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The United States Slllltegic Ilombing was establiahtd b)' the
Seeretary of War on 3 ..ember IWI, pursuant to .. from the late
PreRident lUI miSllion WI.!I to conduct Il.n impartial and UP'f'rt study
of OW' aerial.tlack on Gemlany, to be used in connection ....ith air auaeb OIl
Jape and to establish. be!lis for e... luating thll importance and pll.entialiti.
of air power aa an instrun\E'nt of military slllltl'gy, for IlIa-lining the fUlure
deYelopment of the United 5t.teII anned fora:6, ami for fulure
_iepolieies .... ith respect to the national defl'll!Ie. ,\ summary report &Ild
__200 supporting reports containing tile fmding!! of the SUrTey in Gennany
ban -. published.
Oa Hi August 115, President Truman requfJ!Ited that tbe Survey OOIIduet
allimilar study of the effects of alll)'Pf!6 of attack in the war against. Japan,
lIIIbm.itting reporta in duplie1ll11 to the Secretary of War and to the SeertUry
of the Nary. The offiCf':r!I of the during iUl Japallftle phase were;
IUlOIT C. Al.UA.snu.. riN-Cllainru...
fuDT L. Bow1u.s,
J. K.. a...Laao\rT1I.
" S"I: A, llc.'\....u,
FaD SURU., Jr.
Mos-or. Sr"GlIT,
Da. ulI::llI It T110. ptOs,
TuJ:OOOU I', WSI(lIlT, DiNt'ton.
The OOOlII]emellt provided for 300 civilisllll, 3SO ol6eel'll, Ind MI(l
eD1isted men. The mHilar)' RgIl.ent of thll organiulion 1I'1S drawn from the
Anny to the eJ;l.tnt of 60 percent, .nd from lhe S .., 10 till! Ull"nt of.w per-
_L Doth the Ann)' .nd S..')' gal"ll Ihe .11 poesible &lIIis!.nee in
furnishing 1DlIII. supplillll, transport .nd inform'lion. TIIII Suney operated
from _dquartllnl _.blished in TokJo early in :s.llIembtr ...ith flUb-
head.qlUlrtel'll in N.goy., Osaka, Jliroehinl&, .nd N.gasaki, and with lDobile
tam8 operating in other pal1.ll of J.pan, lhe i"l.nds of Ihe Pacific, and the
Alliatie lIUlinland.
It .... poesible to recon!llnlct much of .... rtime J.pan_ military plan.
ning and elEllCulion b)' engagement .nd caml..ign b)' campaign,
and to -.cui'll nlaIOllabl)' .c<.:urate !lfaliwCll on J.pan's economy .nd war-
production plant b)', and industry by illdullt.ry. In .ddition. Rudi.
WIll'll conducted on Jlpan'. onrall Btrategio plans .nd the baclqrround or 1m'
entry into the war. the internal dillCulIllionll and neMOtiatiol1ll I.ding to he:f
&IlClllpU_ of unoonditionll surrender, the OOUl1lll of h.llh and morale amon,
.\lajor Em... " .\kEL .II)<o. G:-'C
Sq"adron Leader E" ,..lI. W. .. ,\X, O.II.E., 1l.\F
Captain C.. .IKI..l'" .\. . .\11
Captain C..... :\1. Iln...:rn<\C
First Lt. Dol''''''' :\1r.IKLElOIlS, .\11
Acknowledgment is made to the .\lilitlllT ... 1K'f! Serliet'. War De
General Staff 2, the AAF Historical Ollie.', am\ ,\-2. FE.\F for
aveh of the basic data UllOll which this rellOrt is b.Jo4.'(I,
Appreciation is expressed to the ,\ireraft I)i .. of the Sun'e.I' for
definilil'll 6gures on aircraft l,roduClion: to l1.e Oil and Chemicals I>il'i.rion
for lIlatistie'S on a\iuion gasoline: and to II... ..1 for
efttain figures on Japanese aircraft strenj.'1h and 1_, as ""elias Cl'!'rtain
OllMor infom.ation. much of which .....& Slll'plied Commander 111(:11111I) P.
Cllon...1 ReBUT II. TElllIlI..l. and Colonel D. 1',."...,. had O\'er-all
direClion of lhe studies which this rellOn oolet'8. TI... nillable a&$islance of
1L Comdr. W.lLTUt Capuin 1>0,,' 1'.111111;>' alld I'" 1.1.
BICIUllD l.. SSI:IUU. ,,'100 aCled as interpreters in II int"'l'TOf.rations from
.hieh muclt orinal malerial has been deril'ed, is d !,IJ al'predated.
The report ilSil'1f re!'l'e5ellts the oombined elfolti of a numb@r of officers
11"00 ...orked on Ja!_I1e\!e .\ir IUlfllij....llCf!' for tit... War Del_nllleni General
Stalf durilll! tI... war and ...100 oollduded 110... interroption$. TI1(ll;f' oIIicers.. in
the .... rh dns of lhe Sune,. included .\Iajor lln,..:rr Il....nllt;a\lajor Juu;s
R. 8l''';I:bS."Jr.. .\fajor l.oon. .\llIjor Jo.. s C. W,,,,,,. a"d 1st U.
.lOllS G. P.'l.J'1OET. The rellOrt, in boll. substatlN' allli 6nal fonn....__ I'",pared
.,. the officers. who I1erl'ed ....ith tl", PacifIC :o'"rle.' Ih adi,..
8trMWRY .... , ....
I. !kope ..
2. 81__ or '!be ".dllc W.r .
.. lluIthte )'ort'e ..
DKLY HISTORY Ot- J,U'ASt:;S& Alii FOflCt:;ll ...
1. J._N ...,. Alr YO",", .
2. Armr Alr FOml! .
1. J._l'Atlmale of tile Slt U .
2. DWpoodU.... .
1. s-.u...,. .
2. Pan 8a.rt>oI' .
S. Wake aDd G....... .. .
... nnt P10lllppIDeII Or.m1*1P .
5. IJlto tile Nedlerla.adI Ea-. lAdIes ..
e. ea-JID .
7. a....a .
L S.-., .
:!. r-Itle Raid .
.. (lonl se. .
... lIid-., .
5. DIItdo 8a.rt>oI' aDd tile Aleulia.aa .. .. _ .
f. S-G .
8. o...tral Padk .. .
.. s-.d Campo..lp .. .
IIOtlTHltABT ASU ""'-0 CHINA .............
1. 8fttIMut A.ala .
2. cw... ..
OJ:F'll:NBlt OF INmm rom A!'D ABK..l AOAL"'ST I ".
1.0--.1 .. .
:!. I_ 11.... . .
a. UUtbl ..
.. 0llJuI .
II. of !.be KaiD loIa.adll ...1... 11l0Ql""
e. DIIaI.a of Boal_ Aala .. .. .
.. .
2. Bult Dlt&ulU. .. ..
.. "'Ie of ES'ort ..
... ..


OUlllUIllI"'1l.'(1 .nd olllc!"-'<;e(llhe ....eak .\JJied
.\ir f'Oreto;l ill Ihe F.r Ea".t lhe J.wi.nninj! of lhe
"-llr. lind tht.l therefore. "'ere .ble to eliminate
Allied air ollflOllilion .nd then to l'I'O\'ide decisive
for lhe P'OlInd and _ fOn:e:l adnndng
to lhe sooth. )JUI the .'.ll<lIn_ "ere forced ....
onto tht .... e. a"d the\' to suffer
the ...."'.k1l1S>"-'" of their I;re..-ar of air
JXl"'er .nd .kl'fl in their oripnal planning.
)!Ol'e(l\tr, the liil!lt O'Oillm.nd Inftdt $erie<; of
m;,;t.k..... in the df'\"tlol'llOl'nt and emplo.l'11lent
of the .\ir Fon:e-; ...hid, hast..ned final
def",t. TIll!' most siJ,.'1lifw:,ml of thlR .....
.nd Illi<takp><.re II!> fono..
ll. /Io_u- ('onpk Both till" JQI>ane;;o'! .\nnv
.nd X.,.I' IlriOr 10 the oUlb..... k of ....'r
Ihl' IIl'<'t!<'o;t.l' for .n Ollpa;illg .ir
fol'C"l' .. hen au';'tllf\litll! a j..Nmnd or .mphibious
ad..,Ill('@. oot bl'yond that b.,I(' \'01In'I'!. Iheir.po-
]ll'Ollch '0 the of air ....uf.1'!' ..-as narro....
.\n".1 .\;r Fort'(' "'('re 'llbordin.te
10 !-"T<)\JIld fol'Cf' OOllllllandl',", "ho <'OtL,idell.'(l the
1I;"Illalll' "nmarily tll('t;cal wf'ftJlon for lhe im
mediate SU"llOt1 of trool)o< "' ,hon .
The .JMI>an""" 1",,1 Q "'''111''' h.t brQllder ron.
,,,,,!. bUI Mir unil, nlllrtntnlted ,hl'Ouj!'hout
,hI' "ar on aHad". 011 Allied '.-af"'hil>S and the
'"1'1''''' of I-!rOlIll<1 ami Xe;lher
11;1' f""... ,,,,. t\'l'r of he1l\.I' lind
at lUll/.: l"1tnjtl' 011 '"I'lII' "l"I'lI' Or
' lll(>lIli(' 1""1.. '1"1 lInd hOlh 1I11<1rl"l"-,in""<:'I1 rhe
,;'1,,,hilill of II \lIi('(1 .\it F."",.,. for 'Il"king
'"d, ,,1"H'k...
Ior II,, 1""'1"""'" n( n "ar to ......UI'('- Ihl'
..... of Ihr .... ,,"lwl'Il lin'" and ad,in<' a
.1,,1'''''''>0(' n"t jt",""lI.. haiti.
by ,I,, "'''jt., 1\"'II;",i"n.. "f tl", '"" air
IIi'll". 11m r<ll' till' u("1I1,,1 """ IIhidl thl'\ \\f'N.'
t""'I",lIl'<.llo fij(hl.lhr 'uih".. to think ill of
I""l! """/.:". 1":lIy. lIud .... 1 /lir 8ttacks had
" 00
" ..
" ..
L btnoI ; ............
., .
............ I'Iut 10 a.It , , .
........... .
'bItl1 .
.. ".PIne lit tIoe w BH
of .... .
nollTlD. Dll:rUl1 (Jf' J . .. .
,. ..
.. ...,.......,. .. .
.. ..., JLa.l.a.rb '"- (JaIM S- ..
.. ..... til 0 _ _ '111:I' 1M4 10.l.prl; IIN$ , ..
....... .,0 'lldoii'.Ip1ItM5 .. .
, -,.-.... .. .
.... o.tNI ..
.. 0..1 .
.u, '(EIIK nA'nOJI meL . .. .
L o-onI . .. .
"""",,-0 ,_ .
....._a.-l......... . .
.. ...... tII ......
..... . .
c.e-- .
L .......,... ...... AJID 8'I'UI'fOTB..........
:a...... . .
.. ."un .
"'....... .. .
...... lI'n;, . .. .
...... . .. .
II AUl...-.. . .
1.0--1 :
l. AIr 'I'nIIdIIlJ .
1. .
. ..
..................... .
c. -. .
1. v_; . --.I.. .. ..
tII .
brpartdt In thf eam'
IIfltbtr .lr.1"III nmt Mel' tlw .\lIiflll ..-
Sullo U1d from ,..hich lhe
QI.d....DI.1 opention ... lDounted. In SP'"
QIU- a major factor in the Allied ...
the 100 IIIrpriloP altacb on W"..u U1d
ftlOaDdia .hich the Japa_ roold not
with attadm on Allied"-' 1n lOOIIthKM. .\.6.,a.
tl.e CODfftIlrated on. If"lUnd I'Upport 10-
..... of _hbX"'ti,.. t.af1l'l'L' .. Calcutla I.Ild the
B_pI"OIIW- Once the Wariaau laRn, B-29
alIaCb f:OlIki be bunched 011 Jar-- induauy
ri:tk of plpeti..... --.ined 011 Ihe
P-2t ..... ADd no, eouJd the la,,- Air
....... pnt-' tbl- of Allied beet
Nli,,", doole 10 1Ilftr objKti 01' forte tM
e-tl1 dispPnal and otbK def _ .bich
__ the Ihnat of ...,. and IUlII&iDed .ir at-
pIbed 10 tM utnmlI their that the ail'
aka ""1 ill imJDPdiatfl ea.ppon of
pvad..m. ,....and force rontrol TM air
of J orpni-t on an .'I'M buill
poad ilb .\rmy .ir \'00-
.... 10 tMboalIdaris of their partieubr grOIIDCl
1rmy,. Sa"1..m. pruIe:linc tarru of pani-
.kr m..- 10 the Sa.,.. So Buid for
lie lIni...... of .n ficbt-I mlO a com-
maDII _'rial DO territorial Jl&f*d
the Ia11dDc .......
8_tboqhthe t ... lir.11IIlI _no dt-iplfd
10 p... .aM apport 10 poed ud -
f--. the 1..,.- did Dot fllll,. I""
...-iIJ fur pnmdinI: ...h ....ppon in ""'r)
pGIDlll __Clp'l'ItiOll.. For uamplf', dlt o..,r
........... OG Port JlonIbJ in tbfl_of
llHI ... rirtuall,. ..iulOUl pl"O'r' ie.o
far air III1pport. _.thP illUllfllli.lp lIlIPlK,rt
....., proridedby the Air Jo'orc- ....
Iimit.ed. W-a- ill theU-.,... for air ground
_'IIIUeatiaIIl.Ild the Inof Kood 6iIPr bomb
_ thd IIIpport "'1.ti.....l,. iJll'lfrti.....\0.1
the J.-IIITtIf perceived Ibe lo,tP!i..-1 "-p&-
of trulepOJt ainn.ft I.Ild nf'nr ....1
tbam for the IlIppott of J!'OUIId fon..... on _It
approachiD( the operWooa of Allied
troop carrier and llUPpl1 droppilll unitll.
b. BIIifMk of AlUM Ai, Potrn1W. AllbP loP.
JbmiDI of the .Ir, Ibe J.panMe hillh romnu.nd
faUad toappneil" the lignillcance of the dilpftr.
ltJ..... Allifldlir
In 1M!, dw Jlpe.__ aircraft indllltr1 produced
ll,088 planes ...hil" II." I-nitl!d SlaUll, Iholll;h '\'(
fully oon."tOrtl!d 10 wprtill>e
19.wll. Similarly, the Jllpan_ t",lDlDg progl"luQ
turned out lbout 3.000 pilou in 10,1,1 as oompn......1
..iu, for the U. S. Artily .nd 'fl<t
J.p&neIIfl initially could see only the wee.lm .,f
the _11 .\IIil!d Air .. based in II." Pllcll.,
and Iho!1 ...ere lulltd into a f.1ae _ of securi'1
by their eul1 As a result, it not unl,l
Ille 19-&3 that thPy made I serious tII'on LO bui!.1
a brge .ir force.. B1 that tillifl it .... much "'Ii
late, for in 19-&3 the United StaUll produced ,1.J
plane!; as OOOIpartd with 18,t93 for the .
Ind .714 pilotll compared with ll;WO
c. A....y-X.....y The Jllp&IlN
.\rtII1 and S.vy Air Forte!! denloped *pa",ttl '.
UId .as II1JnoA no coopen.tion bet
them. 11M: It.noe of OOOJl't",tion not 10 mil
felt in the earh' d.vs of the ..hen it ....aslw
sible 10 UlIign a dilertnt lDiMioa and di1f.
eDt. areas of But as the. ....1' P
particularly in the Bismarck!! .nd Solomons \Ii
196-190&3 and 10 tbe Philippines in 114. t
of bll!t....een the t ..o *" a major factor in the J.pan-. der.tI.
pftitioo bet__ the .nd Sa..y for p
lion. faciliLie ud ra.... lD.teri.l!land r.ilun- I
tlfclmic'sl infonDlllion .110 hamst
lhe Jara- ainn.ft indllBlry.
r d. Pilop. The Japa_ I
... of lheir ori,pnaJ hil(bl,. trained pilots.
Illf difticultie'l. of training ntplaoPmtntll.
quenl1r. lher llIICriliced _tel,. factorll in .iIT",
10 tm-y nerpr planned or de.el"l
an}"lhing .pproaching the AlIMJd of a.:
_ it ill,por'
10 rotate IlilOl$ f""m combat .. .\1
onr....hen realiw Ihp poIentilliliffl of I
,\llied Air Forees .nd began UplUlding, Ih,,)'
......ll'1Il@<! 011 11rQ(lllriUjl: lull" numbtMl of III
l'1Itl'lfr Ihlln 1lffi.\Ipr number of highl}' uil
pilol ... Th.1 "rilin> of 'luRlily in thp cockpil I
lIlP"" IIU'O "ui\'i<lpl. Wllf'l1 b)' the PIlll
194-111'.;0- 1<-.1 III''''' ..f t"tir "rij!iu"l 1)0(
""pl.","",.", I.ihol" "'I 1""'1"1) tl"i"....1 I
f'frecti,.., 0lll_ili,m I" Iht .\llle" Ail" Forces"-
t. T,,.J..,;""l Th.. .Jap'"
l-.,ged flit behind Ih" Allies in th.. dev/llopnl
of aircraft and lire",ft \"Dl[inM. Th,,)' 1
." wilb lIOIJ)" fut. Ilul hill:h1y '1IIIn6H..,,..1
liptenc which, de8pite their poor ,I

in genef1l1 outclassed as they out-

tile obllOl ..fe or not fully de-Ieloped
t1o"m. Tl,e.'" liI,e",i"., had
tried bombers and re(;onu"i ......lllCl!
during the first 2 )enrs of the Will'
clu!ngts, relyi-ng !Irinmrilv on Illei:
typ<!ll, and the AliiI':!! rill' sur'
in Ihe qualilr of Iheir nircmft. In
... ..rlr 1044 Il serie;l of new plpne
tId:roduced. but at about the _mil tillle
aiternft "'ILS rapidl}' u-
a bit !:Iter Pll ollempt was made to
.... aVilid air /lttack. In Ihp OOllfllSiol1
upansiOtl and di'lJersal. the lle'"
Yere nt'er IJerfPcttd. the workman
. gi.en individuIII planes feU oR"
&lie margin of qualitati." superiorin'
.irel'1lft ...-identd
.. of the ..... 1'.
were even rurther behind lilt
dnplopment of radar. On the .\Hied
_ a major factor in the high dpg-ree
rN"h@<!b}theAllied "\jr On
wide. Iht lack of effective n<ln lll'l$
yoillme made il impc:lll6ibko for lhe
derPloll /In efficient airenf"!"
lIdtqualll for ground control of
.. or night fighler .nd blind
>lldmiques ...hich passed Ilrimitivt

g. g"'Jl10!Jlfltllt. Al llot loei):'ht of Iheir Ill1-

Ihe Jnllnnese held a perimeter comprising
III nnpOl'lnnl &eCtOMl 0 series of isll,ml>! lIlId
Illolls upon which it W88 impof'!"ible for them to
Imse large p;r (OfCfS. tn the lim :l '.""n! of the
wnr. the)' delllo)"ed Iheir lIir forcflll in rellllh'ely
Ilround thllll)l'rimeter lind The\" f"iltd
to build the which ... enl\bl';'llh..m
to OOllctn1l"l1t" Iheir air power on the Illnd m.,;.<es
.. long tlllI inlerior Jines of oonununi..-tion rnnning
rrom thll no:sourees of tlU' soulh 10 1I>e home is-
lallll... When the .\lIies l\u."ked thll perimeter,
the JalJanese thtnofo", "'p", un.ble either 10 llS-
"Cmbl" l.rge land bastd air foroe in the Ihreat-
entd &eCLOr or to ",lire 10 I"nd such
.n. assembly might h.n been !lOl;I;ible.. The)" 00lD-
1I11utd .nd lost IIU'ir air in piecemeal
r,...hion 011 lhe perimeter.
On the tad.ieallllvt.l, Ib" J.panese never leamtd
thll artof L!i!jOI'mbling large numbers of pl.nes. and
.llacks inl"Olving lhan 100 .ircraft ...tre fpw
llnd flit between. the ll}ukJ"IIS campaign
the poElIibililie; of milS'! .uacks .ppear 10
h.,"tO been COOlllnolU'ndtd, bm then tI>e
of Japanese pilotll ..tilll() poor lhal thp U!eDlbh'
of form.lions was imIJOl!lJli.ib1e. p
4. Su;(iJt Fo,u
The ".-eaknesses of Ihe .h!Janl'5fl Air Foroes in
operations tlU'm 10 d"velop.
s!1e('111 8U1Cldll I.lIlI(:k force.s ,htir hope of
",-opping In ill\-..siotl of llot DIllin J.panf'lSe Is-
10mb. .\t Ihe end of Ihp ".. r. more than 10.000
1l1.lIes ,,'ert for suicide .tlacks on In
in...sion fotcf'. and of more than 5,000 were
lIelo.ll)" !II'l'IlBn>d for suieidp Utit'. Ob,iousl}. ll>e
d.magll ...Ilich those Ilbll"" mi/o!ht hB"" don" de
pemls in I.rg" jlArt. 011 the elreeli'eness of tI,e
_\l1ied CO,lIllenlleaSllre< which h.d '-n designed
to neutrnti,.e Ihem. loelll bIllUlSllm@<l.,
Ihlll Ille ,\11itll in"lIded on 1 November
1915. as 111"nn@<1. Ih8t the .hpllnese Air FOr<'flS
eoliid then II}' iii m.n} Il.! ll,OOO suicide sortill$
1l1. the in\"asion force. Bnd tlml might
","ore /I comp,,-rable to the n!!COrd
mnde b)" Silicide 1111 its in I he Phi lillpines lind II ru
On those nlIllllmptiOl1l1, the invosion would
hll"e cost tloe Allies aoout 00 ships sunk lind 000
CII111pllil,(n, ",hid, i',,ol,ed liUle o'er wBler opera-
lion, while the Na'7 "'liS chorf,'e<1 wilh Pearl Har-
bor ond the llllljor burden in the Philippine!!. In
addition. lhe AmI)' kept sollle planes in China to
support. Ihe ground lroopS operating against the
Chinese. ond it also deeid('d 10 maintlin reb,.
th'el)" strong force in Manchuri. as 1 strategic
resene. The :\''''")' from the first committed all
fult)" tmined air uni" mnd maintained only a
lJmaU reser'-e of portly t... ined uniu in Japan.
On j December HIli theJllplluese Ann)" and :Sur
planned 10 emilio)' ,heir "ir arms llIJ, follo...s:
.. ..
._- ..
Iol """" 1Jl_,
III """" Do,_ ..
,-- ....T.,
__1alu __

1al .... ..
_ ... I'1odIo....
...... c......... ...
........ ,,,-'--


...- .....,.

11111'1- in air SUIM'rlOrlt) in mheast
.\...i". lInd "s>;isl("(llhe .Ja'lanesB :Sa,,), in Ihl! Phil_
ipl'inl"'..\I .... llwhill!. RllH ""I'r)ing out the Pea'"
JI"rbor "uack. the .lal'l\l1_ $"'epl mo....
lhM" j.lltlV milt'" [0 C('.I'lon. all""killg Wake. Ua
l,,1l1l1. Illld XO,1h .\lIstralia 0" lh. WMy.
2. 1'''ilrIUilrbor
The 1'1,,,1"1 II"t'I>Ol' "ll""k b)' Ad
11Ii,,11 ''''''"''''''\>. COIll",,,,,,lel' ill Chief of the
,IUIl"lIe:<ll FI""t. In ./"nul,r) IIUI, 11
11I'dil"i,,",')' stud.,' II'IIS mode lit bis dire<:tioll, lind
lhe 111,i,,;"g of "i,' j1"olJllii ,",lI Olhcr "nits in thc
"pl-.:i"l lilClit.-S 10 (,e ('mployt'll bef,'1l1l in Au-
of l!lll. In of 1, lhe finlllplllllS
rn UH I, the " ..e'1lf,'<l lirst line .Japl"
h&d .bout GOO /lying houl'9 (App('ndix
the averof,'<l pilot in the elll'l'ier groups
PellT! I [,ubol' had over 800 hours.
pll'{'t'ut of .Jopllnese Anny pilots Rnd
of J.p"nese SO"y pilots hod had aeluol
enee in China or in border fightinlt
tJoyj('l ["nion in 1939. The calTier air
been thoroughly t ... ined in shillow
.ttacks for use.t Penrl li>4rbor: the
bombed "-ake in th(' first "'leks of
specially trained in on'r ...aler n...i-
tomoot u]>('rienee in China had filled
units for ground $Uplltltt ope....
ya .nd the Philippine!!.
a1.'lo were confident of Ill(' SUIM'ri-
'r .ircraft o.-er most Allied Ill.n in
knew thai the Brilish could not
or other first line plant'l'l from the
llwater. and Ihat m.n, of 11ll' l"nited
in the P.eifie "'ere obsolete.
dIP Ihe J.llllne>e _\nn_,' _\ir Force
,.lIy o'er I.nd in CIl,na and :\Ian-
-.I ihl 101lJ.resl range bombers IUld an
...dius 01 only about ;i(l(l miles. TIll'
Force. on llle other hand. h.d been
.ra,.. 0'-1'1' ....ter and .1 a Tlnf..'l' of
miles. .\crordingl)'. Ihe "&!l
re,ponsibilil) for the

about 2.,jll(} airernfl I)

fully lraineo.l air 'lIIits, .. ud the)' betie'
wlllei""t to j{il"e' then, 8111I<'riol'il)' in llumhcTII 0"
the Allied Air Forctlll in th I'lIeitic. But. lIlol'e
on nUIPeri...1 Rl'I'l!,;"rit)" the .JIlPnlUI5J(l l'elied
RUrpr;. and Upoll the ,,'ul expel'ienCl'

hoWHer. and the did not IltIrtidplltl'1 in lht
border fighting ..-ilh the :o5oviel Cniou which took
plaee in 1939.
2. /lI/MMJe AI'8f' Ai, force
The JaJ-PIIlie Ann)' Air Forte Wall 11180 suI..
to i"reoch infl1H'DO:e in its
menlo In 1911 t..-o oIIiCf'1!I rei ... "" Inllnmg In
FnUlef'. :lind other oIIiCf'1!I ..toN !lOOn IlenL there. In
H1191l FrtcllCh mis;ion csme 10 Japan, a"d in \!t",;u
the fir:;( .\enl}" .\it ..1M e$ublished at
Tokorou"". near Tokyo. the .'_'):l_
n_ .\nnv .\ir Fon:e deo-eloped .10,,1,. until II
t-ame il\;ol ....-d in China and )Ianchllri. in lbe
period from 1(1.')7 Ihrooll'h lfl.ll.
The oulbl"l'ak 01 in China in Jul}' \I
1!).37 h"",-e the .laptln_ ,\rmy it!! finlt. to
IL.... ils air force BUI 11M' .!a,,,,ne.e enjoyed
<uperiorit) fron, the tim. and China
,-,"plf' lnoioin!! area. ,,a. 1110
"round although Jallan_ bombl:or
;'ined ><>lll.. in bombin!! Chun.gki
and OIller Cllin_ ...iti.....
TIll' .JapanO:'l'e .\ir FOrff rt<.'I'in(1 its fi
Ie>! ill the summer of 19:19 when it met "
_\ir Foree on the northwe-t .Manchurian bord.r
It 1IlmO$l its entil'e to t
enl-'lIl!t'lllent bm deful.
"OIlle;;olJ plan and pilOleO. The '''I''I
"uribute Illl'ir del t to.n in l1umb!'
!,ullhe,-e1aimtollJl, ino<
J..'lIltil:'liion. ttaininll'. aud taMiCli "hich made tl
worthwhile. III e'enl. aft('r th" fil,"'Ul ,
III )(anchuria Ihe .Jallalll"";(' .\nn)" bl'j."lIn 10 UIP
iI, air loTI.'<': wilh j1reat n1pidil)". and 7 I
lhal air fom" had re"rhed " Jl<"l"k
"eHI' au"inl'd.
1. ,.,...,. Iii .,. oJ ,IN Sil".io"
'I"be bo,lieved lI",ir two air.1"IDlI were
capIble of neutralilinJr tllf' l'nil", Hlat. FI"",
at Pearl Harbor and pininjt: .ir 801...riority in
the Philippi,"", .nd Malaya duri,," the _r1y
daJII of the ....1'. On T 1Ilol1 IMoyitad
1. ,.,..." N-, Air .
':"he J.pantR Suo,- ,\ir Force
ill IlHl! by .:wtain oIIiCC>M1 ...110 had tramed ,n
Fn_ and tm. rnit",1 :'Otale.". In that "HI' a
tninillJ .-:boolW"llS M't up at OJI(lllma. near Yoko-
IIIla. bat air opt...tiona did not (llI'"'
aperimentallllap lIntil 19'11 ,,b..n UntlSh IIl'S-
... W'ftIt to JaJllln and in the reol'l-'lImu-
t'" of unl .ir acti .. i,i..... The first. J.panese
ai.....ft carrier. the 1l0ll11O. "'as completed in
.\ir Foroe
the 19l!l1"1I princip.]])"
inilloellft. In 1929 threl' irn;ptoetol"ll of lhe I\ntish
Aomnallti<:al ID>-ptoetinn l)irKto...le to
J .....n to illlltl'vct in the My-;tem of .ire... fl
t_. and tbry ...fOft foll....-ed in 1931l by a Royal
AI' F_ milNon ...hich frlI..e in .ir
1..1;" aDd It iM 1)ilI"...orthf lhal in 19.'Jll
CaptaiD ..-ho look a major part in pl.n
Ulf!: Jat- torpedo tat1K. for 11ll' '... 1'1 n.r-
bor attack. in"'Nrt'OII from '''-0 Uru",h

llurinll tile the Jal'a_ .\ir i"ortt'
N1l1nued to IKlMI.n1 10 four __"" -He"
....ioluAeM PIaIlS" ..-hirh ""n' put inlO ..ret
lit IIII' LoDdon S ....I nf l!!:\1l Ibr IhI-
of na...1 SiJlhl ... mer
inalllfll ...l", in 1$.'\.1. .\tur tI.. be-
pn-.a,; of ililitot ill Cl,ina in I""h "'1'.
.- aDd ahoft ba.oord SU) ."",rall 01......1"'
..... ,t.. Chi-. notahl, in .UI'lM>r! "f J1roUn<l
'""1M ill I.... and T ;lIc"" .TN>o ami
ill Ion,: ruIII:" bombi"t1..... OIl ('hunldtinlt
h..- S."y .ir opprati""" in ('1.ina "-.n' on
I -u. _I. than lbooot> of It... .Ialla.- ."nIl).
5. Adv,,"u ;1110 lhe E4sl1lldits
Tn ".lluar, ami of 19H the J81'nllese
laulld,ed and l"Ompleled two
to the SOUl h Ih/"QUgh tl,e .\Iolutttl. ::-ea .nd the MI.'
ca!l!l8.r Straita. The dril'es beb..n on II J.nnary
when Japanese Sa.,. paratrooJl!t took .\ in
the Celebes .nd "n .mllhibious force landed at
Tar... kan on lhe ta5l ooastol Borneo. Thet'Hfter,
Kend.ri, "laca.'llIlIH.\mbon, and
....ere l.ken in that order. Koepang b"
,. Tn each operation, air IIUppon.
Wl.ll pronded b) Ihe .JalMinese ;\"uy Air Force
baseD. built at the point in the pre.
cedmg operat ion.
Air opposition to the J.panese .drance WILt all
but negligible. TIle Allied warning system was
"elJ IlOOr, and the Japan_ time and again
caught .-\!liNi. planell on the ground lind destro,.NI.
thf'Itt, .\loreoJrer, the Japanese enjoyed I. numeri.
cal supenority of .t lease. 4 to 1 .t every point
they ehOlll8 to attack, and their pilOUI for the most
part were more e:lJl'frienced thlln the Allied pilots,
most of them had had no pre"ious combat erperi.
.Eren the posaibilil) of elfecti.e AlliNi. air oper-
at.OIlS ceased .bout 11) Febnlar\'. On that da" the
on Timor .mi the nen day
rfield at Koepang which had been the prin.
clpal stop on the 1,300mile ferr" route bet...een
Auslralia and Ja'... Also on 19 Darwin
lhe Australian tenninus of the fern ......;
hit 5 of lhe 6 J.panese regular as well
III bJ 30 mNl.ium bolllbet8 from Kendari. That
force o.e,.....belmoo the 10 intercepting UnitNi.
fightcrs, destroycd almor;t .11 important
air installations, wD.rehoU9l!l! lind docks .nd sank
el"tlJ' __1 in Port Dl\, harbor.
.\bout. wt'ek laler, Japanl"'f' lancl.I",-_lloombP",
sank the {'.S.S. Langley, which "'1\8 atlempting
to ferr,' P-4Qs from Australia 10 Jua, and AIliOO
air operntions in the Xethl!rlands ERSt Tndie!!
\,"ne .brulltl, to II halt-.
)ll'an,,'hile the Jalll.nese had aoo penetrated
into Sew Guinea and Ulll Bisman:ks, landing at
llubRul on 2'2 JBnu.ry and making their first. air
nicE on Port :\Io....,b) on 3 Ff'bruary 1942. In
lhis area the J.panese enjoyed air SUperiOnl)'
from lhe beginning. for Ule Australi.ns potI8Il!ISe(l
onl, 2(l Hudsons, H Cat.linas and no lighters to
oppose litem. T)pic.1 of lhe disparity between
.Iapaneseand ,UIiNi. air po..-er during this period
"u the interception of the 20 J.nullry CArri!!r
lished Oil the first. day or the ,,".1'.
on 8 Deoember ltlH (Philippines
Japanese _Arm,., using 32 medium .nd
attacked airfields Dnd Olher instal.
Baguio and Tugnegal1lo in north cen.
The Xu)' was !lCheduled to IIltack at
the weather Wl.ll bad. It linall,. made
about noon with about ,:; ftghle"" and
00 Clark and 10. Fields. This
man,. United SllItes pl.lIes 011 the
ntaeling after having attemilled 10 inler.
to the earlier Anny .ttack. As a
U B-17s and 30 fightel'8 "'ere dtstro).ed
..qabout half tbe onginal hea.ry bombe:
hro-thirds 01 the fighter force.
nent da,.s, the destruction of United
air power iu lhe Philippines wu .CCOIn.
.., ftuther attacks on Clark Field and air
&be Afallila area. The Japanese Ann,.
air bllSell.t Aparri and \-igan
close support for the Illain J.IMI.
...... south from I.ingayen Gulf. The
Bealel! Far East Air Force furnished .1.
M opposition, for it had been de<:ided l{)
_ ... remaining bombers to the south lind
.. let Ie dtplM.ed fighler strength lor recotl'
.......milllions. Meanwhile, the Japanese had
-- foothold on i\[indanao with air cover
............ carners. each with about 2:; ain:rdt.
.... fall 01 .M.nila on 2 JanulI .... 1942 the
C{4 wer.: enough to wiu;draw ;heir
unus w.lh llbout 50 plnnes to Th.iland
... the Bunn. C1Impaign. The San'!IOO1l
: ..... mtll:h of its stnmgth 10 SUPllOrt 1101-
-.&h frotu Da"ao into the Xetherlands
D.'!I MOnlf' .\ir Field on ,\[indanao
- .. by Coited tol.tN plane for
bids and ""RcuatiOn flights ulllil :l'fl
... the .IlIllllllf'!'l' did nOl it a
tltrea.t. Thus. b, II. combination of 5"1)(>'
i1dD ..d organizntion. wei,::ht of nwnbers,
&ad good fortune. JallRIl had WOlt the
llutle of the Philippines..
.,,:- &tt.rm.lh. when operaliOIlS B8'
.. Conegidor hlld f.llen behind schOOule
2 ,\nny medium bomber unita
..ith about "0 nirernft .... pl.ced the
... unit which hlld been left in lhe
41.2 TI.e Burma unit:;! fie" about :!OO
Conegidor, losing" !l I,laueti 10 .nli-
Nu,' 11130 flew Ill....-liuln
......:: ..... ill!il. Batun and Correj:idor
..--....- ... periocl.
4. fi,sl Phi/ippint's C"mp.ugll
TI.e first JalMinese !lOl'Iie of Ihe "'at "'I.ll flo..-n
before Peurl Harbor. On 21 or 2:; :s'o'embfr$(' reconnai!lS8noo plane lIew O'W
of Luzon. photOb.....phing m.jor Unit ..1
tit.te!! _\ml)" in!il.llatioltJl,. A repo", had beo!cn 1'1'.
rei.-ed through Jap.nese Foreign Office channel;
Ih.t l'nited SI.Ie> F.r East. Air Force stl'\"n.."I.
in the Philippines amounted to 900 first line .ir-
Oil the bR._i'! of u.e photogrnphs. lhe Jal'"
nelle estimated l:nited SIllIes l\nn\, aircmfl
<;,(J'I'ngth in the l'hilillpines 1.1 300 mOSl "r
them obsolete. Actually there .. only abooM
160 eornbat!! there, including 29 ob!loln
pl.nes of Ihe Philippines Air Foree, Dut ill
event, the reconn.itsan.... the origin.1
J.pantR that t1,e\' "'ould hlne nnmen"l
and qu.lit.tive auperio;';ty, and they proc<'f:l1.,1

11lt pri_.., mi iOIl of both J.I,anese
.nd S.,) Air Jo'orc& in the Philillpine;! ,,-u lhP
c1eltMlction of the l"nitl'll SllIte! air IlOwer, .roI
their principal was that Ihe Fllr EllSt ,\If
FOtl"e "'oold polllpont ita ddeat by flying .on!
to lhe lJOlllh. TI,e J ..... n_ Illi"'lion ,,as rf'f1
The of the Penl lIR1'bor Ilttllck need
little comment here. Suflke it to lilly that the
J.panese Air Forces began Ihe a peak of
llerfection ...hich ther nIl,'er lind soon
oould uot eq\l.ll.
3, WUt'""dG_
At the beginning of the war, tile J11llan_ Xav)
had In .ir group ,,ith some 30 medium bombers
based. in the :Marshalls. Th.t force had recehNI.
training in o\"er ,,.ter llI.. and it
'Illacked Wake on 8 and tJ December, destroying
, of tile 12 rnited Slates fighters. But the first
.lapanest altemlll to Ia.nd on Wake ..u beaten
off on 10 December and, llC'OOrdingl,, on 2"2 De
.-.,ml>el' 1"0 of lhe !'e1l'! IInrbor carriers WeN!
brought in to out additional strikes. Those'!! ..-iped. out the rem.ining AmeHcan fightel'5
Rnd nssisred materially in the IIUCCl!lIlI of the land
ing on 23 l)ocembel', In IIUpport of the JnpanCSl'
oocup..,ion of GU81l1 onl, fe' float pl.nes WCI'l'
emplo,ed..\s "-.11 lloe case ilh en.ry mission,
earned out 1>,' Ihe Japauese ,\ir Forces nt the
beginning of Ihe "-ar,l.ooth Ihe Wake ami Guam
oJl'fratiollS ,,ere I-"onducled ,..ith tbe skill .ml
Ii"", which mark skilled llersonnel .nd
clln'f,,1 plallning.

_ uad .. 6 X_t-, they beeaml8

put of ........ plaa for op8ftUoas flg&insl
tM Aliel if war ahould bmlk oat. On 22 So-
__ thlI tuk lorce .-.nbled in the Kurilee
ud .. ll8 Nowmt- it put oat to _. On 2 D&
__the J ....-8lt the morning of 8 Dec:en.
.... (...pan_lime) for the aHack, and thl8 task
fOTOlluri....t the uklKllI' point 200 miles north
of ParI IIarllor OIl lICbeduk
Tbl .u- groapa employN in the Penl Harbor
oper..iOD!l wer'8 the finfl!ll in ,he JalMinese .\ir
.0ona, Each Wl.ll well trained even in 1(1.10, nnd
they ..- lor thi! ooeasion ,..ith s-pe.
ciaJll picll:ed pilots from .. ".ery group in
J .. Speci.l training was begun in
190fl ,..ith the problems of Ihe IMirtiful8r opel't1-
tiOP ill riew. Empllasis, placed on ...
waw topedo attaeb in ,...Iers no deeper than
Pear H.rbor, and apecial horizontal and dire
bomling tactics "'ere practiced as ......11. When the
POU" ftllbarked in S01"l!mber. tbey ..ere among
the Post dangerou:! units \!.ret assembled. .n,.
.ir for(ll'.
Sit carriers ....ith 414 Illane!! fonned. Ihe
nadoutl 01 the I'earl lI.rbor task fortt'_ The .e-
t-.l ..tta.d:o bowerer. "'u made with 360 plan"",.
M fghtera being held back ,..ith tlle carriers for
de... n. principal targa "'as U'e roited.
&-. f1ld, but sliltly more than half tM
aua fOTOll"u employed against United. te!!
airlelds u. defeJllli ..e measure.. In relrollpe<:l, it
is rmarbble that thilIlIlOIl. apect.acular and WI'"
_t.l attack IboWd haTe been camNi. oot with
din bomhen and torpedo planl'll having little or
no umor Plate. DO lanU, 1,000 hol'Se-
pa..- cruising 8pe!ds of .bout 1t.ll
.. Po h.. aad lllUimum &lightly in UC'fllII
of I!OO m. p, h. Only the J.panellll fighters ap-
pnached the perlormance lItandardt of I. modem
n. a.u.ek Wl.ll pla.rmed and <'lI!Tied I'Mlt in t,..o
spaced at .n inte",al of .bout an hour, lI.9

il" main lind ...ilh iU! SUPI,I)' linC!! "Nn'
Ill.. eUl b....\llit'd ..bmllrines. It lOO was: 00JIl'
1l1ecel)' in the Philippines and
10 Ium 10 lhe lIuicide auack. llean..-hile. lhe
J.pan_ high command h.d giO'n air Ofll"Ml.lions
in Chinl Ind flum,a a low prioril)' and in those
lheal.,." .\Hie. "'01\ air SUIJerioril, in 19-1-&
_lrnOS! b)' defaull.
On I...\ 19-H. ..-hl'!l II had air
,IUI",rio,.il ..' o,'cr llreft! 11'0]"(' Ih 3.000 toile-. a....}"
Tok,o il,..1f "H.i lu"cked II)' 1(; Cniloo States
.\nll) JII... li"lll oom1x-"" (B-:!':"') IIring from Ihe
L"ulIf<1 :-I1,m'S t.. rrier lIoffld. It had been plllnned
to lau,,,,h IhHt ll11atk llbout 300 miles from shore.
bUl on the morninj!: of the when lhe
forte rnil\':Ol awa)', it enooulliered
Ill"" .),llmlUo,;e pickel One ,,'IS sunk. hutlhe
fOI"('e conumlllder believed a ""lrning might
hll,e Ilt'en se"t 10 Tok)'o. It de
d,ll'tl 10 IllUllCh rhe pI"",,!! even
lhollj!:h I he,. fll .....,lnt be;.t forred in the
,..,j!:1. .....[ "f Fuki,'u or Cheki'lllg !'rol'iuces
of Chi"",
The pi,'ht IIollt8 in (lid selll H wHrnillj!. but
tile NIL")" t'ouc1mled 11111t !1m phu'e>!
{nUll lh.. r",k fOI"('e wem conyenlionnl
nese Go.cnllllent nnd kllown all1he Fl)'ing Tigers)
h'ld I nlininll' in Burma since Sep1ember, and,
with the .\ir FOl'Cflunilll, it inllicted
hea"r 10IISl!S 011 the Japanese. Tbe
A11if<llIniu ""ere full, enb'1lged defensivel)', how-
e'erud lh",. were mmble 1.0 mount an,. oti"ensh-e
0lleraliollS RJ."llin!lt Ihe Jallanese rear. The arrival
of reinforcellleJII;; from the Philipllines in Feb-
nmr,' brought lI,e Jallanestl force emplo)'ed in
Bunna 10 about 200 planll!!l, and by :\lan:h, ad-
"aucing JalIBne,e ground troops hlld disMiptoo
,he ...nling 8,'SIem and mlde lhl! Hangoon
ulllenable. Then. 011 }I.rch, 70 Jlpanese bomb
erll .ml 90 Iij!:hterll caugl,t the strength of
the 1l.\F on lhl! ground at ;U_re .nd broke the
!>lick of Allied air IJO..-er in Burma. The --"YG
retired 10 Chilla. and Ihe Japanese. then
Bunni ... ilhout lIUbstanlial air oppoeilion.
lOne of in .]ll\'n di.
the Ann)" nnd 11,e Na,")" at t!lil
with the J"p,,"eso Ann)' 0llernt.
1MItA!m side. Afler the fnll of Pale",.
AnnJ and Xa\'J oou\'erb"l'<l on
MUle of the Jal'a St'a (27-28 FebMl.
l'tliIistance in J a\'a 1l11lctiCllll)" ct'a8e(I,
area of operations O\'er which thll
iIid not. secure air superiorit) It Ihll
of the war WllS Bunna. In Ihe laller
ber HIH, Ihe Jallanese lir unitll
the ,\lala)'an campaign fie,, .bont 200
Ran/,,.oon in In Illcmllt 10 neutrll
Air Forres in Iheir rear. But lhe
n \'olunteer Group (made up of
ciTitiln fl)"ers in Ihe emplo)' of Ihe Chi
bomber.! (11l'OSOXS IUld lind
fI,'inj!: oo.lS. n ..infol"C<'n,enu! "'ere dhert.e<1 from
oIher IhMlerll. but it too IHte.
The m06l OI>e'lItion of the .\111'
I.)'an camllllign the sinkiuj!: of Ihe new Brit-
isb baltle;lhil./'ril1('t o!ll'aI<'s lind lhe older loatr
lIe croiser /(.. .. on to December 011" the east.
coast of 11.1.)'a where lhe Uo)'"l wos at-
10 break up I.ndinj!: 01M!11I1ions, The
.ction ..-.s remarkable ..s ,he lirat in which.
modem boiltle..hill in _ coudilion of full oombal,
readiness Ihul ..-ilhom air ronr) \US sunk b)' .ir
.lIack .Ione. TI,is f<'llt ... u b)" a
flighl of 88 J.pan_ mf<liunL
bombers. (;1 of ..-hieh carried 10rped<Je!l and 27 of
.. bich ..-ere f'quillped for a hilth.le,el bombing 101'J.edocs "'ere drol'll,,<1 from u
lreme 10'" le,el. abom 'i5 feel nd the bombiul!
....s Iccoml.lbllf<1 from about 9.1_tO feet. A .
m.rkable fealure of Ihe allack ....I!I Ihat. t o-
IhiNk of JI,e JaIMUe<;e 111.ueI "'ere slo... ob8olel.
ELL.-- ,,-hich had II{) ImlOr or !f._ling ,;; .nd the... fore luu'" been ellS)' laO'
for lhe "hill'" allliairccafl fire. The!'t
lo;;t onl)' four planes.
TI,.. on in la,,, Dect!nber.
.lanUllr) Febi'll"")' .., \"l!r)' .nd aiddle of April 19t2. lhe Japanese _\ir
l.inf<1 b,- J.pane-;c sun,lard:;. Ihoul.!h 8IIIal1 in W POt suffered a single seriOll!i re,-er:ie.
COmpari>;Oll ... ilh .\1Iif<1 air oll"rnliollll in Ell "ter lhe)' enjo)'ed allplrenl air SIl'
ropE1ln lheater Or l.ter 1I:,."ftin.-t .Jap.n. The) ill aDd on 9 and 12 .\pril Iheir carriers
SOIne -I.f"M) >.oNi"" in lh.. roUr'oe of whie!, Ceylon. tbe faNhest IJOint from Japan
1011$ of bomllb "'ere dl"Of'l....1. The prima., forot:!l other lhan subm.rines. But
latl-"'''' IL\F airtir1d", The Brili_h 11".,1 the Doolilile sudtlenh' CIIU;;et!
-.rider Ihe defense of Ihe
ba-.e wa,,; delil... n>lel) lefl ,"llond'f<1 for
lise by tbe laler. in Ih.. Hallie of Ihe Coral 5H.
.\notl",r speMHrul"r .'''pHn.,.... Hir UI",llIlion of l'nile" Stlllll!!l ClIrrier pl.nes lUm..d
. . ] ..jor nl1l]lhibiou$ force. .\
III" e'llnpull-'" "'", I ,e <lrt'l' III I'lIlell1
ballI!, "';Ulnal nl. "'hl<-h hllll,('hl'll On II<' ,a, :\Iilll.-;,.... "Japan lOO>t four of her sb:
Ill')' 19-J;!. Th.. <lmll il"",1f mud\' b)" 30 trln' the rniled Sllllll!!l :\larinN
lION, carr)'in!! ,I 10Iai of 1111011I t.",11 men. nuri,\:
{lundale.nlll, lher.. fol1owf<1 0
lhe week pl"l"'e<'<lin!! Ihe drQ]', .. bnllt 1<:; iIOrtir .... L,,] . ].] ,h J ,
_..... ell m w IIC I e """
......... l1o.. n ."'Iin,l Dntch ni..tiehLi in Ihe ,i..i"il.' ]
.. aJ1re proportion of the pilots wilh
Tlw mi... ioll of Ill.. pUnllrooll'l WllS 10 I''''''ent 1I... had Ihe war, .\s a res"lt. Ihe
'''molili"n of Ihe oil "'H,,eril"'. ntHI IICClll1linjt IU of the Xa,",. "ir llrm so fllr deteriornted
Ih" .J.""'n_ LielllP""lIt _]] .. I'M ('<l11l11 ele)' outclas-"('d durlllg t911 III
Io:n<lo. Ih..)' 'lll',_flllly IWl'r"'II,.....1 tll'lt mi .."i ....\ PlCitie lind the Philippine'!'ll,d il ...
,,ith a 10M nf, :!IJ .\IE"11 phi..... 10 11In! 10 rll.. Silicide liS
lhe ti,."1'!1:' nIlHI, hij!ht,. hill Ilu. l'Ulllril",do<' ll"etie. ])uring 1913 and llIrl." 191-1,
of II", IlnrntroollN '0 tl", 1'rl."i("'lIti,," or IIl1' .... air IIl"Ill 10:<1. ullll()S1 as he""il.v in NIl'"
lin..riCll i" lIIHlo"I"..,1, for tl", ,.('(illl','i!''! 1I'('l" it! ID part hecauso it could nol mllSte, th6
1l1'l'l1\liou wi,hill a ,hurt linw, 'lDaintt'nance and medic"l problelus inei
II, " ..dt'I' "f .JnI"'U....... 1'"I""'i,,1 (:('"e,.,,1 11 ..".1 in II tl"Qpieal clima(e fmlll

1trDDr_ RaMal: Ii Wirraway8 (1110....
advueed uainenl .,.ied Ul OPP'*' appro"-
illlauly 100 auackinp;: Jape._ .ireraft flown b)'
the nperbly trained Pearl n..rbor pilots.
6. ItW.J- C-!Vip
TIt- operatiolls of tilt' llall,-.n CIIm,>ailf'l nnk
with of II" Ihf _(I Philip-
pa-ud ti,e Okin... caml_i,.,s lUI the largest
Uld DOIlIllU>ltailH"(lair 0lleraliolls 1""U oonduelfd
by til' Japo.n_ .\.ir Fol'(.'t'S. .\Jl Wall lhl' ....... "l! ill
the I'hitippi.-. the .J.p_nete quicklr gtIined air
..penorily lhroull'h oTl-..niZlltioll.
of and perfonllance of
their .il'n1lh. ami thrn l'$ploitl'd tlll'ir ad
....hll'l' by JI."inj:: 10 thl' I!l'OIJnd
al1D_ ..birh qui<-klJ' on'mn :-'umaIMl.
aDd Jan.
TW lbJa,... cam...ipl _All pl"IllII'd in Tolso
io I" __of IlHl. anti in 11,1' f.lI of that
,Hr. J ..._ ...... lIn"l'y"' airfields
.nd .ir1lPW 1Iilftll in FlftM"h Indo.:lulla .",1 'ni-
land d01l1l 10 II.. ...,,- "''''I.... of \1,1., . The
J.pu_ Army .\ir "'0",," 1wJ.. ..n U1.,.-injl: inlo
.,-,'h tndorhinll in Ol"lobfor 1941ntl IIJ the
IinI of _ .\nny .nd I",. :-'- y
.il'U'llh ._'--II....... pf tM e",
lIlaI>OIMd in !linr1h "'""",h Indorl>ina .n,1 p ..en
pan fnl' ....a. .u.-co. 011 I'" ('hi_ .ir
be- .t KlIllIllin,: as Ml'Urily _roe 10 kl!l'p
1M rMl I>lao bulh fl'QlD .\l1ltod .nol
t"'J..._ rommandfor" .......
",00...1 :I 10.&1 IIw pl.n f<ll' .Ua,'k,
011 KlUlmin,: .... '"",,,,11,. l'1lD<"PU"dn,1 .11
....laba. air 11I,.",,11 .. "" """'''''In,,,d in N>Ulh
"'NlC'h Ind<><-hiu. Illirillll' thl' Nl'ly momine pf
!'I l_hI'l' (Sinpptm' jWII aflu lb. I'Nrl
Harbolr .Uark. 1M J.I__ !li ...,. be,tan Ih" 11.
Ia,an <' by 1.-....biplt' I"" :-\onlt"lpo... air
tielda. I)urin,: 1M MJlI:\ day",lhI' J ... .\nny
lie.. abu!lt 300 BOrtiN apiRlll airfif'lda in !liorth
lh.,a and aI" ,lrow 1M KAY from Iht skiee
inalw. al'M. M hil". Army Air "'oro!' lE"'Und
"""'MI had '-n in Ih. Ii "ale <If Ihe l.n,l
inp. .nd ...ptlll'f'd .irfif'lda quirkl, Pili in
upral,i"". "'rom It- .irli"I, rI, ....
WUlIP\"f'n It"""lllli tro"p""lWin" I" the ."nlh.
.td IIOOJI Ibe .h"I1... mll""d .\m,y airrMl.ft ....
aHe to join tM Xu,' in Ml.i,'" ul1 l'Iinl[ll!'u T"
al operalioruo I.... U.\ F fun,i.l....l Y"rr Iiul" "I>p.-.-
ab, 1.1 ...--d II lh.. uutlll'l only .oom II.,
_-.I 11118 1IItI'I ,IW".,\J.(lF.l'Ij and 1"'1"
litPI' ml_Uan m. IlrrMl.fl. mainly n'f<lium
serie!l of hea,')' .ir attack!! on GUlld.lcan.1 in Ihe
days immf'dil.tely following.
Jilll"nes6 lo&IeS in lhose atlacks were "1'1')' he...)'
-more than 50 percent. of thcir Bism.rcks.bllSed
air IIl1it". But the Ihree regular l:nited Stau.
carnl'r!l ...hiell "'-f'1"I! to prol-ide air 8Ilppon. during
IhI' initi.1 pha.."eS of tbe action suffered ofll'n.
tion.1 .nd OOl1lbat lO9'lf'S amounting to 20 p<!l"OeIlt
of their fighlen! and it was thought they ought
not 10 remain in such II restricted area where the
Japanese hd sho"'1\ 80 much air Iltren/:,.lL ThI'y
aooonlingl}' "'I're fOreN to ",ithdra..- aflu 2 dan
of action, .nd a lull f'DSlled ...hile the
brought in l"f'infOml'ml'lllll .nd the ,\llif!ll tried 10
landbased .ir sll'l'ngth on Gu.daleanal.
BUI ewn during that lull, the Jllpllnesfl ran regu-
lar !lIuall'!lf'ale air rnids which achieved consider-
able StJceesiI in dela}'ing the nnd l"I!inforo!'-
ment of the sm.U forees which bf'en landed.
The luU ..-u broken during the ...m of
_\ugnSt b}- the Ilanll' of the Eastern 5010m01t.''-
In t h.t adiOll, t hn'!<'! .Japane;,e Cllmers joinf'd ... it h
.IIII'UllC!lll 1811d-b,,*,1 ullits in a duel with two
l-nill'{l curriers lind AllietilandbllSCd air
lI11its.nd .IlIllane;,e 1_ ""ere a/,,,,,in heavy, in
cluding On" Ii!tht .... nil'r. Apin
"I'l"llllo..-n in. Ihi,; time from Asi., .nd
pl.lI11 ....I're for. maJ:imum ellon. during
the lAst part of October,
The Japanese air operntiollS wl.ich took IlIa......
in OctOhf'I' Wf're pal'!. o( a roordinatf'tl oil', ground.
and n...,,1 elron. 10 diElodge United Stales ground
forees on GlllI<i.IcaIU.I. 1-'01' Ihis action. lhe Japa-
n_ broull"ht OUI 2 earners. 2 carriers
oo"n;>nf'tl from ship!! lInd I sm.1l .... 1'-
riel', with a 101111 compleml'lll o( about 300 plan6$.
The IIi lots in Ihis (orce were the best. pilots then
in the Jllllllll....., .Air Foref>Ol. "'.n) of
u'I'm of Pearl Ilarbor, CI'}'lon. and )Iid_
...-a,'. III addition, thl' Japan_ then had .bout
150 lil'\t-linelllanes.1 n.baulnd a sllf'Ci.1 Slalf
offi......r h.d bf'en sent from Tokyo to I'ASUre their
eAic.ient emplOflllenl.. This officer planncd I.
!le"i<s of lighte" sweeps which were 10 00 follo\\NI
by wrllber RU&CI<s. the object bl!illg to neutrali?..
Cnited State.; .ir po"'er on Gu.daleana] .nd 10
in A"roultd OIfI'IlSi\'"f'_ Thf' caml'r foro!'
".. to netUnliu the t"llited X.'y in Ih..

Iwginllin/X l,bout:W Oclobl!,, the JlljlRnllSll pl1\11
WI'S carried out. Rnd 0 series or lIIass .ir lItlackll
WI'I'f' made on Gu.d.le.n.l. The I.rgest. $ingw.
.It.ek i81ollf't1 .boIl! 1.:; planf'l'. .\nrilion "'all
NOI. During thl' of 1fl.l2. the
"'...ncro 90Uth from Rabaul Ihrough
IsI.nds and finall)' landed 011 Gu.
ba June. This intendf'd to
Iy line bl!tween lhe United Slales nnd
&lid 10 rounter it lhe United Statell1
Jmded on Guad.l....n.1 on 'i" _\u!-'Ust.1942.
a serif!ll of air opl'l'lltiolt!l ...hieh
die Japan_ Xa.... Air Foro!' !IO 5Il""0-
it nl' .goin furnishf'd substanti.l
10 the Allicd ad..auee,
time of the GUHdalealuLl lalldill!-"'. Japll'
in the Bism.",ks-::)ol(\nlons area
10 aboul I:,() pl.1lf'S, based plineipall}'
n-!! btolongro to bauletrif'd
whir" had opel'lllf'tl "'ith !treat sutte<!)
to Ihe 8Outh, The pilot in
had at lealjl. (;00 flyillA" hOIll'll nud con-
_ptrif'nce wilh trollielll WelIth,'r llnd
di.16cult If!ll I'nrountel'l'd in Ihe Di!l-
.\n I.ltempt "'"U to neutralize
.. the d.y of lhe Gu.d.l.... n.1 landing
) 1);)' an alll,ek on the nabaul airfil'lds,
Scalf'!lllir Jlower ill Australi .. \I"osslill
that 13 B-17s llctually the
:n. Japan_ th.t "en' lillIe dam-
and thl'y ...-el'l' able ;0 Uf'CUUI
OJI'l'ntiol\S in tiM! ,\.!enti.1l5 llenr
ilkanl Ilroportions. .\irfil'lds "'1'1'1'
Iloth ial.nd!, but no Japanese land plane
011 ('ithcI. Twenl)'folll f1011t plane>
boalS WHe sent lhere in Juue lOI!:!.
01 them Wl're lost hf'fore Ihe end of
I"l':!!Illt of ...eather hllZ.rds .nd con-
by l:nitl'd StatM planes. Tbel"ll-
the Allied OCCIII).tion of ,\nu lind the
eYaeuDlion of Kiskn in the summer of
ail- operations in the Aleutians
'ble proportion!!.
rerollluli8Sllllce of Seattle harbor
iog sidelight 10 the AIl'uti.JI!I ....m-
.. 30 ltay, llf'aplane from a 8Ilbmarine
lhe "rea olld no carril'tS or
and acconlin,rJy he 1"t'til'l'd ,,'itbout attemplinr.:
landinp at Pon. 1I0re;by. 11,.t I'l'lil"l!ment
of tt",,"t 6ignilicanee in "il''''' of the subse<:luent
of 1'011 )Iol"f'>,b,\' 0" a m"jo,. Allied
loaot and lbe kl'v 10 sulJ;;eqUf'nt .d,anee> to the
north. The J.P;fIf'iOf' tllf'm,..ln';i oonsidel"l!d it .....
imporunt lbat thf.) later all(""'I>led to it b)'
land h..nee .el'Olll lht O"el\ :;tanlt)
lai'llI ond to Bank it by Milne Bo).
4, MiJuwy
The liN I'f'lll \'ietof}' for 11,1' t-niled StlllM .\ir
FolTfS caml' in Ihl' Hattie of (3-6 JUllf
ID,H). For that 01lf'l'lllion lbe JapantSe h.d as-
sembled I.rge in....sion fOm! b)' thf'
majof port of thl' .'alllln_ Fleet ineluding 4 c.r
ril'l'>! wit Ii about ;),,0 The opposing United
$bles surface fO",*-8 were built around 3 carrie1"
""ith .bout 2"2.'; pl.nell, and they "'I'l"ll llUpported
b_,' mol"ll th." 100 I.nd-ba.,,'t'd plana
_u ""J,fi thl' ca;;e in the Coni Sea. )fid....y w.
b.,' air .dion ",ilhoul .n ("nga,r:ement of
major unit". But this lime J.pan!"""
losses we,... disastrous Dnd df'(,'isi"e: the" pDrtici,
pating carrie,.... a and 250 plan...
./-",inst II", .... rrier )"(If.,",,,,,,", destroyer and 151
planes. TI,e J.pantge carritr fOm! ne"er
fred1t1,0U/th for tbe nut 3 )'f'fI", tl", J.par
J,""'I' hill"h llriorit)' to the of carrif'l".
f'I'en 10 the poil1t of ('011I('rtilljt IWO bl'tlleships to
modified mrriers. .1DpnllC!lll Fleet
could ne"l'r .b",in be used as an offen.. i,e weapoll.
and df'n!lt.ting nids such all those on I'I'.rl liar
bor. Rabaul. Port. Darwin.nd Ceylon W("l"ll a
thing of the past. But a nurnhf'r of lhe
Il'llined pilo(lI ... hieh fonnf'd the carritr
air It"J'Oufl'I "'ere sall'd. ThOS!' pilots I"ter form"l
the lIudens of the j[roups which pro,'ided most of
the opposition to the ,\l1ied I..hanee!! in Ihe
). CorJSu
n. fil"llt JUt......i<1ory for Allied air pow...
bI die F.... Eut _ in I. of the ConI
Sa jt..-8 Hay IIN2). 'M 6.. imponel
IIMnt in nual IriItory decoided ent i",ly by air
OIstioaa. That 1di0Il involYed .. Jap&DMe folD-
plibiou. force _hkh wu aU8Illplirllf 10 tau Port
1IDnIb,. aJ.-c:anVn with .. -.ploement
of ... 110 l"llitlod Stat. talllr; ,_
bUlt ..,.... 2 c:anVn ..... with about 5. D.k6 H.bor .,IH
110 P..... aad 0.-. appofting air Qld ne J ...o_ <:arTier attacks on Dutch 11Mrbor
lIInt f_on both sides. From point of vie. (3-4 June 19oa2) and the 6ubaflquent O<:eupal iOIl Qf
o'!be .'ared by Ib& oppclllin, the Attu and Killka .en!" part of the Midw9.}- plaJlS
- the .1..._ kwJt .. li,rbt and _ -aned to block Allied mo,-e; .lonl
an-... cIrIIttofw. md IIboat 10 plaDM u. IIw northHn root. to Japan. Th. Dutch Harbor
taw StM. --.. .. liDll' of t.t. au..n. _ IIIllH by 2 oon... carrier ... ilh
.... .. ... left tuWr aDd.. .. kllaJ rompJ.m.nt of about 75 planee, of 'll'hicb
pill-. hadclitioo.OIl8Ja,._and_rnited I 1
lhta ItpWcarrier ..'" damaJ(lld.. on 1 It ,"fhfd Ihe tupt on the liMit ,hly (3 .Iml!'
BattbeJ....... OOIIUDandft ...linedhisl.- and 32 on tbe IM'Mnd day (4 ,Iune) Tile 19.1Id'",:'
.. __ fur .. _tinuatioa of the .. UI. K.. and Athl /1--8 .June) !!CtWnc<l
opentkJD, tt.o. lhipl. by anul..,- hp:hl .... fmf lind 011
.". ........... well out of...... It .--
tIktId .. au.ek 011 the followmg dt.1. and ...ben
1M .u.eIl KUally lhat \'"1'1')' noon. both
Amy IZId N .,y Ite", by ..\.
J*lr'OIItU in the air al .ooul 20.000 fm.
a..t.he B--:t:.. _ in Io..... nd not .l\i.I1"" l:lIiud
S&aIlIl p'-- .... to enftIl} actioll. Tbe
_ ......hit-h "'1'''' then _I' on
thea- ""urn fromlhf atl.rk un Ce}lon. altemptO!(!
u__full\'" to follow and sink the t/lllk force.
1M I'llid ";U too 1I11l1l11 to do sublllanlilllllh)'si-
cal :Iamap, bal ita "'pen'1l""ions 011 thl' IlJanning
JIqI of tbe rommalld ""1''''
"'1IlI. an u..-lillll' air and pound Olff't>;"f 1fllS
dincted at tbl' C'hitH!lil' alrfiflds in
Prninca,. Ihl' J.pan..... had eorreclly
matBd Ihe raide", intended 10 l.nd. Seoond, atlen-
_ 1rU on th8 eutem allproaches to
t.he "- iBb.nd8., and additiolU.l impetll$ J;i ..ell
the pI'l'1rU pb.D. to auaek Mid...a,. and lbe .\lI'U-
tiua. Third. thf' JapaDllllf' bf'gan 10 implemenl
ther plana for air ddf'tlllf' of Japan .. hich btofo",
dut ti.... had ftlCeiftd _nt eotUIidl'nlion. Two
nev Army lighter groups Wl're organized ond
baRd in JaJlfotl. and thl'N' mo"" "-1'''' conver1ed
fran a tn..ininft: I() deffllllf' "'atll!l. A total of
"I' Ann)' Iipll'" lCf'O<I(IfI _re bf':ld in Jar-n
.Mi and um for the deff'DW of the
boueJand at a time tlMo Sa"" wu
ul'Jmtly __ndinlt' that tllto .\nny Ilf'nd I"f'in
f_fa to the Solomons.
IlIml'\l h- .Cl'Oi:ll mOlllllnillll to ... i,hill :\I)
of Port But th.. Illall"i"g for tbi!!
op..... , ion "-Ill poor. It ".lIected romplete llek of
l'(J(Jpt'ration bet"'een .\nm- and Sa... .lId an ulter
failu", 10 .Jlllreci.,,, the ..I"e of .;r\1.
mOI>l 110 pro,-;"ion "'as made for .ir cuter or .ir
lo/.:-;",ie TIll! Jallan' .\ir Foree
h.d 1101 I_n broug-ht into a"... and tbe
.\nn)' JrrQund commanders infonnl'\l Ihe
Xa' of Ihe 1'l'OJ:"l"'l'!SS of Illl!ir openotion. or called
for air ,,,,,"i'IIU't'\'. In am' e,-.,nt. the :-,... ,-,.\iI'
FolW ex' ..ndl'\l in Solomona lind -could
nOI fUllli,h nid. The $e\:Ond attempt to lilke Port
;\Iol'{,b... liOOIllNI 10 f"ilu!"1' from th..
The .\1lied ('onduct of Ihi!! tliIUllni!!" \IllS
rhe re..elN' Ilf the Jap"nesl'. Frolll lh.. the
.\llil'\l J.'I"Ouud forces 0llposin!! ,he ad"llIlce we".
stlPllliell10 II Inr..'\' ..xtent b.,' air, IIId th..} recf'ired
do.e '0 ,he {.'l'l'all"'t IlOi<:'ible deJ..-ref! from
Ihe t-nited Statl'>; Fiflh .\ir Fomo.
En'n Il-lis ".1'''' used for dO!'f ;;uPllOn and for
ottlcks on Jlpanest! line. In October.
th...Jo.pan_ line of .d.....nce "'as lIankeocl b....n
.iroon,e l.ndinJ:" 6J mil\';! llomhea..<t of Hun.. on
Collinj..'l;...ood Ba),. and b}' rhe lirst of So'-eDl""r
IIIl! _lapan_ h.d beb'UlI 10 ,,id,dra..... Then for
rhe firsl lime 111I! Japanese Cl\lled for air
SUllllOM from Ihe Sav)'. Durin/:' the next month,
Ihree or four .lap,me,e Sn'-r mellium bombenl
mnde nig-luly supply bill 10 the
.JI'plllW"'-l' .hm., iii pe,"Cent of the were
1<.;1 ill Iht JUIlAle.
c. /foy. Illlhe midsl of lht 1>"1'"11" llIm
p"i,,'n. llw .11'pnnese '"lcilipled 10 n"nk Port.
;\IOI,\"h... lo.,- Innding in the ;\Iilne Bar ar(>ll.. but
afr ..r of fi,::h,inj:". Ihe lanliin/!
fol'\'6 ,,-irhd... ,,-u. In this .ction. the .\l1il'\l
foro:e< h.t1 c.. .ir sUJllJoOrt from Port
;\Io......b....nd from ne""l)' r<>l1>lr1lcted li/!Iner
",ri"" in immelli.te .rta.. _\pin. bo...e,er. lhe
.Jap."..""" h1neg-ll'\ud .ir '"11llOrt in Iheir plan-
nilll[. and in of the .,.. Hablt- Jill...
n_ 111.n.... were ..u{.-...ged in lhe
d. /f"ttff 01 tAl' /Ji.mol1'"J. Sm. 1)p..I,ite 1M
!leri"" of defellls C ha<l Sli tref'l'\1 in S ... ('uinn.
Ihe ,In,,'''11''''' broughl major rcinfon:t'-
ments to llllbuul in D..eelubPr I9H for ultimace
olr.. ill Xew Guinen. A ne'"
j!l'lIll1d IIWI)" WI'S or"'lllli1.ed in !'ad} 11113. I,"d
II'OOPS in IIlilubel'l' IIlO"illl!
fl'Om Ilalollill III EllstcC"II (;lIin"". :'011I1' of
lh_lrot>l" mnde IOn aboMi,',. nll""k on the .\'L'-
trainiuj: in u.,i,alion; one unil alOHe lost ... dri,-eH back to !lalmul lind lost<. h.1f l'trPllJ(lh. on .lIigl,t between Truk pl.nef! and Ililota .\ooUI SO,-elllber
and Rabaul. _\nm air l'trtn,nh in n.haul rarel,. l\"i"rol"Ced by tl,e air Jrrotlp of Car-
60 lij:hlen and 40 bombers. Ih.. I, but in 2 weeks durinJr Ihe period
.hili,, of ...hich ..... !l() 10... lhat operation!! involr_ 1."dinb'S on Bou{.osinrille, that
iog o;ore than 30 pl.nes "'ere rare. .bout 30 llereent or ita planes .nd
e. Ltmd Btvi"9 ('lfmt.. Groll", The _ired. RJ Ihis time only. ''el)' fe... of
Sa.... !'In dided Ihal reinroreement tni"ed pilots of the origin.1 carrier
.nd 'I".lit) ..-ould not be forth "h. and the sur,-il-ors ......rt ... ilhdra...n
rorninj:. It abo d...eided that de\<pite the I 01 and JallSlll 10 fom> II nucleus for a
Gu.daleannl. Ihe cenlral SolomoM and nahanl carrier fon:e ..-hieh "as p".maturely
should be held Rt all C()!lia ill order to protect .ith tlie lOS!! of m06t of ius Imlftrained
mnin lll'et ImSl' lit Tnlk. lI"vin/! been chRrboed the in June of 1911.
".ilh Ihis San' officers at Uabllill a!!lll'lte<1 'on of Bi"ma..ck8S010mo'M Cam
,hnt ,he ail" /:'l'01l1"l or cllITier force WCI"lIth, nft" thul"sl. plH1. of l!lI:lnlHllhe lil"!ll.
onl\" ren'aining- in ,he :-;'1I"y .\ir Allied C.HTiul"!l and h'mloo!lt'll "il"Crnft
to I'ro"ide nn)' sub- of hea\-r nir atlncks on Ilnbnul, and
S1nnti,,1 opposition to lhe Allied ad'nnce. and 8ll'OnJr intereeptioll elloountered.
should 00 employed rrom land ba-.. Officers the plnues of Carrier OJ,'ision I and
connected ... i,h the l'IIrriers bitterly th, Ihe rtmnan,s of the l.nd-u."I'(1 air
llUl!J!e5l-ion. ill$i",in/i: ,h., the carrier ahouM :a.t J."an...... 10SlSeS were ilea,y. and on
be kept iniac,. When ,he m.tter"'a;s first broached I9H Trnk itself ,,.s b)-
in of 19-t.1. Ihe I,ij:h command df'Cided '0 BIaIelI Cllrriers as a part of the 111.n for
pre;;er.-e the l'IIrrier fomo_ In )I.reh Ihe of the ;\Iarshalls. With Tnlk no"
.ure..eT8ed.lId.11 l!'lIine<! carrin to tl,"& from Ihe Ci'lIIral P.cific:.
"'ere onlered to l.nd baSI'!! in the Bism.rck!!. .. importance as .n ad... nCi' bI.,;e
Those )..'l"OUIll! uri"ell .bout th" lil'l\l- of Allril to defend TMlk from the !IOmh..\.c
...ith aoollt 350 and Ihe best on III Febnlary. the .Jal"'-Il_ Sa')'
Ililots. At that lillie thel"ll were lIpproll' IIJnble aircrart to Tmk. le:l\"ing the
200 Sa,-}' land-based planes in the am. t:le'-enth .\.ir Fleet lIt Hllbllul. where
lIlakinj:" n total Sn\")' force of :;50 plRnes. In tht to this dill"'
"l tllI,t furcc t'uited
shil'ping iu the w;lh
tlwir muinlum operntionnl strenj.,'1h, nllli lIluLle.
slIIaller aHack on Milne Bay in "ew Guinea ..\p
.u.rk on I'ort )lo"",b)' I'ld been planned, but ,bf
O...en 5,anle\' )lolllII.ins were collsidered to lit
too hif[h for"lhe .ircraft anil.ble, .\., tJ,e end
of 2 ...eek.., the carrier jrl'OUps had suffered. ])
pt'J'n'nt 1OlII, and in order to prese""ll them f.
further operaliOOlll, tbe X.,"'}" ...i,hdre... Ihem t.
.\ lull follo...ed the ...ilhdra..... I.,!
I"" ''''0 canitr putlllll, but it soon alII_red I""
the rtm.ininll: Iandbased units ...ere not ClII",bIr
by of 8l0ppin/i: the Alliell ad,.. rWt
..1IW....rd. In July 1043 those 10;,1 h..,,,11)'
in oppoeinR Allied operatio"sll.rQund )[und" .-
it wu decided to rtinforce thf'" with II\\' I,r
1lI'01ip of Carripr I)i\'isioll 2. the !loore!" of
t.rri"r ..-hkh then "'lIde lip the.
foroi'. Thai l(T'OuI' was fleut 10 Buin onBou"..
Tille .ilb .oout lrAI planes. but in Ilw 1",:<1 j
'-'7. . ud tbt .,1 .,..- 900ft 1Q8l rR?"'
dial half of Iand-buo!oJ ...hlho,
carriton o:ollidlod ...ilh t"nill'd L aiM
ean.n in tbe of. nla C""" on 26 Odo-
.... 1N2. and 11.. Cnill'd Sui'"
B_1 WP IIUtlk. tiMo .,I.pa_
... of IPOft than 1011 plaM!O Ind pilots.
n- t...o ... It.. c1iDlU: of the
airaction .round Guallaklnal. and a
of ...rface adion>o ,",,1min.ling in tI.. Battle of
Guulalean.1 on 13-\,'j the Japan_
Mwr .pin threAtened l;nited S,ates poo!itiona in
tiMo HOuthem SoIOOlOIlS. The Japanese carriei'll
red Ind "'ere not ..gain committed to combat
unlilthe l;nited Statl!'! ilwasion of the )lnrill.llls
in June of 1944. The Jallallese carrier air /l'roupl!
..."..., lll'riolibly ...eakened. but the most serious
damage done to J.palll'l!ll! Iandbued .ir
PO""" .t Rabaul. In of l!l-12. lhere
"'ere '- !han 100 pl.n... bafI thert.nd the
IIlIjority of the pikJU ...ere fre;h from J.pan ,..jlh
I.D. of _ than 300 II)-ing hool1l, only
IIbout of .hieh had hem in combat
). TJ.t. Bilk 01 tAe I.po"''' Army .-ti.. Fol'C'f'.
It Wall DOl: IIDlil JI.D.UlI'J' 19-13 that lhe Japan_
AJm,. .",-ir Forte became inrolved in the Solomons
C&1:lpa.ign.. hi the f.n of IW2,Ihe S.,.,-
llJI"Ilt all for reinfon:ftMnt8, lIiring as 00" reA-
.. the dmIandB of J.panese Anny
fU'alll in the .rta for l[l'Ound support. In De
cember,2 of the beel. Anny fighiu nnils. ,,'ith ell:'
p"ience in tha llala)'an campaign....ere dis
patched from SliraJ..y. to Truk carrier ... ilh
ItO pianM. units ...ere 1I0...n doan '0 B.a.
bwl from Tntk. and elemtn,a from t1..m inter
apiN 8-11 auack on Rabaul 011 Ii Janua"
1M&. n..., were .ble to maintain .n anzoa,e
of aboul eo plan. unlil lbe n.llle of
1M B-..m Sea. 1-3 Haneh two-
umk of their pIaDN were be IDd IQQIll of lbe
Nt..x-ly daa.pd. They 1fft@1lOOI1 returned
.. J.... to n&., ba-..m, kIM 1IR airnah and 1I8
Pluta __ their urin.l at BabauL
.....biJe in Tatyo. the J.,._ Sa..,. a ..
iwiItitt that the Arm)' -WI ita
_ of unitll t..d in HaDclJuria tiDnl the bej(in.
1111I of tbe war. Thill the Anny rtfu","l I.. do.
ktt it altiJnately by III'ndinlt" in one
rtIIld.ilUll bomhtor unil, 1"-0 paMly
hlnad light bomber unit... Ind th... inupl"ri.
eoad, pooriy equipped fiJrbtpr unila. of
..... QI f&II'JiI- _.y henllN" of of
tale airfield at W.u. and a ...all 'l'l"U 9l'TIt in fc)r
Th.- ""I'I'"
patdled by conroy from Rabaul .bout I
but .lm"'" .11 ,",no lost when .\lIied .it('l"l\ft sank
mOl< of Ih" in th", action d""ill'll'Ie<1 thp
Baltle of Ihe Di!lltl.rek Sea.
Ibth the J'J*netie and Ihe nl!wly arrived
lIID.aIl Ann)' Air Force 10M hell"'!)' in
athmptilljt to defend the ,-<,In''O)', The Army em
plo!ed the full sln'ngth of two tillhter
unilll ...I,ich it had ju!lt brouJ.:ht In from Southeast
Asi,. and 4Q of tlleir 60 planes were lost. The
B.lso \'",ployed l\l.Ime 60 planes and likewise
10000.oout 40.
.\81\ I'el!Ult of the BaUle of the Bismnrek
theJapallege An,,}' abandoned olfens;'-e
optrations in eallt Sew Guinea and went 01' the
dt!f'nai,-e. Ue..-.,1Ie of the loss of the com'o)',
It"Dnd in Ihe Solomons l,nd 10 he de-
ple'ed by IlUrriedly sent to ...
Gunea. But Ih_ "'l'no not pow_
erfll l'nOUllh and their attempt to I,re"ent the
buid-up of Allied air Btrenjrth in the Markham
Valll'\' "'lIS abortive. Theredter. air-bome land
ilJll8 in tM: valle)' "'l'm oonsidl'tl'd. but tbe idert
Wal di'lCarded bocau"'i' of the n_1 for air SUPllOrt
in he &llomol1ll, Thus....ben the illSue ... joined.
ne'ther JapaDeIle air. nanl. or ground fon.'l'f! were
c.,able of preventinll the conl<truction of the
lIMiell of airfieldri at and other points in
tho valley from wllich BUblequent advanoes alonjl,"
tho Guines rolllIt "'e"" launched.
l'. JrncaN. After the Battle of the Bistnllrck
Sd.. Wewak became the principal Japanese '-"e
in Guinea. Durinit' lbe ...inter Ilnd spring of
143.. the .Iapalll'llll had blojron to conBlruet
a series of airfieldri alonjl," the northern OOlIat of
:sew Huines and on lIalmabe.... By .June. the
,J'P'JIlIlle bepn to u"'" IhOHl" fieldll RllIL lerr:. r<'>ute
lKuth from tbfo Philippillllll to We...ak and Raha"l.
II Aul[Ulll. the rout... WRll in full operation and
tH Japaltllle Anny Air unitll in Rabaul 00JIl-
ahiftin,r to WewtJ<.leavinlt" the defen... of
tle SoIOlllODs.8iamaJ'('I!B aI'M to the Xan. H,
tH middle of the fil'lds at Wewak Wel"\\
t'V\II'ded with planee, many of thl'm ju'lt nown in
am left without pilota. The Japan_ belil'Vl'd
tae-Iv. out of of any lal'll" IICall' ('nitell
&at. anuk. bul 011 17 AujlUlll 1943. thl')' Wl'no
aJrpriBed when rnit<'ll. States Fiftll Air FoJ'l:'e
Ia. and mediUfllll eacorted by lighters equipped
"'lib IMW long ranp fuel tub, attacked in
m.a,th. The etrike 111'. repeated the nl'XI. day
and, Rccordinli\" to the Japalll)SC, 10S!!e!l Rggrel,'lI.t"!1
120 phIlU,'!', almost the l'ntire operntional Anll)'
"ir Mrenl,>1h in the New Guinea nl:U, :rhe
nl'Sl.' plan to build lip air stl'l'ngth III :"ew GUinea
h3d a severe setlmck.
f. 11'e,rak to the tldmirollie$. DIII'illg the laUer
part of ll}\ and earl)' the followinjl," year, the
.Jnpaull8e _\nm' Air Force l,'lwe first priority to
GuineR. It llttempted to build Ull strength
there to planes or more. but 10!ISC!l o"er the
new ferr" route "'ere high, amounting to 30 per-
ClOne 'If the planes ferried. )Ioreo\'er, IKlCllUSll of
tl,e inexperience of the ferry pilots. bnd mllillte.
llftlK'e 'ilong the route, and the poor CQndition 01
the fQrw"rd fields, many aircl'llft were unlit for
combat "'hen thll)' renci,ed forward arens. Con-
SClluently, nil' strength in Xew Gllinl'9 mrel)' ex-
cl'eded '.WO plnnes.
Durin::- this period, .. 11 \"llTietillS of mRintennnce
dillicult)" Wel'e encountered, and mnllY planes we'e
which might easil)' IUl\'Il been repaire,l
ill renr ,,,,,"so ,\t this poillt., submnrine and nil'
1I11nckS On L"Otl\'0YS to Wewnk and other Xew
Guinea ports became increasingly ejJ'ecti'e. and II
became more and more dillicult for the Japnnese 10
m"intain hn rtdeo:lunte suppl)' of spare prtrtA. Fur-
thl'l"lnore. thl' mnin repnir base for New G"inf"
WaS (j>llela oil 1I"lnlllherrt, o'er 1.QOO miles
Wewllk. This base never funetiolletl nde<luatel.r,
and in order to make eu,{:"ine cl",nges, the .J"pa!\N
had to scud 1,Iaues to Manilll or t.o Mnln"g in
.JR'a, end, mOre thnn l,r.()() miles from Wew"k,
l-mler these circumstlillces, few ("\18nl!'''
and none but the simplest rel,airs were in fnet err
accompli,hed. As II reslllt, 1I0ncomlJ"t 10S!!e!l n"r11'
hi!!h. WllS low "nd oper"tions in
\'oh'inlZ lllOl'" tlUlll lr. !:!Orties wen' l"ll.t"e.
When the .Jnponl'l:<e Anll)' actw,lI)' took to lilt
air o'er Xew Guilll'a or the lIismat"Ck!<, thr,r
J,_. ooth in I,!l,nt'!! ,uHI pilotl<. were exceedin;!l)"
Tll1I'" Ill!hter ,md llOmlll!I' units with"
a"erajr\' stl"f'nl-'1h of nbont 200 planes lost tn{)1't
than I,OIlIlI'IOnf"'l fnml I Ja"unry 101310 HI F,Ii
nlary lliH. air CrtlW strrnwh of
Mille lilli,s "'as shout and IOSSCII WN'O 9i8,ot
ahout I,r, percent. As a l'l'lIult of the IlIrge turU'
O\l'r of 1,Ianes and l,ilotl!. lIS "'ell ns tl", poor n""a-
11'nllllCl". the .\nll\- units in :"ew Guine"
an ncel'tlin,h- state of comb"t rrndin()Sll wl,l!
. ,
the Snvy left Ualm..1011 HI Febl"u"I")' 10,1-1. 'fot
Am.y Air!llrenh was only 7(, plnntll of Rllt)'I""'
and ,,-ilh th_. the Japanese wel'e pl"inl,. incoI"
. KSIlIJ!llanti1l1 air opposition 10 the
a'id J!ollalldi(l, The finll! defr"t
Army Air Forces in Ibe New
came in Ye!.lIU1U,r '''HI )h"",h
the J"pnllese eXIKlCted I'" Allietl
lit "radang 01' lit n IlOint a litlle
the ",est. They olso co119idered it pos
would be made directly in the
The)' were not particularl)' con-
the SlIfet) of Hollandia, howe"er, for
it to be beyond the mnge of Allied
). accordingl)' were IH"Oceeding willi
'ty 1{) de"elop ITollandia as n maill de-
of perfonning mnjor I"cp"irs. Rnd they
it thll terminus of the ferr)' route
Philippines, with the result thnt its
often oovel"ed with l"i>plnccmelli planes.
were bringing in reinforcenwlIts from
the Netherlands Ea9t Indies. ,uHI RS h
planes .Iown in dUl"in,{:" the ],'St, week of
Japanese ail' stren/o.>1h in New Guinen
to abont 125 plan('S assigned to lacticnl
landing wcst of never
,and instead, on 29 February, Allied
in the Admirnllies. The Japanl)SC
red h)' bnd weuther between 'Wewak
iralties, bllt soon Inunched their max-
about 60 lighler sorties nnd 20 bomber
1la:ring the lirst du)' nnd a night st"ike br
That \\""s the last mlljol' Jnpanese
e8'ort in New Guinell.\lore rein foree-
liown in, bllt on 30 March the 5th
began n series of Ihe Inrgesl strikes
in this thentcl' and surprised the Jupu-
andia ill I' repel it ion uf the Wewhk
the preceding August. Four lu at-
made during the following wL'ek. The they lost 120 pll111CS:\5 I' I'llSUit of
aud when nn amphibious foree
Hollandin on 22 Alll"il 19H, the best
do WRS to lI11111Ch II fel\" night, bombing
ffiall"illlllill of 1 or 1> plllll'OI II night.
In Xo\"ember of I!)I;J, United States
the dl'inl :ICl"OSl! the Centr,,1 Pncilic
to the ellptUl'e of the Gilherts. the .\1:11"-
the Marillllll8, nnd thell to n juncture
led thrust from the so\1lh in the ><-'C-
ines campaign. B)' that lime, how
Japenese ,\il' Fot"Ct's lmd been
weakened in the :;olomons ami New Guinea, ami
they fUl"IIished no vcry serious opposition until
the,' be,l.,'lI.1l to emplor mus suicide attacks in the
b, Gilbert.<. The in'nsion of the Gilbe,1s WI'S
accompnnied br cl,rricr strikes "nd h., .\nll)'
hea,'J" oomber u\lack.s from the El1iL-e 1.1",,,ls 011
the m:lin .Japanese haSl'S in botb the Gillli'l1.S "nd
.\lal'SllIll1. Those operntions nccompli.hetl the
"i'1ual lIcutralization nf the nil' units then b"SC(1
in the 0.1";:1. Only n small numbe, of reinfol'l'tl-
mcntH were i'l [r"01l1 Ihba,,1 hl'enu."l! the
mai" .)ap"ne..e :",,"y etfor. continue<1 to be di-
rected "Jrl,in,1 the A11ied advance from the south
which h"d just l"ellched BOUIXI,iuville..\ccOl..:I-
ingly, .Japlllle5e air opposit ion to the lnndillgs wnS
smnll nnd illctToctive.
c. J/llrshal/". _\ftCl" the loss of the Gilberts. the
,fapanese reinforced the .\1m-shal1s to S0111e
m,d bn iIt up II ir stl"engt h there to :loom 1:35 p[,Il'es.
.\Ie,mwhile. rnited StRtes buses were built in 1he
cnptured Gilberts. nnd the continning pressure on
Hab:lul ",,,de it impossible for the ,hpanese to
assemhle a force which could COlllpete on :In)thing
like c'en tel1ns with Innd based Ilirernft from the
Gilbe,ts nnd with he j()() aircraft ussigned to the
Ullited Stlltes cllt"l"icrs co'ering the in"I,sion force.
Fl"Orll j Decembel" unlil the I February l!H1
h\J\dings, aircra ft f,"Om the Gilberts nnd the Ellice
Islands /te,," mOI'6 lImn 1,800 sortie!! in a
designed to neuU'nlire the J"p"nese Air Forces in
the .\In!'Shul1s, Then 2 days befo'"1l the l"ndin:.."5.
the CalTiel'S stl'llek, some 11Iehsure of
surprise. and hel" ""liS not I'" opcrn-
tionnl "i,"Crnft CI'St of Eniwetok. Thcreafter,
J"[llillese Ilir opposition to the bndinl,'>! was neg
l",ndi'W5 on Euiweok took plaC(! on Ii Fehrll-
>II'.'" "nd \\'el"1l scl'Ci'ned bJ hl'n"J oomhcr Iltl"cks
on I'on"pe (next to Trllk the lIlost imllOl1""t of
the c.,,"Ol111ns) lInd a 2-da," CIII'l'ier strike on
Tn,k itself. whith dei'tl"O.I'ed some 270 nircmft.
This h,tter sll'ike WllS so suC<.-essful tl"'L the
force pl"Ot"1le<.led e"en furthcr iuto ,J"p"nese WatC1'9
"nd the M"rinnns for the first time, de
st'"OJing 120 "i'"CI'llfl. The ease with whkh these
sll'ikes were nccomplishetl imlieRled the C"lellt of
the series of dc SU fren'd by the ,'nI"mese Nil "y
Ail' Fot"Ce since the SU"'llle!' of 19,12. It ne,'er
I-e<:O"CI-ed from d,ose- defeats.
d. J/al'i!.llIas. III 1he ap";n;! of tf114. the ""111I'
llL':iI! S,,,... beJ.,'>lII to pOUI" nil' ,.,;inforcemenls into
the Cellt;") P"citic. the first of ,JUlie it hMI
the losses which the)' hRd sutfel'\'(l. lhe
./I,p,tnese still hnd fin;t1ine aircmft in Ihe
Philiplliu('!j, Rnd by 1 SOl'ember they w"re nble
10 bring in more tlmn 1,000 reinforcements Blld
repla(:eulent;l. ThOlifl planes they could opemte
from it Rir6trips On Luzon K"d 51 on the \"iSR)'llII
lIud .\lindan.o. On the Allied side, Ilrimary
Bllre "'us I)laced On carrierbased I,h",..". for the
beaches were out of range of Innd-lJaSf'd fip:-hler'S.
The JlI.llUIU!Sf', there foil'. had the .d,anlage,<
...hiell nt<:l!Sl!l\rilr Reo;;nlt 10 R land-based air'orce
operating a{.'Rinst fani"l'll 'rom a large number of
field!! o'-e...n I",riod of lime.
But the J'r-ne;e .\ir Forrt!! f.ilf'(1 to profit by .d...nt.get8, .nd their shortromings "'ere a
major factor in Ihe Jar-nese failure 10 .....puL....
Ihe I.ndings. O}' this time. bol:h .nd S.\")
.\ir .l'1Il!! ..ere using IlilOUl f......h 001 0' school.
!IO/lle ..ilh 1ell6 than 100 ll}'inc houn;.. lllOSt of it
in traiTH'1'S (App"udi:< 11). The .Jar-nese .ir-
craft industf')' had ul..nded 100 ral)idl}' .nd the
ne...- pl.nell "-ere arriving in II", Philippines ..--ith-
outadlllJuatt' lIightlesu; or enne block [e>IJI (.\p-
"""di:< J). Xe.. t}P"S of .irenft "ere brought
inlO Sf'n'ice befo..... bugs had J-n eliminated
n.d.r and ...min deliee;; ..e..... lmOSt none:<-
ist..nt in Philippines. .\nd commun'fations
bet ...een ground, surf....., and .ir uniu; "ere com-
plex .nd slo.... Under these cil'CllIIl5lancel lhe
J.llIIn_ ...ere no m.tch 'or lhe Ilil".wy skilled
Uniled Siaies earrier folT<'_
d. nut On 23 October, the fltel action
known llII tlle O.nlll for 1"')1e Gulf or tlle Second
n .. tlle of PhilippinfS SP.. began. and .gain
Wle shortcomings of the J.panese "\.ir Forces oon
tributed b'l'l'lltl)' to tile Japanese deleal. Despite
tlle arri,.. l in the Philippine;; [he da}' bP'o.... ti,e
IIclion of thll J"j>tlUI'Sll :-0.,')' Second "\ir Fleet
with !10m" 300 landOO_1 1)lanfO'. the Japanese
f.ilN! 10 pro"ide eIfGCli,t! fighler for tbeir
BurfRce units. .\lmOl;I ItS i,,,ponant, JlIpanese
nel'ial'1'COnnlliSlillnce broke down and
the t111'l.'e surface lorces on Ihe Le)'te
Gulf were "61')' 11001"1), infonnN!aoout thll whem-
Roouts of Ulliled Slall!1! forces.\llnd... on the
Slutfll FIl't't we'", C'll"ried OUt in greRL
stl'l"ugth in Rn atteUlIIL to prol'ide indirect !lUpport
fQ" llu,l./"pauOllll Fleet, Rnd Ilfl"el'ftl Vui, ...1 St"'es
sh,ps, indudinj!." the light }>rineetl)1l, were
sunk. But ('nilI'd Stales I,!tllles iuflecled fllr
J:l"',(,llt"l" dumull6. on tim unprotected nnd disorglln
iZI,,1 Jllpanese Fleel, 8iuking one '-egultor carrier,
to land on "'in,lanno. and the plUlll!I!
111,,11 ,,',llulm "-n 10 bnse!! in lhe Cen.
lit.". Tlwll .huilllf th.. !reCoud ... k ill
...-ny of lhem Wt!N suq,,.ised b.,' a
Nal'Y carrie,. strike which destro\'ed
)llanes, both AmI)' and Sill")'.
of th\lS\l loases, no substantiul uir
.... B.llempted ...hen the Alliel! I.nded
011 15 September 1m. No 1,18n hlld
10 OppOSE! the simultanoous I.ndinltll in
PiP hecuuse of excessi ... I1lnge from
on Peleliu and :Uoroui midI' it
that landings ultimatel)' ....ould bf'
hi the Philippines, .nd the JlIPllne>;e
........te Iheir prePll...tions 'or illl de
u a result of the September ....rrier
.... thfl J.Pllnese Anny .nd S ..,. _\.ir
.....hed .. ne,..lo,.. in oomb:at etJ'ecti,...-
Mithfr rould possibly reco\"er in time.
&he _\nny underestim.ted tl'e speed
Allied forees could be .fter
..d Yoroui and set !lOIlle
llII a t.rget d.te for read.ling
poinl thll" thM ...hich it hn.1 r.."dlld RL the tima
of its ""thdrnwal from IblNo.ul .
9. SeconJ Phili/Jpi"eJ C_p_g"
n. /'reparaliolU lor De/r'IM. From the time of
the surrender 0' Corregidor until th.. lo$ of 1101.
lundin. the .Jop"ne"e I'hi\ippilll!1!.
r<>:>r area ".. herr no substnntinlair Slr('R/olIh
be maintained. The ai .. bases in the Philippilll!ll
"'ere used solely for {n>ininj!" and for
crdt to 'orwaro In'll!\. lind the prindlllli renter
of air} .....s tile )Innila Air .
the .nd maintenanre renler outSll1e
."I)&n. nUl "'ith tI", r.1l of Hollundil\. Ihll Japa-
n__\nlH' .\ir Foret' to I,repa... for II fnr.
th"r to lhe Sorth."d. for Ih" fir.<!. tim-
in lbe n" Iheir l\tralf'j!:1f I"ft;f'lTe ... hitll
Ihen ronsisted of .bout 200 plants UIIligned to
nuils in )Ia"churin. The ......"bat ,,1ff'C'ti,'"'' of
th""" unit,;; h.d '-n ...-...kenf'(l by the tMlnsfer nf
man,' of tl... best I)ilots to unil!! in fo...... rtl ,
hut ;1..." "'"re II... oul\' ,milll t
of mowd to PhiliPl,ine!l in .'UIIf' ., I
.1,,1\-.. .. re!'ull of th_ reinfolT<'mentB, tl,
,,-ili,d........10' sud, .ir st n/ollh "could be al
, ..'red from :-0..... Guin ml tI", mo....nll'nt of a
Ie;' from Jal..n .nd !lOIltl,east .\oi ,I.p"
ll<"lf' .\nn} _\ir st .... in Philipl)i .......
IImOUnled to .bool 2.-.0 .ircralt on 15 .\uJ:11st 1911
ll... " ..-I>ile.fler lhe 1.- of II... ) II",
S......lj'O dirf'C(f'(1 its attenlion to tl",
"tXI .<1""1<:'1''-0 til<' north. und I il I"J
huilt up. 'Oref' 01 1:,..-II.. "d .... .....:1 Ilh,,,e:;.1
Ihl" Pililippi"... Tile :-0.,'" al!lO roneenwd
"boUI FonllUNI ""d the h",;,.. i,la".,"- "nd it
built Ill' a folT<' of II110m 3IMI pill"..... in
f...r d.. len"",. T...o .llIl'lIn"'" .\nul lll...lmlI
],(lmber units ol'ernl",1 UlHl1"r Sn,) .
II I",n 0' Ihis lorti'. "'lll"ilmiuj: "u.. ", Ihl" f."
t'umples 01 .\ ol"mllion...
J)utinj.! _\Uj!\H of lllU Ihl" .1"1"""......\nn.'
II... l'hili!'l,i""" h"h"\'PlI il likel)' thllt lhel'e al
liuHlI"'" 'H,ul,1 be nn .\lIi",1 inn"iou. "lui
.\nu\" :\ir Fore" h..ld " ....'l"il... of UUlnl'm'I'I'" I....
Ih" j,m'lx""! of j,uw IX',I ttl 811"'-'
,""I,h., Hul h,1('r in .Itt
J!U,I il "'''_ th""jCht Im)h,,!>le Illllt IIl"('lilllill.r<
h.."liuj..n; ... ""1011,,, mud" "n 11"lnutlu'ra OJ' prrhlll"
'Jll MOl'lII,i.1lt,,1 """,or ilK) .1"1'1111("(\ .\'Illy
",'I, 1l"e<,r<!il1j:ly 1.. ,\!t'lI",I" 'IIHI ot!...r
I., ...... n.." 1I11lltluhl'l'll 10 u.,i,t in l'eIJl'lIillj.( ,,,rll
un ""u,k. On I s,'ph"ul.,' 11 fal", 1,'p,wl "jIt'..
"""'i .....1 10 Ihe rIT...1 Ih'll lIn RUlI)hihioui r,w'
.-bled_flOOai,.."fl Ih..rt, .nd in
. tl pc-t a rarri..r iltrikilljZ 'oret' ,nih nine
::n:... and anolhf'r t>l1O planl"l .. hich llO!f'n
tnlilinjZ in Ihf' :olinlZSfIOno ....... fORd}' In the
yftl. 1I0t th.. f'lf,,,,'t' In.. l ...f lIoth
and ",rrin ...... "Ju,..... 1........nd II
lIbolllol h..... bHn plain fOWn 10 Ih...Iulla,,_ IhM
tM' iOC1lr-ble 0' fumiohinj! .. 1ff'('I'\"" ol'flO""
lo.n .\llif'd in... of Ih.. )lRriRna;o.
J'!of'd .ir l<l ....nj!1h in th.. C""tn.1
Parifw.- ...u "",riOU'llv d""l", ..d jn,t Ih..
}{a;.nu "by .n .borth" .ueml,t 10
.\lIif'd I.nd'n", on I\iak..\t Ihe 11I"e of
on !!7 1!44..houl lulU o.f the
J.,.,_ I.ndba-ed .uTrafl In Ihf'
.....If' d;"r-tehf'tl 10.... ,,6 m.k ....}. of P.I.u.
.oo .... p-otll' of .1,.0 a.......mblf'(!
forOfl"rali....... in Ih.. ni.k ....... 1..-0' "'re"rl
ill 'hf' noin'OJ't'f'IJ\PIlt Ol",rat ion ........ "..ry hea
1s..,..1} bf'<'a11'f' of 1M ill.. ..,1<:'I' of II", piloh.
Ani ...-lwn thf' ('nitf'(1 inn ion "Hi .1'-
pr<adwd .. iran on 11 .Jun... tl,.. m.k ,,!"'Mllion
...u .nd.1I ...- 0"1,,....:1 hack 10
tbP C..nlral r.dfi,r. On Ihe }.. m.ny of thfrn
...,. deoIronod P.iau by tltt 6N \"y bomber
.n,d. 10 ..... far 10 II", north .nd f rea..hf'd
tho }I.n.... ;n ..
.,. iandt.-I pl.""" ...I,i<-h h.d mnain.d i"
tho } .Il...kf'd tht> l'nilil'd nflP! ...-i",
.11 ....ilahlP .. ""';nn'n, on 11 .Iun...
I... lIP ,ialD&Jll! ...... ct<-.nd b} 13 Jun... lhat
"u rinnally illf'd out. )"tf'j!"inn'1IjZ on Iii
.1_. dIP 1I.Ii.DRl' ",.. ,'oKf'd h}' a
P'JlIp nf about l21l pl.n.... lIo...n in llart by IN
piola. i.... T1I<1......nd 'ron, .1.llan.
hd th", JTOUp...oo I...... half "'I"""j!1h .nd ul
ti_..h rt>ti"""l. MMn.. hia. Ill<' .I.p..n_ f1et>1
bod "'" In _ ...-111, \I f'arri..", .nd :,tJlII,lKn", hUI
wlbout tllP okil,", f'a1T;"r .... 1...... in 11M'!
Tbt>1IHC 11Ift tllP rnitl'd St.l"", Fll'eI
ill tboo ftn4 bait I. of II", Philippine" (l9:!11
JlI"'l .nd 1""1...1 :0'1.10'11 l,ilotK c\.mon
.....11'd tllPir ."""Iul.. ""1... Tht> .111'."_
bt n... rly 0111' and I CIIrri..r to Kir
0,.. oIl"'r f'alTin ......... tl.. n'.j[f"Il lIir
......knd :l .... m.'" "I'''' .... nk by sIIIom.rinf'>'. 1_ in tm. e ..nlral I...ili, in .Jun.
a1lO\lnll'<:! 10 aloonl I}UII)I.nfOl. .\ boot 100 planl'Ol
W'n'Mu,",_full, ",ol"at..d til 11,.. I'hilol'l)in"" and
alUlll oIlll,la...'III t1'll18inO'iI "tllh. 1\ ... .... r-
u"," TIlIlI for lit.. d.. ff'll'" ..f Ih.. l'hilil'l,in.
_Ih..n I monlh" 110.. Jafll\n_ SK\")" .\ir
..... fQI'l'ed to ....m.ild from .n fl'en low.r
til. liFt _ battltehip. four
ud..-l _II., ........
.. sflitid AttGf'h_ J)urinlC tbf naUlf of IAi)u
Gulf.t'" J ..-for tl.. finct timl' I1III!d lnIicide
tw:b &pinK ... d1iJlll on a plannl!'ll huis
-. a IltIblUntial _If. p"","i0U8ly. tM"" bad
lIMo iNhD<*l of i..olalPd plalll! M'al'l_ on .\l1ied
1bi-.lortiRmOllt part by pla_ which had
tbd 0Irt 01 n>ntrol. 1t"&\1 not until tM ....lIIll11@r
of IW. aftw 11.1lllIl of II. M.ri.lUI" hO"'f1"l&1',
tJIII tbe Japanee hiilh (OaImand 10 COD-
ailbl' ...... Mlkide l"ftll'* as _[1$ 01 turuing
t.k tbe Allied adr.nrf"_ Tlw fir!ll authfnlicated
_ 01 a pilcf.1 atlDO\lDeillj( bflon: t.boB' an
iDlebtioo 10 nuIl"'- 011 I:; <Xiobtr 19 WMn
R.r Adminl Arima (pOlIt.humousl,. '-it<e .\d-
......1) made .,. ... .u.ek on
rtiled Stata a.rnu forc:e oB' Formosa- This lit
ip&rk of patriotk and llIidde wUUI be-
p.:a 10 bf lormed from l'fllllar and S.yy
IIir IlIliu ill tile Philippi-. Tlw fi... 1.'1l@.ttack
.., tho- lIIliUl _ OIl <Xi.r .1 1M
of lite .. actiou. e-idnable was
.. aD -'" C&rritor ...nk .nd IIfnnl
__..-.. .... damspd .Ip'll'wsuicide
_ita __ Ionaed in J.pout. aainly lrom lhe
piot traiMlc otpIlbatinP. and bdon: tIM''
_ w1thdrwor from tile PbilippiMII. &:.0 suicide
tcrtieI _ hidt III'Oftd Ii" hil or dam-
acini _ {'nited !'UI. llUrf_ ft&-
(Fot. fall 01 llUicide
..... _ AppeDCbs V emitled MKamiu...")
f. L#Jff R_f--' O,."..,w-_ The ,
.- IoIt _ril, d"rilllll tM 10 da". following
rtUud sc.t.1aDdinp OIl Uyte, bul during So-
---lbeJ a.-apt in _ than I)UI ""p1at'e.
.-&aucI-waued t.o -u muimum fB'ort 10
............ -ftdiDc ron-. bt!bill JM'riod, par'
__ ... p1Med OIl 1M protfO"lion 01
-wJ1 _..,., tI"OOI- Irom Luz.oo to
Onoaf 011 Uytf. Tbeno Wf"" nine
bat tha unMm.d J.put_ piloU proud
aequl to che t.* of )Jf'OtfId.inlt them from
ODited &.at. ail' atUek. In all, land-bued and
""'*' amlnft IUIk about 20 tran8pOrtII .nd
IIwnber of -n.. with .u.lIllu! _vy '-in
IqIliptMnt aud IDIIderate t-in perllOIInel.
g. JlItulwo II1ld Ll",/fY"A {Jptrolwrtlt. In lhe
1Ill4dlt of Draclmber and durinlt the fll"IIt 2 wlll'b
of "III0I'J, the .Iapa.- Ail' Fon'eII '""" flU.'ed.
.-ItIt the dIltJ 01 dtftndilll: apirtllt two lalp
m-wbidt ailed lrom Layte to the
.-tho dte ftnt t.o Mindoro and the .-ul t.o
Linga)"en Gulf. By tinle, 1I0wlwer,
.ircraft 1uId @tCured conlrol of lhe lIir o"er tht
(Aontral Philippinl'll, heu"y loomben fromPlIllllI
1uId begun to 0IMl....le .l'l'inst Manilll and tilt
C1.rk Field romplu, .nd United Stste8 Cllrrien
...ere operaling ""ith e1"f'll incn'ving effccti\'eJ\
principaU)- against Luzon And Fonnoea. The car
ri...r .nd bNTY bombfr strikM on ClArk Field am!
)I.nil. 1uId pronon v-rticulari)' ... ffeclive b)" dis
rupting the J.pan_ m.inten.nce .nd supply
S)-steDl, .nd. for thm reason. serviceabilit) ...11
vel')" 10.... Thus, though Jllpanf!!l6 oornbll
aircraft in lhe Philippi"", at the benninlt of tl
llindoro operation plWl .ircraft Rown in all "'
p1acementlllot.led more t1uln 1,000. the,....
......"" .ble to fly only about 1W lIOrtiM in dffrn
.gainst the lwo operations. At this of II
rampaigu. iocl'falling ""Iianee Wall p1a<'e<\ on .nd in the I.inp,fn .1-
_ e'l'f'!1" J.pan_ attack W'U. llUicide .nuL
The most damaging .ttack of lhe Mindoro lll'I
.tion ramf 00 13 Decembfr IW4 wh...n .00lt I:
.Japall\"5f! planfll .ttacked the COIIVO,' in the
Sea..\ cnliser .nd destroyer "f"" llOI'ri(MC'I,- d.,
.ged. Tlll'l'faflfr. rarriff Btrikes 00 the,
h...ld lhe J.panese ...ffort.t 10'" lenl,.'
in Stlf'f'dill da,-s onl, t"..o (... "iTs wen! I(l$.,
On 01 and Janoa,",- 19015 th... J.pan
dec....nnined!! on 11ll' ...n conroy._
an fSOOrt rarri nd did !lfrious d.mage 10 all"
oIh...r escort ram , a crui!l\'r.nd a destro)-....... (
6 Janu.ry_ thfy launched their largetl1
13() 9orti_ .nd bit 16 United Stalel!l ships, dl
&l[illlf to 01 them badly. This was tile IJIlit m.
...B'OM. of the Japa_ Air Forces in lhe ]'hil;
pinl!S, .nd it is Si(l1lifieanllhat il consilltOO .11
...nti""l,. of suicide .ttaeb.
b. Hultpitu/41Wn. From the lillie of die
panlo!1" carrier strikes on die Ilplk)'U!1 untill
withdraw.1 01 the .'apane88 Air Foret'll frolli
Philippill\".fl in 11)45. Allie<lllircnlft
Itroyed monl tllan ".000' .,,,panese phUlell, 1
hiol!llll IlC()re achiered b)- .ny Ilir force in In.
lheat..... ill a comJ'llnble p... riod or lime_ ,\ .".
lactor in the Allied "'1\8 the superb tTl"
inl( 01 Allied pilol8 and the qUlllity of All'
equipment. BulJ.p.n_ weskn_s weI.... "h'
IIlI much 01 a factor.
T...o weskn_ stand out plu1icul"rlj' i
portant: poor pilot traininll" lind 1","kM
'ToIIoI 1....__l70e .tI ....-. .... .......
... 9'" of 1lI1.......... u:'b" IC'.
."f 11>,- cllttl]ltlij..'11 of Ihe tlltlill'
1fI1'\'l<";t1g tI' mui"
. ocoe" ,,00,... IIll'
pilots wel\llost ill Xew G"illell ""d
.and pilot.!l went into t"()mbnl
ppmI!'!! only 100 hours lIying lime
]I). "tth respect 10 lhe disorgtlllil'"
FUlld ech...lon. "n
to: the .JIII!"ne>e Arm,. .\ir 0.."01 at
With th... hl'St Itroond troops h,...
October l".Irri ...r strikes.) The ./111>:1._
llS sUl."h. npp3nlnllr to Ill:'
IJld became a piecemesl
... d.,- 10 basis. R...pair shOI""
JlI'. and m.UII...n"nee unil-.l1 "'f",
_r the ...ntire arta from I3lmban 10
,clark. Since th"t tim.... Ih...""
'l"e.C?nlrol of Ih... 00'" of suPlllies_
_pen'JSlon of nlpairs and msill1enanet
no organiution.
bl... 10 describe Ih all a
lhst t.,-el} I,,"" is f"idfllC'l'
lion and gen...n.lsh.mbl...... To men-
d,e inili.1 COlHluest of
ftkh ,,'as compleied b,. th...
in Ihe spring of 19-12. Jalllln_
ill 1I0111hesst Asis were gin!n Il low
'" the hi!!h command. Th... bulk of the
planes .nd Ihe best nlllla<:(!lIIl'ctlt lIi-
to naooul and X,,-w Guinea ill pn'f-
_htast Asill, and !JOml'c or ,h... belt ""its
Wfnl 1Il0"\!(! 118 reillforoo-
1labf.1I1 and Xet\" Guin...n. ,\s a result,
moperal ions in Burm" were in
and ...xeept for the ArakRlI C/lmlloi/''11
the lmllhlll clllllpaign in lhe sprillll of
.. IroollS in Xorth 13unn" Weill
withoul airsuppol1. Afterllmcoluluest
.I.ll1u,ese n;r(:J"\dt strenb"h in Bnrllltl.
"l1'I)' eXel'cede<! 100 fighlel"l! u"d 75
ADd aft"'r the monsoon of 1Ite Allie!!
air Rtlpe,.iorily ""d Itl.ter ,Ii,. StI
li."l1" itt Ihe wind: 01'''''' 200 ne",' I'c"-
I.!tl,,,,,. tllOlol tlf Ih"ltI nnn UIICI"tl'li. We,"l' found in
.\lIlb"I"..... 1 lowtl, "nc, mon' lhan 3 or I in OllO
pl'H',":, .....1undN"ealh hotl!ll"'_ old ri...... ",ilk
publ,c h"il,It"lZ". little !! in oml)"ing" tiL_I .
a,,,1 1', ell ..." and alle)"s. In addition. , ........
of llllris stich all r"rlmteION.
fuel l",nrp!I. ""Ilenttol'll, llcope]]... ",. /!1tl1S. lires
oleo stru,,,, were al"" fo\t1H! SC>ItI"-re<:i
III lit... S>lttlt tllll,."er. Well 0'...,. half of 11.- rI
were lo"ned ill oock,....k tinder hOlbeij
lh"''''1\ All 01''''''' fitld... Tools ""fre a],;o bune<1 all
o,..r. I Ill"t'>'Oll.IlJ, ,1"1l: "I) II d07....n or mo"" nellI'S.
I )oUIlS of .III.,H'>I a"" 1iCallfred OVer 1'.1...'"' ';lnJl.
a,.d 'he total III cenllillir o'...r.)()l) alM1ad,' .<:tu"I"-
"ftn b.l 0"1' --
did till' .laIM,._ I"'''''e Ih_ here!
Of rotll1of. nl.n.. ......"" :.trafe<1 on the .nd
om. YH till''''' ."" ... are 5till
un'OIIc1oe<1 hJ our au.cK,; alld .ppt."""th lal:"k
on... lilll... Illlrt Or bit of m.inlfnsllC'l': SOllie
arf ..blt as ill_ )Ian,. more mu..<t han!
!wen I!InndPd Ill''''' orij!insl1r .nd groundPd. Ihm
!;Infed OUr planes.-
b. Cflkttf!a. th... m06l. dallg@touB
Japall_ .,r op"rations in southea,;t .\sia "'f""
ti,e aUacks on C.lculla. Till' docb., h.rbor instal-
latiollll and C.lcuna "".rf .lm06l. the
only within l'anj..'e of
.Jllpan_ air 1111......1' durinlo! lhe ...ntire "'.1' .nd
ti,e Indilll popul.tion. incllldill/o: man)- 'dock.
... ...1'fI alld other imllllrtaul Ill1l11r groups, ...el'l'
IlartlCtllttrlr '" luaS!!
In lhe .,,,llI,,mm.r of I!lH. the;e
'\11\1'- lind :>;111-)' made joinf plnns for rHids 0"
CIl1cuUa with "'''''.I' a' 200 ,,1'1I,e;;. Th086 st
tlleks were 10 takr in thl' f,,11 tIS lIOOtl /IS the
ended, J,Ul d"ll tillle lhe SIl")' h"d
dn-erl\!(1 of ils s1r\'IlI,'1h 10 th... Solomons
lind the A,rn.l was \tot strong enough to
l'\'QCeed willt /I1otlr_ IAtN. the ,\rilly
lllso n hi,:.:1re, prioril,\" to open,tiotls in lhe
,uu! Guillen. Ilnd it ne"er built op
" IIIrge ello"llh bomlle" fO"I'1l to coltduct lilly sUS,
l:tinrd C"Icl'lln. Througho"t
t.."O medium born!>tr ulliia ...ere 1M,"ed 10 Chilli.
they ...ere alm08t immedi'lel" ...ilhdn.1rll and
to nunna Ill.inly for the purpot;e of palrol
hng the n., of Bengal, ,,'hieh h.d bee:n lefl in.
lIl!ellTl! by withdl1l.walJl of other air unilll to th,p,
During 19H Ihe principII I mi9Sioll of lhe Jarlll-
nese Ann)' .\ir Foree in Chin. ""as to llUPIl(lrl
Jallallese ground lroops in their 0IJe...tionll in the
Peiping.lI.nko...Canlon ... i1....y corridor. Ac-
tu.lly, bowe'er. '"e..,' fe... /::round ropp..rt llOrti...
"-ere fI.... wn. and Ihe lIUIin .J.panese .ir effort. in
Chin. ooru;isted of ... ids on Fourteenth Air
fields and interception of Fourteentll Air Force
tllttll:k9 on hlrb"t:ts in lhe roilwl'y corridor. The
mide wel'e On a l;ulIlllllCale, made mo;;lJr at night,
nel'er ueeeding I:; planl'S ."d nonllallr consist_
ing of olll)' 2 or 3. ""III .00 .... n I
SIIUIll Inle ...ith muimum of .boul 20 fighters
in th,p, .ir It one time.
d, Tile TlUfltietA Bombt, C_mand. When
Ihe Twenlil'lh IJomher C"''''"llnd H -:?!)oj teIlehed
fields in the Chengt.\1 .rea in the summer of 1(144,
the Jllpnuese moved in one of Iheir mOllt e!lperi.
eUt:e(1 ntedillJIj bomber UniliJ and pt1X't'eded 10
couduct. few small-_te n.ids nil J3-2!)
ba-. These nids destrortoll fe... B-29lJ on tlle
ground .nd IJeriously d.magN others. llean-
...hile. despile the 101l1:' o.. to lheir
l.rJ..'l't8, the B-29lJ "'ere not !eriously hampered
b,. Chin.based fighters.
1'" HU(J.pilulatioll. The ,\ir Foroe
ue"er dcfellted the Jnpnllese air units in
the "'a,. Japanese units in the Solomons, Bit-
marcks, .nd Guinea "'ere defeated. n,e
.ra "'as too and the pllnes and 10gisliI'W.I
support provided the Fourteenth 1t1!nl too fImIU.
BUl from the first. .ir units ill
China "'ere on lhe and tbe Japanese
al"'ars spent so much of thtir tffort. in illlercell_
lion and in attacks on United Stllltiil airfields
Ihat Ihe)" could do "1'1")' little else, .\!eIIIiWhill:, lhe
Fourteenth Air Force hit III mnny t"r/,,'f'Ls be
sid.... airfields, and by WPllOrting Chin_ ground
11"00115 .nd theJ'rlanese linN of supply,
it did much to kl!l!ll China in the .... r.
Il "'111 not becallge of superiority in numbe",
lhal th,p, United StalM ,\ir Fol"l::ell in China "'1''''
so much more elJecti,"e tha" Ihe Japanese. I.n
July 1912 whl:n lhe Chilli' ,\ ir Tuk Force began
opersling, the Jnpnnese hnd a numerical lluperi-
ority of aboul 4 to I, and it Will not until late
fa,'orite I.rga. In 19-U tbe ,,'"U 011
snpport by lighter-bombers, buL by thaL til1lt
AIliM air 90 pronouncW thllt very
lillie nn'olllillihhed, The Japanese offiCl!r in
of !tir operations ill llOuthenst Asill lit the
end of the wllr lills staled Ihnt, in his .... pinion llnd
in the opinion of other air offieers, thn planes used
for groulld I;Illlport might better h.'e been em ..inst CalcuU. and tlle Hump Rouloe.
TII(l!ll! 016<:'1"'" .I...ys were oYerTUled by ground
oI6<:'1"t!1 on the stlW of the Southern Army which
conlrolled .ir open.tions in llOutheast Asi.
e. of Oil Targetf. Throughout IW-I
and Mrl)' I!Hi:i lhe Jallan_ Air 'Forces I
high priority to thB defenllB .... f oil refineries in
Suntlltrn alld I3orllllO, t)'ing down D. substantilll
number of lheir be;;t Illanes .nd pilola. The Tl'
l;1l(lnsibilily for most. of the oil targeta ".lI!I thaI
of the Jal)lln_ ,\nuy, lhe X."Y COII<:eming itaelf
only ... ilh U.likpapu1-
The po!iliihility of .ir attack!! on Sum.lra Sf!O':m
lim 10 ha'"e bet" Illpret:iRled in Jann.r) 19-11.
.\t thai lime, " new f1),ing di ..ision WI8 fonned
(01' the defrnllO of the bulk of.1I
lI11tiail"(:mft lIud tIIdar ill Ihe llOutJlel11
.I"I1'II ...a.s ooneellt rated ill the vicinit)'. Thereafter.
unlil the of llW; and despite the Ilrb",,,1
need of OIll1'r ar-eas, betwHn 1iO .nd 100 first-Ii ....
_\nny lij:!httol"S "'ere mainlained III'Ir
The p.1f'm'-nj.:" b.....ed fi!!hters did Ilot ope...l.
n'r)' effecti,""l)' in Ihe lhree .Uacllll .... n the "'-
fineries ..-hieh aduall)' mlllerin1i?AX1. On I; AliglN
HH I. during a night. nU"ek by 11-29lJ bused in
Ce}lolI, bad welt her kept. nil but ,,1)(lUl 10 Jail"'
nl"le plaJM'!l on the On 21 J.nuar)'
.bom 40 fij.:l,ttrs wtre .ir-oonle to 0llpose "
earrier !>trike, bill of lhese II ....ere a1l'J1
du""". and OIhff ail"l::n.ft ""ere t1f!!11royed ..
lhe It'fOtll1d. '-i"e dJ\}1\ l.ter. onl)- 21 JlIp._
pt.n", oll]lO".'(1 seconcl ClIrrier
lind .'nllll1IMe 1_ 'j(nill wenl hrll\')'_20 lir
('mft de>-tro)'L'(I, Lwothirds of them iu the air,
The Ilrili_h "lIlfetl'<;1 onl)' llel;ligible 10!l!:iC9 whi'"
tilt I"I'finui.... "'f'no: badly damab'1!(1.1
TIll' J.I)lIIll!6e SI\"y .\ir Fol'Ofl "'111 n!@pollsible
for lhe of U.likpapan, and during 1911
and 19-1:;; it baloe<:l on,p, of ita belit figbttl'
l{tOIIp8 tloe"" This group, ..-ith $1 rength of fIJIIIl
60 aiten.ft, i"f1idM llubatantiallOllllell on FlIr Jo:a,.<.1
Air Fotee8 8-2-111 Bnd r 1;11 which Ulilde a serir"
of aUackll in IIII' fall of 1l:l4cl" Hut. Japatlt'l
II.. qt, II.. ...,. attadl!IlIt1l1all,- "uTiM owt wlm!
a __ of njprt witll no nlOre
than I::! pianfto madc- in Ill. winler of 19f:lI943.
and 61.. darliht with .hont W .\nny and
20, YJ pia,"", made in l)e(-emher of 11)1:\. The
nilt'l. ntlaeks did noll 'ery j!'n'nt Ilh)".ic,,1 damage,
bul '111')- dn.. a l.rfll' portion of the lahor force
into the hills. attack of !)eeember HU3 also
did ... !Ihy..kal damafll' and had little eWt
on 1 .. labor fotl'e lJe<,tUSl' of tbe !lI1lall area at-
c. IIl1mp N<wtt. Attacks 011 the lennini of the
lIunl' Itollle were also potentially dangf:rouJ, but
the\' "eN never earril'd Ollt in j:.'ffllt foree or sus-
lail;,d o'"er any eonsiderllble lleriod of Iilll(', agn in
"""'lle the'lle high ('()mmllnd ,,u giving
fiM X"w Guinea. On
::!:>, ,;nd 28 O<1.ober 1942, !>tfo", roul" "'as
in 00 I.q.oe scale_ IhtH' .11.('0 "'ere
madIl on airfiekill cOluprising the ...estem end of
tbe in the upper _\SIlInt \nlley. The first infol ..ed about 100 plant!!, nnll did ("Ousider-
damafll' becllllle it aehiHed surprille, The
and third were also d.nlll!!ill::. IJllt. IltOIo
.hI, of innd&luate relllaeeinenlfl. the al-
lad.....,,"' not ('fIIItinued. In IlU3 and 19.J4. there
..._ ft... Iattl'....1 n.itLl 00 at Kun-
1DirJt' and llUInanyi. the eastern f'IId of the route,
uwI (III the .\t8am "alley fields. but these
atwo did not mattriall,' interfere ... ilh ,\lIied
Another IIl..,..t ""U lhe iuler"l'f>l'lion
of In.llIlpOrt 1'1.11l'1li f1yillj( the Hump" This the
.I... litempted ill the f.lI of 1M3, using two
Unilll dowu from llandillria for
tlul. (>Q1'J'Ol't. A f_ tra.llfljlOrt plan(';< ..........11Ot
from Oc1obtr 19-13 10 F..IIu...., IlII-L Ihe
T"".. Air F_YU fonm 10
... rot o...,r d.. IIlU11p; .nd In.n;:cpol'l. bfoll'ln In
81a rimLitoul route fronl dlt ".111"'" to
K111laing ,,"r IbPlliN'r n101lntains to the
...... But jllllt ... hen the intt!ffi'pli....n open.tions
"'I'll causing the mOfit diftleulty, Ihe t ...o lill'll\er
..... -.remo\'ed t& Sew Guinr-., and inlt'n:'t'11t ioo
-- the IIlIIIlp YU IlllYa" apin ItI_pllWl on a
"""' ......
cL (}n,wJ S.,pt>rl. A high proponion .... f
"....- in Btmna ....N IIowD in IIIIpport
of tl'OOl- 111 tlw ,\rakaR .ra in 1m and
iDtItIlmpbala.. in 19+1. In the An.kan IIp''n.,
t.kIt, fn,qaellt attacllll WIl", made on RAJ>' fill'ldJI.
uel t.Itere ... attaeb on the Briti8h
appIJ liDa, tItI doeb at Cbillagonr bei1l(



u.. ...

:1: ........ _



.1 m



..... l--.

T_.. ___
- -


- - I-----
,- w
1'....",,, .
d. f:roluatiQII, Th" JllpalHl&\ plan.
II flCI' 1he Philippine'! campaign. calkd for !lUieide
llllncks in slIlIicielll fOI'Cll to 8Il111l'f1111 Allillti fighttlr
Illid 1I111illil'Cnlft defell!ll'l!. bllt Ihe fort:ellll.ctually
clIIpl(JJ'cd "'el'e l1e,'er suflieientlJ' large or e<lncen
During the Okin..... camplign, increasing use
"'1.1I made of pilOtII who had never t.1'W bten
gradualtd from flying IIChool. The of
hitll per sortie aooordingly was loss lban it h.d
been in tilt. Philippines campaign where most
pilot8, lhough ]XlOrly trained. at least had lin
ished 81:11001 .nd had had ilOIlle e>:p,erience with I.
lactical "niL 'I'h" following t.ble compares the
eflicienc)' of the suicide units emplored in the
I'hilil'pinl'1l and at Okinawa:
!l olhel' 11I,,'"1 6uici<l!l nllack!!. SPIIC<'<! at
of 2 dllrll 10 o"er n week. -,"onB of them was so
lnr/;.'ll all dlB fil'!lt. Ilml lh..y became. on the
Ilrogresl!h"el)' lImalier and further aPlirt.
TI,e period!! bel"'ef>n mass .uieide attacks were
1'llllctuR!l!t1 hJ 81Uall!iCl.I"aUaeks, both by suicide
unitll and bJ torpedo and di"e-bombing units.
During th,,:! monlhs of the camPllign, 43:; suicide
missiOI1ll "'ere flown in this fMhion. About 'l;;O
of th_ came from Fonnosa. despite the regular
Fifth Air .llaen on the main Fonnosan
.ir tJa.o;e" which had been in progress since mid
The following lable gi the best a.-ailable
figures on J.pane5e suicide sorties during the
Okin...... eampaign;
Ihe J.panese were &!l'lllmblillg all
-.kide Illanes and pilOUl in Kyushu for
.Ilacks on Ihe .ppl'OlB.ebing .mphi
Orthodox training had almost. c:onte
weeks earlier. and Ill.nesand
released for the training organiza
..." fonnt'd into uuitll lUI rapidlJ 1.8
8amrI of tlle5e unitll ...ere !leI.!IOnt'd wilh
pilots from regular air units, and tbtl
made the II )'larch IIttack on Glilhi,
llCtual ineffectinl1ellS. was composed
1 nperienced pilots. .\ fcw other sui
Wert! made before lind at 1he lime of
on Okinawn, which took pIllet on 1
the bulk of the suicide fofC@ was held
later ma!l!l Mtllcks.
8Wide .1 tlad'k, The lir:;;t Inll!!!!
Iy lli"lnrg(l;rt, nnd mOBl dcstnlcli\,e
abo .ttack of the euliro war, came ou
.hen o"cr a 36!lour period Ihe Jnll.
mer 350 suicide 1I011ies, ncooml)anied
the sallie nllmher of co\'er, rec:onnnis
orthodox bombing bOrtiC!l. MOr(l than
_pi were hit, lit lellst 25 of them by
Thereafter. the JUI",nese launched
1tn.Ilj:('1h Oil K}'ushu lind lhe Firth
Y1 Air Fleet Wall l'flpidly expanded
gi"en opernlional control of nll
Anny unib operating in of
intended lhat the Ilrincip:al strik
of Ihe Fifth Air Fleet and itll subor
command .hould be suici(1ll ullil!!.
also re:>gnized the necessily for
Icbter co"er for illllll:perienced suicid"
reconn.i!lSB.nce planes to find the lar
.,. !!till had a few experien-' piioo
be u,;eO. for onhodox bombing and
The)' accordingly orpnized tbtl
pilotll into elittl unil for
of conducting orthodox operalion. in
..icide au....ks.
;"or-y Att(J('h, Wben ["nitt'd
Fleet atlacktd Kyusbu in a series of
beginning on 1:1 1larch and leading
Okina..... landings, it "'as opposed pn
elile units. _-\ single di1'fl bombl'r
01 them !lOOred a lucky bit on the camel'
dIroagb break in the clouds. IIils
on other.-esseb. This WI.!! I he
m lhe ""1.1' that crippling damage .....s
"'t uniUl by orthodox Japanese .ir
3. Ulilbi
One of lhe mGA rem.rkable uploihl of Ii
Jall_ne'll! su..,ide force came on 11 1larch 19U
when:!4 Japa..- Sa..,. medium bomhers oil
from K)"IISbu in an attempt 10 a 1.800-lIIilo on the ("nill'() Fleet base at VlIIII.
Had m.inten.nce (or poor nlOralfl) caused ,
planes 10 turn back. wd poor planning result ..1
in Ihe .rri...1 of the 15 1.1 Clilhi .ft"
dark. Twelve pl.nes then allemllltd lIuicide 1.1
laen on BUrfaee uniula! anchor in the 1111.'0011. alld
lhe other 1111"'" made onhodox bombillj!; auacb
One plane hil and $l'riou"I)' Ihe ....rritr
Ha"dolph. and One on lin in IhI:
1.1011. but the OIher did no! e<lllle ... here l\H(
lhe area, Tlml<. a\thOllj.:h lhe nunck t1elllOO'
IIlraled in an UIl'\'Ulfl dl"ll'""'l' the de!'perate e!l_T-
l.I'l.-r of tlte llUicitie foret'. it IIIIlO demOnSirnled ,hi:
nCftdil\fl:IJ poor qualit) of JIII)llue<le lIire.... /
pilots, men. nll\'iJ,.'lItolll, Ilud I'lfta
.Jima camlJaign ...ere "er)' fiu...e-fu1. 1111111. onl,"
about 4;; !Il>nle:. .bout h.lf of Ihem by 6uiei.\i-
Illanes. were flo,m apin'>1. lnit....1 Slatos foret'-
.tlacking Iwo Jim. Th_ !1oI.nk .n e-
e<lrt camel' with two suicide hll"'- did 6eriou
to I. regul.r carrin.nd hit lIe"en]
6nl.ller ships. lent IlUpport to II that malill suicide auadell .t shoneI' ranI!'
...ould be .-en' effecti ..... and an inc:fta8IM1 impel"
"'a!I gi"en to the de,'elol,ment of lhe !lllieide fom'.
bottom of tbEl ba.....1 and flOIne h.d 1.6 lilll11 U
160 holll'!'. In 19-14 moo of Ihe bfoIrL JII]lflIlCliOl
were dead, and when the Air
FOfC@ had numerical I.!! well as qufthtntwe su
periority. it WI.!! able to operate nbout ns it
of. Oltiuwtl
a. Japaneu /'/an. Afler the withd...",a] of
their air forces from th" Philil'lllul'S, t .'''1>:1
u.e began to prepare Inndinr
on FOrDlOllll. or in thll which the)' /lOll
mated would take place 80ffie tillle in March or
April They IIllCOrdintl:ly IIInll9 for n heR")'
I .......
After tht ...itMra...1 of their .ir al'1ll!l from
eM Phibppi Japa_ rttllizt'd that they
-UIIot COOIpete with the Forces in
ortbldlD: Uut lhey bad Ie.rnt'd. as
lJw) thouJbt. one import.nt from tM
PhiiPfli- c&lDl"'ip'.-Ihf, ponr of orpnized
.we. attll<'b ap.ilbl ...rl&('(' .._hi. 110n"
willi their main ...pply line to the IIOOlb vinu.all)
l'IIl 01. ,bey Wlft fl.ClMl wilh fuel sbort&gll
whi:b required ell ilnlDediate MU<t>on in t
i-.: &ad an .\tilnllt.- rednonion in o:ombal optora
Ua. .. ....u. '["...... tboet nmunM.1ICf:ll. the
.1...- lI"'" firM. priority to t .... orpnizalion
of all.licide '-. &ad they pel.lI,. all
_t.t actmty in .n .U-pt to C'OIIIIIm"f! plaRes
.. pUota fer _ by the JIIiridt forn! in oppos'
iItI: ... mn-.toP of the main J.pantfIe ioJands.
n. firM. important IUllpbibiowi operation to
foIiow the LiDp,- 1a.ndUIp wu the invuion
of Iwo T_ wbieh bepD 011 11 Febntary
n.t 0(*I.ti0aa ... of ac.dilll.' Unporu..-- in
Iha aU- apia "apan. Iw Iwo Jima 1ater
__ alta1aatt ... for B-2lla raumiq
'- attad:a 011 JapllD pI'Opft and provided a
... .....o\WJ.pan.
Btl the ,1.- Air ,_did vny little to
pmwt ill oceapation. A.tJoo-I hO plaR.. were
....... (IT in I.... Iklnina dler tM
of npIar carrier lllri_ .nd '-vy bomber ill
.... .1UeIt p-w the Iandin.. MOnlOMr,
tilt line. Oni.. State- l'*nil'l' lllrik. on J.pan
PftII*' were timed to ooineide .ith the
.J-.1Ild the damapthey did both to aireraft
IbIIlIr ba.- blareued tha of attacb
011 Jwo frcm Japaa tu..
Bat 1M few Ittacb "hiah in hd. "ere made
U........ IIIII'faa ,_II. durin( the 1'11'0
1M3 thIt paritJ ....C'bi."t'd.
_ 01 die __ Wall pilot trammg.
At t!le beriaJainJ of thr. the wol"llt
pilob .ere left in Chinahile tht beUef umt.
_t to tht Pbilippia- and Y.laya. In lWlIand
1943 ftplacftntnt pilou for Chilli. rame from tbe
and do",af.'1'd .bout 000. llowe,"er,
pl"l'nous exllfrifnt'elii, onll' a "err fe... of those
would h""'e '-n in the banll'$hip, carrier
nnd enli!ll!rclll!;1;e;l (E.d,ibil!! A,\. BB, and CC in
AllpelHlix \').
6, Deltl/se 01 Sou/INiI$I AS;iI
..\rlfr )r.rch of .\oia ..-.s I'rae-
I,calll' eut 011' from .'lIllnn And ben.rne vinu.llr
an iudependellt thenter for ilB own
<tefen",,,,. AI thut time, il still had !lOme 300 first.-
line plnu6S nSo;iJ.,'1led 10 uIlil!! "'hich b)' ,hen were
Ilmollll' the be;;( .... in dill .JaJ>Bnl"lt _\ir
bill fir.>! in All..;1 and bter in Jun" of
19-15, .lmOS( .11 these unilll we"" no...n the
C<;lIL>t to Jal'nu And FonnOSB for defe"se of Ihe
homflnnd. Ilo"e'er, Ihem remained in 901lth.
ellSt Asin nlmost 1.000 planes of 1111 sorts. 90me
l'f!lJuiring major ""pairs, and Rbout M pen:ent of
Ihe", lreinel"$. To man t11ell6 planes, there "'ere
1.000 pilotll in Ih" !lOUthem .I'flB, but IWO--
Ihmill of them "ere onl...' IlInl...' In.ined .nd were
clllllble onlr of Buicide nU.d"'!! in tminer aircrafl.
Following Ihe cnmple if not the diJ"llCt ordCrll
of hnperinl Genel'lll llendqual'tcr!l. the Southem
10 oonsen'e ils nir st.....ngth until
.0 .uaclc on Singapore or )lala..... was in pros-
1>eeI., and lhen 10 expand .11 iUt plants in snicide
au.clcs on Allied Imllilports. But it did not he-
lill"e tbat an)' innsio" of )1II11I)'a would tnke
plnce unlil the end of September at the elll'liest,
and I)robablr not until So.-emlle,. or December
of l!).l.;. _\l'OOrdingly, Wht'll the ".r endf!ll, only
a sm.ll h.d been made 10"'lInis moving Ihe
GOO Ilia,,@;! in Ja... ,, Thailand, and
.'....nch Indochinn into )Iala"a; onl\' -4 of 13 eon-
cealed nil'lields for the dej,lorme;\t of suicide
lIiren'(t hnd beeu complNedj nnd onl)' n few
pillnes were acluMllr in teadines fol' suicido at--
lael.."'S on an force. .\n in.-.sion of )Ia-
Iaya wilh initiallandiogs at Port S,,tttenbam ll"ti
actu.lly scheduled for 1 Septfmber 19-1" (Op"n.
lion Zipper), and it 86lI'0lS plain,that ti,e J.J>B-
nllSll would not hlll'e loetoll rt!lI.d)' lind would ha'e
theil' 1,000 Miren' (t in f/lShiQTl
,..ithoul doing Il('al"ly 110 "'Udl dlllllllj.'I" as \\"as
done at 01<ina"" Or ,,..,.,1<1 ha,'" been done in
Ten thOUilBud 8Uieide sorties.
duration, would consume II
00.000 oorrt'13 of fllel. Allhe fnu
Jllpnnt'ilO stocks IIf more
of fnel, un ,,"'ount sum-
Ihll of openllions at I hc rale of
then obt.ining. or 2 months at th"
m the 9l'OOnd quaner of 191-4. the
..... Japllnese ever achi",-etl.
"Iblies on ,1"1)llIIese a,'inlinn fuel
ion nnd consnlHlHion u'-e 10 he
pendi$ 111.
....UN'i'... Oh,'iOlL'''. Ii,., size and
of the suicidf force opi>0:5inll' an .ctual
h..-e d"pendf!ll larp"ly on the
prei"..""ioll 0l'erntiOll$ which had
to lh.. ",. All "irfield3
Qf Okinuw" would I",,e hot't'" re-
by oue of the most co'l':entrnled ail'
'll'()rld hl.!l ""er seen, And .11 m.jor air
wilhin ranI!" of Ihe )b.ri.naB. Iwo
.ute<! Stales carriers "'onld hn"" beoen
10 IIOfile lIunck, The rfIil and 1'Olld net-
would hnWI l)('frl subjfCled 10 hel!'")'
il would luwe become "irtu"lIv im-
mo"e SUPI)liefl fOl"\\"Rrd eilher .d-
kb or 10 j..'rolmd 1f"(101lS. _\Ild of
lime of oonstalll air J>Blrol
been maintained o"er the in'-asion
r Ihe main ,1"lfflne;;6 113 \\"1'11,
fil1nl.,' beliHeol, howe'er. lhul
h."e Iheir "uitidf 1)lnncs "'ell
pl"ewnt their de:>t.ruetion befom the
ad that a hill'h proportion of suicide
ha'e l....n"l'IIled Ih" .\lIi"d
ft'acl",,1 the Bill. lons been
, of hits or ,hllllll;!in;.:
1M''' M"t ie ""uS 10Wfl' lit Oki-
in the Philil'pinl"'. lind il
_n e"fll lo"er ... ' lhe time of in... -
of the IIOO....r training"
Se..erth..1 . ,if the Jalla-
hee" nble to l1r SOIl' 5.000
figurtl HI) IIlfllllS imp<lll8ible, 111,,1 if
lilt' Il\HIIJ.,"tl of success thl'Y ,nl,in-
hQut Ihe "lIr (I.>, percent fol'
.... 1",6 pera>nt for or d... ll1...
). Ih"..- ...ould h.,-" "",k .bollt 911
it _ libly thai the f'Iltire Jallanese
_ would ultimately ha"" made 8uicide .t
l.ckM. bul at the tnd of lbe w.r no definile plnll1l
b.d 10 oovt'r this rontingellc,V.
c. 0,. lbe end of IhI' .... r the Jnlla_
_ had made ronsiden.ble progrfflll in impk-
meIIling' Itwir plan. Tbt JaP'onele X.\')' in par
ticular had __bled about 2,.00 small
trainel"$. "tuipped them for 8Uicide .lIncks, and
dil<pf!1'Sfd the majorily at small W'ft$8 or sod ficldl.
or llnderl:tollnd hanj(ll'lJ. The Ann,. hnd
001 il had modified noout !l(I()
('()IIl"1 and 1.150 advaneold trainers for
micide aUacD.. uod it Will to lurn t
iI>, prim .., lrainer<. The following table sho....
110" .llItusof Jlllllln"", .\ir Fol'I,.'e wh
the "'nr ended:
("_.:,-:;:-..._......-....... ,.. d:..1
-_..... t
d, .f:r;41iOll .... a Limiting "'1l'tI
th" main .Jal>llne>e ""em eut otT from llie
llOutbern .ren b,. Ihe Allif!ll ClIl'tllle of
I'hilippinel, the Japanese were faced. \\"ilh
ultim.te ,J,onage of a..i.tion fuel. This
made a maximum ell"ort 10 all",i.te. first by lhe
of ca'll'O 8Ubmariflf'S and major fleet uni to
ron tbe .\llit<! blockade, and laler bl' Ihl! incrn-
inp: Ulle of alcohol 1.'1 II Bu!lf;litute fol' IlI'intiOll
I{l\lIOlioe. nut "'ilh Ihe inlel'dict ion of the sUPPI.f
lil\f'!l from Ihe SOUl hem "'(01\ endl' in l!U:, l
became only a que.<ltion of timf aeculIlul.lflI
lII.ocb would be nhallSted.
TIle. PI'08p't of a fuel shortage I
reduct,on in the OIl/nller of fl)ing- hout'S nllotl""
Japa.nese pilOlIl. both in Rnd mit of (Ill
lrainin,:r pUl"J/UlleI. That I1'dllction in 111m
it mo"" Ih.n "",,r aplIII""nt thRt thll on'" hopl'
for Japa_ .\ir FOn:"ell Will thll snieidll ."att
Rut of 00lI"", enn before fuel became a fact"
in Inininp:, Japan_ pilots w"re ullablf to .,.,...
petfo with Allied pilotlJ in orthodo$ op.. ",tion8.
The Japa.n_ ne\'@rthelllllll would hnl"e ),.d
ample ""ialion fuel for lIUlltained snidtle .tJaet
GO any inV&lliOfl fon:e if hRd laken plotf
v.a.I Ia ..... of 10 adline IIIda .tllra-
tiGl. n. __.... thnefoId; (I) 'The JaP'o-
n.. wen unable by 1 April 10 .-mble and ....
on Kyulhu a fI1KI1II fora>; lhe attack of
....0 April tMir muimum efort wilh
tiM pAD. whrlro ,",",anilalMat f_rd t..-;
Iiil. ['ailed Statl!ll mrriN IItriD< and dam-
...,t farilitifs fOl'C'iJll' Japanree inlo
dispe.,.1 of aifCl1lft. which in lum ....dl.
11K ol'lf&niulion of larp.-Ie lIullcb ueH<:l-
difll.....!l; (3) the suicide pilot'" "'ere f.r 100
10 pennit e.....11 .n allempt .1 Ihe
a-mbly of formatiOllB l!UCh as might h...e
"'- mpable of ..Iurali"" lhe def_
":"he Okina"'. mmJlloipl CO$t lhe J.panme
IIlOI'l! than 3,M pl.n"" in rom"t I""""" l.llOO of
tlKm Boicide planell.' TheJ hlld done more "11m-
lhe Uniled &.Ie;; :s"1I\"')' internlS of lonna,,-e
ant ca..uallie:s lhan il had e.-er blofo"" su/f,,11'd
iN !BE COO!\!le of a o""ralion. BUllhe
_ ,,/for!." "'en futile from lhe 6l"'1. mnt'" it
w... impollllible for Ihe Jalllln_ wilh Ill@ir lhen
slla:l""",llIir forees and :s"1I\',"IO def"nd Okina"a

" ::hlt,,,e 01 the M lslMrJl .gSl I_mo.
a .\boul 22 June the J.paDelle in
ele:t admitted defeal .1 Okina... and began 10
tItn lJ:Moir .ttll'lltion to deftn!ll! .pinst in"lIlion.
Kyulm Will picked as Ihe nlOllt lik"ly 1)lace for
1an4illl(ll. and it was at firill estimntf!ll that Ihe\'
miPL tak" plaoe in AuguM. Lal"r, Iht
.., ",n.d and the JaP'o_ bfpn preparing
10 neIt an iDnsioo in Oo:tober or So..ember, .le-
tuly. the Joint Chiefs of Sta/f had lentali
_I X_her for tM inv.",ion of K)"UlIhu
(Operalioo Olympic).
h PIoN, Tb".Jar_ A!r plaoned, III
had fOJ' Okin. ..... 10 dn"" back lbe in1'&llion
b, _..ue:ide 1I1r.cb. n.e,. belif1"ed, ho....'O'V,
tM: ....... of the tborter dilltaDeft and a gt'Mter
Il1Inber of air .... they would be ahl" to put
IIMX'e plene in thIIl air and 10 OOIIt'enlrale lheir
il1lo allhorter period of time. ThfJ' \,i8ual.
.. WI... of 300 or fOO attacking pJ._ lIying
attllerateof ODe waYee1'ety bour, and Ihe1 hoped
&0 -" .... Moo suicide pw- witb pilota
is -...1m- by SOTtGIber, DOl rountill( fighter
&ad _na__ IUIitlI whic-h 1fllre 10 oondutt
open.tiODl in aid of the suicide
lid. It proved to dlllltroy the in..ading
,h"="=."r"' ...... __,__
Ihe 11)11, ",heu "bout l.j(i
l>ereem or pi"""" "'He 10;,( to enem,.
filthlel'!'. IIlIt onl), ill Ih"t month. in
1911 lInd .)IUlnar,' did JO!lSeS I per-
C4!l\t. 1I11d in :\111'" .Iulle.JuJr. Mild AUl:U5L Ihe
IfI"ilth! of T",entielh Ail" Force ope".tion!l., the"
were le!l11 Ihan 0.2 percent. The 1011111'l11e of \,;ighlh
,\ir Force Ilea.'" bombet'8 to GenuAIl fighlers
!hlVlIl!;liolil the .... r "'U About Ihree times Ihat
of 1hll T......lllieth Air Foree, lind the worst
tllonthl,.IOIIII I'1Ile for Ihe l-;ighlh (in April 19-13)
...u mOl'lllh.n Ihre-e Ind one-h.lf lime!llhe worst
10!!1! "'Ie of the T...tntied,.
The fill.1 IIlnsurIo of the tffectintle91 of tilt
J'I>anese fijrllter defeTlllll SJstt-m is dIe SIlIlCe8il of
Ihe 1l-29s. .nd Ihe ....,.,.1 d.m... doue Jal>anese
is Ihe best proof Ih.1 there was no lighler
defell!lfl ...ol1h,. of Ihe name.
lacQ ..."". uceedinj.!l, 10 surface ships.
e.tll "\ldt b, IlOOrl,. I...ined piku in ob-
1101 irc ft.nd it ilI!' lhal e,'"n a1lhe md
of II r the Japanll!lf! .ere capable of doing
hea.,. b,. suicide .tlaCks 10 aD" iD.-asiOll
force '1lllnMchinjr I"" maiu J'I>an_ ilIlands. But
il ....s .60 Illain th.1 t'" J.pan_ Air Jo'on:ea
.-ere inClllllble of inle.,_iug t1Ubslanti.1 oppo!ri-
lion to th" mOllnti"I; _\ \lied .ir assaull 011 J.pan.
lind the r1'C'OJ.'1litioli Ih"l there "'as no dtfense
a):..",in81 that llS8lIult conlributed 10
the deci"ion to SliITeuder.
Ion. V.l>. .-, ....... .,

.... ::; ...... ,::;


thl'lll"eml-'e l1\lln1>el" of ,Jnp'"HJi;l'

per "went)'-first Bom1>el" COlli.
achiele11 b,. JlIpane9t fij.!htel'll
JI.49s is shown in Exhibit Q (.\p_
which gin!S the tot.1 Air
ud 1_caused b, .Japanese fij.!hl-
r8 from lhll eshibil. B-!?9 losse;;
much sm.ller than tho;;e sufJe".d
hea"" bombers .gainst Ihe Ger-
in Ihe Europellil lllealer. The
the J'lllIne;;e Air Foref'!l tllld .gaiIl$l
limited re!lOUretS. Ih" Jap"uesI' _\ir
nel'"r hope 10 eom"tte on e"en
&be Air FOn:ell .n 1'.1-
of Iinle. Thl:!ir inil i.15tlCCe$Sll!l ..........
e:steIlt iou.lI,. "'1'11-1rained. ...ell-or-
well-(uiflpl:!d .ir units which caujrht
tIIlprepared. Aftu Ihose units ,,tre
l!IoIomOIl!l. BislI1.rcks.a.nd ... Guin.....
Ie ftl)la<:em"nts "'ere ...,.ilable lind
power disinlegraled unlillhe suicid"
ils onl,. efJa:l.i'e "'l'fIpon. At Oki-
demonstrated l!lllt mil&'! suicide II'
I pea of aircraft in I"" fonn"tioll,
Lr.borfU' ...dar W&lI larjrt'I, 1111<\
...18 inetaned in onl" a f.'" 1,IIInl'!l. The ,J"lla.
n_ dill nOl WllfllOJ ...dar idtntilkltion ('(Jllill.
IJl4'J)I (I FF) on any l'fl!'llar l..-. .nd 110
Il\ltic 'IIt'tr1fll Will mad.. 10 of
lifrhtl'rs. ,\<rordinlll". no \'4'donnjf of hj!l .....""
inlo 1W><ilion ..... lx-iM.., alld lIormallr Ihe
conlrol did Iill" mo Ih.n 11'11 a
1lillhl 10 """,""bl. o.-..r a j>Clint beoli nd 10 III' in
tl.... or tl....
r, 11K' .1"1*"1'>'1' "..-er .trt .blt 10 delelojl
!iN-cIL..... l,i/;:h-allilUdt ;n1tl'Cf'Jllor,
d, Ih' 11K' limt I"" II-:?!l< ....... u optl'1llion
nlOO( of Ii.... I""'" J.pant..e Ililots "I''''' d d.11<1
t""ir .... "-..,,. poorly lrain....l.
'. J"p.De'4' ....luipm...nt ... ,
poor. makiull .ir-Io-/ lind air-Io-I r
commllilication dillic'tllt.
3. MMO/E8ort
In mid-.'pril 194:' llIlperi.1 Htneral 11"".
qWlI1..r.; to .ir ,;.t ....n):..'lh for"
ci.....lIuks on aurf."" unit .....lItl aft ...r Ihll litHe fi,!'hl,," look 10 the air 0111, to " .... J
OW carirtr llIrikelo. or 10 illl ..rcept u
B--l!9 .nuks IInd4'r pal1iculnl, f""orablc eOlul
lions. In Jull of IHS. when Ih... IIl1ack... Oil II
sm.lJ,.r citil"ll a1IMir heiJ:'hl. order .. ,
Iftllpo... ril, rf!!!C'inded. bul in fact ./ollonese 111.,
ronlinued for tht IDOlll pan 10 ",mllin 011 II
pound e:scepl IIOdet ucef>lioulIl circum l"lIN'"
Even befo", tbt ord..r 10 conllll'r\"e !lilot5 .nJ
planes for I"" suicide force. Ihe .\It
Y_ DtVI'r made an an OUI .../forl "pillS! IIw.
B--2lle.. Only a MI.II part of Ihp ti!!hter slrl'"..
of the JapaDelll' "OS ...Ier OOlnmitt .... 1 Ie
fq[hler dtfll'lllM uniu. .nd UCf'pl durin!! JunllJrr
and Jotbruary of th... JIII)tllll'lle AI'I1IY u,
ro_lIIIld '- ...ith 11111 H--2(l;j tlmn with thl:
Pllilippilleil aDd OkinawL Durin!! tho enlire I""
riod of ait allacb on .J'I'.I1, fl"Olll .)1I(]6 Inl1
Iinlil tblltnd of th6 war, the .hl)"nestl AI1(1)'
...,. n... eommittfd mOn! thllll 21 percelll ,,{
thllir tOl.1 to tli6
The low of tll'ort of .1"flunlSll lillhl'''-
.ga.intll: thl' 1t-29lt is hefII illdic"INI I>y 11,11 foll
t. W, Hilt."
JaJ*_ dtd no( ..m_ly ronBidel lhe
of air .narb on I1It' ma'o JaJ*ne-'
....... lInlil I'" lloohu" ... ,,1 of Alml IH:l.
AI lbal li_ I"', ",sl_ndf'd nldi_lny
air .....,...... """ffll .nd I...,...ft..r ah,... maln-
taiDNI ......,.i ftjrhlH' ""iIM in .ta,_n for
pu.,..- In 1H.1 Illd Nrl, 1\loU. ho.......r. U--2D
lttL'b .......... b4'lifl4'd 10 b4' immi"",tud 1M
&,:II .... doof_ of In.. to:Dl'oi"" ....,.
toIltido-n.bW III..olioo. n",,,. follo fd ....-i...
of I"'IOl'pniQ;liOOll dnoilfllftl 10"- I po...
Ibra! of I'" and h. IhI' md of 1M ..-ar a
_llioll..:l .. nK1.II'" had lwu d4'.. 11I1'1'(I..i<ll'
J.,.", 1'OIII1,1fI.. Itlli. "'11I It...
..-ill 110 m....h J'flII- fIlanninlr. In.. OIn1t'lll",
/)Illy 00 I_,,,,r. and lilt' J'J*- .'ir
Y_ M .....r lk'fIldfd I'" main islauds ..
tinily In.
2. ak Dif-/lill
,.... J'r-- .'ir .orc- had Cfl1ain in"'lWIl
utd madt ...ri........ fund'">4'f".1 Olio.-
....... madI' il 11I11x-lb... for IMm 10
acki._ ..ythi.... likt I'" tli<"it,....y in fijrhlH'
dar- .Ilaintd b,. I R.U in t"" ItoIll'" 0'
Bri-m '"" II 11 o.....r (itmllny. Th1lll:
.. 1lMft no t60:itnl fIOOlinlr of I"" ft-
_oft1l4' Ann,..nd I""
t.I_ lhe IWo wnKe,; di ..ided in COIn-
pIeI.I,. impradkal faahioo itb II.... Sa..,. C'OftI'-
i ..... na III na..,.
t-a. aad lhe Ann,. rythillll' .........Ach air
a...... a .,....18 waMli aY"Cl!'IIlnd I.... pn>-
......... for the ... of inronnatioo ob-
Iaiad by the rinl I)'IIIeaUI Wtrt paMI,. inade-
l(IWL AhhoIqda.1 _ lime Imperial Getral
H.....urten del:ided to pool Ann,. and
1Ip_ niu, !be Japa_ Sa..,. rttueed to Iakt
...... from Ann,. Air FOfte oIBl'ers. and _ro-
flbter Qui", of both ware placM under the
DiIIriet Uroo.nd Ann,. commanden, 10 tllt <lMri.
lIMIt of !he IJIUm .. a whole.
l. Japu- radar WIJI V"" poor and f1ghltr
JIll-'. a rudim.ulary t:arl,.-
WU'1iDa radar bad eonaidtnble l'aIIlIl!. bul it
_UIIeftI' be IIIIld 10 delennin. Ihllilude and




' ....... !,._lIlr

thll lito;l "'''''j': (,If plulII!!! 0"1'" l'l"r1 1lIlrb..." the
cnlll111IIIU!t', of Ollll or lI'e Ilir whicll 51111k
lind P";l1('"t Qf It'aln, lind .\(lminl1
\ 1I1l1ll.molos 1ll'1'iI01l1I1 N>pre"enl,,1 i"e in of
.. ir Ilj..... Gu"dRI.
calla I.
c. Ou,.lJfl SfIYlIgl". The [,1-'111"1':II fOf
OI'er_1I11 ".1'''''_ .irenf. l;Irt'nj.'1l1 u<;ed in this
1'1'11011 11M''' t'Ombinlltion or the I.Jo1<;l Jnp.n_
llre1."d the .es',mllll':!l b)" .\Ilied inlelligence
1Ij.,'f'lIC'1""I dur",,.: till' ".r. Thl' lit.. '1I ..... for o,er.11
51''l''I1I-",h of .'llIIIlU\lSll tlnial IIl1d unilll
IhroulthulIl the "'ar sho.'" in n. In
I-"I"ne... l. Ihe,. .re IhOll!!l" 10 be acellnlte ...ithin
,. Ilefl'(.,llI. :-'0 allMillt llllS been IIlnde 10 ('l"l'pare
lllnulll, of tl'e 100.llllllnbe, Ilf pillnes pos.
-.I b.. tllf J.p."..... the .... r. the
.nil.ble Iil.ti",ics fa, too,-e..
11l1fl 1-'TIlllh of ol'n-aU (Eshibit 8)
indicale; tit., de-pl1e hea,.. 1_in Ihe N110molls
.tld Se.. (iUillfll. tllf ..ere IIbl.. 10 build
ulI Ihe "iu of Illfi, ai, foreet !;tHdih' ullliithe
I'hilipll;ne.l C1Imr.if!'ll. TIOf'lt for the' 6l'1"l till"l@.
II-.. nCl!eded tilt nun,be, of Illane< l"l'IIChinlt lac-
Iio:al unitil.ntl S1l"l'n/-'1 h ffll otT.
in tllcli('JIl lI11its .l'O) fell off durin!! thl'"
o:ampaign. but al II", end of I.... " ., Ihe
of old lIire,.fl fo, suicide u..oes was
Ilrol'Hding !'O ""Ilidl.. Ih.t tllf Jlpanf:!lf Il-ad the
I...!--e-t ai, force the,"I'lId e\'fl'" in lerm!!
of .il'O:"... ft IIlannt<! b,' pilots lind ....d, to 9Ortif.
.\ COfnpari..on of E:.:hibits A lI"d II "hows
Ih.. follo,,-in!: l"I':lnlion"hipl! bet"-l'ell IIII' .ircraft
S11'\""I-'1h of lactio:al nnil" lind 1I1011thl\' COIubal
"ire... fl production: .
Tho in Ill" mliu of Il,-otlurtion lQ
du,in,.: llH:l "1ll1 I!lll 11 function of
Ilie hil(h r"h'S M "nSIIl":o which OC<:lJ'Te\1 during
tll<>SI' )ClIl-,;. Tim {",. 8"eh high
R'll di",u,;sl'([ in 1'1I11',.:n'1>1I"- The drop
iu 11'li" "r WIll or COIn.,.., ''(''liltS frmu
,,_.... ,..,
""" 'M>
.,_" ...
" ..., ,ou
lJ_, ,j+,
,'"I" ...
')81. ,...,
., 1I",<lC by Onkel'S
pne. Tbe llCCUnlC.I of .nch esti-
varies with tIm offiCl!flI in"oll'l'Il,
hnve c1mcked R/,'1\iIlSt AI.
material Rnd foulld ncellnH,t.
of the total number of nin:raft
the JIl(lllnl'Se lit Pll11iClIlar limes.
"",,re Illllde up by junior oniCl!-flI ill
Mction of lIeadqullrterlJ and
ftI as their bllSis Ihe allocntions of
10 "'fious oomm.nds. fi/, ..,rtII
IK1 .pinst materi.l.
delll'll<lentirely ul>on the memory
officers. IlIe..".re .Imost ",.ithout
of ain:n.ft st.",n!,"" of .J.panese
units ou Ihe basis of. hiqo,}'
Ilnit!! COII1I)i\ed from n...mol)" br
on operations .nd le..el
001I1111.11I1. Thooe e:;timate:. u-e be-
.ccurate sin<:e the hilitol)' 011
Wft'e t.-I ooincides .lnlO5l uactl)'
p...pared the ...r b.." Ihe
igt"nCll Se.... ice (War 'Dfllllnllll'lII,
Ii..e an erTOlleou>;l, 10'" pi<:ture of
Ilrwty .in:raft Slrenf!lh. hO"-f"f" for
&btir cakillations. Ihe estillllllOfll al.
the S1l"l'ngtb of a particula, unil
aircraft or the n"mbe, of
pilots, ....hiche'fr "'as the lo,,er.
un;l!! $flit pilots ,,'110 had not. befll
Ulto .ction.
-'"'H'Y' The Jalllllle!!e
.. bum all it!! nlCOnls. bm "I) 10 Ihe
fe.. document!! Im,'e been nnronred
in noro'15lnlcti"g the nir_
of the ""1):1"_ .\ir Foret.
.....ilh the Jllpanl\Sf .\rnl"" slluisti
waa in 1l p..imiti,e stule of develop
... estilllllle!l of st rel1j!lh in taeticnl
be on tile of the hislc)fJ or
ehfcked Allied inlellil-"'Ilce.
hal "r tlle .'i'''r SI'l1i,lical otliC\'l'S
1II0re relillllie limn COfTe"IH),Hlinl\" fiW
the J.llllnese A1"II'). b"t the.I' 1lI11"t he
l'eIlI'lle. Se"e"l1 .'i,,,.,. ollieel'll wen)
had lin intimille wilh pili"
IpeetaCUIIlI' lind thei,' e!lti
.. numbe!'ll or nil'\:l'lIrl takin,.: pll!'t ill
lUIal1l fl'111. III cllte-
ftII gi,'en hy lin olliter who Ilew wilh
",fu...d 10 submil for re"il'" n
Hen 10 ,I-c' tbf hnd of the
l!qu.llitatWi ... ith the War .'.111
member of tl><= :,"u('_ \\ ar CouncIl. I hll'"
",,"ice!\. therefore. ronlinued to dominllle- Jnllll'
n_ indu.stry. alld lhe rortlribulion of the :Iolini limited 10 tilt' I-.-i,inlil of ad,-ift'. "'hich ..'
f. _lfllllJl ProJ""l;of!. .\ fun dijlf('ll!l!Iion 0
.Ja,"'TII""I' airerllft production i ronlaillf'<! in I
"'I>on of tilt' .\il'O:"rIIft Dit'i lon. C:;;'<
all produnion ;,; .I,o.'n in .\. From I
point of ,ifW of lhe deeline alld defeat of I
_\i, Fon:es. onl... 0111' a Iwct of .'-pa,
ail'O:"nlft Ilrodlll'"lion II_I be IlJeluionl'll.
Imrinll: IhI'" IIISI ,'nr and a Ilalf of the ''''', I
Jap.nes<> _\m', .nd S.,... cOlllinual1,- dro... I
manufactlll"l'J'$ 10 Ilrodll\"f IIlll1\bel'll of a 1
rraft ..-I,ile .1 tilt SlU)l@time.llemptingloinl'
durt' Ilf. IllaOf Inlf!'. 1101'l"(",.r. bej.,.-inninl!
of I!J.I.I. an all""llI ..-u to dislle
the indll"lrv to a,'oid .i,.Hack. In the
.uendinl!' tiOf' Ilreo'!ure 10 illCM'1I 1'n')(luction a
Ihe aUfmlll .1 the ..-orkmllnshill
l8Iinl!' indi ..idllal plall"" fell otT INldl,,.
Iill' Of" plant Iy.- _fit ntler I)l'rfe(ud.
quenlly. tilt' margin of q".lit"ti,e supe:rioril)'
jOJtod by .\llied aitcraft ..-i<l\'"ed continu.U, I
_.nI lhe elld of thl!' "'a'..\n<l noncombat 10>-
both in ff""inl! and in the thellter". we'" ,
J. AirtT"" SI'eI'g"
a. JlJpani'" .t....,y .'itotiJrti",. The JIIP"'
.\nny burned an itll noronls on lIircnlft
The .... u. rtGt II(IlIeriOIUl llS mi,.:ht nt fil1!t 111'1....
ho"fVf", since Army Ai, 1II'llllqulllierlJ hl,,1 ,,"
mOllt rudimentary .yllttDl for iClll "0111
But the abllence of recordll makl'll it lleCl"lSHI'.' I for lIgareBon ..irc... ft 011 ,\1\i",II'
lUId on the memory of "",dluble .["1"
n_ oIIicefll
TIIIl 6,;{UreB on Japan_ llin:l"Ilfl 8lrenwh oIr
tain..a from .'.pan_ olIiCl!11! hnve I",'CII of il'
0) EBtimattil of 1Ilf IIllml ...I of
I. c;-J
1tw J...._ _Il' .mbitious plana
for the upa.n><ioo of thfoir .,r fol'>:"f"4. 1"'1 for.
..arcy of _.Ml,",,- "f'" ""R1.1f 10 "",,' t!lfm
out in full_ .\('1u.1 pl"O<h"1io" M"fr I'NI'"Md
p1M,otd proo:!ll('1iOl1. Thf ... "f'" _ of J1Tif'"
_lfab in tt. Ililll'li"f fro." f&1101')o 10 fo....... rd
.......\,..1 00"' ,,1__ rnrhtod tilt' fonunl .T'f&.
Ilwnllmlwr of .."ni,.. .<1u.lh' I\<,..-n ,m.1l in
mlioa 10 t1... nllmlwr of .i':"rdl 00 hand. ThUl
.Plf'ndis droorribf.."' ...Il.... i..... 00 llro-
dudiooil'O:"rah <4",I'I-"h. 1\....-.. .nd ralf'< of
w..........,ili" ."d rol..idfl" tilt' for 1M
dio:paril" tiM> .'11la1 .Jar-""""' _If of
f.O'1 .nd IIIl' 1.lam"",1 iu of IIIf t_O .Ja.._
\if "'(>roM,
2. ?,---.
.. "'lillO-tiro, .'.pallfllf llid not bum
11... , I'W'OI'da alit' "II1'n'fIdt, ... did tilt J.r--
ailtary. and 1M li",,_ j:i ..t11 in tilt main INI'If'
UK -t iP thila"J!fn,lis for .il'O:""ft production
ant....d 011 J .....- f&<'tory 1"t!OOI'da. "",....
bow_. DO of J.pa_ piaN! for prodw:
lioa for N,li*,," than I\)U. Eshibit.\ dwWll tilt
rftatioaahip bft.Hn actual and Vrodllr'
t.Ka. and .Looo",,.11 production of ('(llI\bat typell
aM .11 In- of .in:.... fl frgn I J.nlla". UNI
10 he tod of the wa'.
I. Pt.,," PNNlIV/i"". . .Pl'"'" fnJlIl Ell'
hilit A. a<1ual production ffll f., lJIolo'" planned
pr-l......ion. al IMlII dllrinlil Ihf Ia", "H' and a
baIf oftlw .ar. TIlf.......,... fo, dilll"'rily 10
badr. 10 tha bejrinninlil of the ....r .nd enn before
it, wbeD tlw Anny .nd S ..,. btpn 10 <:ompete
.ith -,hotill', for .... pl-attri.l" .nd production
fariJiti-. Th_ft.,. production plans Wfre
baoed on lII'pa,.,lO Anny .nd Suy rt'quimnfnts
aM rarely had .ny relation to actu.1 lItocks of
Ill&eri.1 or to production o:apafitJ'.
111 No_'-r 10.13, the Munition" Mini"'I')' ....
orpai2;ed 10 pl'1lYent fOIIIPMltion betwHn t1lf
...n- and to mobilize the .ntire llOOIlomy of
,Japua. But 1M MiniBtry a failure from the
IlUrt bIca... it wu not lilinuthe rt'qlli.itfo PO_f'
0'fV tM IBrriclea. Both tilt Anny .ntllll..
',.-rlil.... 11<'''''' ''''. 1'0' ".1.... ID,,'
(I,'"il"hl";l1 Ottol,f!l' wen' cOlleenlrn,ed
ill tlllli '''''''1. lind lll1'l 1<0 l"m:"'ll of tht"'t' were
Therel.ftcc Ill(-' h'ck of trlline<1 I'"rsollllci
n IlIrj.:e f"clor ill thc "olh,p;;e of th..
8J81em. Whtn IUI'ge nllllllll!r"I of 1I1l1mill('(llllen
Wel'e <In,fted to be lmill"<! on thc job. Ihert! reo
suh('(1 "nil o"enlllPI,ly of inul'ericuc....l IlI'''''''"llel
10 ((lI,intl,i" a ml,idl)" Air forec:' I
f. l'lan" . .\nOlIll-'r fl,Clor "hil'h
incrtl,!'t'<1 ferr)-inl!' M1ll1 otllcr nOllcomlM,1 lOIN"<
dcteriomtion in Ilic of cotlstnlction of
II ... 1,lmll'" 11I"'"I<;(-'I\'I',". "'hi,,h hll!! lJeen mentioneol
ahow. Till' lWO l'rindl",1 eakn """ ""'JSl-""II)'
crK"(\lmtl'rtd in lhl' for" 1 ml?' wc", Iandi,,;:,
I!'''''r and 1"lOr llrak"", 1'11<"'4' roll..truetion,,1 ...
nl"--l"l "'e", Ml'lla .... I1cO'cr tn'n in
lhc lie,,' Min:",fl 1.'1__ '1'111I.... al Ihe tnd of the
.... r II... hrakl"- 011 olle of Ihc 1\l!"-""1 1,lant"'.
(; 1:(; t: II. "-Cl"l! "0 ina<1tt:lll<llc t hal it ......s OflCI1
I.ndeol on rotll!'h /..'ro"nd alonl.... ide ronCI"l!'tC rull
.... in orof'r 10 dee............ Iht Icnj:!th of roll.
. .li,,!,lt/,. Tlwo poor condition of .1"I):In_
.irliel,b ....... bo. f.""or in lloe hil!h MIt .. of op.
HlIlio".1 1<0;0-' TIM' .hpll"_ 1,I.ctd f.r leo<s
lh.n th...\Ilit" 011 of
1,",t<lI""dilll!' ;,.Iril"" t1... did not
h.,t 10 I,roo'ide for.s IlC'lIo')' load heine' I'I1Ictd
011 tht lind becau_ Ind.ed
oon..tnK1ion f.cilitiK EO'en in JIIJllIn lc--" th.n
:>11 of .\nl1) "-ere !)f,....d. lu lhe
for,,.n1 th... "nih "ere nO!. ,!!i"e"
,ul":I".le lind KJlI;l)nle'lll for eilhcr COli
:;l:n'Clion or "' of .1l"-tIUher
Iicltls in IIl"1'l1S Rich .s Hunn. dra>ilio:all) cnn.iled
.J"I",n"",,, OI"'Tlltioll durinl!' tilt _,.on.
h. :O>lillllnotl...r f"clor ""as Ihe
of tlie pilot" (.\I'I>I-'ndi:< II).\S IIM'ir skill de
dill('(1. Ihe nlJlIll>I-'r of .ocidclll8 Oil TOuline Ilil!'hlS
;nCrell;et1. Alld dlcir IlIck of C:<R;:'I.'Cl'IIlcd
1111" c,lelll of lhe from Ail'("rnft stn'cluml
\\,cllkne_ alld poor "irlithlll.
5. S"rl'iu4bilifJ
'1'111"1''-' HI'" no firm 'i).... 011 .JRIlRlIC'iI' TIll"'" of
""nic.mllilil.". :'Gill" '/"l,,,nesc OniCllr>l l'5Iilllllle<1
lhem III N 1>I'l\'('lIt durilll!' mOSI of the Will', 50
11I'1'<:"1l1 till ri 1Ij.: 1he I'Ii iii ppille>! Cll 00
I>\,,"(-',,"t d111'inl!' Ih, Ok i1m \\'1' ,\ Ihl'<l 11\.
dllrinl!' llie \\,I.r c;,lln,ute<l ""n
ic"I,lJililr in r"n'"nl 'II""" 1,1 wcll Iwlo'" [,0 l>Ilr-
"'!tinll nml 1e>,18 "', 1't.'\ltleed.
WIlS often lhe HOSI flight. 1111<1 "
11*1 r11lt Will! ineo'itn\Jle.
and Ncpair. I'erlll'ps the lIl,,,,t
for high .J><pllnl'SC ferr}"in,.:
r l,ont'Qlllbot 1_W>lS the fuihll'll
10 Ilc".,lop "n :ult'\llInle lIl11;ntt
ir .\ hhotll!'h on I"'pl'r both
K.v)" sllpl,lied dlcir forw"nl Ull;tl!
e !'l!ctions "nd seplln'l" mobile
up hl' fi ..ld repair :lnd SUPI,I}"
bLq ill openHioll the
for thc follow;lll!' rca."Ons:
IIlliI move for"aro of llleti..... 1 units
I)' purl of Ihc WlIr. thc enlirc mMin
beeame gTe:!.t1} o'er
ir fa('ilili"", behind Ihc .d
throc whit-h did n ....:h tI.c for"... nl
tao Ihillly spre'.l(1 OI'l oO'er 100 wide a"
l'Ctio'e. lloTeO.-cr lherc no ;lIlU'
ilil;es bet...ecn thc .\m,.o lind :\l\o}.
units wcre 0IICTat;n/! in 1I01l1l11dia.
to be flown \.:;(1() mi\e<: for el1!-';nc
11M' of IlIck of e<juil,mcI11 .nd me-
l=h tIll' h..d m.jor m.intc
ilfl .s far south as U"baul.
thP J.lla'_ relrMled. Ihe rel .. ir
Itt<!l uteml('(1. but 1914 11ll'", ..-as
llbott.1l'" of spare pal1,; for old
of thc spare IJarlS 111M were pro
Iotit in ship sinking-;. <;In. II
of pllns were ner flo...n br air trans-
....ard .re.'"
air .clion also plll)'cd lin impol1.nt
(>tin!! the rclJair srstcllI. Till' ,JIlI'"'
Ioft.d 10 dislll""i>oe their lIdnnced dCI>oI
to >l\1"h an ex-lent thMI Wei'll
tremeudonll 1lTe:!. IIl1d wert! oftcn IlJle'
problem of nl8illlcllllnce amll'Cllnil' per'
the fon'A ...lltl'CllS did nOl lJeI'Qlllt! nCUle
mid194-l. whell A Illrj.,,", proportion
c-.,.,...lffillnCl! pe,,;onncl hAd be<;<n cut olr in
forwllNlllTeIlS. Inil;nll.l'. bolh Sl',,iCt-'$
IlIUR of well,u'lilll'd 11I'1'llOlIlltll to dm
Ul " .. tellsi'e tmini,,1!' lInd ,,'pl"CellH'1I1
WU.., up in Jlll'lIll. "'henlhe Sh0l1111fl!
, Ihe AmI)' \l'IlS "ble to S{'11<1 ror.
denl n",in1euuuee IIl1i1$. In t he Phil
tinll, liO\l'Ht'l'. the J"plllI(;tl ,\I'nl)'
that TO 1)( 1.11 ill! bc,;t tr,dlll',1

Thol<e 1_are sho...n in t.bular fonn in .:t
hibil J.: 10 the time pcriods in ...h...
thn occurred. Tha' exhibil illdiC1lll!ll the l!:
imilOl1anct of lhe Solomon!!. BilIlnArekll lind
(juine.. Ibe Second !>hilipilines .,
the Okila"-. operation in holdinl!' do...n I
llumeno:al Slrenp:th of Ihe JI.,ln_ .\ir Foreel.
c. "'('"!ling .u al'pca"'" from
J.:. J.I)f,ne8l' ferry"inj!: I'lStimMIl .t ".1'(
aircraft. St.les fcrrSillJl; J f
both lbe .:uropcan and Pacific thclllerll 811101111t
to 0111\" 909 .i""raft. The ditfcl"l!nce lwt ...ecn 11M
1"-0 pro,ides !IOmethinl!' of 101l iude:< (If t
rel.lin e5denc,' of Ihe t,,o .ir
d. TtMi"g. Onc of mllin rellSOl\ll for llot
hil!'h rale of JAI'llnelll' ferrSili1f 10/:lIM'!I WI'!! ""
I'IIIlll_i" on leI!Iilllf llIl the Wl,r
Thc deerease in leI!Iinlf is .1'I'Ul!1I1 f,..::1l1l 1hl! fo!
ItndllJf tablt SIII'l'litd b)' thll .!nI'"IlC!ltl Al'IIl)' "1,.(
SII"S Air FolU!ll:
(2) COluhal 1<JI!II('o<. hoth Anll)'
. ..ated to be 26.62:'. Thllt !ij.:lINl i
",a..,re. . " I I
plainh' too higb ..hl'o
of comhat 1(lIl!Il'iI ill l'artlcu],'I' ClllI,
. Th_llIlIimates indic.II' thlll K mOl't Ill"
I..'gtl!l. III
. ti<n,re for lolal roml",t lotI!"('ll W(lli (
l,rupr,"1t '.. .'>\. .\nd if 2O.00() II corn,{t, IIl;u",
for rombat 1-. IlMon nOllcombat .lntlS
'-n moch hi'er th.n lhe e>;llllll,t
(21,'10:10 pl.MIl) if lol.1't "'alI !IOmc... hc
bo:t:"efl1 50.00:' lind :.4J)(It) &II ahow.
b. 0t'('...",11 .til'lTOlt Loue>. Takil1 into COIl
sidtration till' J.I)f,n_ til[Ul"tf< /lCt 0111 III E:<hibil
C and 1>. OIlMor J.panese I
in 1)f,l1i""lar o:ampaij.rru:!. ,\Ilitd of ...
ne.e deslro)td .nd fillurtll 01' procluet
.nd stl"l!njJth. JaJllln_ .i""rarl I
Ihe .... tslilllMl follo..
l .....l>&l_ .
Tralnl"" 10_ ..
("10M" ..._1>&1 -.
bo-..r UHI,
........ lIH1-A..,.... llH.>.
....,...., A_
Rtt II.. Am,)" ."d S.oy _im.tH of
,",",11 k-.rt inOOllt,t.llml ..ilh tla('b OIlMor .nd
witb J.....- _im.tM of J- in Jlarticul.r
-,.pin follo..i....
(II Anny comt.t 1_ (inrludinlt: .il'("rafl
on Ihe ,,",LInd) .I"l! flinn all 16,llS5.
ComwpondirtM Savy' onl)' IO,IlTO. lim
Ka,,! nollOOll:l""t 1_.rIl jtinn &II 16,bTll l'PIfJ.
IWM"ith.Army noncolnhat 1_of 7.M1O. TIlfrll
it nc apparent I"NlJI>II for tbi. dill('repancy .in<:fl
tb& Va"1 ." ... much or mOrll aClion th.n lhe
Anor. and ain<:fl ita rIlpair 1UJd maintenance 8)'11'
bin " .. at ...... pod.
U. 11I& .. prodMtioIl eaa-'l by n l!ll llUlICkll and
diIpI8al of die llu'trdt indllllry.
<t. V..,.
L l,jIIIIUM. All but. f... .I.p._ .\rmy anti
S".,. nrordI "lalioK 10 '-lui ....lMoom
and IlMo oealioilK-lo OIl ...... lum".11I'<1 by 1M
on ,101014 bUI lb.
.11'-.'" ........
_on- of .. f... J.p"IIlW' oIIio....n<. )101"1"
o...r, I,", war.\lIMod on ..a:jI-
ap -.u ",,,,,h _ ",ii_hI. lhan in'tlhll"'"('1' Oil
ailT,,'t Of produrl'on. II h.l$. ,1......10"',
bHn imj..-lbl.. 10 b an..-
on I .. .111"" fWu ,,,1 man..- of ,I... I,:"", Iife".
II"" rontailWd in ,bu. "'I"'" ",a,- Ilf' (0
an f'm>rof or nM>n',
Th fiu"'" _I in .10. nlain ,,!Wf forailTl'lIfl
kJlRi in p,..ticul... Ol",ralionll or .n>
wli...fd 10 bf IDOI"f .,.li.blP tha" flIMr .Japarw.oe
".Iisli<ol on '-- aft' for
, ... noEII p"rt on ,ht rtrol1tion of ol!i,...r.. who

.1..._ .\nu,- and :o.-:.'T .irnllft
...... U l!IC;ullufd by .1-,,,,,.- .\rm.' and ...,.
Air I",dquarttfll I'" fII't OUI in to:shibiLl C Ind
D. 71... lipre jriftll for Hllal .\1'01,' and ....y
k- is !il1,D:,s aircn.h. 1111I1 fipI", chk!!
r'OIIlI',ly ..-ilh foJlo..-i" C1Ikul.lion of "-1.,.,
mad. from finn produdion .nd
in"'l1ory in ..-hid, lMort m.,. be .n Im'Or
of If Jl'rrtml or mort:
T.. .. ,., .. HI'
0 T_) ,









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- -





- -


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Exhibit B
-... .,. .,. 1.1.
-- -
- -- II
- . -
. -
. -
. -
. -
. '.
. -
. -
. -
" ". :olO
111 lUll '.
10 "
>SO .. __L:::L_J.
T ".._
T """.'.." ..,_
Exhibil C
li .......', I.(}$.... U, .I"/MMH ,1... _ .1,1' "or:
t.t__ __
() d ,
8 ........... 0_0' ....
-- -






,. ,. ,


,. ,








: : i : : :
Exhibit B
Exhibit C
.Ii,....../I 1.... :. or fA, J."'OWM ..... . h,. 1'0+'
T;:''' 0 ...4


" "

..... J"""'
4lIO _ ;00
-I -

- .. 1,"1
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- -
..... I.

.. -I"


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,. ,.


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,,- ...
..-; .. "'1' .... 1
'''. '"


T<tIaI ......... _
1'..... _ ... _
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culisted lllen remlliucd about whll' it ha(1 been
ot'lllhe Will' (E:thihil G)
\ttl be .
HI irltln'uir of the war, the J"pnne;<> X"y
"'"S produdlll{ pilOUl "t the mte Af" 000 ..
I . a)C""l\,;
COU'I"U"C< 'nth the A',n)'8 i50. Rnd IIccordi",''' it




_. Tal









. "
inA: of units as units, was rellllOtl-
fo!' e/licicllc\" . I
'. . ")e<
.. apallese III,. IIll1ts III ,"-' .
. ""gllllllng
time bee",u" lIIore tlnd
to pronde t r"'llIng of this !iON. ltnd

.-.......... -_>1_-
_.-.... -.
.A.. __'t .... _ uoo
.___ <.lIOII
..----....... _1__' ".
e-.I_1Doo.""U ._ ",..
.. _,__-u _ '."
_ ..... ,...., __u _ ,.
u ........_ ,.
'-_.lPo<-ItIl....... -

..........- ...
"A-._ - I'_l __ -.t .... __
_ ....
lIDtillbe were aaipled 10 tacticsl lin;
For eumple, tt..ft no fOnlUll Arm) tnini
roww for IUlriplon until 1(1.43. The Navy.
,rained .inTewmeD more &!lIlid
b1 11I4t illl uaini0lt" \Iuiu were desilV'td to I
out _ 2.:.oD nniptors, boInbardiers. [!U
and lIiPt eor:i_1!I1 yoe-r (E,;hibil!l 1-' and I)
Before IIw ....1'. ODP-third of the flyi
tni_ "1m! ftll(lliar candid., 11\(1,
thirds were enIilIted nwn. and the Inl
weft aboul 8 per'C!Gt 2 rN
c6:as and tbe enli[lled 'I'lin
!WI and enli@l:...t mm "'Im! UliwJl to
fI,ma tclIoob and training 1f1'O"1)/l. Ihe
ra..-inr hallDOft lIyio time.llll ... ir,,'"
ia ((IIQbat .innft, bll!fore lIl'IIS;j.'l\f\1 IG
...lar hlctin.llUlit. Tnininll: in ('Omb"t lire
.... OllIItilIued wit bin l&die.1 unit". IIlld in
IIIillPtbI immediatel1 preeeding tile "'ur,
bpt toptber and trained u units. IIOUle in
tIetim to be I-t when war broke ollL F(ll'
UIIple. tbeearrierair I(fOUfllIwhich allJ,,'.ked 1
Harbor were gina lII*ial tn,iniHg" ill 8h.
water torpedo attaeb;and Ihe IIi,. grollll!l
attaebd Wake, fmIa the were 1I11fl'i
tnined ib IoRg nap oyer ....ftlc!' 1\I,\"ig"lio.
operational tninl0ll: rl!<:l!;"cd in
PeIIteted Qita, after gradUtiOli from t,."ining nn
At tbe btPanj.., of the ...... the Air
........ force of hiPl11kiDed
air ..... pel 11Ie.-lit1 of that oriJiaal force
.. _i...i..l tluaqboGl 1M lit.a ,... of the
war. ud it .. aaIJ after tbr ariciDaI .aIled
lPGllP& .... '-a IGIl lIIaI tlw qul"1 bepn. to
ilb'ap. n.-fter piIata ud airt.,, 0-
,-will prvdipI ,..,., ud w.,.
......ol pika _U'&iDMl, ...it_IMAnn,!
_ .. Na9)' .. .hie to pred_ qlllolitaliftl,.
....... upl :n.... 1M eomhd
,_of all air llllit. ...til, de-
__ 7 I, aDd tJ. of the U'&
,...,- ................ 100m .. "1 01_
... W. for the poor IIMnriq -.Ie the
"...- Air F<Jn* ia. IBM IIDIIIM6.
.... pl_I'kI-..-tIlla:....,. ......... npIln
...- tIlu lbo ,.1"
.All ..-.. IoaIld
&da low of -n-hilit1 were primui
t .-It of th8 defeo:ts ill the ma.interwtOe and
, .,--. poor air6tkl n1IlIIIructiOl1 and the
I..,.-ribed ill .... pangnpbL E\'eII if
, __ -.niwd tbe f""" 1IigbU. fn:Jcat
... unit&. ... __ wen eouneed .. opentioflal
1-. poor _me- and -1 IDInor r.tCi-
UIIts -.Ie it libly that 1br1 "0II1d Deft!'
C'IIlt..o_Iht ..... ,.. p- b1 the J.paPM8
... 1iIoaP& 10 tJ. ratio:
o,.rw,.., .......


. .
. .

-1 "'I
. ., ., .,
"', .........
.---.. _... _-

,..----.. --
.<--- -.. _..
-- ".
.... -'--
- - -

.. ..


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-[ .'
_.. ._....
..._.. .-
._.. _---_...
----_... _.. -
_0.-_. _

.. .. .. .. .. .. "I .. .. - ""
- ... .. ;; --;; " .. .. .. .. "I .. -'
, .! .1
I .1 '1
.. . . . .-J :: 1
.. -j ..

... 1 ... ' _ .. _ ...

_..... _.

- -
".. -... -n ....
:I- "K: :
-L ...... .

';1 "'1- "'1 ... ,
.__... _--
._- .__...... -
..... _-
... _---
'---" --c-------'-
__-0("'.. -

,. "'I



of units 8S units, 1\'as rcspon.
I"l' fol' ,hp eftieipncy dbl11:oyed
_ air lit tlte beginning
by, tt became lIlon; lind
provide of this SUIt, ""d
in comi.lllt of pilot.'! fresh from
a I\llljOr fl1ctor in the ultimate
. y of all air units.
of tile war. there ..-ere YOOllt
piJoU "'ho had been graduated
or training units. The
was !l'lDlewhat Sl:rollgl:'r thlln the
only 2.MlO. me 600 of the
...ith an ..-enge of about lO
urigned to the camel' gTOUp!!.
a..,. pilots ..-110 oJll'rated ill the
m )bla}-a. had an a'-erage of be-
flying hoors, and squadron and
had much more. ,Japalle;;c> offi
about 300 flying hours in train
being sellt to a tvtieal unit. as
100 hours in primal)', basic and
tbM gi"en to a l"nited States

60 pP:roI'nt of Japanese .\nIlY
I oombat in China
'ng apinst the So,'iet ("nion
iD 1939. .\bout 10 percent of
pilotll also had seen action ill
ill Chilla was not pllMicu
....... of the lack of serious 01'[>0-
., the- Chinl'll6 Air Force. al
....... and groulld SUPIJOM nnits
apinst !il'e targets. In
SoYiets, bowenr, the Jal,anese
... MOOS opposition lind suf
Japanell! Ann)' .lir Force
a OODlIiderable 1111M of lite
during the first day's of the
lamed .. hile lil[htillJ: the
had a prearranged I,lan for
wining progtllm to meet
t plan was put into e/feet ill
ad became in early
IleW training unita were formed
)I'O"riding about a }-ear's
pencmnel. both offiCt!rlI and
JlI'OII'lUD for rq(Ular offict'rlI
lind enli,ted men .... "bollt what i. had 1Jl.'e1l
lJ('f011l the Will' (I).
Al the of the wnr. Ihe ,hllllne..e XlI'-y
produl'ing" pilot., lIt the of llJltlO .,far 8.'1
with the .\ 1'1lIy"s rW.lIlIllllcoonlin,:I) it
nllule no 1,,1'/-'1' Ch,UI/-'(';l ill structure or SIR of
il" tnlinin!! ol'l!llni1.n.iOll. Two nl!"- lraining air
"'''1"\'. ho\\e"er, put IlItO opera' ion late in
19-12 and early in 194:J respecti'ely.
The 19-12 f'xpall>;ion gal'l! .he JaplllleSl' .\ml}' n
tl'1lillilll! OTJ-",ui>:lllion which produced 1Il0M! than
2.700 I,i!ots in both 1942 and 1943. )Ieanwhile,
the Xa.) or/-'llllization was olleTluing at
a tempo. and it produced
in I!H2 and 2.700 in 1fI... :'l (Exhibil .J) .
During 11)-12 and l!H:'l, .he lIy-ing time of a'er
.\nnl' and pilots 1ll!fore oombat
suffered a dl!!Clinf' ll-:xhibit K). 'fhe
dKlIne attribmablt'.o the 100;.; of a gre:tl major
ity' of thf' pilots with ..hom the Japanese began
the w'ar and to the for ellll,lol'ing: pilO(,
1"K@1ll1y j.!TlIdllllte<.1 from trainln/! llnih ..-itOOut
mnch 0llention or ad'-.lIceo1 tnininc- in C'Ol1lbat
unil<l. of f'Xllerienced nic-hl
and elemem leader-< de,-eloped, paMil;Ularly in dIe
and this made it mOM! diffi..-ult
to ellll'lo." inexpt'rienced repla('f'l.flent pilots etree-
lilely' .u a I"l'$uil. b)' the end of 1943. Japaul'lSl'
air unita had so far deteriorated that .hey could
hurt but no seriously chaUenge the .\lIied
.\ir Fon:es.
s. &!'-1;01l i" J94J ."J J9+I
During HI... 2 and 11)-13. the Japa_ .\rmy and
Xa.'" lost abollt 10,1100 pilOl&, mainI." in
the Solotnons. Xl"'" Guinea. .Yore-
onr. the air poten'ial of the Alliea had fillalll'
become aplNll"f'nt to the high rommand and a sub-
lllaniial nl,ausion of .he size of both air arms
"'&8 deeided upon. As a part of this program and
also.o replace their hea..}' 1-. both .-\.nuy and
Ka"}' madft 1,lan8 to expand their training pro-
more .han three tlllll'll their niJlt:iug size.
The Jal,an_ Ann}' plan for eJ:l)R,nsion ealled
for in .he lrainllljt orpuization
(EJ:hibit II). The unita ... hich had 00e1l formed
in \1)-12 to train te8llT\'lllI Wilre f!CJ.uipped to give
only intennooia'8 or basic Irainit1 iMtead of all
phallell of training, and their numbel' ..... in
creued from 18 to 48, New unitll wen formed to
IVve prima..,. training, Perhapl the maR illlpor-
'anI dftvelopl1lllnt was the formation of opera-
tiOllal training unitl to provide training iDcom.'
"-fU, ,.rI.'" or
.....teo. _,.,..1
otUun I..,Uo!
tor 1_.toM,

.,alal ....
1acoJ.. __ tUII
.......1.. tool_ad ,
'11II h tilt U ...
.,to,1 Ut l .. _. ,
'nh l"\I.nJl..- r_t...t
rLtllll IIGIIIDr1
11 ,110.... ot tU",' I''-
.ro.hlol an .....
..... Jlu....... l' Uoul
rRUnlll rL!"11ll DOtGIl'
(n>11II IlllODJrI'l)
Exhibit G
oluno! ..ctlo.'
1_' ot .... t" tllet-t
Exhibit F
"-IR 5CIIJOU (1I1lO ""-OIl)
_ Ottl""'" s..,lIoo .. ()rn""n _
II.. "-ad '0 I __ ... _ dII.ttr ta .....
'': 1': _ _ _ .IUou
.1hlad I:Un'
..... U .. Uk... \o......
II U ..
At tllP bPginning of the ..-ar hoIb the Ann)' .1
S ...,. Ja.d rfiatiqoly small bill fol'Cell ,
aircraft and pquiptnl'lll m.inlenanl.'l" per.lOn
Th>Ioe fOl'llfJll ........ ino::reased durillJ!" til... "lIr
.J'l"f'MiIDlllely lhe same nouo as Ihl" ftying pe
liPl .nd ... ilh Ihe lIIlme deelin. I
quality. n.. S.ry kN about 20.000 of it!! I
_inlftUlp(lt per.!Onnel in Ihe
_ .rea .nd an equal m,mber ill Ibe Out
P.riIM-...hen JaJlllIIPR bases Ihue ..ere isolated
and in tM Philippines II much I.r",.r numbec ,
bOIh .\nn,' and Sa"y maillt"nalll.'l" lll"r<IOlIIll"l ..-,.
MIl olt In lhe sprinjil: I)f t!:;j Ihe .\ml\' Will' f
II) COIIlIrript. ..omn fl'l)lll lIire",'t. f"actorilS In
illlllructol'l from mamlftlanC(' lll.'hooll' ",hile I
Su-,- 11I"ithdn''' 5OJlOO trainee'! froll' u'llin
B, 1M .nd of the "ac. th.. of Ill.'
I.nallno I'l"cfonnall", Ja.d dro:lill....1
8. Si,,,.;o,," &ul oj IJ'...
AI 1M1"11I1 of th. "ar tllP 18)IIIO.JII rs\lese I,illo!-
....llablP for rom1>&t.ltad an lI)-ing eltptl1
el'k"f' of abool 100 houn! (F.llhibil K). Very fr
1'llllIa ....m.inll'd. in lPoill...r .\m,, Qr Nil".''; wit
oVlPor llllll boul"ll' ftyillj!," time. IIn.llhe\" \\"1'1"'- IllI.i"l.
.inllIructOI'll. or men to el;1
U?II....hlrh. In too .'l"lIt of in\"lll.ion, "'N'll 10 I'
"Ide IllOOrt for llIIicide uni!JI. A,.pm\imlllf'h
the'l had ..
PI 0111 .1_thanIOOh"llnlfl)iulol""I\,lwr
10 be UIII!d In the initi.1 "uiride KtllU;ks 10 11
that .ircraft were IllIilsbl... ,\1. Iho en
of there were only .h",,!. 10,700 ph
available lor tbeo 18,000 pilOlIl to II)' .
a decillion to plaee its main reH. :(l upon
.uacu. .. biro even ul\llkiJled pi ot.8 could pn
100000l. lnlbe winter and spring of IOU, 1111 orth"
dOll Irsining carne IeDlporsril, to. standstill, 1111'1
.llhoulfh il11l"u later resUlllPl1, part;<'ul:lrly ill l"l'
..pect of Anny 08iCE'I'll, moo tndnillg unil
ronamtn,led on lhe de\.lollml"nt of suicide pilO!
a1lm. The .\nay dPcidPd lhat minimullI of i(
ftyillll: hours !IhouW be jtivpn .. suicido pilot. Til
Savy lhoopat from 30 to hounl8ullicient if til
llUat"k "PI"l nad. in a lnoining pl"1Ie. 111 1111
.nol. in tbe spring and "UlIlIRer of 1915, 1m al
IPGlpl "1I!l made 10 tum out pi1ol1l of thC8(l Ulle"
1PIIl."P ,,",Is .nd 10 _ training in lii\
boolbing-.lhP OrthodOll lartic mool"l!'!ll"mbling II
........ppoIId to relieve
.... ....l'IIpIIlIibUit1 for proridina:
...., rihtaebminilllollllhouJh
..-JJJ.., flmet;m.l with 1ID1 depee of
..... .." intnU8d the nwnbfr uf itA
lnUWlIlllll' &J'OllP' fJGaa 11i to bul it did not
.....0,. abr 1M "Nd.IIN of its trainina: or'
pnlzaUOlL I"'UIJIl operated from &Ii
l! in the Ii in Ii in the Sinp-
pon ........ tbe-mdP'inJ.ptln. TbeArm,
mo'" _uda hiaber of illl lraining
o:JI'PlliDlien 10 tM Phlbppi_ &nd tM _tbern
ar-. ..ilh lbo ilitenUoll of profiIillJ b, the proll'
imit) of .rilll:ioo flJl'l. but t1ll' retlUk ..ulo tspae
trainin,: ba"'lIlo .ir .1I...b and ukilllllle
to ....UOII InlID
n.. uaillillJ pt'Otl:RlIII' dfN,-I
to prod_ , 1&1 of <m'r 3O.01ln pika. )'Sr.
Adually.l.hat nor.! 1rIllI1W""" au.inoNl.1:llI! ._.
_bat Iowff at...u reKbed by .boul
of ItH and naiotaiMd I*'lllw.oo 01 Ih.1 )'Sr.
n.. ,.1 ..b"tap. _hirh .n\alp in IM4. IlfId
thII.\l1ied....u 00 t-.....,.. I'" prin-
cipal fS_.1 tboo I.ilu", of I boo InoininlE propu>.
to ...b..", tM- .dwdot.ol OIIlpul.
Aftu I" ....JlIlndfd lnoininlf btpn
to Clpft'&1 tl. 'llialil, of J.JlIl'- pi1ol... C'OI!'
u.-' 10 f..1011' TIot ......, ........
fDr tlw doorl ........ I"" ndurtloo in ft,-in lnoin-
u.bou""'ttpee'iIllly in IlI<1i 1 ,Jo:lthibil KI.
Tbal 1'I'd_ in lum "a ..-1 to\ oJ."'rlaitf" ill
.iftftft., in fUl'l 'din l'WloIl'IDlwrIIJUI. in in-
.xI b) AIIHd air .u...b ..... lrainilll:
iDIlallah-. III addillon.thfoqualil,- of II.. l"ilOl"
decliDfd '--of l.' rillll in Ihfo
phJlliealllllndlll'd.. for r'f<'nllta and II t.1lI"f' of
.., for l'OIIltlnlf .nd ...habililalinJ I,i-
Iota. n- fllrton all n&<1fOd wi ion b" Ih..
hiPftlIDDaIld Ihat a lal"JlP num"," of .....
-.ylftll if I(lIahl) had 10 lot .critiNd 10
pr.aduce ,h.-m. In \"O!IlllI'l-. Ih.. J.V-- Air
rom. .1"')"11 had PnOUl[b I.ilutll 10 Illiln 1M in
nlDlbilr of pia""" t .... '-inlf prodUt'N.
.. by 11M:' the ftyinjiltim.. of botll
.Anny and NIlYY pilota ......bout 100 boo", .billl
-.niued to C'OIIl....l.
'" s-mMTr';";",
A.fter tt. Philippillfll fSml>&ijilJl. il '-ame plain
6&t 11l..... pik>ta rouM not romlllllU with AI.
lidpiIot& and the hiP. comm.nd .... fornd inlo
.tI"M" ..
Exhibit J
I J.II.I ) I'
TO'H.lll..... TIIIJA''''''
.OTI' "'''''1''' ,1Il'0ltlln." UICLUOU
"'ILOT', ",VI."TOII', .0.... 1l0111t
'UNIIIII', 111.010111I11I,' I'Ll"'" .IIHlIll'
LG'T QUIU., 'UIOO f,""H"H""H""H::j----i''"'''!--------j
OUlllfl6 '(11100



all _ VdaII--. a._.""' - --..-
..... lMr ....I..... _........
"., IIhllTIl
....,..111 I"'IAL .1. 'OIGI TI'.'
A TO '"Oll"" AT IIlI""" O' WAI
fL.' JlU.....
...... fl"
depletion of ..soline stockll lllnde such an eJ;-
pedient nf"CeS!i'HT.
(2) Tho uso of 8lcohol as nn n"iation fuel in.
voh'eo;lno 10l:i!l in power, nnd in fuct II sliA:ht in.
C''t'hSill Xevertheless, the Japune;.e en-
eountered the
(a) .1lainJe..aMe I. Had OOfllbus-
tion caused c)'linder sllller-oooling. and the c)'lin-
der hend had to be llrotectOO b)'
2. In cold weather it was to preheat
intnke air b)' heat lJe('hUSIIl of fault)'
distribution of air fuel mixlUn!.
3. Parts of the fuel sJSl:em. pllrticularly those
made of copper alloy. quickly oornx1ed. and Oliler
metals hlld to beemplOJOO.
Slaning dilficultiell were uuiversal, and it
l>C'l'"me to install small tllllks filled with
''\'gulllr ,n-intion t,'1l5Olille to be used for slulting.
_\t low lemllerature:s the 50 Iler<lCnt mi.lture
of alcohol lind WLSOlille tendoo to B)'
addition of 10 per<lCnt aleohol 10 lile mix-
tUn!. separlltion ..tIS Pn!\"CntOO dO"'n to tell11lerll.-
UlI'l!! range.. below W
(b) OpaatiOl'al Dilficulties. I. An approx'-
/lillie 50 pen;:ent inc,,,,,se in IhOl'lite of fllel con-
2. Poor aeeelerlltion,
b. OtAer u!p;titute'. The JaJlllnese t",,"lt'd \"I.ri-
OtiS other anatioll fuel sub;titules including iso--
proprl ether, alk)'lbenzeol'S, pineroot oil and
C'llilphor oil. With the exception of 1\ small
nmoulll of fuel l'elined hom l,inHoot oil in u.>e
tlte lit the close of thll WMr, 1I0lle of Ih_
fuels were used.
4. Effu' oj Shorltlge Oil Combo' 0p,rtll;ous
For Ihe most pan. the fuel shortage had no di-
l'ITect on combat 0l'erntions. l..nelll Sh011nl,,-e!
'" I'udous bll<es may IUll"e occasionally pl"lle9
011 tlie !.rnlund which would otherwise lIowlI
combat sorties, but the overall shorta-'C Will> lIot
II limiting fldor in either tile Philippine,;. 1"'0
Jillla, or Okinawa camlJaigns. Thel@ is some
e\"idellClllthllt in the summer of 19-1:>. the Jllllllne;;ll
\\"1\8 influenced by the fuel in
{k,<,ision 10 cut down on the interceptioll of IJ .:!!Is.
bill the desire 10 OOnSl'I'I'e plIllleR "nd Ililol>1 ror
ddcll8e ..illSt inusion "'Il$ probll.bly I. 1II0re iUl-
IlOrtllnt factor.
(;,uoli"e Subsliluln
(I) A!loutlhemiddleofHl,.j" ...htn
tp.lIOline SiWlIlion becllme serious.,
to experiment with mixtures
and liS ,\ of st''elching
r.uIIUPI'IifS. .'\ loohol, alone ,md in mil(-
ptlrDml and 50 llerce:nt came
_ fOf' tnining pui"JlO"'CS by both the
aTJ in 19-1a. Alcohol COlllllriSed
J'Iftlent of the Japallese Anny ,\ir Force
of aviation fllel in Jul)' 11)1a lIlId
of the'xlll'Y'S consumption dur-
month. At Ihe end of war, the
W tIOt as \'M used alcohol in combllt
bat. IMy planned to do so if e.lCf!!IS
"'...., CORsumpl;oH, 4wl Stocks
production. consumption.
of lWiation fuel within the aren em
Japan, Korea, :llanchuria and ],'0111108n
in fOI'1lI on Exhibit L. From
't ilalJl'ears that e::ccept for brief peri-
19H and enrly COllSllllllllio/l
production and imports, lind Ihat b_,' tlHo
lIMIIIJlllnese Pl'llrl Harbor SlOC""11 of
barrels had been reduced to 1,aoo,-
The elChibillllso shows tllat lI\'il\tioll
ption in the Inner WllS cut from
of 503.000 bnrreis 11 month during the
- -.June 10 142_000 blIrrels during
A."BWIt of 19-1.:.. ,\5 I. re;;ult of this dras-
in consumption, Slocks of 1,000,000
ined in the Inller Zone at the tilllll of

1'11"11" "I' TI' ."11"". I1 , ........ 1 .........
'''' .141
::::: 0' srocKa
- ,.OOUl;T1(lff ...-ollT,
_.t __ ......,. ".v,. l;OlQUlII"1'lOIlI
Exhibit L

I I ,
................ of IIlPd1OM' l,OOOPOO bl\r-
........,. .-ppIJ.tthl.-tbl1 rate of
J Sf J-.I1- .A.1Ip& 1M3, or 2
.....1Ii of ,u. nacbed in the
........01111&, ...wp.t. ...... the Japa-
_ (JbWIli'L). Ja addition, a1-
..... pi I' ' tihupIy and im-
......... __ 1 9 \T. the J..-- pro-
........ hJJ bpIl1M6 about one-
to-daol.......... "'" by the Jap:o.-
_AirF...............period (ElEhibit
L). _the pn.eq.I Ur dort planned
to npalUli ADW 10 tab the fonn
01 .-els. the
J...- -w. '-we 1'UD oat of long be-
fan _ ... Old of _I if then 11M been an in-
...UI 1m. The 1JlOD.,OOO
011. hand at the'" of the .&1' woold. ha"6 t-n
....ita, for 80lDll 5tllO,OOO auicide lOrties of 5
boa... duralion each.
*h' ....
_I n : III &nbDBIo 1M 0' -
......... 1 0' .......
.... _ pIuMd. opetw-' on.
..... ..m Mel GIl MDd ill .. lJa.- 1.-
.JIlI'"nl'Se .\nli) n!lSumed !,rilllltr)" n'l;ponsibilih
for the of the main isl"ndll and b)"
lIlenllS 8t0l'pe<1 itll planes III the cOIlstline. The
;\111')" Co<'IJel1lted with tIm Army to onl)" a limited
nml Illost of it-'! dcfellsil'e effort to
the 1)1"01 eel i01l of na '111 tlll"J...etll.
In ... their air defense. the Japanesoe
were handical'ped b)' the thlll tl,e .\nn)
air ullit", WHI' necessaril)' a part of thl!
foret'S and air units a I'art of the lleet. ThUll
the .\mlY air units ...-ere 10 puund ..-ho in turn ..ere cha'l-'I'(I ..-ith ti,e
of Ilarti<;:Ular areas. _\8 a l'el5ull.
plllnfS "-ere IIonna1l.. tiM do.."n to diS{riets di
..ide<1 to huit the exigencifS of po8!!ible ground
anti were rarel\' lIlond fTOOl one dis-
trict to another to meet a aUa<:k. Som..
attempt ""1l8 Illilde to remed,'" this situation in
midWH. but il ,,'R.'> then too h"....
3. Eilrl, fljSlor,
.\s enl'1y all.!ul.\' WH. the J'lflltlle<'ll.l
"ir mid do'ill", II/'Oloabl." primltTily ll8 a morale
tu 1"1'!l"re the for ".r, Hut at


,.- ,a.
,.... ,.
- ...
,.. ,.

' ..-
,.. ,....
,.. ,.. Ull....
1; '11,001 ,.-
- -.- 1.>1'.00II 1;1>:1.000 1;;X,0II'>
.. . 1.101.000
,.- 1;aI.lIeU
' ..... 000 '."'.lIeU .O<'.lIeU
'."',000 '.-'000 1;

...... - -... '.121,000 ],)<>,000 u:'
1.10".000 I. =>.01
. ,.- T.'l,OI 7M.OO>
'/...... a.. ow 1..... 000

, Jan.....
IA.. _
I ..
:s"orlL_,-.._. ......
____.. _a. (__
--:\;.1.. . 11. I.
I Apr_.

,0._.. _
1 __-
u _
, _
.lp",,"diz 1/1. (;
Quu'l"rly ..-IUlon tuel
lBolTtlo Of.2 C.ltocl .. "''-''I
,....- ..

bl!p" the ,,"ar, the nel'er
to the pos><ibilit) lhat
could be to hlt',l..'\lllCale I,il'
throughollt the yeltrs
llndttl'eolt illlated \ J1 ied ('/1 p"bi Iii ies for
Ttwir liJ!luer t1efe,,*
U, lind only 011 M10'e did
Air inlli<:l ".,!J::llllltial losses
Alliftl 1,lalll'S.
......... ..., ...-;.


-..- .


,_a ,. ,.... ..-




. ..

_.. , .



-_. __...


,.. ..---
.. ...
I,J>I, lI(IO




1. .m.:'OIl

....... ,..


.- ,:

0 1-_ ""'llID .-
a_ 01.001


a.- ,-
...... --;-..........-...--
.- '.
-....... ...
__............_ lI'I"

.,...m. ,....
7 " .............



- -
- -
- -
- - -

- -



- - -
5. 'J"be Periotl oj Grell/est Afli,'it,: NO"tt",lnr
I?H to Aprill?"}
The first Mrike from thl" .\1"rilinM canle
Ot) 2-1 NO"cllI],er 11H l. TheN followoo " serie6 of
dllyli!!ht 6trikl'l'l from extreme ,.Ilitudl'!l (about
:10,000 fl"('l) during- ,Jllnulln'. lInd Feb
r,mr)' \\hkh in turn were followed by It !!Cril'!!
of "'l!<!ium llhilud" (1,lllltl-IIUllJIJ feet) nig:ht al
tl.ck8 durllll( lind '\llril. These OpeMltiOIlS
chre<'te<1 lIt t!WnOlllie but the)' were
dlirillJ: .\l"rch .m' .\pril ...ith
!!Cnl"l! of .u.ckll onK.I'ushu air bltse-.
to lICn!l'n Iht" opt"nttlonJi 011 Okina'u_ ,\Iso in
Februar)'ancl Jlarch, .Japan ....&5 subjected to
C1Irr,er strike>; Illned to !l{'l'ft'tl the 1"'0 ,lima and
Okiullwo operation:;..
'n,roughoot thiS period, the inlel'C1'ptor units
ll!I!lI,:!11ell to the dtferu.e of ,1.IJaIl did their
to .>1011 Ihe ,\Ilied air L'Ntult nd their _Ie of
effort much hij!"her Ihan in tIM' last mOllt.hJI
of Iht .... r. 1111" defense orp,nization l"ein:tined
.bout Ihet;&ll1e lIS in the sumOler and f.ll of 194-1,
that the .\ir Traininp: .\ml)- "'as redesig-
n.ted tiM' (ith .\lr .\nII)" re.lie..-ed of its tntininJ.:"
funetlOI\.;o,. and ...ith the defen,;e of
I\.I-.",hll in oonjunction ...ith 1M appropriate Dis
rnet .\m'J, That <-hanlt" 11"" deoJi!!l1ed to in-
CI"elISl! till! !lumber of fighters al"'llilablt' for the
defellSl'! of .Iapan, hul IIClUally 90Dte fighter unila
had bft'll !Ol"nt to the Philillilinet; and others suf
fered he.. a.. fillon .'iO thai total inlel'C1'ptor
wren",,,h III ,laJllln l'I"I)1a;ne<1 fairh' oorHant al
Ihe IiI:'""' of the IIT'l'Ceediul! SUtl1l1l1'r- and
Illa,,1"I or aboul :!II pl'rnont of tOlal first. linf'
tif:hlcr S1t'l"I1,.>1h_ 111 addition, the ,llIpan_ had
other lij!"ltll"r 1Ig,.1,.'11etl 10 other missions
(I>neh liS Ihe llrotl"t'"tion of suicide unila attacking
Okllla"aj wluel, ()C<'a"ionall) fie", against attack
info: .\lIu.,<:I"lnll""'-
,\hhoufo:h duri"g- IlI'riod Ihe ,Jttllanl'Se
nd,ieletl j:"n"lllel" SIica'S8 than in Ihe last months
of she war, f.''I'(1 n \j('.rics of difficulties whkh
"Hldc lheir ope.... t ions_til il1l'lfl'<:th-e when COIll-
j)1lt1>(1 witli thO!'(" of she l.uflw"lfe o,-er Gennar..
01' IhI" IU F Oll"r Ilrilllin. Thus: '
/._ ,]"!,I'"t;;e li/1ltleril It"d c1illiclllt\ ill
,'t"lldlin!! Ihe hi/!h "ltilUl!1" of ShI' d".l"li/1lit
"",I ollly II few were ("ICI bUt"t"t'SSful ill nlllki"g
IltO'"l,l Ih"l1 one nl tI", 1I :?fl form"ti01\b.
b. The .I"plluellt' nOI"Cl" pOS>lCl;Sl'(I properlv
t '11 iu!"d 4>'" et(lIi I'llI'd tI il(ht ti/!ht illJ: units, and the;
wcre IIlmObl cOlll!,l!"tcl)' utlflrepurt-d for thl! me
.. _... ,_.... - ......... s.I"'SIem ''"IS inllde<luRte in
but on the whole it pl'\l\"idcd 1\
of iluel'C1'ption Ih"n that enooun-
....tions wen! be,."", from the .\lnri-
nuons "-en! threefold:
..rience 11"-1'1 of ,lnpllllC>;l' fi}!:lner
hiclwr in the of IOH tlmn dUl"-
aIthoufth throul(houl Ihc Jnpunt"'C Ai,'
... vtorJ low rhuing- the enlire lleliod).
.Japan.... "'ere ml,ki"l( lin "lIoul de-
oat in wherells III',:!i'\I1in,:! in the
Im.n alh-Illpt WaS m'lIle to \'01l!!C1"\"('
lor defelllle IIpin<l irl\"nsiou.
the airenlfl Wllnti",:! w"s
better in Illl!i th,ul in iB pr'Ot,-
limpler ill IllH sinN' olll) " lilllilcd
Wp18 on Kyullhu weN' wis hill l'Itlj!"I'
all,lno intc,:!l""lct! d,'-
Bamber of ti/!hln units "Iloea!cd to the
Japlln Wllg lll0<Iemtel) increllSCd. The
IIftraft of these ((uits fron,
bE-r nIH Wll9 nbout :17" plunes. Bm
tir.;t line fighter slrcII,.>1h lit this
ted 10 nn of "boUI 2,100
aD indication thllt lhe Jallanese high com-
did nol oonsidel" the thretH of 1J-.-2!.l
ftI'1 (Exhibil Pl,
aD e'ort 10 employ 'Hh-lIllced training
..-rve fOl" defense spinSl air auack,
\lit Aml)-, Imo"'-n lIS the ,\ir Tnlinin!!
Kokuj,,,m) WIS fonned. It 0lll'r
ml callacit.l' being" on one hand a part
ina organization and on Ihe other all
unit ha\'ing suIll'n-oor.l' control of
training units which ...ere directh'
10 the District _\mlies for pur
4. &<11 &29 bMGIt-C_"" .
1boept for -"end photo I'8l:OnDaI_nn
...whkhappannt1y.d undfoteetM. II" .\
pkDe over Japan f!oIn the time of Ihe Doo.
tiUIe raid .mtll the 20th Ikmbe'r Comm8IullJe!:""
opentlOlUl fnIIIl China t-- In "f \!li I.
DariDI __ of that period the were
pnoctIIpied withoperatiClml m fOrwlftlan-IlJl. ,ulIl
.,... &hi .hidJ, too* pl.....' in the
.-.of sHowed
to .......... tl'l'de
....wet of the B-II iPdiatedthai f rol1l
an- miJht ......... mll).l.1_ 1,nIHt"lli-
.... fiDd MI.,. JIIAII,," .. I'" llkel)'
.... in !ohreh of
11K. thIre .... tutMr .-.niutiull of the
.... .a.tea- .,... ....... (0 mft't Ihe nl'''-
". &nt lIlep Ill'" I,," IIl'qIlIl\Ilifln of Ihe ,If'
'-.llIDiun........; IlIP ftJin/! bril!",le
cIIupI .ilh der- of Tokyo ...... to
.,.. di III "'1!IJri1lfl: and
of lIM, the put .fter the lir<;1 U-29
........ J.,ai- AnI, ...,.-p:aniz.ed lind u
...... o--I DI'- H-tquartel'!! (IWi ,-
SIlinibt) ... TGkJo. ""1 M.dquartel'!l had re-
........1it1-.., far dtf_ hut for 1I11t1
....,.. ... "... 11, It oll.raled
.......... faudiltriel_-..hkh ,,ere then
..... .,..tiaaI ..... aniu in Japan. ,\
dlUt of <41 ieetice of ("_eraJ Defell
in J.., of I,," ill .ppended U 1-:1
IIiIIil 0. ... itII priMipaI fad."", fl'Olll th. poiUI
of _ of air de'--. as follo...
& ".J...- aYJ hiMfirRI tin,e 1 11M'
bmIIwt, to. Iimitetl ....... in .n onr-ll.ll plan
far ..... of IMm illaJtds. Inllif'rial Gf'I\
... Jlw'1 n.s....,..o,. in ,JUll"
1IHto -.hlMll AnD,-S.,,)' derellSO'
..., the JhYJ aada obj
....... '!nc 11) wa)'
of it , 111I's shl'1'<'
aT1 A\r under III
...DillIktI&.u.u.flUID....t (Tuk.,"11
... 0iIIan. KJgtbv.) aMI 1.."k'l1Ii (1IIlnll
.. tr*..... Wlephonic ordtl'>l !o ITI
IfroullH fl'onl
1III&IIlll"""",1OObI, bulilCIIl1l1 01',"11
ill. W,....:o, 'ollo"o\cd !\16 ..
..... aYJ Air unil.ll dclell'!

__ ............ opuad_
.. - ..too ..
ji;;;;"... '-_ ... poW"'"
....... ..,1Iaft JIiIPiDp
.,....--. ., .
........... _ 10 ......
dIM ......... .." ..
..... _ AaM6atR tM ".., 1Ml
_ ' d .............. -
..., 01....... _.18April1M&&J.
................... _ till DoDIitdI raiL
-""--_ ........ ..... n.aaIt CIU'riIIs euI7 -
..,. of.IIriIIt. - .....
... Drb .... ....., IIllp , pa... tn-
.--p.,'"- -",eI-"-
.........., ,.-o....... of
....-. ,.......-_..
...... U 8t..-
........" ....
.....t' lib : lof ....
a I' 'I.. ., ... , ...
....- ........... DeoIitdI ' .....
&..,_If' .... Air AIIIJ J'inl) _.
a .' fIJ'IiII 1M. ...
.......... ..-.u ...
....................IIIl1 .
... __.-
_ -
...... "' _ ..01 ....
lv' $ W _011.' 1M TGkJo,
...' " .....
....i .. ......ti; '*'I .1 I .t .....
...toA ,........
.................. .".J'bIt
.,............ _ ....
...... cmculm ..
..--..... .,.Mto .., BttJe;

diwn Itoftl Di"'l anad",... hid, look I'IRce 111
I"ebruary tDd Mart'h.
r. a 1eN1l of 1_III Ihll Jhilil'pinl'!'.
......1 of ".Jilll'riPl'1'f' of Ih .IRI.. 1Il-
1'';101. "'a>l He" lo er Ihan II I,ad I.-n
in till' toUfilller .Ild f.ll of IMI.
d. Thfo J.IlI.nfWl' ..... milljl: .nd control
of iDltroel'ion ...... llOOr. (Thoee
cu'- id......d in in p""grtlpllll 7 .Ild
l\ b.1 )
11'e el!iie ..M\ of Ihe .1.llI.ll .ir defl'll.....
Iftil pl'riod .llllI'.'" in E",hiLit Q.
..hich .00"-';; \oo.:oe!; of B-2!l!I10 Jall."_ liltl'I.......
Thto-e .mount..d 10 U7 IlI'l'I'f'nt of llOrtif'!l
fto..n in :"it,emb.r HU-I.nd 1.29 pl'l'I'f'nl in J.n,,
n 1!l-I: lut durilJj.: :\I.rth 191:. J.IIRn...... fij!ht-
er:. f.iled 1O!lOO..... Iinj!le ,ictOI). "t..
of the .\ir Force 10 /i.j!hl..r- ..-.lI
.boot thra tilDft! t.1l1.1 of th.. T......llIi@th .\ir Furl'f'
till' .....rnd t.llt "'oN m<>nlhly I"""
l"1u!of till' Eilth (in .\llriI191:!) mo.... II"'n
Ihree and OM half litne'" IllI' 10"'1 ..te of IllI'
T....mlil"lh in S01"f'\l\b.r. (Thai monlh ......' lhe
.._ forlhe T....nli@thu<'t'pl for .\u!-'Il!t 1944, ooly' 171 "Orti .......... lIn"n I'll.. 100-_ of
WI'ft Ilblb).
6. ptrioJ 01 CDIIs"t",iOIl: April J9'''_'''''gllsl
"" 8enn'njl: in .\llril Ih.. JRp.m_ .ir de
f...- sr_ undf: ......flIt !if,..... l
..hich ill'......-u it>! lliallf'l" toolpluity' .nd in
iu eIIii,i.. n<'"s 10. mitLOr de,.,"",. But p.....
dcuicalls.tloe hij!h comm.nd ),.d .1"0 dfCidl"lllo
con:;en....ire"ft for d.. f..m .,...i""t in..uion.
..,,01 .<WlIlin!:l,. the .(1u." _I.. of .. Wort f..l1 in
in....,... IJrol'ortioo 10 the Ullia,,,,ion in II... I"'per
Thfo m"" import.nt of tl"'lliaJ1'f'r ,..hieh
lOok pb<e in .\I,ril .">M' from Ihe fonnatinn of
.n .\ir ( ..n..... l .\ntl' (Koku :o)o'....un) ..ilh MOmf
fA ope"lionRI control o"er .11 Japun_
air <MlI<"lf Ih.. ""uthfnl .rt'I\. But in the
(WJII' of dll' int .......lltor IIni" itt JRl'..n. th.. G..n
e,,1 oomrol ,,'U of. policy tn.kinj! ch.. r
actH, .nl thOllf' ...."'Ii"u..d to he subonlitlftte
10 lluo lll'lU"d anni... in ,,'loll&! di"trictt lh.........N!
billed. )Iean.hile. the Ifro",,,l Rrllli611
had !WOO, ...,.,rl-... "i""d. tutd ne'" A.... Anni""
had Ibp 1.lacp of th.. four old District
Anm. (E",hibil It).
TIKI Air G..n.... l Ann)' m.,h, MOme ..U..mpl 10
maIut Inl\lltel'll of .irenft hel,,l't'n more
felllliblc. Its first Stel' WaS to equil' 8tlwrlll inter
cept..r unil!! ...i,h long I1lllb'<l f,,,,l tRuks ito order
to im'reu,,;c th..i, radius of Bot llutl Willi
Ahout as far lIS Ihe id..A prol. .. ..d, Aud fighter
units "' ....i>. if e"er Aduallr in iuterl"!p,
ti"u outside t.1,e lerritori.1 jurisdiction of
nrea. .nnies.
11,e Japronese Sa"r uniU which in tJll':or.\ had
been opeTllting uuder the control of tl,e old dis
trict .nnies W"N! "",'t'r 111.Cf'<1 nml..r Ihe juris-
diction of tl,.. ne'" aren ronnies. In the !')Iring of
19j". ho""'..r. Ihree "1'.\\' .ir ftotillJls were or
(or def..nse .nd .bo for Ihe protection
of suicid.. uni15 in of im-a;.ion. 1'h_
flotillAs theoret:icoIlh' undertook coml'lNe """pon.
sibilit\" for Il'e def.. o( a........ {Kd.ihiUl
::'0 .ud T}. In p"cti...... ho e\'t'.r. th.. :S...y' 000
tinued 10 def..nd .....,.,; of l''''Culiarly' lll>".1 con
eenl. L. hefo...., and Ihe .\rm,' lI:>1'um..d l'rim.ry
re<l'oru;ibility' for Ih.. defenst! of .U Jallan. The
.\ir G..n....1 _\nny from. time to lim.. !;td.>lnilt!
to tl,... S.ry pl.ns of .gen....1 n.lure for op.....
1'005 .pilL-l: Ihe B-29s. .nd lbe :S.'")' .1.....,'" p"id
.1 least lip < 10 them.
TIle 101.1 numbt-r of .ircrafl ....ign...-llo inler-
ceptor units inc......-l in .\pril lo.n .. ,.....1,."8
of 4;;1).nd 110.. nut -I months Ih.t
l!ftdu.lly iocrel>ed unlil in .\ul;U-t it .mounted
IO:.:J,;;. BUIOil I:J .\pril lW:;. Imlll'ri.1 Gen.....1
lIeadqu.rte1'l! issued .n ord..r to conser..e .irc..ft
for it)\"ASion. "nd alter Ih.t lime Ihe
do....n by' both .\nllY and S"'y' .\ir ll""lquarte"
ealled ror J'p"n_ fi!!ht.. rs to 11Ik.. lhe air only
10 inte.......llt unesrort"d u"d..r nry f...or
.ble conditions. lo July IW". "'hell inct!ndi.ry
.1I.e\;;l on Ihe smaller citi"" "'...... at h.. ighl,
Ih" onler to con;;en-......." II.lld e,..n
hefo.... lhat tim.. fil!ht .. rs int".......llted
earri.. r 8trikes llnd fiJ.!hler comi"g d_
10 their ba.."e!<. But in "",n..m!. Japanelll' fight"rlI
afl"r I:! '\llril 10-1:;. W"N! held bnek for def..
against in\"asion. aN! no ..l>l" ti!:ttrt"! Iti,ing tlw Japn
n_ lIe"le of elTort durinj! this pl't'iod, bUl the
followinl(" laLI.. ""I,unesa lighte" RtrllCks
per Tw..ntyfirst Bo",lI..r Command l!Ort ill indio
Cflles itt j,(,,"en,1 war the dedirte in seule of
I'lI"l'(t aller March 10-15.
Sg,.,.,ntJO"r llH4
J"""O'j' l{\4(l
""""'ary .
April llllr. .
.................. 11.1
............... ,
. ..
01' lit(, d'''I'llNe,' of lite for1untion (e.g., wheth..r
or' uneseot1ed).
1'!1I' of tlte priltcip81 JlIlIlln_ rndar
r;t'ltlOtlS sl,o..-n Otl Exhibill:. The geographi.
cal gR]I!lI>('I"eelt .tations suI!(!e!It Ihal the Jap.
nl'Se l'Ould not Im\"e !tad, 88 sUgj,'1!Sted by !lOme
.1."1'81le5e officers, oomplete oo""rBb'e ot the ..n'
lIOltth and ..ast Xeverth..less, co..erage
of the .approaehf'll to tJlIl prineip"1 t.rget .Tl!a8
...5 qutle comillete.
.U .llllf.1'll from E:dlihit U, "'ere m.m
illS!.neetl of :S."y radar st.tions OIJe;'
.Img ide b, aide. Sud, p.rallel 0IJenl.tioll pro-
,idf'l!l. ,'i"id uanlpleof Ihe f.i1u.... of lhe .\nn,
and :S.'T 10 OOOIJel'llt.. in .ir defell9l'. .
U) Oburwr". \ s,SI..m of ci ..ili.n .nd mili .
III)'ob!len'''1'lI "'1$ tk"'lld 10 suPlllementearh' ..... m.
inj! radar .nd OIher IIOUrces of The
einli"\;j .e.... orpniMd into.n Arm,. .nd. 5 ...,.
.\ir U..J ..nse Obse.....tion Corps (80ku K.nshi.
IIi). OLEe..... tion poo;t;I ...... r\l ....hieh
....poned 10. !leCIion ..hieh in lum
... link..d by' dil'@Cl land line ....ith the 0IJen.tiom
TOOnl of Ihe local A......\ml,l' Or :s.,.,. Di;;tricl.
Headquart .\mn o!.>se....el'li .......... formed imo
Air 1l"llOrt;njl: I:.." (Koku Joho R..m.i).
Ile!-';'nt'nl:ll ...... divided into sm.lI.. r groups ....hidl
rellOrt...IIO. sedioo headqu.rters ....hieh had di.
rect I.nd ltn.. eommunication ....ith tbe .\..... Arm...
Th.. S.',I!rnd sm.ller gt'OOp8 of naval
simil.r1y nrpnized. The oI:R......1'!I .......... Illlrtieu.
larly' in! .ircraft in.1"I'a!l ,,-he....
IllI' I in 1'.... ' ... tt1l"1l till' lImper functioning of
n,darnd in on Ihe size .nd eharact.. r
of lhe allilroaehing fOrttllllion. In of the
primiti'" of ."']l8n""", radar, information
from ol'5en',,1'5 \\....':1 often the first to fonn the
basi.':! for an nceurate estimate of the Ill\d
th.. _I" of tlte .tlack.
(,,) .ldJitio"al.1ill". 13el;:idelhe llOUrel'$ of in-
fonnlllion lbt('<[ allO,c. Ihe .rap"nt'Se made !;Ome
whal irrl!l;ul" r u,;e of I;"n I,,)'ing nldar '''1<1 search
liltht control nHlur to secUNl ;nfommtion about
nl'[)J'ond,illj! .\11i..d air f0I111alion!l. In "d,{ilion.
lite JnpllIH'"'C X,,,"." to hn"e ha,l gout\"
l't'illl ... ilh lrig"' .... ring Allie<:1 IFF e<:lnil'ttlent. Fi-
11,,11)', ,'<':(;OtlItrli!l8l.1K'C "irel"fl ""eNl U>il'l!. l'''t1itu
J"rI)' in d,c Tokyo A'"ell. to determine the height
Rlld ehR"lCter of Rllpt'()llching (ormntion.':!.
c. (Jo{(eefi(w o//It/ormation (1) Ceneral. The
cQlIeclion of nil' mid ,,"IIrnillg infol'l,,"tiotl from
tlto ;\t"tll." wtlt'tlittg 3tHI it.':! lli,.,..m;nllliOll
to hl'!,l"0l't'i"te l'OmnlRn<l.':! (Air, AA, Gro"nd RUll
II IIrell believed to be in lhlll'0th
o.r Ihe IIl'pl"Ullching fom18lion, 01101 (2) infonna.
nbollt the SUllPlllled pRlh of the Allied fonnD.-
9. (o>ltl>1#o>l
All hili been ;ndica'ed in the llre,,ous pIIlra-
grul,hJl. the JaIJallf!!:ill defense 8JlII.em Wall
more, thnn r,.;1' on paper Ind distinctl)' poor
In Pl"lletlte. One fund.. menlal m..tter st.nds out
aoove OIhel'll Li the I.tincipal tl'IiOn for il.'l shon-
COInillp-lhe .1al>ln_ I,l.. nnf'r'!l f.iled 10 lIl!e 11K'
d.n..",r of .\Ihed litn.ll.cks and 10 gi"e Ih", de-
fellSf' ""IUblle Iltiorilies. Thus during
the Philippine.!,. tlK' resources of bot:h
air .mlll ."'I'l! to SlOp .\lIied 11efl"'lralion
to Ihe IIOnh.nd afler the "hilippinllll ..... mpaign.
I'rioril)" Will .I....)"s ginn to tkfe\\!!e .gaiI1Sl-
IlIrasion. Ail a resuh .i""... fl .nd l,iIOl$ ."'I'l! ron-
!If'n'ed for nhim.le use in the allliin."llS;on .
.nd lite .1"IIIM!SIl! .\ir Foftti .. .1.111-
dtillll 10 be bumed wilhout e"er oommiuing
mort lhan 30 petcflll of arailable figllt"'rs to (heir
ddetlllf' (Esbibil ").
of <:'Ourse. n" commOl1 colltrol
.nd NI"'''.
IlIld no IFF equip.
me01l1l for COnstn"l t NIck of
were therefore forced to N!IJ
.nd often inllCCIltll.lll l"el'0rls from
aDd IIpon rtllOnll from the fighlel'll
.. 10 their wherellooul.'I. Jnl",n_
",dio lelellhone equipment w..s poor.
,. il often hallptllet1llmt the j.'nllmd
..... ,,"ould not ho,'e precise ....
wlwl'l'llooul.'I of his fig-httl'll from Ihe
t.b-o. ulll;1 telum.
for- ",d, inlonnlliion ,.s w.., receh'ed
fronl the ...ming S\'SI.elll!l b,' "'",' of
tipentiOlI9 rooms. conn';;'l
.... little infomlation aboul the ...he...-
'fill Albed airenfl. The,. h..d no special
ioO$ w .ssil (hem...nd tI",, p0l!-
I if .n)-. of the mher teochni..... 1 "e..-ices
fonned a pan of the .\\liM","!!
JIOIInd conlrol of (GCI).
....... of fi):!"hters into posilion .coord
__possible.nd the ""lent of rotllrol in
....., limited to: (1) orders to all'
8. fighter Co,mol
fighter control Ht.-lIt ......1 a n"li
melll.T) .\$ .-eslill. was ear'
ried out on IUlI,hu.. rd "ilh t1ij!ht <:'Oln-
mantkl"l in Ihe air openr.tinj! primaril)" "Isual
"""'0$ aftet the f..shion of World Wnl' I pilots-
Grollnd OOIltrol of both Anny lind fighl'
el'll "'115 exercilled ,,)" j!tOlIp or
rmnm.ndl'tll rather th.n hl' the CO"""""''''"' of
III'l:"'r unius. Thill meanl Ih.t in ,h'fl'n<;e lIlt"i,,!t
.IJanieul.r .u.rk there ....ould l>e >;e,'el,,1 unllS "r
from 101000 1,llInl'lll. each JrI"O"I' "",IeI' " dil[,'I'I.',,1
ground cont....l. There lj(lpO'H "'rI'l ... 10 h"n1
.n IIlte",!,1 to mallell\'er III def... lI.i,'", lW
Illl'het. althoult'h un one <>r t"" Ihl' t01l1'
m.nder of II I)ivillim, IIlte"'I'",II"
.1\ the 6j(htl"l'lI within hill atell of "lwI'ndo
Inande.... "ould nlOnitor the nulio frequenc!,.,; u"lld
to trans",it waminj! infomll,tion to Ihe roam Ill'lIl)"
operations roo,n lind so shon CI.'t nOMn"l. cha."1lels,
The hole pro,:ess of
,,,..tio,, , s hnLOpered the l'lI,d"'luncy or
oommllniClition facilities. Thill for<:ed n
1111011 slo"'er melhodl\.
(3) lapont-e Xory. The 011<\ dill-
...",in.liol1 of infonn..liol1 .rqn,red by the JUl'n-
1'- warning "'IS vet)'
Ibat of Ihe .\nn... Operations rooms wert' mAIlI-
taill...:1 b,' the m.. in l)i,;lri"1 Ih",l'lllllr
Ie'" which .11 infom,atiol1 1I0..'ed lind from
It- rooms in Illn,. ,... minj:". 1"1<1 or<lcr<I
........ 1_
But Ihe
........ in tlK' .\nn)_ the unil commIlIHle,.,.. who h.d
""elical oollirol of Ihe .ireraft...e.... flIr from
the operalions room .nd n"Clliwd Iheir in-
fonn.lion _dband .nd in .hb....,-iol...:1 form
from t1l(>jP rooms.
(-l) Ez('!longe o/lt,/o,.,..atia" .It..,. Xllry. The.... "'l'.... three I,m.. idl
for lhe of inronn.tion 1ll'l"'Hn .\nll)'
..nd Sa.")' .... ming til all Ud,,,"/-"'" of
li.i;;on officer<' (2) Ibe ""olio ftf'll'K'll'
fie; on illfoml.tioll .-...-1 fmm to
lhe 0llllralions room: .nd (3) dit'! I.nd
linl' between .\rm' .nd S.'1 roonl!l.
In ,benn. IllQ;;ll shoold I",,-e to
I.ronde il", nl'Jtt best. thin!! to. in'ej.....ted
.... ming HUI in f.eI. illier-t>n'i>
ill6led 10 .. f.1Iu.... to II", f.rilili"", .,.,.il
.ble. and neither .\m,) nor e,'er n,aole full
use of Ihe inform.lio" ,un><! b)' Ihe O(her.
) ...Ibe ...,-.ibiliIY llt'll of four Di$
,:Oromd Al'IIll.. aIld .Iter April 19o111 of tbe
1iJ: .. Aroa ArmiftI., In the
...nUntt irlonnalion ...aII rolleeled, Ind d'l!8ffIl1-
...ted by lie four main Sanl Du'tnct
teJ1Ilt K<JIp,ukl. liliaunl. Kun'.1101. bo (F.x-
hibit Rl.
(:l) ""y. Of Ihe four Dilllrici .\nnieo,
ooly th_ ..01 -.eriou. IiI' tkfel""" llrobleml'-lhose
It Tok,o.Q.ak.... nd Fukuok... The fOllnh .. u.t
s.ppo;'" 01 lIokkakdo. Ind h.d lillie 10 do ... ill:
tlw doofm.... .\t ()laka. Inl,
Fukvob. he lli",rict .\nnie.!!!l't UII COOlI,licaled
roorru; inlO ...hich III .ir nid ",fom...
tion ..... 10 funlll'\. In rooms lhe
infonllatim ..... in lbeol')' J>UI Inj.oetMr by II,e
_ of 1,lmi"/l or O(Mr m",n,o. and Ihe
('OIltl""ioflo. IN-rired thoo.... from ..'e"" Inn;;mnted
to ulliUl. bol:h IUliairenft. pound
and, tl... 101' lit in lhe dis-
lrict (Ih, IIlh_and
llbared lho O1..nlinn" moo," .ith Ihe district "I"
.. for I_inl: in
formatiOl Ind ,;..-inj! orde... 10 the 0lletllion.l
air unil .... Thi" -.;telll n',nained un
.-hen tI... - \ .....\mli look Ihe J>late of
t.... Disttct .\nnie< (Exhibit R).
n.. ........ hid, <"OuI.ined of ,he
JIlQIIt imlonanl iu .I.p.'" R1trered IIl1der
\hi" ",,,,,,om from Ihe flC! th.1 it ..." ne,'er I"'"
....It"'''' of Hi-lrin .\nny. TlK' tOI' air
unil in tl....... "u only a Flyinj! Brijtlde.
.hi<"b -.II ""oordi''''e 10 Il,e t:le"euIII
Di ..isJoo .1 ()!ab.\crordin"ly, befo.... \Iril
IIN:>11 infonn.tiot, ..bout .1.1.....d,inj:: lir for-
DIItiona Ind III order!! 10 ..... me from
o-ka. ..ilh ine,.itlble S.jl:l.l)a Iitu be-
.,..... tho '-dqu.nen of OI'e of Ihe new Arell
Annie<. but Ihal .\rn" ' ......r ..n
defell8l' orpnir.atKm to To-
.,...o."'.nd tulruok. At the end of lbe .Ir,
lhe .. ir 'Ilil. ehallled .ith Ihe defelllll' of S.go).
fllllDd t!leorneel ...... under the local A..... Ann)' for
_ and untkr the t:lerl'l\lh !-'IYln/l:
Dirisio, at o-kl for 0I1K'....
TIle nyinj[ l)ivIsi,,,,1I nom,.lIy the decl'
... wlM 10 inlerol'l,t. 11m tactical oonlrol of the
filditer IInila .... left to Ihe nnll ClIn,manderll.
on- mmm.ndel'll l'eCf'irM .bh"",i.t...:1 ,'el'llIOT\l)
of the informallon OOlDin" into Ihe mAin ann)'
OJlM1ltiO!lll room.....1 tlK'Y "ere nom'III) ..ble to
bep _IOn of. plot of Ih. rel'0rwdllOljition.
of fonnltiOllll, Somf'ti"ll"I 1....... 1com
r..r."uq ]1....".

51" 1'rllo1nc
1It1.1.1r Ano'
f1'ot;;ro) ---
Exhibit N
'-4 ani r!ylllC Squadl"Oll for reeolmala_l.
---- --T---------T'----- -----,
i I
I Ceatral I v..tenl 1 !Iortherl:
: Dhtrtct ""no' I Dhtl'tet ,'
i ! !
lath J'l,yl!lC Iricade 19th 'l:.. lllC
(Onka) I (ONkt)
I I L_-.
_ J , I
nnac 13th" 346th 'l..lllC ifth 4Ur." 34Bth 'lrillC
1'0 Pllnn "ct.
?O PlaD"
DbUlllt ......,
4\11. hn. lee'
..... n-
13'11 F17l11C ....
...... n-
I ....
( ool
r---cd';.i -----T-----
I Dhtrto\ Antt lIt..tnet Anq
I <0...) ( u)
CIa. eJIJUI PriMr1.l1 frelDbC Co__)
... _....
Exhibit P
." ".11.11'(:">;1) TO D...._".111: OF u,'..:s
CAUl:!) 11\ lM.. ,"!::!l." I"'GlITERjj

11_.. _ ..
8 __
-, _.
'"" '"

.\0...... m I

.. 'u,


s .._ ...


I ..
.a ro
a ..
co F.__,.




.. "


,a a
o. I
" 1.'- w
,- o. I
" ,..




""i:" I

Dt..'rlG\ 1.1'1q
,... "".. -......
Dt.etlria' Anti
.\ ----- ::....
L Air A.",
1ft AU''''
l ..
... "till .... .., npMn La Iet_at,.... ...,rod.,.q 320
_... -

...... I
....Wln ......
(.....l I

.. ...l..

"' ... 6.F. PERSONNEL
J A P,Q, N
,l,N.U'i pe;RIONMIL
.....A....II V.. L .. tCIIICI
"- II
'!toU' touRCIE
.......UL ....vaL A.1t ,OIICE
___01"-' iCWGd .=m fIOIlI .......
....... 01 c:rHJPIMf1OllIlWPl AIltIff
_ .... " ...... If1'UIGII'TIOII
I llIIINClML ~ ....

Exhibit U
HOT[: M08LE "",,OAll .... U'SOl TO SIW"..O':"T
1I0YH All'Ml' "''''0 HlIVl, W[IU: EQt!I""to
..... ITH RADAR.
== ~ : "..o ~ . S T A T I ~ S ~ "AClI'IC SlOE
"liLY I"'
SOUIlOI: 11111..0..1' 0'
.....,u IltItIOIlllL
ing hnck JOt '" '
sion will; OIl I to enl'l'" out the mis
percent eA,c,l'lw,""
T I '
o I III western "Kamik"ze" "D" "
Wind" I . . - ""lIle
I ,an llSIor'e,,1 reference 10 the stonn which
the neet in"adinjl: Japan in the
GHIe synonmnoll!l with "suicide:' But
eneml K.WRhe had this to say'
.. y II '
tn OlH K ..mikaze att..cks 'suicide at
ek,,- Il"g 18 e misnomer IIml "'e relt..ery badl .
J'our them 'SIIicide' attacks. The)
III no uicid/!.' TI'e pilot did not st..
o.ut on nll!il!lon ...ith the intention of oommil.
!II11c,de. lie looked upon himself ll.'l" hum.n
bomb willch "-outd dtSl y pan of the
ellt"'" t1eoet for 001111' Tht> -,.,; I -> "
1" 'J'
" ?nous ..-hile .. '-luicide' m., not be
glorlOU!l. M 50
The t.. nn "Kamihze- rame to be >@<\
.11:,' .11 J .. SIlicide el"l$hes"".It=:
II applifll onl .. Il> J.llllllt:>e
I,I.lIl'lj and pillllS. Bolio J.jllllle>t lIl'rvm
lI.'lt<l the I'hrase uni""--Tok
K0l-'f:ki T.i. shortened to Tokko
II"s "'u .\nnys offici..1 design.'ion. In t.hilI
paper .nd III trlllb;l.tions included here bo..-e
the term -suicide- i used lll!
it be.1 fits the
.J....nftle ::!'lKl..I.\uack rnit8.
The "oluminous tt$limOll)' .nd e..idence .. vail.
.. ble m.L-1!!! ,t quite rlear th..l I.. numbers of
J,"lllln_llliou ..-illinglr for
!!tlJC,lde .,lTrllft mi!lSiOlUl .. nd th.. , S10ries of pilot.'!
h.vlJljZ '0 be tied in their I,I..nt$ .re not at .. II
rel>resent.1 h'e. if indeed. sinf!le SIlch ill!ll.1lCe oc:.
currell. ("'ollle" '''ere IIHer as Ih'ing per
lIOnn!'1 dft'l,ile llumeTOl'S repons '0 th; conlrll '
I'!'('(!in'd in .\"ltriea durill!;' tilt ..... r.) It is
dellr thll by the final "'eoeks of the war. ,he most
elIl-'er l,ilOls h.d eilher bten killed 011 Or ..-ere
"'ailinlZ their tUMI "lid th" two J"I,,,nese air forces
reach"'l IIll! Stlll-'tl of assil,. ... ing ne'" .nd IJOOrlJ
111I1Ilwi lIlen to the Silicide I.Ini .......i.e., drafting
""olulItCl!t'>!:' 0"8 such ",'oIUllletr" who was sand
by the sUI're"'ler stftted IlllIt he was "saddelled to
!II Tt."Ce;'ing the dellih eentenee" am,ollgh
"II IS \.() 9"" !Kl:'
But there wu l\ rel.lizalion among nil
pilolll ill both (liS indeed, "mong p''llCli.
the eUlinl adult 1I01'''h'lion of .Jupan) thnt
wCl"(lull expected to die in Ihe linal bailIe
IlgninMt ,\llil,,1 illl'llsioll of tho Jl']llllle!le Ilome
Inud. It. is IIp(lfU'C1I1 Ihat therl'l would Im,'e been
ePl!llIsillSln ror a "cureall' ne...
on m/lnted field reports of indilid.
ed of suicide I'lanes "'llS com.
.evenl It(lms:
. a!t(lr the loss or Ihe .\I"'danas
... f!KIIlS a situation and that
,res wei'll reqlllred to ('Quilter the
Allied attllck on Ihe Inner Defense
2. "-'we S,.dt oJ MilUl
.\ltbough the idea of premeditatal se.lfdtstnJ<:
tion on militaM" mis5ion is foreign to the occi
dental mind. it long bten ",ell rooted in the'lt ..-.r of winking and J.lllln_ military
During the 1931 J.pane5ll .ttack on
China.tht.J.panese Anny Inuch of tllt t1"ft
"olditrs ...ho reponedlr earried .. 10f"
pedo through barbed 'lrire and ble"- t!lPlJl9th'es up
10 effect.. breach..\ st.lue "'lll! erected in Tok)'O
to C(lIllmemo...te the e,ent. During tlli! ....r tbe
J.panest employed onemen suicide torpe-
t\oe;l, suicide crt.i>h boats.nd SUblll.rilll"'
{first used It Pearl lIarbor) offering lillie roOI'f
lhan fi@\f-dest.n1Clion 10 their cre....& Anny .nd
gnJUlld 1rool)8 m.d", Ilumerous '"bt.nui" or
suicide charges "'hen their clHISC .... u hopelt!lS or
e,'tIl before it became 1lO. The!lt f/!It theIr
" defen!le" against Cnited Stlltetl tanks in
lhe Philippines "-&11 the 'llIlm.n bomb men ..1,0
carried spl'(:illllr delligned bomb9 Ind hnrled Ih.."l'
:S/!"enhelt!lll.lh", Jal>anese did not consider
u!leof IIUch suicide lacliCl! by Iheir (lir {orees ""III
Ihe Allied invlI.!!ion of lIlt 'I'hilippillllll, ""d e,<e,n
Ihen Ihe comm.ndinj;l of the Ann)'
Lieuten.nt General Kawabe, to III
1.8 _ "temporary ....pedienf' u!ltd "be<:nu8<l we wert
ine.pabl", of combaling you b)' llll)' olhel'
for tllChnological reaIIOn!,"
The JapaneflOlBlate of mind which
Ii..!(\,! ill the 1'"iIMI Fort.'t!
openaliolls in the lasl month of tbe ....r !lre,'em",1
the mission from being .ttempted.
c. Btgi"nillg in Allril ItH5
Foree medium bombers I.. unched In m,d-Illr
roeket.proptlled one-man guided mi!l8ile known to
the J.panese as OK..\ ("cherry b\o!ls<lm") .nd
namtd by tlle Allies DAliA ("foolish"); . Thill
",..pon's chief d......back 'lras lhe vulne...b,lIty of
tbe pan:ul plane to A.\Iied fighters. Although
800 'lrere manufactured, not lhen 50
..-ere l.unched llgainst ,\llied ship! and of theM
onh' 3 .re crediled 10,' the Cnitt'd StaltS :\.TJ'
'lrith. lICOring hits. .
Compared "'ith suicide attacks on lthip! with
ortl"JdOll aire... ft, opt...lioM

"...1DQIl.lfcti.... air ...
by th8 .1.,.- ...alI tbe lJ\Iidde planl', wIdely
-" by 11M J.""n_ .\nny Force: alld
Sa..,. Air .!{SIIl. shlp6
clariDI the fulal DlOnths of the 1I'n. .t-
taeb 011 \lliM 1IIlipa f.lI into fOllr penods:
.. ()co:aIional ..1 CrtilM>! and poilSibly
r- crubM durinp:: lhe period ffOlD
Parlilorbor nntil 23 ()ct.ober 19-H," daY" dttr
the ("nilld Jandinp ill. the Philippi.-.
6. atta(n during the Pbilippine
_JII'ip bfnning with the Lefl!l
Gulf. 23-2'i Odoo.r 19+1, and I,'OIltinUlIl( until
of IN bmdings in Linryl'll Gulf in
JanDU'1' 194r..
('. Ittaeb. many of tbnn in large
fonnsU(Jl. during the Ryukyus c.mpaign, bT
nillJ ...ilb the fiJOIl. carrier attack 011 KyuWu, 18
Xan:b t:i. and C<IlItinuing until the of the
- ..4fI. 21 J_ then 8 weeks blofortl
tb6 Jt.)lUIfIIt llUrftIldlor.
4. PT"pant",- for the final of the
homeland ...lUeh bqtan!lOlM "'feb prior
to the.lIi of the Thi>;
...... ofrou.... oompllud. Simil.r I''''pu''''
-.. made in tM _Ih for the of
the Silppclft
III. dditiou 10 R1iride .nun on ship!
thtn "me th,,", oclMor ... of !'Uicidt
alT'il out or oontt'mplalf'd b" lilt' J.'llInt!'ie
Ail' F.falII.
&. 00 20 .\Illt'* Ilumbtr of
B-2Daflylnjl: O"lr y .....hllrind J.pan ... (It
1ibenImIJ rammed by plants. TI.i.lad.ic
..... beeame 1ltri0Ull JlWlIaot to the T.....nlit'th
Air Fm:e. The tattic _&11100 di!&eult to
aDd, _ if not ...rly u 1,,'(IfiI8ble to
tbI J.- &II .inkillfC .11 Ammcan .hip,
6. 011 _ oocaaion dwilllC 1!If' Okin..... C.m
pt.ign 1 Anny mfdium bombtTll, tr."e
portia&: 12 ...itide tr<lOJM_hUtmpted 10 cra!!h
\aDd on the Allird oceupled Yontan O"e
pluM made it., and 1118 troop! (lid oon.ide....ble
damfp. Similar ope....liona ... I'lanned by Ill<!
.repa._ Ne..,. Air _!lith, by midJuly
lttli,bad hied '-""MIl 150 ..nd llOtI ",Ilium
baakn IUld tranapolU at north central 1I0ll$\,u
airIlUdt from whith .bout 1,5002,000 8uicidll
uoo,. ... to bt fIown.nd cl'lBh,it.ndfld em 8-29
ill ... hom thi!< pbn-
' .... ...
Arm1 ad air --
__...... -W.,. _ pbDtt--lmd _ of the
-., .,.Ida\-bu aid ...... the
tWII. ..1I'IIllIed 10 die in. the __"forio'u!l"'-
kadll IDaI bdtle.
". ...... and complfUly
-.-ud10 It. pilolb and to the
.itbout UI a
_jor eaot-ional criBi for 1M bulk of the lIl.n
lum to Yd not
IAOA thu_ dozen from the two !ll'l"l"ices dillObeyed
0I"liN'II ud look 011" on unaulhorized wicide n,is
Bioruo--Il. aUlttks ",femod 10 .\dmil'lll Hal",,}"
.ith lbe remark, "Allhough hoMilities ha.-e
--.. .. !hall oontmuelOehoot down Jap pl.nM
in a fn.,dly IlWIJ\er."
"ice .uhniral '[" Oxnmandfor in Chief of
the Su-/ Fifth .'ir Y1ftt" lhe DUljOT cooounand
iD K\-u&lU at lbe end. is "'POrted to ba flo..-u
01. !'Uicide mi:!rIiorI 10 Oki.....a hen be
Ja.rd. a k- bouf'!l in ad..._. that the
... SeO'al ,'rm,. piloU ."" reported 10
... camnitted ban.kiri .1 _ for"l'lnl in
KJUlhn rat'- thBsl face tbe disgrace of !ltITftDder
If tbtJ 'lOU1d noI arry out lheir lI\Iicide mi_ons.
V_ AJmiral OniBbiIao bad ginn lhe finIt
..-raJ Kamikaze ont.!r to S....I pil0t8 in the
Philipp_ caUlpaign, suicide shortly
att. t1e surrender.
The .eeb bet.OI"ftn 1118 F.mperor's .nnounce
IJI(IlI. .f suTl"lltlder and our mu.1 landing at
AtNJi .irfield outside Tokyo 11"1.8 BUlliciettt to
J*IIli&theJas--IO pul through lbe l'Jllotion..1
criaia md <:oDclude thai "obedience to ElUperor
aad ktioD" ..... ind.d, the only at:eeptable
Ann.- or .... ronunandtland their efl'@cti\-en
.... aocu";'trly kno.-n 10 tM
r.\ .. 1)",viom.l,- notf'<l. J.pan bad IKIt reIIliud
,I.. of bloT 1"Il;I!ion in ,1M, ""U ulIli]
,I"" "nd of lhl fM'riool.
TM {ollo";o, unoonntN .uici" cra;;he> h....
'-0 credited to ont' or both of Ja.,*"_ air
a. .\ rammill{!'. C(lnlOiM_1 accidental b, Ih
of a plane inlo Ihe ballk
ahip /,,.jIVr Ojll"ll/u. ounk 0 in
lol-r !lill.
b. Two 1,;]0(", "un their 0.... " inil'al; ..e"
into all ,\meriean clITTier Ull :ttl I\H2.
(11," curr;er Ilorllt/ wa", il\ hil hy" [,11"11-
iog plane but the IJor.lefr lOS!! on that tin,' "",
due to JBI)llllese 10'1)('(10 and Iii,'" bombing.)
r..\u .\nn)" fil!:ht ..r pilot ramm..d " neat
IIIl" And"mlD Island, ,"uions])' ....Il0rted all in
Allril. June, and 1014. The
credited him ..-ith sinking" Bri,i';!, carrier. (The
8titi!lh SUle that no n.rrier ".. I,il .Ithouj,l:h Ihill
DUly bue hem lbe pialii' ....hieh hit. haspil.lship
in tbe Saf Ri on the Buro".-Indi. frontiu.l
d. \n Army plane rtporUdly doTe on .n AI
tol'Jl'l'do ....hieh the pilot sa heading fIW
ron"oy he Pl'Ol.ectinff in J Sea in M.,
19-1-6. (So Allied rtJ>On. is'" on this in
e. An Army p'-ne on an .Allied Ihip
at Lliak, Se.... Guinea, .I!l() in May 1W. (No
Allied report 011 thil incident.)
f. n",ar Admiral Arin'a, commander of II Nn"y
air flotilla, 0.10\'''' hia plane illio an Allied carrier
on 15 Or 18 October lOU u the United StattS
Thinl "'as mO"int( frorn lhe Fonnosa
_tb to.....rds lAyte.. ThiB .!tuk credited by
tbe S.ry with the fuse of the ardelll
.iabNof his in tbe of lhe .llpr'Ol..:hillJ
So ..., p.........,... H-'- 10 l.I7UWIlt Philippine innsioo by the ,llliee. (.\c:cording to
1...- Az., aad S ...,. ainnm do _..".. the '["niled StaIS S ...,.. no carrier or .ny othtr
_to1M..m.w-01.l.,.- plaM nub- wp .... hit by. plane in the period 1-&-111 Octo-
iac ido .. Allied .-I bat the eud. date aDd her.)
11ft DIlC iDIportaDL What ill dNr n.1.puwM b.iJb comm.nd. aftO'.T the )IJ.....
II.- the ae-in UIItimoIroJ in J.pan ill thai: I1.1III ClUllpaign, amicipaud.n .\Ilied on t_
& ". idaGf....,.plaM... fonnof JUided h:mO'.T LiDl' of 0.,... and pve
.... to both .\rtDJ a to lhe lIUicide plane ..nd iIB po'
=: both piloJu BfId -.-raden, durine tettti_liliM. The idflB .... under discu!!!lion ill I
.... _ Savy after the diaarout 10llII of 1,500 tTlli"fI1
t. 8nwal 8Uda trubee occurred durint( this flying penonne] in the M.riaIUl! call1pail,'11 i_
parted. bat tbeJ ...... iaolated _ made on the June 19+1. A earner admiral reiaorted to hiij'u
JIIIa'- If, indeed, they .._ p.... periOfll that he .iahed to orponize .uicide
__ _I _ DOl -..pd by flither uad _dtl.n penonaUy. The m"uer "-'
cid", mi ion bas 1. __ -
Oct.oblo """'.... reiaorted BlI 2.j,
I October.nd 6 SO"emher .Ithough
I)' _'llii upheld the N......'. claim
t.".t lhe . .. ...
. ,Inll'.tru lbe !uicide altaeU. The
Idea. ho"'e.-er. 611rang from ...ilhin both
.both full)' committed to its eHcIIl:
wllhm. re. days of each OIhe
Til r.
e Kllmikue IlrollBga.nda bllrst fonb both
thlll .ir fol'Ol!ll and Ihlll J"pLO_
and lllcidentall)", On a puzzled publie in the \lIied
... enqueBtionnbl)" thlll Japanese ",po'ru of
of endlCS8 American battle-
lind carriei'll lind trnn!pol'tl being in
Le)11Il Gulf the .JIlImese Air }tOrct.'l! lind Ihe
JllPOl\eBIl pllblic a tremendou! morale Iifl. some.
thing lhe)' both bodl)" needed Bl the lime.
The l;uiled Sialea XIIi")' fought oB: ....arms of
.ttackel1l but look COJIliiderablll 1-. Onl 19
Allied ahips ...ere llUIl.k but E?I J ..., "
. ",. . eee P"neB
II, led sh'p! .nd i:03 OIhe- --' d .
mlS$llS, Of lbe 121 hits on ships. approx.
Imatel)' one-lhird IMXlred against carriers.
and e",1sers. But 2 of the 19
ships sunk ....ere in theee catagories and lhey .ere
escDM. camers.
The fe... 011 I.eJte presented the Jalla-
nese 'nth mall)' Illcratin' in thll fonn of
ships lInlooding Oil the beaches. Rlld Allied land
bflSed lIircrnft h"d "crr few from which to
Op'emle. Yel tl,e Japanese did not !lrikll in full
force anti I he crisiB 11II!ISed.
510.... 1). as lhe ,\rnericIIIlJ! .d\"alle>.'<1 from Lene
to .\Iilldoro to I..IlZOll, t1"l .JBpSllese .t home be.
to realize Ih"t K.mikaze delaring tac:-
llC al be>t. nlll at borne in Japan the \aIM of
Kamikaze the JltellS. in 11"hich it ....alI pic
Iu",d ronll,llote Slleee!$. and lhe sanle BaCrilici.1
"Iliril 1ra$lirtd in the public at lhe miJj-
prollBl-'8ndlst& Kamiku.e unla were estab-
lished in factories and on farrM-llOI. 10 die there
lim 10 work da)' and night ...ith the 6lUUe zeal all
Ihe pilou o'er.>eU Onll fBCIory dilltributed gift
10"'cIIO each of it! .-orkers bearinglhe I"oeh....c-
Ie... for Klllllikue.
The following i! a labulation of total 10IIIIetI
lllonth br moulh Rud the number of slI;cide lOIIlle8
ill each monlh. Jl will be seen tlmt nil the C11111-
paib'll Ill'Ogrellsed Ihe percenlage or .uicide effort,
measured in 1-. rose steadil)'.
tlull relIrhl'<,l tlte tar
bombinl;.tt ka 1get arell. 3 mll(\11 ortl,,)(lo]l;
One {)f the alll
12. aHemptl'd !lIlicide r1l11&
lind another - anI .... a carrier
10 Ollie I cnslled 011 In 1n th" atoll. The
. rs .Ilded In .... ler.
nlt! deci_ioll 10 Ia
SI'icide tact-- . fl ('t l!O much emphUi5 on
offieer of lll".\nll'-" Sisth _\ir \nn ' in the n
ukyus ClIUl]llll!-'1l h"red thele "fo;lr J. y-
for lhis d'biCf!; main l"fII!lQns"
I. There W'18 no l'fllO;l>I'et o( "idor in the "ir
bf etnl,lo}'mClll or orthodox methods y
:!. Suiride ullnck8 were more I
lhe power (. Ive 1eClIllSB
I b Itnl'>!ct or rhe plalle WII" lidded to
I llll ror I he h01l111. l>e!!ides wllich lloll' eXI,loding
/-.,150 mil eHIIed liretij f"nher, achievement of lhe
proper .1I!:"1" e(rl'cted """"ler I
... - . ""'" anI C<'tIrI(:Y
I l.n of nomlBl bombing,
. 3.. Ulclde aWlck!! pN",idl'd sl,ir;lual inspira-
lion 10 lilt! . I
. .. nu 1Imts anI to lilt! .1.ptlllt8e
pUb!"'.1 lu/-....
1. :-'ui"ide ,,'as the only /lure .nd relillble
1.Ipe of .uad, III Ih" tUlle such luacks ...ere
(IStlloe,hadlobej.ilhpersonnel .. 1 t'
"'as limited. IOI!e nllnmg
Heason nllmber 0111'. of rourse. 1fU tI", IlIllI on"
fbr the ./ol",n_ .\ir Forcto'l--llS orthodox
nnns-:"-e.... bealfll by lhe lime lite I'hilippinl!!!
111'1-"'11. llen.son number Ihree ..-IIS
,;1 he prop"/-'ll "da llfpect of all icide Illlaeks.
I h? .Ill,!;l "f lhe Okinllw" l",,,li"l:" went
"ell f"om Ihe .\l1ied stQndl)(linl, for
J!,'Ound '''><''IQllCO Willi. "egligil>le 'IUtl rhe ni,' W1\5
de"r (I( .!nI"IIlP""'l'lnllcs. Then li:ornikue hil wilh
il;; a':"illlhic (nr.l" dllMn:;! " :\Ghour period of
G--, .\I'rll ,;ome 3:,:; 1,1.lll'S plus nearh'
Ihe ,;a,"e 1H11111Mor of lighler $()nie; aud reeonlUl;';'
"""ee 101111 n( .1>0111 ,,"I >-orti I of
tI",:! or:l blj.!:"'l"-I .1I."k, the .,."."e-t' "fO ""er
to SI.I-'I' III Ih" ...r.
.J.I",n Sa,.,- Illa.- ...,re brckred Ib ro",'1'''-
tl'lle on _\lli..1.. a hip" "hile .\ml, plan.... "-ent
af'er Ihe lran"lll>rt Thi" WftS Ihe fiN of 10
lllftjor pl1ln'l...:1 ft!-'lIill.,t th" "lIll"1l
force. InIlL'pon_. ond SIlI,!,IJ shiP'! durin!!: the
uhno)St 12 of lhe 10ml 011 Oki-
Thl! ./"I''''l'..... ,ll>er,-inc WIIS "'0 Hlll' as ..
tlla!lSf'd pl""e o'I'I'IIIo"h t......"ibln" altholl"h "Bt
ti","" SII"IWi!j(lllIlUcb b.,' ",,,,dl wcro inlen-
lionllllr ,X'-Cllll'!." .\ml. lIS 'It I..eJle. lhn ,\HiM!
back wilh a nlll&;j,'e Blllillircnlft bar""ge
_ Dllr;//8 The R)'ult)'tls
dR)'R 011 1\'0 ,Ii",,, whid. ("II 00.
of .J"I'"11esol Qil' llnilll from
1I\ ./"nU"1".I' lOla. lind Ihe IllIHlin!;"
On OkillllWII on I April 1!Jlr.
aIr Mr"ices look slock of their
planM in lhe Philippin\"'!. The,"
aDd 11,,('(1 as l ... inerll (i. I
,,'rf- ." t III
.. ,.j. I(e!-'llh!.r lnllnerll "'ere
unlll tl"" IInlkn,.
.' t"IlllllJ)ll i,,'Il
and Oil ""..ill!>/; the
,(b,,'h .\m1.l' and Iklth
lhPu !Je.,t 'win-en'tine I _L.
.... In
I II' PEG(n" and I
c,'" ""('''' I Ie
-'. .."\" ....u tilled OIll ,,-ith
IUId II {'()ntao.1 fU;le from
WIIS the mO<>(
trW bJ elthrr
' .... Iikel.l to I.nd ne:.-I ..illll'r in
or direct I}' in Kyushu and
ble "-a}' to SlOll th"m "'ould he I"
,he bulk lhe I\\"<> air fo",", i;,
rs. on SUIcide mi,."iOllll.
Ie number of the regular lighter
.. from suicide In I'ro"ide
an,1 hJlhlH in" or "1",-,, f" '
."ouhl Jlel tltroll/!h 1<> 1111' 11'1"/-':t
"",,nee ,mits likewise must ho held
ICt'IlPI'''1. Ihe 1"<>1\' "h5<011' 1'1"",'>1
tninNI pil"r._ (illdl"li,,/! llll"'" 01111 in
) ahoul,ll>(' lhe (il'>-l ">'l'1l ..
WI,R 10 !'IlIl"."te rh...\lIi",1
.UII14f Hll0 11>1' Bir IlOIl8ible
... 0I'\t' lIme. rnlullllij.'ll on 1"0 ,hll'" 'hr
,hit- 10 InQUIll ouh bl'" Illajur
"OIl\l,i"",1 .\nn, ".n- al
.. plan .,. r " .'
0 lem pl.nM
...\nu.n, _Ink.'k Bl 'nil..d
......, ,'.rli..r ..-as I" 1"'0 hilJl
c.;.:;r ""_ d"mDI-'l"(!,..-, lilal it had
r "mil 060 weill dnm-
&.0"' '-_

---- .--...
.. birh makf'fl cH.r ,,,-, of II... OOn
"'Ill on Ii... Qrina\ 1..lIen, of thl! tWQ
.'.1.'....... Jur
J)lItinlr t I... ('11""'.;10'" 1JOI h ,1,,- .\ nny
1,,,1 air fOn?- d..,, I'ilol" and plane< from
,h..,T rtiular tact;.".\ Itpnlf unit"- The first Navy
"ilou 10 be ...". DIM'''''''' or .\ir GroUlJ
201 (equipped ..-ilh ZEKJo:. IlM'n Ihe SIl\.I"lI
ard fiNl line singl",.ell"1' lij;:hll'r). Jill'"
z.;...y lir unit became II Kamikaze unit, com
1_1 of its o...n pilotJl lind fnHu
Jo'rom aI Ulllllinllti(Jll 0' Ibe .1.0" labl". bbow, lIl'vtral oIlwr Xan' air unil>l. ,\I"fOnl! th<J<'e mILl!I'!,
in" moulla of th_ 650 mitl><ioM. il is some 30 l,ilol3 of Air Group /i01, the "il'
al'ptlr8111Ihat the suki"" 0' Ihl! PI,ilip which oontlin"d a of the remllining
11i.- ptli" oft' quil" "1'11, sho.... " in .Iapanl'!le carrier pil"ts, were toellt 10 lhe Philip
to:dl,"il I. th., Wi. "-'n' 26.8 pinll8 all ne.. KamiklM 10 N'infOl"Ce Air
eltocti\'e., measurtod in hil.ll ..nd damaging Groul' 201. All "'Prtl
-.. ..Ilbougb 'aillPd in the major 00 The ,\mn' dn'w ,olmll .... nl from the "llriOl1ll
jti 0' turning tbe .\lIifd landings. The lactical unilS alrt'lldy in the Philipl,ine9-the
J ..panetWo-!"tS kne", liltlf about tbe T""nl,'ourth J.'lyin$:" pro"idl'd
publi.-ly!My clailMd praa>cally 100 fiN. fomlal suicide p'lot_nd 'rotH th()$8 which
_ bot prinwy their fiU""""" at time ran ...ue lIIH1t in u The!!e "olunteel1l
rr- 0Pf hit-oot _ril,' .. pnkia-t 0' 'orlDfd into -Speo:ial _\nack ("nits" and 10"''''
, ... do'-I to ODe OUI 0' roil or "1't!Il -. 1D 'Id_ tbemJelVf!l unolicial "pnbolic n.u_ of the K.mi
thoo,. obillined _ hit or damaPnr: nar JDis out kue 'Briely. Durin!!: Xo,ember. Ii units (nearly
of .boot threl'.nd one-halt IOrti..... bot tbe bolk 200 planes). IJ\lde up of volunteers from taetical
0' ...,re 8tO\"l!d apiMt ....all _Is. The unill!.nd 'rom ilL'<troc!ol'll in JBI>an,
thoup:ht tbeir pilou had hit mallY DlOn! .-en! lIent _th. _\11 ...1'.... upendl'd.
_jor _",hip!. Very early in the Philipl,itll'!; .., both
It ill Ill"" .ppa....nt from th_ Ihat ...hile Ann)" and S.vy bepn I_thllmolls promo
tha lUieo.. lactic"'aI! .chie.injl: a measure of BUe tions for suicide aU.ckM. ,\1 li,."t Ii one-nll1k pro-
bomh"r all,llillhter con. mmion \\'lIlI gi,'en wilhout regar<.l to the lYpe 01
.itllled by far the major portion 0' the efl'ort of shira Btlacked, Ihoul(ll ill Oet"lJcr l\ !\a"y pilot
t.... t1 air 'orces. TItu. 1_ aUribulabl" 10 crtodited ...itb sinking an .\Ilied carriel' gOI n '''''''
_ici'" It...,laIlBIIlOUnted 10 only about 14 percent grade promotion "bee._ Ihut W1l8 the maill lar-
of \Qta.1mbat '-- In tbe later RyukyU9 oper- fl"C- at that tin,e." But llOOn ever)" pilot could l;O
_ion. '-0' lUieidf aircra't trere 83 J>en"l!Dt 0' 10 die con6denl 0' a t...o-mnk promotirn,. Cnl
of tal.. cUat.t INden specilll,. hononod b)' the Enlloeror.
Both Army and Sary bpt __ of their I.e Of the 17 Ann,. ""ifidlo !lI"nt !lOutb.boul
p&la 'or .i<-idll in half lIe.- 6&bte" ..od Ihe bombers. The li;!bt'
... PhilippiMe. TIle BtudardB 0' en had 12 aircraft per unit .nd tbe bomber'l
Ua..f the local and pi1otll1l!!Ually _h. Sa" anita .... fonne<! 'rom regul.r IU
-. Itjlded they .-ere -W 'or tor l(fOU" ill ..hatever number ". de<ired 'or I I_r-
.-.IIip ortbodoJ; Piku.-bo 1iea1ar openlioo. For pfO'lll.ltJ'mb pU'1)(l6e1 lhl
Itid IlKidll __ a p:ood aertion 0' t.bu. in X.ry. lib the Anny. p\'e the Until! unoftic..
1M....... Army and X...,.. in abarp ron IIJIIlbolic _
tnBt. 10 &be litvation in the Ryukyus Camr-ilPl . Both Army and Sa". in or<.lerinl; suicide
........ l1Iicide pilou came di""",ly 'rom ..ons, merely dil'llCUd that 81) mony suicide pl"'''''
'nmila unit&. Not until the latter camptlip r.o oul. and thlllower echelollll detcnniul'd wllll'h
_lidtha JaplUlM8 really lI:tl all out 'or Kami- planll! and pillltll were to 00 u<;l!d hom lh()ilt
...;m that _ tile _ of lUicide planes In tile .....Uable and which otherl would 00 llsed to p"'"
=-:.--==1Da1 considered ..idll cover. All the Itlicide aircnlft used ill III'
pphicaU, "" Eshibit V Pbilippi_ ..... eombat tyJM"ll Rhhough llO',1ll
kin!:, with 6 I
R,Il/iti lIPIllll". IlOIlIClillle9 "'ilh Btl
OIlH. "Hnf 01' tn" :! in ............c,
pl/l('fl lno"",l<' '"1' ,.
. .. caSIl/lltie!<. ThC'l'll
no tl'jlIRl't'1l1 I
I I .. Nile!!. ,owe"er, for planes ..x
1...tI ('( on 'ulcule mi,.,ion!l.
Before I he tnd (I
o t 1(' I.\'llkn.s f1I
\'<,I"lIlf'('rinlf fo K 'k . "'I,all-"',
I'lld fallen bel . 1'1 ;ml a;oo _\nn.. pilots
SR<' lUll lIe for SUIcide pliOUi. al_
y OOlIUllandel'!l OOl'tlllUed 10
tI,., tlwr had mol"C' "ohmteer lli lotul I
Tl. \ 1._.' LIn p .na
I'e ..... lOll of .. .. .,
ll' G . . eers ...u l.d.
bllik 0; ..nC'nJ)h)O!Ihi, commanding the
I I(' . nur 1I111U1 ill .soulh K 'ushu
al ,114' C'nd of Ihl' ".... TI . -tie ) .
elm.. f I I .' 'elf(' !!IlIC' ronsenpts
I . rom lOC IIU1teal.lld Inl1lmg uniLi but
r ... ,dC'S of ordtnut;! "I('n IIll0 "'''18. )li'0E5hi
8I.,d. ,,-u 1101 ", aeronl" "'i,b Ihe .......ic . _
c,pr"" of rIM' Kamikaz.e TI,ere
.bl) a faninj::" 011. in l.ilOl. (Iualit.- Il8
1l..11Ii conlltlued
To Ihe end of II... ';hihlllli"" eaIIlpaign
a effort "'u made b) bo<h ,c_ \ d
S ..... ,.."rmyan
.. a,) .\10' force< 10 sIIiC'ide pilots SOlIM'
c'al for Ihelr ,'ob!r. Ih-. ,---- . spe-
. I . """",me tnc......
r '._1')' .... anti 1It0re 11000'1) tnined
1"lott Jomed Ihe K.mlkaze units. .n.e Ann\' 'lfU
the. firtlt .10 suicitle
lhe Sa')-, "clde 1,,100 (and ai",rafl) wei'll
tin.." d"r"'l1 Ihe ItrukfllS l'aIllIJaigu, al_
",I"Olll excellllon. fl'Ofn Ihl' operatioual trai"ing
l'aetiea.l "nits throughout the
CJIll1ll11ll1n r<lnllUue<110 tI) orthodox co'",r, recon-
nalSllR'ICt". bo",Io"'I1. and lorl""d" In- iOllll. The
.\n"... mad.. u"" of "" increa!!ing nunl-
of I"Jotli anti from combal unilll alOllg
Ih"",- from IIml" b"l ir. roo, con
llUlI ..d to 11,- orthodox mi!lSions. This procedure
III II", wnh dol' r<l1...l,,_ions rroch"d before
Ihe rn"'I'RII1" b.'I(Il". Iloted ,,00....
... '\ rhl' u(>HitllCf of Ih.. Philippine ram
5'<11"",,1 llll'_"n",,,. a I.... li/-",re
III rhe a nil' Illllni"I1I"'Olf""" III ,he time
':1 1111' r"l'l llllli lilt plan"".
hl(l>((,.... bOI"I.."". N('" I", ""1',1 fO!' lIuack
'''11 ",lhN' II",,, 1<1 ".'- tloeir Illl.rtictliar
d,"", nOI lIle<UI
IllRt \I,' ,lid IIOt {"""l;"'''' (u) u.... i" liJlhl;r l.ilOls
bu, ,but "111'111. II", li'''1 portio" of the lraining
Pl'OloIrll'" III 1,-aIlIl"J1lhl'U1 1<1 MU/I"k .hil.pi", and
"'(0 lI11a,''', ",11'1'1-('1'11"" ...Ic., in the law
.llIj1l'!j of Ihtllrainillll' l'rtljlRm."
SM".I pll,u.. of <;<'lI""" ........ It'''llhl frum the
Ii,,,, 10 Mltal'k bolh 10r:!>fIdo ruu Uld
of silicide l"IIIlelj-lllld nell judi.
. "ed t"niled Stalell Fleet
Jllst prlO,to the O",n/lwlI land_
"hetween Hl n",jor
and from lhe Nlli or tile
tJw ThO'le Rt-
'nIh Ihe major elf0l1s just
Mo...n ",apl"call, ill E"hibit W
lhal, afler lhe ini,ial flfort II .
,<ml.. 10 "'Ollllt 1Il0",
lO!ll In one day. En!l')" effort '''II!
u nlaU)' Illanl'S lIS I>os;;ible off lhe
10 rn.i" attacks.
.yuk}-us )lardl lI,rouj::"h
llIups "'ere sunk b)l<nieide auackll.
IICOred II of 182 hilll on
ad 9j other plane;, seored dama,png
relalO!lllhe damage durin;.: lhe Phil-
B,.k)ug l'am(laigns 10 lotal suiC'ide
.....oJaIJanese _\ir FOl'C'e!land ",akl!l!l
more ....s donI' ill 1114'
produced mall)' more
hi: "ear mi9Se!l per 1iI1iC'ide pla,lC'

" "





,. ..




- -


the tarpt ... that tbe a"1 would A)- W, MIll
JOiIlK to attack. certain tarlfl'l at l"I'rtnill tillll\'
.. tt- it .... entiftlly up to the .'-nuy .. 10 0001'
dinate with the :N'a"y attaek bul Ihf! hlCI il"!'l ill
YOlveo:l _ left entirely to tiM' di.....l'E'lioll of
Jumy m.n....r ...
o-raJ Sup""" deIleribed lhe ..
in tJ- 1tOt<ho:
"We both ftICleiftld (operational) onll'N dirN:II)
frolll Admiral Toyoda
e-.bintd Saftl F0J'l"II81 in Tokyo .. (Th I
inIIntl'tionB receiftld from Tokyo WUtl of a gen
-'tIP": WI theadual dMaih of OIM'l'1Ilions "-p,,,
aJ'I'UIPd by ronsultatioo bet __ .....lf a,,,1 yit"
Admirallpk.i ud I follom Ililll'hlll .....
r.-.I 8upwan abo &aid Lhat "'hile \'ice
AdJaira.! l'pki .... tlw datN," the of
p__.-,.d to NC'h day'lJ pp"ralion from 110..
Jumy bad 10 be .uled by myRlf in the lil1hl of
tt. ....ilable number 0 o. n.e IlOint of
....-k.lioa .........ilb I"fP-nl 10 Ihe .ir
fran K)-uaIuIlo Okina....nd all "e ,,'ere al ...,..
Ibort of 1m. Iopic: required ,he It IP'it
In this way the S."1 ordP_1. .ntl .:arried ou,
fran Kyllllhu .......iOt Ann)- heill. 10 n.ajor
attadtlI: of.hid! that of 6-7 .'I,ril ..-u Ihe tint
..,..., attacb ginu the eonr
by tbeJ.-. The woN litenllr nM'ans -chl')"\1
water" UMl the eharartel'll"g ul'
the ..ord "'en -t ill lbe cnllll of H.lh eelltu'1
... hero who t.ook the side of Ih.. J,;mlM'ror
ill a proIoaged tinl war api"'" 1_,''- odtk
Yip" from the nn- Japanege sources
anUabJe diler .. to the number of liOrtleil llo,,'n
c-. wlKb and t'--fore tiM' follo...j"l1 tab!-
a of the prolenod .Jll.INllle;e lil:'
..... cIIaebd apiMt AllMd C'lainlll of .JnpllIIe!ll
"..tibot down at the time:

... wei'll homlX't1
1 of tho ,l.,'lu!oline lwj.,IW to delcrio.
hllilllf or the OkillNWII \'IIUllll,iguj
1011116:>'l OCla,,\, /-,&IIO];lIe had 10
with fl7 "C:lane /.,'u!lO]iul'l
1 ""elll dO"'11 steadil)',
..... ami tle':N!I\"iu!:" in J.."tu-
"IIJ:' prol.lerns of lht. ./a,..n_ IIiI'
_pll't ion of the .\meri('t'l OOIHIIIl!l>t
an tl .IUII(', and the bo-gillllinJ;" of
.... Kuaeks 011 l' bl'UlJli:hl
but II (elO. 8po...tlk mi""ioll$,
air f,,1'"N"II thou/,l.! the lull 'Hlllld
lhe .\l1ied of
II'l'tlilll' rt1Idy for the r,;'.'llllieide
.. II... llOllleland.
1, at 110011 Oil II .\lIj..'1L.;t IOU,
"I'llld,)' "o;('f came 0'"1.'1' tl... J.,l.I.
ric. Th"" ElIll'l'ror .id tl,at Japan
10 11I01' The)' eQuid hardly
'J1Ien. ...oold bl! 110 lIlO.... suil"ide mill-
lor tit,. FiOla! /),If""( o/Ilt"
The J."'lIese Imperial Gen-
lifter the r.1l of
"if Hu i. did not join tho:- "'u,
8tuet, would ill,'atle 80mh
Im'mber." The joint of &t.W
-.utin-I.r IIet I SOn'mber HlI;; for
....1'011111 <:OtIc for the
nre" 111'8 KE'I'l':ilJ,
'1'8"; tl,.. Allil'([' for
., IOUth "'1lS OJ. \'.\lJ'IC.
lrool)!! III".,ul." were dcplu).... 1
'teh light "'hell the war end,'tl.
and S.v)' .\ir f.""rt't'll ""(,r1lpo"r_
.nml(llo into 'ltH' its
Dl_ .t'.ck on 0111' Illuding
t"ll'Il 1""j('''''lic.lIy hy till' /Ichint:<1 in Ihe
li",1 "''t'kH of lilil rnm".iW'.
Ti,e (0110";111:" ex<'t'q'IN (rill" inler....''' ... lion. o(
,\ nlll' ('l'llllllnndrr'll:"i\"e the J.'lI.neee pl.n
ror thr us..' or .1l11O"'l.'r in Illll KE'r81': op...... tion
to roullI .. r "Ur OI,Y.\II'IC 1'1.111. :-':."1 rom-
n'.tul,,1"1 "J(j) ...1 Himil.r ,i...... on the S....I
,\ir 10'(>1,,,,',, "lUI>!.
(I) lIlttI."t (lrue...1 '1'._. Chier of': W,
.\ir (;ell 1 ,\1111_", .nd Colollel .\lil'...hi. Chief
of ('p.. rui""" :
M'I1o.. (.\"11.") .ir f.. pIau "'U to atlA('k Ihs
.\lIi....1 l\et>t .. illo Kalllik&".. 1,l.ntll .nd for thu
1"''1''.(' full .ir Ieol by th.. roItIllllll,ding
"..."..... I .. a ",.,If. ..,..d, to df!"l ...:... the
r tl,.. ..., We' of
001'1' ..,,It ir bm "I' felt Ihat ,t 'll"U OUr
"WI' t1",ul:"ht .... roultl .. in lhe 1' by Il>oing
K.",ika""Ilanl"iflll hil>l; "If_ho ; Ihe /!"lUnd
(",,"", "OIlld 10.".11.. ..-IIQ Ihrou/!,"- TIle
,\rllly' roI,ld tl<>l I'"t up I'fj;i-ot.nre will"
"'ll II,e .'1' .nn hut "I' intmd..d the bf;;t.
"f rot,hL fl"fn ,( "'0' ..d .-
I:.!) (;""0'... 1 Commandiu/!' IIflll'ral,
.\11' (i ..nt>1'll1 An"y:
dul not Ionf .ny I.....'fr (to all.o::k). Wf
('<)"Ill ouly ,It'(f,ullht> homl' ;"I.n,b. WI' uPfded
tI,nl .".rk) "'OIlld brinj[
10rhel)(>lnl ..I t>roIlld ....inthe .... r
"\\"t> "e"" I' ,..ri,,!! 10 II' an OIJr phltle'l for
K.mik.u l>tn the 'I_i.l.ull('k (fo ' had uniU!
of iln ,,"n. Thoi' "l:"lIlar lij.!htt>1'II 1 1>on,1)f1'8
.1;,0 liN'!' in I'"rat" .nd "'1' 10
" .... Ihpm for .n"rk I.!'t I'e'oOrt:'
I;!) L,eutt>n.nt CoIOl,t'1 IIl1".'a"i .\ir fi.."".... 1
"Th,' li.l1hlel'lol which lip\\, O,'fr for lht> ,uiri,le
""itM .... I" n, roll"rlllioMIh- "",iI 1111 ,,,ir,,16
"irr""(l h,,,ll......,, " <.1. theu "'ue to) beo:<'m('
""i('id, tlwlll 1",
(4) .\"" """11m. (i"'I ,1 l\"wlllJol';
0"" "t,,,I,,It.' "inwcll'oOl.. ly III
II ... d....I... 'clt\01l "r YO\ll' "",I flNt
,du'" it I,,",[t..-I I",tt in ,1"I'"Il. Irc 1..licn..-1 ti,."
. ""111' 1I"_II'\I(',i(>" o( .m,' ",.jo, I;ph'., " ..
('''u),( '1'1'" ,'"nilr <,,,,,'tl',,,'1 litI,15 fro", ",hid,
K"lIIik"",' pi"",'" """I,' tnk" otT, E"rr.,'"hp,,,
l"lOl r,,,,ll littl" ('''l",blt'/,f Inundli"l[ Kiln,;.
k..-.r 1'1""I'!ol, I\M 10"1:" lh",,,, ".".. onl)' .lju...titm
\Or IUUllrliin.l1 II ", ,,,,d uut 1f'11in.ll th..", I...k.
rhel1' "", "0 tlu tioll about lime. ""s!mo ,_
"'oulLl 0.1" .. ",.,,hi",, ill yo". 1"'''''1' ,,, ,I , .11
___till,.... 111 A..., Air"""". cnl>Rblc ,,( 0111) dl')' IITI,1 3,100 re-
11IUrl!<.1 fUl'thr, hdu"o the)' ....'" I"1lllable
of .any orthOllo, 1111. 'Ulll. The hOtlnt of
f1)'llllo( tune for tl... liI'l;l /o;"JlII' .... nnd in the
group, of whom n In"ge rllllllber "'ere sjle-
elllc"lly Ii tl!<.1 r<lr KOllllkue, tho Ilumlx>r or tMliu.
mg I10u", nried frulll (1) to liO. E;o;ccpt for
tellarlCe al,,1 " hulo l--.!lie tlllinill/o;, "II tlllining
Ul at the ..... r. enll "-ll.'I denlled to
I",ring the ul'enellcc<1 for Mmikne'
thal traini"l! COlL'I. t....1 m.mlJ of
...itb lome night lI)'lllg and II1ght hombmg.
The .'r rOrt6 Illannl,acoording
to Capt"lIl IllOi,'lK:hl, 10 If)' K.mikaQ> m;"'ioll5
at the t,,-o IIHJlit
plentiful X...y (SllllL\GIKU .nd
WILl.OW), OIle monoll!aJle and the other a
b'III.,II'. The X",)" the captain 1U1I, probably
ll'ould not: IIft(I planftl for tl_ mit-
8ion!!. The HIII.n "'11I to ,,.it until the 1"f!ry last
1lI00IIe..t," C.IlIain lnoguchi said, "unlil tbe
,\merican (OI'Nl! ,,'ere disl'er.!l!l1 .. little III pos-
.nd mlliet a glUter .lIIO\lnt of dam.
ab'e.., Colonel su.ted th.t while
the ",ore Ulltriend ,\rm) IlilQU in tbe oombat
lighten! rould II.!' .. far as .wo miles OIlt to -.
(or missions, lite 1_ UIltrienCll!d pilots
"'el'll mUocI, 1II0re libl)' to .cloine SIl<:l:eSiI if they
".Ited until the Allif!(l.hil18 If"ere Iring -ditw:tly
This lI"'e hope Will uIII'fJ!i!:Ied hy I.ieoten.nt
GI'I16ral Sup.... n ill theM _ortis:
"J)ole to the f.ct th"t Iield of lightfng wOIlld
not IJt 000 or roo kilollletenl (3GO or 420 ",ile!:)
tlilit.nt (aa it If",M in the BJuk)"lllI Campaign),
lind tl,.t the J.panese pilots "'oold be at the llOint
of romloot'll .lonS the COIR, I feel that
if hod b"Olie aCOOrthng to our plana.
it would hlll'e been llOlIIlible (or us to defeat the
,\ llilll1 Ktlf'lIllll to land on our shol'l'!<."
'I'ILi8 point of \ie.., of t'Ollnil!, does not tllke into
1ICt.'OlInt the o{ the .,\lIit"{ll"nd IUlll carrier
IJoSo"{1 II;, f.....ce'! to dell)' tbe .'r 10 the JnpKllf!8'l
(or thllltll or -120 mill'll, or even more, IJehilld
tire Inlldillj.:' l!each"" nud in elr('(;t to make the
"fleld or lij(htinll" d,lIrlOnlllnd dillkJllt
to I',,-neh IhlOn it wn8 dtll'illj.:' !JIO Corn
1)I,il;"n. The JnpnllOlflll had IlOJlIe llirlieida or
1"'lOih,I,l o in " ....t Jlollllhu, .. nd
Inoj,'1lchi, ClitimBtinjl: in rt'tMl<llf'l"t lhe
the Nal'>' UlltCled ItJ KKrnik,,1I' .ltub,
d have lost too Ulall)" plllllC9-
... AA."
gatht:roo eWI'y t)'I,>e
lind, no matter how obsolete or
. 111e problem 1\'a8, first. of I,ll,
flloll/o;h platle!! to "cloiH" that
n of Allied defem;1!l'I which
... dOlle in either the Philillpines
The Anll)" l'isl.ullized wal'elI o{
at the nlte of "one wa"e per hour
Army and Sal')'." In the AJ1n)"'.
odds and enUs of airel'llft h.d to
IIlidde planl!l'l if. indeed, they could
.....tional condition for even that
aDd then delllo)"l!d until commiUed

I T...., .....' ........ ._l.. __
.. _ , _.
_u,_'" f'-
.. _ ..._01 ..._ ........'.,....-
.. ....._ .. pia_I. ..,. AI..." ....
TIw deillonnftlt of the S.3JO lui(:ide IIIIDI"
re-dv for tbe ftld of the as Illo n in
t .... table. is indicated 0fI the mall hido
forma E.l:hibit IJB. This .Itoployment is 1-' on
IDII" .nd odwr inform.tiOfl fumWJed b)' .thl
,_0 Japa.- .ir forces and checkl .plll!'!
AlliN prior to till' end of ...r.
TbII Anny and S ..,. .ir forcell boW intendtocl
to ... the bulk of their SIrelgth, I_rticul.rl,
lIUicid. plane&. at K,...tJu, Shikoku, and
HOlVIhu ..... befonl the Allied landllljl:,
iDe them 0fI llIU1l grus fields and in undfor'
me:.t. of _hich were
e&ftlI in hil....deL 1'lIe 6", line of
would come from ,*,U'alllon&hu .nd KOl'f'll ... ilh
tJ., -..xld .nd final ....inforoements oominR I.
from China ...d Manchuri nd fl"Olll l!lIstern and
oortbern J.pan.
DoIh air fonw oonaidt!red their 1,IRI" for
KF.T:n; .. pumy oI'enaiV8. 000 lIl'nior Armf
operatiOhli I'IIlDtr put !.be def_i\'e thtf
most IU'bf.n ..... had bH>n \'llrllCd b
the w.r wu unnin.teeI, tlor ....... p'"
tieall, DOIhing to be dIofendfd IIT"I .'
daftlnee operatione AC'OOrdinjtly ....AIIf'<I "lid
tbe efl'ort became pu,.ly ofl'llnNin."
Major (leneral MiyodJi, .. ho _all in chlll'J;'l 0
tbII Army suk-ide nuita In IIOIIt1l KyllRhu, sl,,1
that "we aner thouKbt of dpfto"""," "nd
au-pl. ... mada in tbelut WeNu! ,,' tho ,,"nf
ddllMl airfleSd. iD Kyllllll'l .... ith liJ,[hlf
TII'O ....._-"""
, PIo_ ..... , ....._._,
PIo__,,,, __,
- ...... -
.._ ........,.... ",liO
........... __ 2,100
--,. __.
--,-. -
......., ..__.
............ _-
.. __.......
t. ........ __.I..-
- - .... ____, IlI ........
_.. -....-.... -
.__ , .


........, 10_ 4.., _ , ...." ..._

.-.. ,-._.. ---,-_.. -
_ ..... ,"--r.._I
eojved II plan 10 knoc
III th" I ,
out (he 1Il1ljor B-2!) Lo._
h)' I ' ar,( IlO!l!!ihl)' I 0
cmH 1.1,,,,,l1n" I , . II so on ki".,,,)
. , " If''' l'@n (.IiOO
lIu'c,de troope. II)' 'I lind 2,000 lIimi]ar
_ I ml( -Jill)' 1" I
m .Ied 11('("'"",n t:>O .... a I Ie XII")' h.d
.nd InnJlp0rtJ! at r. 1b
!"I200 Illedium bomhel"8
"'hel'l" lhe llf'rll(mn:t" north central lfol1llhu
f re h"'mg tramed 'rio
"Ilellll ,,,. IT t 1 '
aUack\'(1 the plllnell on Ih!:." 1(111' Ill. ho"e1l'lr,
Ihe I.u"dllll".:-f " fieldJl and preyenled
' .. lI" auack bef I
" ortc I ,e .... rB end
.. .......... '
"p.n_ \ .' . ... In 1"_
'lr Oroi'! hf DOl
",th OK,\ "''lin Upenntentmg
m.....,I'" .,th a I.j(;.1]b ... ),Iooe-m,ugu,ded
.'Ih lh"", I' .r"Nd And prondOld
TI' all I lI" <>111)'
te ""$"ode w_a, ". I uteans of I"'
.... 0.", ,ulK'hetl .
m",d",m bOUlber In':TTY lin m ""d-a'r hy the
O. II Jl:hdUl/l: (It,,,al'- r d 'U Willi 'Ill
rom Ihe I"
lUlU'S IIIe 1I1111ude al tJ I"I"nt .,rcraf" j
.n ""INlet u-., te I,me of relea>e. It btl
T ,-..IIl!=, l'.lJO mph
"ere 110"" In lJecembe ' ..
.." not I,cheall r 19011 00111.... mill
mnl-:' of II", II Y emplo)ed unul (he !wgdo-
-'U ,\Ill nm,",
, ' ,,,, ....,'-. - "''lI m Apnl I9-Ir;
......e,.,. n1plul"I'Id O. '
lite .\11,\'(1 e'Olle ".nll' n\" \ 011 U1.......nd
for 11",.
x ....., l,..t lime.
_ 01 IIW,.,. Ih,n :.II IHKA
laond...d ."'''Ill'' ,",'" I ..... ..-e... IId....U-'
. .... 8 ill'S. VIII.3
). II .. I ""lid ...", , . ... .:rediled
, 1"1. II'" Will I
.ud one other wllh lIC'<;Inn' -. ,utuug "_18
:i)" lite riO!!(' of Ihe ".r m13ll.
1I('111red but Ihe hnlltllll-:' fl.C'l II f manu
I,lll"e'll "ullM'l"Ib,I,,)" or 0 liM' 1"""111
I'''''"ffiled ( I
I'I0J'IIlenl of this suicide ,,'fl! IOn 8IlOOelI!i U em
Pllotll of IUKA . , ..
and !;Ollie Ili]Olll IIclu,II' fie ... ,e
of n.\ K \ . ) , m a lrammjJ .-er
II \,,' 'I ' ""'1'''I']lI'Id ",th skidg for I.nding
. . pI bill ""''''' l"ck....1 f .
,.ohllu......,,'" for K".,," rom ttlOlil"
.. ' UfO m,<s'o","
.\1 the ""r'B (Iu.<' 11i,- ..- .,
"ill> jel ,h'j,-en .II \ 1- \' ' IlS uperuuenllng
1hl' ' \. III "" ",tTort 10 intrease
nf ,'rllI"ncheti mod I
Ilundwd model. "I"", were I I c lI, Oroond
un<. er, e",t"l'nH'm.
/01. COllrlusiolls
1>. ftH"",kw "p-. . "g" liltlic of d
'Oil "1,,," il I"-'C,,me 11'1""'t'1II 101 he ,/" l e;.
lugh oommRrld lhRllhe l"'O I ,ll"f:!il'
"I'RII""" ,ur .",
WeI'" def.'II!NI IIi,' (<11'(!"', TI J .'R
1It'jtl]"'''I'''j(RlId'' 011 tIll< "<.I" ;"" mi, 'i,,"" 1
r,w II", "'''' I I", of .' (,I, "'Jot'
T!" ,aU 111m''',:' 1 ,t'><C
" ''', """<;(1". (or Ihem WK'
" ('\lId I,' 101:'r,,1 lIIihll,ry (h,,',sion. I .
red other '
"d' ' II org"'"zetl
IIIlc,.e ,,,.ren"l "nt! quickl h'
...bmg JlIIO H-:!fJlI ii, 'd
1 n" -.'r
, ready had been "ttempted
M.ncburia in the .",
onI 00 IIIller of
y II ut hllif 11 dOU!1l mid.air
took place: howe'er,.nd no do"l,t
'11'1"1'1" colliSIons rother
that se"Hal Japllnese p'l rom
but thill ill III sur-
. A;r Foroi'! "as.t lim.
.-eaulu to .\nll"ru:." CI'I"'II1l of
t b"t as Ihe "Ilr
", I
lilt I Ie J&lllInege oould
... Dlore II ,not,
IIOt 'd lIIn an ot'C'a5JOnal n,!!)
ronsl e d a seriOU!l ml'nano, ,
of J.II ele air offit"!'rlI milk
Ann)' 1'],lIles ..... re u__ "ed in ..... ,t
&be cra;,h di,' . nll'-
d I <S on lIhlpll. ""'icide
'-'OUH! lI"oIIki.1
_. \ ?" on lin ",tllI'ldll,1
._ no)' \, F .
f' . r Oroi'! 10 .\pnl
o lIl$lnlet'OIIS. bill Ihere is
.... follo"'\'(1 b,' 1":1,-1 '
, unlu.
Jl!},.:-n Allited .Iir--M. 0
., 19r I ,.... nOlle' ...-1 Ie ,\nnJ' l,unch\'(1 a
111/1; IIUa<:k a"l1io;,l Y
then ' .. "(Int.,, .,r-
f "?",,,I'led b.,' I mI\'(l
Or lbto Ilu .:k. ,,'orked 001 b,'
.....lled for 1:0 lledi '
Ya "-II I'
" :.. men in MCn oil
1.0 ....... la"d 0 I fi Ifr
..ilb J' I n I 'I' ....Id.
II .nnll.l,IUil inCl'Jldiuiell
_ ....... lind knock,ollllhe f... ld b)-
____ 1,lane; I1RtI 610-'" I'
,,'" "' ...!IO me
olT from

Ill'. Of Ihes;e I
airfil'lll I un I HIIHI"
the ." 1 1I: olhelll being-
,r;land" or 1rJing 10 corne
of tlli" I ,I
b. I. line, look
dun) l<url'r1>iC nnd "p,,, "hie 10
he.fon! Ihe.I' Were "jped
, .,rc.... ft " I I
u well lUI' /. II( ''''''''1-:'(<(1
I': :,;1)0 dnun" of I-:'"soline
Ohou 'e \ '''Ill mude lUI,
n 1.0)' the "u"",k
... oonsidl' I .-
"" II f,,,IIIn' h\" lim
II no f"I,lw .. '
_.. r <I"",'t'
.... AIr 10'0 I "'-'(', ,0w('\""I", ('Oil'
lhe 1I01lIh. The 'luHhly "f the l,l"nt'll "v"i1l.blll ill
Ihe ..."" ,-er)' 1100" the b"'tter 1'1I"1I18 Iintl
been !'fInt north ,nonthllllb'O IIn.ll
' elate of "",rv-
i_bililY of wh.l re",ained ...IIl1 ,,,,ry low. It ill
,'er)' doubtf,,1 the Jal'a'.- wuld IUl\-e
llent lip ."'- effective for silicide lIlillllionll.
Cnlike t,he t"'O Japan_ air aMIll! in the
lautl, tI.1l J.I'lUl_ in IhellOuthern .,.,.,.Iuul .hnOliI
no .ctual experience in dis\l.tdling ...ieide lIli.
BiOI\!! prior 10 their pill-nning for the defellllfl Ilf
Siugnl>Ol'll. So I"om Ih.n 2:; Bllicide IIOrtitlJ "'ere
1\0",.,. .gainst .\lIied ,,.els in the IlOUthern 81ft
during Ihe entire .... r, in eontl'lLlll 1.0 the 2,flMl
mi!lllio'\!! in the I'bihlll'illfll a"d Okin.,,a eam'
I,.ijrllll- In the !IOUdleM' .rea, only one" Ihed IIhip
_ min ,,-eelle..-.ctu.lly lIuR'e-' Buicide h,t,
The Ht;l;;lf:l , 1I Bunk. lIo..e'l'Ir, dll! cornuaI'd In
Tok)'o fo .rded lI1lmeroD!l written inllt.ruclionl
.nd manual;; 011 lImcitl" laclics" and aome ller
liOIlnel ...ere lIe1lt !lOUt" to instrud. the oommllnlb
the... 011 how to n>Odif)' .iffraft.
trAin pilau
for ,;uch ",i!1Oions.
Tile Japan""'" b.d .boul &OO.t least parti.lly
!M:....iceable of all 1)'11eS in tho
!IOOth-more Ih.n 700 of II,,,", "nny, - lball
100 SI\'-y. Sa'")' 1,l,nell ...ouid han, been llIOO
Anny OJlf'"'tiooal con, 1.
Thoe _\nn)"i1 plan 10 8)' only tWilig
tie:ll ... ith lIS I. fijJ1'ler-ro"u ... could be m.r
ahalltd in order 10 break through tbe AU'
fighter defell>8- '0", Japan_ pl.nned to II
as m.ny lIS .w w,...r pl.nell for 60 lIUiei<le 1,1."
but it is "lOSt. unlikel)' ll.t Ill)' sud, propol1
C'OIlld have been oiJtainfd in view of the
qu.lil)' .nd l;ll icobilily of .v.ilable JP&'
plalll'S ."d Ihe ide .re. of Iheir dispersal f
"'rellch Indochiu. 10 !"um.I.... 'rhll pl.n "... Ii
lI, lhe l<Uicide'll in ftiJl:hl8 of abollt fl," .,
cnft wi'b .11 .!lacks againllt ehipl,i,,!; rail
lhan I-rrotllld elen after thll ,\IIit'ti lo.d-
.\lIilld Il...III. ...lOry lItrikfll undoubtedly ,,"111
I... ,., cut the number of 1I<l .uieil1e "Ia
!wfo"" lhe day of the Iandinp:. SIl,'crllwletlll- I
J.pan_ in till!! lIOUlbem llrea I'lld " 1)Ol",,,1
"'lBp08 which probably ,.onl,1 hRve iutlicttl
Ieut II'ltnfl damap upon the ,\lI'
amphibiOllll force.
7. O'bn pb4.11 0/ S.utUU AI,,"'
I.. llammi"9 "f B 191 In MidAir. Wil
f\nIt BUIll! of lIIl_ of lIuieitle crf\SlllllI
t:'nited libtell -aoft u;t'le. il\ O<'lOhel' t
IUhd tbt be lbe would be "onl)'
...... or (lll>e-I... ,.-hilt Qlhfrll
........hoIM'ful uta fJl\)f<1 uU"
adtqualll I(> pwil'lrate ..mlond .h;\>8
.. .hf'll Ih......1" .. but thll
(1111, 'pt to eol" It ..IIJI tJIlM'rilllents by thll
Army', Air Te.-hninol Lt,oonlory ""tb .. !uicide
blDb nip;:loing oRr .. ton. nut the bomb ...... not
perlected ..ben ....r ended and the gt"l&t. in-
in the numMT of Iilfbt ",1.MII
for mu.ioruo ..-nt that \'fry f... Ill_nell
rould .... ve nrried tbe MW bomb ".-eo if It had
t-I .a..nufadUnod .nd Il'lUIporl@l\ 10 for.... rd
};"'r)" lraiMcf 10 1)11' for Kamikaze had to
haft .. bomb ndI: bn>8lh II'"
and l:Il,ra fu..llanb UlIUally -"' 6011, of
",1_ .... !IO'O..idtd for doe l.";lluilli on the tbeor)'
that if the pi\ot. rould drop ,,_ bomb ..n iJ\!llADt
lItriking hiB ,arr-t the pt:DiI'ln.'inp;: po.....r
...-M COIlRl'lIion of _pi_neB
lor d", =".,.,. ,",all found 10 be
U-h mamtena.- and woolO unq.-
,.. .Il'ectotd the JaV-_ suicide planl,
.fter lhe ini",1 ....iride .uukz, in
Krul,u. me of .kobol funher <."OIl\plin.led
the. n","len&'- I,robltm. &pin 00 lhee
.,1ete And trAining typlfl of .irerAft ..
to lUio:'de miMi_
\. 1'rf'fIG,.,tioM /Of' tite I)f/lttM 0/ 8.,,!}lI.po"'"
':"he ,\ m",t ('OIIntnand in SoutMMl Mi. 1,I&nned
&n OJlenlion (ZII'I't:8) dfo<lj[Md to I'@(;aplure
TIle nlliial landlOll: on IIWI )lalay
...- mi\lotl"orth...eIII of 5inR'oJlOre
........hfdulfd for &I'I,roaim&ttly I
ll'U. Tho> ..ere in re of 1M
Alhlld objf'l'tin .nd I_ic I,I.n
.. their u.ilabw .iffnft.llOIh .\nny .nd S.vy,
010 Ml,r'olf. attUh to I,,.,.nnt ZII'I't:lfH me-
11Jt J.II&_ lacti,,. ..Uf 10 llOI lhe -- ...
g,.d .t Okin......nd 1,1.011",,1 apinot the
.lIitd l.ndlhlP on K)wohll I,m"binl!: .nd ....icide
.,.in'" .I"PI,inl!: "1M",",, "'" of
II ....n-r for .uiri,lf 1,1.".. a. I"nl!: llll
U1d, fin.lly, ..... "f everJ .n,l.hle ai",...ft for
'nte"' were t ...o ..-nli.1 dillenoll('tlR, bo..."n,
bIt..._ ...I.t tile ,1.palU'lltl mil!:l'l I" btom .bl;
to do a.plna!. OI.YJ,lI'IC open.lion .nd apinlt.
ZIPPER opention. Thll numl..r of I'IlIllrtin
pta.. ,nJ)abie in 1M homelan,1 Inti adjacent
....u prababl;t' 90 Inn. ... l(fftt .. t.l.- in
Exhibit W
BUrface l"f:!illels for aU ell"ectin' nu. of 18.6 pe
(Exhim15 X, Y, Z. and .\A).
c. The prejlOlnalions for the _ of suicide
c:n.ft in the ddenlll of Kyushu against OLn(
PIC operWon, .nd to lesser degree of Sin
port .gainst ZTPPER opeI'Rtion, were suel. tll
they unquest.ion.blJ ....ould h.n inflicted l;Ol'-e
dll.mage on Allied shipping at lha lime of 11
landing regl1 rdless of the uumero
effective eounlennensnres planned by the Alii
air forees.

_ ....a&a......
Exhibit V
...... 001' l'U.U".' 0 .., .... 10""'."'0 TO TOO"O' IU'O'OI "n,

,.... ,
.. n..... piID8" by flU'the 11)(I& ..lfee-
tift .....- .n.d by \be; for -
1lpiPl..-t-.-Is. ()ftI'. p.-riod of only 10
__of \bI war, micide pWJee .e-
for 48.1 plInllIIlt of .n United sate.
....wpll duupi IUld for 21.3 percent of the
.tlip liWIk. But the BUieide effort "'ILS expensive.
DuRtg the. IO_mouth period or the emplo)'ment
of lie llUicide tactic. the 2 air ul'ende<l
'l.Mt planes totlOOl'fl 4;1 hiU on all t)pe6 of Allied.
Exhibit Y
OF u. s.
IV all oTNER
OCT .... -AU...,
_.aa-' II
.V.,."'" c .....
.....-J ,q
-".0 II
..JOT.L IIln. oAIIMPII Il&Alt ........
_'II'" SlIM

......... C,.II..
OCT 00- J." 0'
....., aa1 II
__u.L."VY; '.,.....TIO. 01'
1100 f----------I
1100 ...-------------------
Exhibit AA



.ll O'NEil 'USES
'" ----f''''''1
<:a.1I'IIII:II' 1:s<:0II' "., UlN' OU'llO'F- OUTIlOf-
(;a.1Il1lC1II c:.uIl,," IItII'l (;ItV,1I1II ClIIUlHllS IEIlt III fI-

II" 5,"(aOI:
0'"(1Il .," .,noll
0'1Il1:11 '.USES

Oll'lllon I)(,f"""" n"'I<lon-Flonl 1(('fIOrl
Colog"e HellO"
1'100" Field HellO"
flaOO"e, FINd U"port
1I""'hut'j{ Flel,1 1(01"'''-1'01, I, Text: \'01. II, t:r.
Bad 0101(",,,,, Il.".,,,
n...,."Uon AI'('a8 I" Uno,lo, GerrnooJ'
El..-,tinl Branch
Geelnlltl ElectrlCliI lodual'y R<oj>(>rt
IJ,O\\-" 1I0\'{',1 01 Ole, .\Innnhelrn
21 \e.... l)e"tstbe ....erke, IJlldeshelm, Ge....
22 G '" b II, L...lfI.lg, G(:rmany
2.1 Alumlnumwc'k G m b fl, PI"", :>0. 2, llItterteld,
Geb'ue<le, Wnllnl G tI, b II, 1.",holgllbMen, Genn8Jl)'
$ l."f'''''I'ltrba" 7"'1'1",lIn G '" h II, .rl....lrlclu;hofe"
On llodcn;;ee. Gr."a"o)'
Z6 11'lel""d II'e,ke A G, (lit", Germ"ny
21 I(udolflh l(a"Umbach l.elchu"elall(l..-rele-n, Solin.
Ittn. Ge<t"an)'
:?8>ewe,ke ,IIU",loulnwe'h A G, I,unen,
2D De"tsehe llelallwe'kt, lle<ldeMlI'eln',
:10 l)uerene, lle11111we'ke .-\ G, Oure., Wlltenn".He...
IIn.l: <;enn''''l'
:n Are" SI""I"" 1l"P<>"
3'! 0\ Delnll"" S'''dr uf Ille vf A....o Il<>,ublng
<In 1I"","u,/(
:l:l "I:""all"" $lud.l <>f Ihe of Area B<>mhlng
on W"l,,"','n'
M A 1:Jet"lIed Slud)' ot Ihe ElTecta Of Aren B<>mblol\'
00 Du_ldo,t
A Delalled S'ud)' Of Ihe Htrecta or Aren U<>mbl0l\'
on $oU"/(",,
3<1 A I-"'tall"" !""dy of Ihe or Are" \lomblu/(
on U"',,"':lleld
3T A Delulled S'"d)' or the Elfect$ or At'(>" 1I0mhiog
on J)"'tll$lao.ll
38 A De'/lII"" SlItt!J' <>f Ihe elTecta of ,I,e.. &'''blng
'n' I."be<ok
:10 A H"et St",I)" of Ihe or Aren lIomb!n]; Oil
Berlin, ,\uW'h,,,,,. Doellu",. Lel,..I/.:. lIa>:en. Doel-
''''''''1. Ol""h""""", $ollwelnf"". a"d lJre"'en
(Sped", Ilc-
m II II, Brun...
tI, b n, Tnllch".
Q{PutI. Alu"'lnum
Put II. .......'''m
EurO!"'''n War
u. of "'"dl.,. /I of """"
_lIIDl< from Ibe Ger",,,,, He-
1. Z. and 3 ""n he purd''''''''1 fro,,, Ille
til Do:><uu,e'll., GO"em",e", Prlnlln" Oillee.
(l f'omn'"",ou 10 ex",,,lne Ihe re",nl"'''1:
bid by ,,',It In/( t<> Ihe h,'''d'I'''''I''.... of U'"
Polm, II'lIlIhlnl.<f<>n $. I), O.
Star"" !Il mlel:!c U"",bl S""'Cl': 0,",.
(1I:tII'(lIleJl" W"r)
lltatell SlI'lUe'l!c 1I0m1>I,,1;' Sune)': Su",.
(.:Ul'(>]"'un II'a,)
of Str",egl;, Bombl".., "n 'he Cennun
.... ... S.....lIch ok Du,t'(>"hot,
A 0 (IUlW) lI"nlCh,
100 'LA.II.
Wei",, Wtlmar. Genll.ny
IIt"""lItl ond So"" G In II II. "--I. Germany
Area !;0ntJ at 1'1............. Gtl'Ulun,
110''''''''' 110""''''. Genuan,
l[ A S We." Au_uti. Aapb0tl.
FrIedl'1(b KrullV A 0, .:-... German1
.:,Ia .lJ_bh.....el'kt, G m b II, llelttr1l1kk, Ge.
A T G )[..clllll<!!lt.o G III b II. )1""....... Ge.........,
.lJUt!lI ........... ke 0 III II II. )I_u. Genaa.llJ'
Ilarerlbe .lJOC"""'Wtrke D!trrerboll'. Ger1tIeDr
)(ltt ... DeIIIJId>t )IOCOretlWi'.1<t! 0 m II H. T1Iadla.
SUbm.rlne I"ftta Otuome.Wertt, 1l.lIlba", Gtr-
).Iultl,SIOl'lttl SInt('tU"., lIamba",
Cooltl.....I.1 Oamml_tt,
Kaawl loIat1balllq Y.1'tIa, ""-l, Genaanr
U....WIl 1lo'Vl et Qt. llnnllelm, KatfrtaJ. GennaJtr
A4ata Opel A G. R.-dllel.... GtrmlIIlJ'
o.ltalo1'-llaa A G. Ullltn..rUIel....
V.""',1Il SlLbo:DIorftot Genaluor
"on:-..QOIl .,..te, F1II-......,
Rall"'r \'llWtllU .1 Uleletdd.
llllip l.rd.. 1I......
IIIoI:un .10<1 n,. ShlPJ&rdo"
0ial1tlJer-1JtD. A G
S1IIIbetit 011 1"1'''1. loIeerber;t::.llambarJ,
GtwerUebatt \'klOI', CUUop.ltauel. GtrmlIIlJ'
... llultlblolt Deou, Ill.... Gtnaa.n.r
Ilob...... Uld..-tiOIl Plant. Iltttr<lp-Bo:J. Gtr-
l'tukll"t!>fft A G. l''''''t1rdotn, German1
ltan...., \'ladllU .,
Rail ..,. ,'ladna al Amaburw. <:t.....1IJ'
Deurall'l't'ta&' )Illbll",
nrf! Ralda oa Gfl'man Cltl.,.
1 (I Lud...lphatea. G<'fmutr. \'01 I
.I: \'01 II
HO'Ul<tho_lA ltanhaUlnr Yant, Vim, Otnnanr
I G I.........knlltll. Oel1l>ll2lr
C'bt'mleo:be-W..rkt, 1It1t1a, Gel1l>ll2lr
O....Jlbl!< )Ie""balll,.. Orembe'1'. GennaIlJ'
Shope .nd 1Ir14el1 et llamln, Germenr
Tn"ol"'natlon 01"10100 Ittpon
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11016 I" \',,1 I "1'111111"", Oh'I.loII Plant Repo"."
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