land use and transport is needed to make a city sustainable in the longer term. While scholars often separate the transport and land use fields of research, practitioners have to deal with the many interdependencies between them. Also citizen participation matters. Moreover, politicians, decision­makers, citizens and the different categories of stakeholders shall become fully aware of sustainability concerns, of how integrated land use and transport policy need their active and durable support and of the extent to which these policies may help to achieve urban sustainability goals.

Achieving Sustainable Cities with Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies 69

4.4.1 Main Lessons to Deliver Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategies
The following are lessons learned from the TRANSPLUS case studies, which provide some basic insights on how to design and put in practice integrated land use and transport approaches: 1. Integration is only realised when it is applied to policies, planning methodologies and organisation of processes or structures. Therefore, not only the different land use and transport policies, but also the supporting tools and supporting organisational structures of town planning and transportation engineering need to be integrated. However, the integration of supporting models, monitoring indicators and institutional structures, is poorly developed. Extra effort is needed to make the current advancement in modelling techniques more applicable for local practitioners. Efforts should be concentrated on making models more dis­ aggregate, simpler to use and more flexible in the range of issues capable of being addressed. 2. The “door-to-door” travel concept shall be extended to travel modes alternative to private car use. Whenever the access of cars shall be limited to reduce conges­ tion and adverse environmental impacts, land use and transport measures should be undertaken in parallel to ensure higher accessibility and a better connection of public transport and non­motorised modes, creating attractive, environment friendly alternatives to compete with the private car even for long­distance trips. Here, various possibilities are given and should be applied in the future (e.g. trans­ port of cycles on trains, bike and ride facilities, good conditions for walking or cycling to PT stations, short­distance structure developments etc.). 3. Attention has to be given to the implementation process. The following recom­ mendations emerge from the case studies: (i) be aware of the barriers which hinder the implementation of the policy (output barrier) or the realisation of the sustainability goals (outcome barriers), and consider the solutions needed to remove those barriers that are contingent (i.e. they can be removed); (ii) adopt broad strategic concepts and visions for the city development which will help to integrate single measures in a comprehensive strategy; (iii) strengthen the co­ ordination between the different administrative departments within the city (with formal or informal of interdisciplinary co­operation) and across different tiers of government (municipal, regional, in some cases even national) and increasingly between public and private actors; (iv) Follow a step by step implementation process. 4. Citizen and stakeholders participation is increasingly important. Although this task may seems optional, it is really needed to achieve full policy integration. The “external” perspective provided by the engagement of citizens and stakeholders in the decision process may help to find the key issues on which the manifold sectors of local administrations, and even of higher level of governments when needed, can integrate their efforts. Public involvement processes must be carefully managed they should have enough financial resources and a clear mandate to achieve results that must be taken into account in forming the local policy agenda and in the deliberation of final decisions. A feedback effect of participation

70 C. Sessa may be to increase the acceptance of more controversial policies by the side of participants. 5. Transferability of good practice by means of transnational networking activities should be fostered, involving the policy makers and practitioners who have the power to take decisions at national, regional or local level and aiming to: (i) recognise the policy options available and examples of good practice realised elsewhere that might be applied to new contexts, by eliciting their objectives, implementation modalities, compatibility issues and likely impacts; (ii) identify ways to remove barriers and apply/adapt the good practices to the local con­ texts. TRANSPLUS case studies have shown so far only anecdotal information on transfers of ideas, concepts, policy instruments triggered by the access to pub­ lished data sources, or by participation in networks and co­operative projects. More specific mechanisms to foster transferability of good practice in the future shall be recommended.

TRANSPLUS Deliverable D3 – Assessment of implementation strategies – Technical Report – ILS, SOCIALDATA, LV, ISIS, TUW, April 2002 ( TRANSPLUS Deliverable D3.1 – Public Transport Oriented Development: Significant Practice in Europe – ILS, April 2002 ( TRANSPLUS Deliverable D3.2 – Pedestrian and cycling friendly structure development: Significant practice in Europe – SOCIALDATA, April 2002 ( TRANSPLUS Deliverable D3.3 – Car restriction oriented development: Significant practice in Europe – LV, April 2002 (

Land Use and Transport S. Marshall & D. Banister (Editors) Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chapter 5 Planning Urban Structures for Sustainable Transport
Philine Gaffron, Uwe Schubert, Franz Skala and Tina Wagner

The challenges in urban development differ somewhat with the size of the settlement, but one problem is common to all:
During recent decades, urban growth usually happened in ways contradictory to the concept of sustainable settlement development, although this concept is theoretically agreed on in many of the relevant policies. Suburbanisation produced spatially diffused and functionally segregated settlement structures – sprawl – around cities and towns, while the population of the generally more compact historic parts declined. This continuing trend causes growth in traffic volumes, resulting in increased pressures on the environment (such as pollution from exhaust fumes or climate problems due to carbon dioxide emissions). It also compromises the effects of many measures aimed at promoting sustainable transport modes. (Gaffron et al., 2005, p. 7)

The structure of sprawl and the resulting problems are described in more detail in a Communication from the European Union (EU) Commission:
The siting of employment, retail and leisure centres outside urban areas, for instance around motorway junctions, undermines the economic viability of the city centre as a commercial district, encourages car use and excludes citizens who do not have access to a car from these jobs and services. (Commission of the European Communities, 2004, p. 26)

As a result of these growth patterns, resources such as land and energy, which should be preserved for future generations, are used excessively. Large areas are occupied by the structures of sprawl, and the consumption of limited fossil fuels continues to increase, especially for transport. The environment, which should provide a basis for the life of 71

72 Ph. Gaffron et al. future generations as well as human health and overall quality of life are impaired by the effects of this excessive use of resources. In contrast to these trends, the objectives of the EU for the development of sustainable settlements and for the improvement of urban environments specifically call for ‘support [for] a polycentric, balanced urban system and promot[ion of] resource­efficient settle­ ment patterns that minimise land­take and urban sprawl’ (Commission of the European Communities, 1998, p. 6 and 15). These issues lay at the core of the project ECOCITY, which was defined as a vision of a sustainable and liveable city or town to be implemented in a smaller settlement unit, that is, a model quarter or neighbourhood as an example for the desirable future development of the community as a whole. The overall objective was to plan sustainable urban neighbourhoods with an emphasis on the requirements for an environmentally compatible transport system. Sustainable solutions for other relevant sectors – energy, material flows, socio­economy – were also to be designed to generate an urban envi­ ronment promoting sustainable lifestyles – implying higher quality of life and reduced consumption of resources. The solutions were to be in accordance with ‘the favoured vision of high­density, mixed­use settlements with reuse of brownfield land and empty property, and planned expansions of urban areas rather than ad hoc urban sprawl� � � ’ described in the Commu­ nication from the Commission ‘Towards a thematic strategy on the urban environment’ (Commission of the European Communities, 2004, p. 30) and in other EU policy docu­ ments on this topic. The resulting ECOCITY vision and the benefits of its implementation as well as the sec­ toral ECOCITY objectives and the principles of integrated participatory planning, which were recommended for planning the model settlements, are described in Section 5.3. In contrast to other Land Use and Transport Research (LUTR) projects, the emphasis in the ECOCITY project was placed less on research and analysis and more on bringing together solutions and measures in the plans for the model settlements, that were in part already tried and tested in other good practice projects but had previously not been combined in concepts spanning all the relevant sectors of urban development (as detailed above). These concepts for model ECOCITIES thus represent the main project output (see Section 5.5), which together with the experiences made during the planning process (see Sections 5.6–5.8) can provide input for decision­makers dealing with similar planning tasks. First, however, the next section will provide a short review of the links between urban patterns and transport.

In their studies, Newman and Kenworthy provided many arguments underscoring the importance of designing urban patterns, which are favourable for sustainable transport (e.g. Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). They compared annual travel demand and the

Planning Urban Structures for Sustainable Transport 73 resulting transportation energy use per capita (which is a key indicator for sustainability) for cities with different land­use patterns and found large differences between compact European and Asian cities on the one hand and dispersed American cities (where the key figures were 2–3 times higher) on the other hand, showing a correlation of density with the degree of car dependence. There is a rather long list of constraints acting upon automobile­dependent cities in the areas of economic efficiency (costs), environmental responsibility (impacts), social equity (access) and human liveability (loss in quality of life), which defines a need for action. One of the main (impending) constraints seems to be the availability of oil – several studies show that the time of increasing oil production is almost over, and a decline is about to begin (e.g. Campbell, 1991). The currently common approach of dealing with these constraints through incremental, largely tech­ nological adaptations appears to be insufficient – the increased energy efficiency of cars, for example, is counteracted by increasing travel distances and heavier vehicles, while attempting to increase social equity by promoting car­ownership increases environmen­ tal impacts. Thus more fundamental long­term changes in the urban system and urban patterns will be necessary (e.g. to decrease travel distances, thus reducing costs, impacts, losses in quality of life and the dependence on cars).1 The goal should be to provide facilities and services in close proximity to where people live, preferably within walking distance or a short journey by bicycle or public transport because ‘it is not possible to solve sustainability in cities without addressing automobile dependence’ (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999, pp. 42–47, 334–335). There is a particular urgency to instigate such strategic and long­term approaches as soon as possible – especially for new develop­ ments – because the long lifespan of (newly) built structures perpetuates their effects for a long time. In planning for land use and transport, it is important to differentiate between means and ends to produce solutions which are appropriate to the purpose. Transport, for example, is generally a means while accessibility and mobility – as defined in the project (see Box 5.1) – are the end (just as insulation and heating installations would be means where warm rooms are the end). Box 5.1: Definitions of Mobility and Accessibility as Used in the ECOCITY Project In the ECOCITY project, mobility and accessibility were seen to describe the same state of affairs from different points of view: High mobility – as a characteristic of people – is determined by the ability to reach a great number of destinations within the shortest possible time while covering the shortest possible distance (rather than covering long travel distances at high speeds to reach the same number of destinations). Good accessibility – as a characteristic of urban structures – is understood as the provision of destinations that are close to origins in space and in time, complemented by the availability of high­quality, environmentally compatible transport links (direct, barrier­free pedestrian and cycle routes and attractive public transport routes).

1 The mutual dependence between land use and transport and the advantage of complementary measures in both sectors to maximise synergies towards a ‘more sustainable’ outcome are also addressed in the introductory Chapter 2 to this book.

74 Ph. Gaffron et al. Thus there is only an indirect demand for cars and roads, while the direct demand is for the accessibility of destinations. This demand should be met through the most appropriate and efficient means. The priority for a truly sustainable city would thus be a combination of urban patterns of proximity (short distances) and attractive networks of pedestrian and cycle paths. In the ECOCITY project, the overall aim was to keep sight of the ends and design the most sustainable means to meet them. Model settlements (urban quarters) were designed for specific sites in the seven municipalities involved to intensify the implementation of agreed principles and to demonstrate the feasibility and desirability of future urban liv­ ing compatible with sustainability requirements. While the chosen municipalities differ in size, the focus lay on small to medium­sized towns and cities, which is where the majority of people in Europe is still living. Where favoured by the location, the option of linking smaller urban centres by high­quality public transport and concentrating fur­ ther development along the transport axis was considered. Additionally to the different sizes, the diversity in climate zones, site location and urban contexts (greenfields, brown­ fields, etc.) contributed to showing the possibility of sustainable solutions under different circumstances.

5.3.1 The Vision of an ECOCITY
Considering the long lifespan of built structures, settlement patterns for the future (ECOCITIES) need to be sustainable in the original sense, in order not to jeopardise the basis of existence for future generations. This includes ensuring the availability of the resources land, energy and materials, as well as the preservation of the natural environ­ ment – thus impairment of the environment and resource use have to be minimised. But settlement patterns fit for the future also need to provide a high quality of life for the present generation – in other words, the liveability of ECOCITIES should be maximised. To illustrate the vision of an ECOCITY, the features of a community, which would fulfil these goals, were brought together in Figure 5.1. Agreeing on such a vision of the final aim is helpful when discussing and agreeing on the steps and measures that need to be taken along the way. It can also help in promoting overall awareness of the idea of an ECOCITY. The building blocks of this vision are not ranked in any particular order of importance, as all are required to reach the goal while their relative contribution varies from case to case. Due to the close interrelations of transport with other sectors, especially the urban struc­ ture, minimising transport demand is a key element in fulfilling the vision: It contributes to minimising material and energy consumption (for motorised means of transporta­ tion) as well as to minimising the impairment of the natural environment and also the impairment of people’s health and safety (caused by transport, predominantly car traffic).

Planning Urban Structures for Sustainable Transport 75

City of accessibility for everyone

City with public space for everyday life

City in balance with nature

City with integrated green areas

City of bioclimatic comfort

City of minimised demand for land City of balanced mixed use

Vision of an ECOCITY

City for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport

City of reduction, reuse and recycling of waste

City contributing to closed water cycles

City of short distances

City with new balance of concentration and decentralisation

City as network of urban quarters

City as power station of renewable energies

City of health, safety and well-being

City of sustainable lifestyle

City of qualified density

City of human scale and urbanity

City for strong local economy

City of citizen participation

City of development concentrated at suitable sites

City integrated into the surrounding region

City of minimised energy consumption

City integrated into global communication networks

City of cultural identity and social diversity

Figure 5.1: The vision of an ECOCITY

This in turn increases human well­being. The city of short distances – the appropriate urban structure for minimising transport demand – is thus a central feature of the ECOCITY vision. It is a main requirement for maximising the accessibility of various destinations and thus maximising mobility for everyone (see definitions in Box 5.1). The most important characteristics of ECOCITY patterns can thus be summarised as follows:
An ECOCITY is composed of compact, pedestrian­oriented, mixed­use quarters or neighbourhoods, which are integrated into a polycentric urban system in public­ transport­oriented locations and mainly composed of solar­oriented buildings. In combination with attractively designed public spaces, that integrate green areas and objects of cultural heritage to create varied surroundings, an ECOCITY should be an attractive place to live and work. Such sustainable and liveable structures contribute to the health, safety and well­being of the inhabitants and their identification with the ECOCITY.

76 Ph. Gaffron et al.

5.3.2 Benefits of an ECOCITY2
Along with agreeing on the vision of an ECOCITY, it is important to realise the benefits an ECOCITY can bring on a number of different levels. These can provide arguments in decision­making and help to keep the momentum going during the development, as this can be a very complex process, which involves many actors: the public sector (municipalities, regional planning bodies), the private sector (private businesses, includ­ ing developers, urban planners and architects), the residents (people living in the direct neighbourhood of the planned ECOCITY as well as its future inhabitants) as well as the (natural) environment as the most important ‘counterpart’. All these actors can gain from an ECOCITY: The benefits range from personal convenience to global sustainabil­ ity. To get support for realising an ECOCITY, the challenge is to convince the relevant actors a priori of the benefits to be expected. Table 5.1 outlines the most important benefits that can be derived from creating appropriate patterns for sustainable transport such as Transit Oriented Development (one of the main aims of the ECOCITY project).

Table 5.1: Benefits for different actors from land-use and transport aspects in an ECOCITY Benefits from The Public Sector
Appropriate patterns for public transport (linear polycentric structure) Appropriate patterns for pedestrians (compact high density, mixed­use structure) Less subsidy demand for operating costs of public transport

Benefits for The Private Sector
Increased cost recovery for the operating company due to higher passenger potential More customers in the nearby catchment area

Attractive timetable of public transport with short intervals Good accessibility of necessary facilities; liveable environment

The (Natural) Environment
Lower energy consumption and emissions (gases, noise, particulates)

Less spent per capita on infrastructure and utilities than typical suburban development

Less land demand; lower energy consumption and emissions (gases, noise, particulates)

Due to the interdependence of land use and transport, there is also positive feedback between both: • A linear polycentric structure of an ECOCITY with higher urban densities increases the passenger potential for public transport. Thus enforcing a beginning axial development by concentrating new construction in appropriate sites along a
2 The text on benefits is based on subchapter 2.1 of ECOCITY Book II, ‘How to make it happen’ (Gaffron et al., 2007)

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