civiliallK, 350 ollicers, lind 500 enHued men. The
military flCgment of the orgsnization W8lI
drawn frum the Army to the extent of 60 per-
cent, and from the Navy to the extent of 40
pen::ellt, Both the Army and the Navy gave thl!
Sun'l!y all poIIlIibll! 8lI$ilItance in furnishing
ml!n, supplies. transport, and information, The
Sun'l!)' Olll!rated from headquartl!rs established
in Tokyo l!arl}' in Septl!mber 1945, with !Iub-
hl!.dquartl!rs in N.goya, Osaka, Hiroshima, and
Xagaaaki. and with mobile tl!ams operating in
other of thl! illl.ndll of thl! P.cific,
and We Asi.tic mainl.nd,
It lUll possible to rewl1lltruet much of w.r-
time Japan_ militar}' pl.nning .nd l!xecution,
enpgl!ment b}' l!ngall'('ml!nt, and campaign by
and to sec:url! re.uonabl}· accurate
on Japan's ewnom}' and war produc-
tion, plant by pl.nt, .nd indu!ltry by indUlitry,
In addition, studiu ....ere conducted on J.pan's
o\·er-.l1 strategic pl.nll and wc background of
her entr}' into the ..... r. lhe internal dillCUSSiol1ll
and negotiations le.ding to hl!r acceptance of
unconditional surrendl!T, thl! COUnM! of hl!alth
.nd mor.le among the civili.n population, Wl!
effectil'enl'M of the civili.n defl!1l$l!
orll'1lnization. and the elTecta of the atomic
bombs. Separate reporu will be illllued covl!ring
each phaSE' of the study,
Thl! Survey interrogated more than 700 Jap-
IIn_ mihtar}', gol'ernment, lind indlllitrial offi,
cials, It 11110 rew,-ere<! and tr.na1tIted man)'
doeumentll ....hich not onl}' have been uIleful10
the Surve}', but alao will rurnish data \'.lu.ble
for olher IItudies. Arrangl!menLll h.,'e been
llIade to turn o\'cr the Sun'ey's tllN to the
Central Intelligence Group, throul'h which they
"'ill bl! 'l"aih,ble ror rurthl!r l!xamination and
The United SlaleS Strategic Bombing Sun'e)'
\ilia _tablished by the Sl!cretary of War on 3
November 1944, pursuant to II directive from
the late presidl!nt ROOlll!velt. Its mi.$llion Willi to
coodUd an impartial and expert stud}' of the
l!lreeta of our aerial attack on Gl!rman}', to bl!
used in connection with air attacks on Japan
and to .tablish a bIIlIilI ror evaluating the im_
portance .nd potentialitil'll of air power .... an
instrument of military lItTatell'Y for planning
the fllture dl,l\'elopml!nt of the United Statetl
foreetlo and for detennining future l!C:O-
nomic policietl with respect to thl! national de-
rnose, A summary report and 110m!" 200 sup-
port.Iq reporLI containing the findinp of the
Survey in Gennan}' ha\'e been published.
On Ui Augullt 1945, President Truman re-
quested that we Sun'l!)' conduct a lIimilar stud}'
or the effectil of all typell of air attack in the war
BIllbW Japan, ,1ubmitting reports in duplicate
to die Seeretan' of War and to we Secretary of
the Nav)·. The officers or the Sun'ey during ita
J ...._ phase were:
"'ranklin D'Olier, ClwIinna".
P.ul H, Nitzl!. Henry C. All!xander, l'ICf'
Harn' L. Bowman,
J, Kenneth Galbraith,
RE'n,is Likert,
Frank A. McNamee. Jr.,
FI"l'd Searls. Jr"
Monroe E. Spaght.
Dr. Lewill R, Thompson,
Theodore P. Wright. Dirrdorll.
Walter Wildll. Su,·efal1l.
Tbe Survey', complement provided for 300
,... 1'IIIIIl- trt-rfIJ 'or the _ of the United Slatefl
........ ....,. 01 tortMr reporta of a mon-
t 2) he...... MIl t' _ or opiDklaa ID thlll
__...... ' 7 .......... to the sped6c _\eria! eovered and
....... ,..... I • btlm.. ill tile uPt 01 fvdIIr 1tudh8 eon·
I. lDuoduction
The Army Air Corps and the Naval Air Arm
Or the United States received active assistance
from the air of seven nations in defeat-
111I Japan. One of these, the Chinese Air
Force, had boon in combat with the Japanese
since the "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" of 7
Jul1 1937 and its "American Volunteer Group"
formed the nucleus of the American air forces
in China; the British Royal Air Foree, the
Royal Australian Air the Royal New
ZelI1and Air Fon:elJ, the Royal Netherlands East
Indies Air Forces and the Philippine Common-
wealth Air Force all joined the war within 24
hOW'll after the bombing of Pearl Harbor; and
the Mexican Air Force engaged in combnt fly_
inr &pinst the Japanese in the Philippines
from .. June 1945 through the Japllnese sur-
render on 14 August 1945.
All of these air forces, with the exception
of the British Royal Air Force, depended al-
meet entirely on the aircraft industry of the
United Stak'S for combat type planes. The
AWltralian government. however, Willi able to
manufacture trainers lind light attack aircraft
("Winaways") in increasing numbers as the
war J)rOgJ'e!lllCd. together with spare IJarls for
American types. Great Britain also SIlI)plied
$OllHI planCli to the Royal Australian and Royal
N'_ Zealand Air Forces, Both of these air
fOn:ell at the start of the war with Japan were
little more than training orjl:anizations for pro-
vldlnr pilote and aircrews for the war with
Germany. They successfully undertook expan-
sion proaTams of considerable lICOpe and gal'e
important l\.8lIistance 10 the Allied forces in
the Pacific.
lbeept (or .. few obsolete aircraft in rea"
anu and the plane!! of the "American Volun-
teer Group," the Chinese Air Force ellistl.."Il
0DI7 on paper at the time of Pearl Harbor.
lAter, eonslderllble numbers of Chinese pllot.s
'"" trained lit fiying schools in the United
Stat.. Pilots also weN! trained in the United
Statea for the Netherlands East IndicIJ Air
11..1 "-l
Forces. These forces had been wiped out el)-
tirely in Ihe early month!! of the \\'ar. but
before the Japanese surrender. they again were
taking active roles ill the fighting. Pilotll of
the Philippine CommOllwealth Air Force took
part in the defen$C of the Philippines and
some who escaped l«!rved throughout the war
with American unita.
In the following sections. operations of the
RO)'al AUIJtralian Air Force, the noyal Ne\\
Zealand Air Force and the Royal
East ludies Air Forces are The
records of the Chine!IC Air Force and the Chi-
nese_American Composite Wing are included
in the USSBS publication, "Air Operations in
China," and the British Royal Air Force record
is included in the study, ·'The War in South-
east Asia."
Table I indicates the relati'·e extent of the
operations of each air force in the Pacific Wal·;
each contributed to the fullest extent of its
re;soul'ce!l and capabilities.
II. Operations of .he Royal Australian
Air Force
l. BackgrQlmd. In 1939 the Royal Austrll-
!ian Air Force cousisted of 12 squadrons com-
manded by an experienced officer of the British
Royal Air Force. Air Marshal Sir
Burnett, who had been loaned at the request
of the Australian government to modernize and
promote greater efficiency in the force. The
total personnel consisted of 310 officers and
3.179 "other ranks:' Arter the outbreak of
war with Germany, Australia agreed to par-
ticipate in the British Commonwealth Air
Training Program by prO"iding partly.trained
air crews for dispatch to Canada. where the
crews would complete their training. The first
batch r<lached Canada in September 1940 and
under an agreement of January 1941 Austra-
lia'!! monthly quota was to be 100 pilots, 52
observers llnd 72 wirele811 air gunners. In addi-
tion. Australia agreed to build up an organiza.
tion in the ])ominioll capable of accepting: (or
with a total of about I!)S combat aircraft.
some of which were obsolete and all of which
were inferior in performance and armament
to Japanese ail'craft of a lIimilar type. Enemy
air attacks "'ike frequent. and poor communi-
cations and equipment caused an early 10Sli of
ail'sU lleriol·ity.
During January 1942, while the Australian
ground force!! in Malaya, with little air lIUp-
!lOrt, were retl"(:ating down the l>eninllula, Japfl--
neae air attacks on SingallOre Island \>e<)fl-me
increasingly beavy. They were aimed mainly
at Allied airportll, dockll and naval and mili_
tary installations. It was decided to move all
squadrons to rear bases in Sumatra. On 20
January, Ollerations were begun from airports
nelll' Palembang and a few reinforcements ar-
rh'ed from Australia. Ground facilitiell were
inadequate, however. and lIerviceability became
a gl'eat problem.
On 14 Febnlar}', the ,Japanese began a land-
ing o)lCration north of Palembang from a con-
\'oy of approximately 40 ships. Only a few
('nemy fighter aircraft were pre!lent and the
remnants of the RAAF blasted enemy b.'1rges
nnd personnl."l on the beaches from daylight to
dark 1I11 often as refuelling and rearmament
could be At the end of the day.
however, all bombs aud ammunition supplies
were ell;haullted, lind on 15 February, the
Australian squadrons were ",ithdmwn to Bn-
tavia airllOrl at the capital of the Netherhtnds
E1lSt Indies. From this location and from
various other airports in Jal'n, they partie!-
pnted in the defense of the Indies. When it
became nPllarent that Ja\'a was lost, all re-
muining Australinn air force IlCrllonnel were
embarked in Allied ships between 17 alld 22
1!)42 lind returned to Australia.
The government called a temllOrary halt in
thc di!!patch of air ere...· traillees o\'e"seall fol-
lowing Pcarl Harbor and conC<lntraled it-q
efforts toward eXI)anding RAAF' operation!! in
the Pacific. Pour months later the AUlltralinll
War Cabinet set its goal at 53 operating sqUllrl_
ronll in the Pacific b}' 1!)45 and lit the lIIIml'
lime decioed to contillue sending some trainees
to Canada and England.
7. Tile Air NoWell OVt'" Dum'i,l. Darwin,
nbrthern Australill's only settlement.
was of great importllnel." to th(' Allle.'! Il3 all
ai,. base and a IlOrt, Imrticularly during the
adoption of preventive measures. By mid-I!)45.
however, an organization had been built up
which pro\'ed so in combatting tropi-
cal disease that the sick rate in New Guinea
among RAAF personnel wall lower than in
lIOme of the areas on the Austl'alian mainland.
6. Drlell8e 01 .va/flyu. During 1!)40, the
Australian govcrnment gal'e consideration to
the mOllt effectil'e means by which Aush'alia
could contribute to the reinforcement of
Pritain in the Fal' EMt. Two reconnaisane('
squadrons of American-built Lockheed Hud_
sons and one fighter squadron equipped with
American-built Buffaloes and Austrulian-built
Wirrawa}'lI were sent to Malaya during 1!)40.
The next year a second fighter
fonned in Australia and sent to Singapore to
operate under control of the Hoyal Air Force.
During the last half of 1!)41 a RAAF station
was formed at Sembawang on SingallOre
Island to administer these squadrons. which
engaged in operational trllining and patrol!!
over the Malay Peninsula.
On 6 Deeember 1!)41 a reconnaissance lIil'-
craft of the RAAF based ai. Kota Bharu on
the Malayan Peninsula /lighted a 1I11'ge Japa-
. nest' convoy consisting of 13 and 22
tranllports. about 250 out to !lea but
headed for the eastern Malayan eOl\!!t. In the
early hours of 8 December, enemy forces be-
gan landing on the bench neal' Kota Bharu.
The Australian pilots attncked with maximum
strength until dnwn, when the $CCond Hudson
squadron from Kuant'ln airport joined the
fight. Together. they in inflicting
heavy lo!!!!e!! on the Japaaese in l>e"sonnel luul
equipment but enemy fighters "'e"c ol>enlting
over the area and by midday, hnlf the AUlI·
trallan aircraft were lost or badly damagcd.
At the end of the day, remaining ]'<l-
tired to Kuantan, taking all personnel, equip-
ment lind llircraft that could be flown away.
wcre continued from this ba!!e until
9 December, whell ('nemy advancclI fon:ed an
evacuation to Sembnwnnj{ on SingallOre Island.
lluriag 1111 this fighting, the fighter
lIQuadron at lI>oh on the west coast, WlIS nt-
tempting to providl." fighter co,"er as f,ll' liS
Wl\.ll IIO!Miblc.
At the outbreak of Wllr, the Allied air forces
in SingallOre and Mlliaya, including British.
AUlltralians lind Dutch, had 12 lIQuadrons
f,. P.... 01 o,,,...UOIII. The ]la,
tk:I)Iated In the foi1oWi116 phuefl of war In th,
(1) DefeIlll8 of JIa1aTa.
(2) The Air s.tt1eII over Darwin.
(3) DeleD18 of New Guinea.
(f,) Tbe AJiled L1urlted Olt'enJIlve lind HI,I,1
11I6 Pbue.
(Ii) The All-Out Allied Olt'enJIlve.
Ii. UMUi., li't;1CUJr'. AWltrelia WIIS hnnl
pl'ellled after Pearl Harbor to obtain sufficienl
supplies of aircraft and av!atlon equipmenl
and WI aerloualy limited operatlona. Duri",
HMO It had become clear that the demands 01
the European war would prevent the Unite,'
Klnadom from furnlshlnr lireraft, communi
eatiollA equipment and many other material-
of war upon wbich the Dominion had \>e<)1
counting. A pod lltart had been made in crelll
inr or ell;pandllll' wi production of the.•,
itefM. The.-peed of the Japanelle advance dUI
Ing the tim half of 1942, however, found th,
RAAF without aulftclent aircraft to defen,
either the home eontineDt or Ita outJlOllts.
After American-built aircraft began to 'II
ri\'e in large numbera. there were shortage!! of
toola and apare parts. It W88 neeeeaary I·
manufacture in AUlltralia components 01
United Statell type aircraft until the end 01
the war. Thl." lengthening of supply lines dIll-
ing the all-out Allied olt'ensive phalle, combin,.,'
with lIhortageli of ahipping, caused contim'"
delaya in delivery of equipment to units op""·
ating from advaneed baaea.
Tropical diaeuea caused. thl'oug)'-
out the war and were a major Iimitillg fact'"
in New Guinea. The lIOuthern coallt of Nell
Guinea in the vicinity of Milne Bay and Pori
1I0mby, the onl1 portion which the Alii,.,
were able to hold durlne 1942, one of th'
moet malarious in the world.
At the start of the New Guinea campllign,
ro.Q. rallro&dll and ..nltaUon facilities we...-
almost DOn-exl8tent. The I;hief source of InbtJr,
the Melaneelan natlvea, were highly nllllnrin
IIIed. and thia limited their uJ\e(ulnells. Oth..r
dIaeuea In order of Importance wcre denglH'
fever, drllCotery, lIkin disealles uud lIcrt,l'
AI the war PfOl]'e8lled northward and 110rth
Welltward, heW dilleUell from Ume to time 11<'
came a problem and colWtanUy forced tho

........ .- IIlODth aM piJot8. 1M obMn'UI
.... ..._.........t the RAAF .....
rn.tIII- auf.
tIdItW. to ntala tor Ita own requI.........
tcIIIlt ,....aeI to maa 8qUadroDI formed lD
IOIlOI'\IaDee with the I1katlon of .trersft to
2. A.. 01 'nle RAAF operated
the _r throuJIlout the SouthWllt padfte
area within I radII.. 01 rouIblJ
from Port Darwin. The territorY- ............
.. _ was epaI'IeIy populated. Austnllan
contiJlel'lt covers almost as much territory IlII
contilM!ntaJ United States but hu a population
tf only 1,000,000 located dllefty along the
utlwrn oout and on tbe eastern plateau.
SI. cities list populations exeeedinl' 100.000
aDd all but ODe of tMe an commercial ports
and ma!lufaeturil1l' eenters. Moat of tile north-
_ half of Auatralla is not and dry and hall
10 InhabitaDtlI excePt uneiviliZl'd aboririneB.
• 1941 tbere were no road or railroad con-
.uona between IIOIIthern Australia and Port
lama Ob the northern cout, but a defenlM'
lith.., ... _pIeted during the war.
TIle iIIIDdI north of AUlitralla likewise are
IIp&rMly lIIett1ed. New Guinea. tor
lIIlUlpIe. (1IIIC of which, topther with Ne'"
IIrIWaddMew 1I'.nd, ... under Australian
.......) II one of the moo mountainoua
... of ... WGrld and lip only. small native
.. 'orw- RAM in 1939 had
.M aIrcnft ("-a, SequlIa, Demons and
WirntrI.Ja) ia operational lMluadnma and the
hi I"rtIerge, plUl an acldjtional 82 tl'loln.
.... t;rpt: Ikenft. AIIotmebtl of varlou. type8
of lIbiaIft -.. ... by the United Statell
... to ...... __ by BritaIn, while eome
..... , ',red1ft A1IItralIa at FIaberman'II
...... ..... 1IdwIeL By February 1946
--......." et the foIIow:I....:
....=-=- l!ttPIIlIb
__) eoo
... PI, A-. e.tau..
--- ...

sqUlidrons equipped with Killyhawks weI'''
stationed at the eastern tip of New Guinea.
On 24 August a Japanese com'O)' entered Milne
Bay and landed troops east of the three fighter
strips from which the Australian llilolll oper-
ated. The fighter :IlQ.uadrons at-
tacked enemy landing barges. dumps,
lind anything el$l' in !!ight while Australian
infantry engaged in hand-to-hand fighting with
the enem)-. By 6 September all Japanelle foTee!'
had been wiped out or e\·scuated.
During the fighting along the Kokuda Trail
and in the O.....en-Stallley Mountains of 1'.....
Guinea. Australian BeaullghteTll and Beaufortll
the ground forcel by attacking
enem)' sI!Ppl)' trains and strong points. "'hile
\\'irraways and other aircraft dropped food
and equillment to Allied forces. Bomber and
torpedo $Quadrons of the RAAF stationed at
Port Moresby and Milne Bay hellied to keep
the gea lanes open for Allied shipping lind at
the !SSme time dislocated Jllpllnese gea com-
RAAF $Quadrons equiplled with Catalinas.
Beauforta and Hudsona look part in
the destruction of the Lae con va)' early in
March. the action which marked the end of
Jltpllnege clforts in the Southwest
Pacific for the I'cmainder of the wal'. Enemy
lo!l."l'!I in this. Bismarck Sea engagement are
estimated to hll"e been four dt'$troyeTll lind
:10,000 tons of shillping. 2.900 men and 62 air_
From 30 April 1!U2, Allied
exercised operalional control of the RAAF.
On 9 September 19-12 RAAF Command Head-
quartel'il established in Brisbane. with the
function of gh-ing operational oontrol under
the Commanding General. Allied Air Force;!.
Southwt'$t Pacific Arell, to AU:!ltralian oper-
ational units and such other Allied units
"ere as:signM to ·iL When operations mo,·ed
further afield. the "Commanding General. For_
,,"rd Echelon" became the accredited repre-
""ntati"e of the Chief of the RAAF Air Staff
with the commander of the Allied Air Forces.
South Pacific Area.
lIis dirccth'e statt"li that the miMion of the
nAAF Wllj! "to contl'ibute to the forces under
comnllllld of th(· Commander in Chief. South-
wcst Padflc A1"0:11, ill defeuse of Au!!tralia and
Its lerritories.; the protection of ahipping and
deIU'Oying somlJ of the Australian nirCl'aft on
the rround. Fi\·e WirrIlWa}'s went aloft to
eDPP the enemy; all were abot down in
Three days later. Japanese ground
(0ftIll8 landed from ghips and occupied Rabaul.
.....preadinlf to Gasmata and Cape Glnu-
011 'l March. the day after the fall of Ba_
tavia, capital of the Eagt
a lapanese oon'·o)' approached Lae and Sala,
ma_ in northern Guinea and b}'
of tIK' following <fa)' both were in "nem)-
banda. The Allit'$ remliated. ho....e'·er. and in
a joint carrier-borne and land_ba>led air attack
of 10 March at leJlJlt three Japane..;e .. erc
Port Moresby. the only large to.. n on the
lI(lutbern coast of Guinea. then beeame
the lut Allied atronghold on New Guinea. and
the RAAF had exclusi"e for IIiI'
defense of the port until the arri"lll of Ameri-
ean air unib in Mar. On 21 i\lllrch 1912 the
force receil't.>d il;j flut flghter ili1"Crllft-Ameri.
can.built KiU)'hawk!!.
The JltilanUC forcea in thcir through
the Netherlnndll Eaat lind New Guillell
made a 1I1lecilll effort to capture intllct fill lIir_
lIelda, elltablished POI'l;j and ha.. lind othel"
installation!! which would make possible thl'
auppl)'ing of front-line troop unit/! f.ghting in
jun.cle terrain. It was that the enemy'.•
chief problem was SUPlJ!)' lind reinforecmcnts_
Therefore, units of the RAAF a\ailllble were
ordend to attempt to disrupt enemy
and communications br bombing and
the following targets:
a. JapanellC !lhipping and aircraft in for-
ward areas.
b. Supply lind !ltorage dumllo< al for... ard
e. PenlOnnel areas.
d. Airfield nmwa}'!! and port installation...
The RAAF joined in the attack 00 the JlIllB-
!I.e 000\·0)' of allproximatel)' 20 tran!lIMlrls
which 00 6 19,12 left Rabaulllnd attempted
to approach Port Moresb)" through the Jomarll
p.....,.... This com'oy returned hom" without
attemptinlr to make a landing after the Coral
Sea battle in which the the cnr-
riel' Shoho and the United Stales 10,,1 the I,u.
By tbe end of July 19'12 t\\"o BA,\F lIght"r
............ aIIood attack
.................. to be &II {lOll.
.......a .men wen reportetl
... " .. .. lIiae traDIJ)Ol1.a
.......... 011 .PIbon. which
.. I' ' tIIl aD lltTength
.................. ByAprD 1942, the
A..-a DtIkh pilots de-
....... DIrWba to eoaater each
Ie _.................. ,,,,.tely 100
..:.............. taIid eouiderabl.
'!III 'nc I ';' of Jepe_ air attaeb Qll
DuwIa dta..... . ... ..-Til I
._11 011. AprO 1M2 \be Allied Ail
ForeeI 01 r.d6c .... wen
IonDed. II fill air bueB wen
ta" J)uwbl ... and more air·
enft bepa to udN.
TIle Allied t __.,••lIne Danrin included
K:ittyh.wb. a............ WlrraWayll and
Vultee VeopIDC(& DariDI' Deeember 1942.
enough Brltish.bullt Spitllnl arrived to equip
II wing (three tquadronl) of Autrallan f1ghtel
pilots. Up to this Ume narwla bad been at·
tacked about IiO times by the eDIJD7. Even-
tually six Auatl'alian lQ,uadronll of Spitfire!'
Wft'e based in the Darwin area. Thia fighter
atrftlrtb. topther with the emdeDeY of radar
unlta lief. up clarilll the year, lOOn made I-
la..... air attIlek OIl Darwin a rare event
ADiId daI_ of ....., .... over Darwin be-
.... Jaa....,. IN! aDd April 190 were 173
dedi""" 19 probUI;)' dftItr'oyM and 73
.. Del 01 N_ Gwi-. In 1939 tho·
IlAAF .taWI...... two IJiq boat &quadroll-'
'" Pwt IIornbJ to can7 out aerial reecn·
.-...... the PKi&. Advanced operational
.... were .ult at aaa..I ia Sew Britain.
TaIsP aDd VDa 1& the lJoIomona, and Nou
ia "-ell New ClIedoII", ali equipped with
........ r..I aad bamt..
At .. tt.. flI. Pearl Harbor. the entiff"
---.... N..- C ana wu ddended b'
.., two equlpJl8d with four fo;ml)ir..
171III' b.-t. and 12 Cata]inM.
but. 8 allluadron of and
WIrn..,. moved to Rabaul.
a. 4; "1Il1lal'1 11142 the Japanellll begllll
Ilttacka ap1qt Rabauland on 20 Jmlllary 181;
-,. alreraft b1aated the Rabaul airport.>,

......... r-t
- -!'--
- ...-'"'
....... a n_ ...... - ...
D 7 1IIl_...... ....
....................... -....
............ -..- ,....
• .........
...,1MI ....
................... on-r.-e
..... .,. J....--- to"". DU'-
.... W ..
a. .. J...- el'ealive pdlend Ib'eaItIao
.......... CMM8. the H,'......... UtI
..... air l'eClIIlUm-- Oft!' DarwIn
.-,....... On 19 FIbrtwT 1M2 till'
..__air attMk oa the port took platE'.
tI poor IuteIJiIenCe aDd lnadllquall!

.. .. u. complete taetil,:al
.. Iicm of 2'1 .Iap&De8ll medium
bJ' 10 dlve-bomben and
...... _¥OJ' wlalch had
1M.... of TlIlIor Seven
..-aDd ...........
IIiItI __ blew liP
............. fw·

.. ... "'e of !'l -_....
- -.
- ..
llDII joIMd Ia wttJli nllht
10. AJI.()IIt AJIWOff_" PItGH (Sqltm-
.., 1'. A-.ut INf). In September 194:l
AllIed IftlIIDd foIGII .tonned 1M foUowlng a
.. l.auIw bomblll'dment. Thii'l
.-ked .. ,.;I of the Allied ad-
............... which did not halt until the
PIlDlpplDel W beeD reoeeuPiecL Taetical tar-
.. ill .. BoatbwtIt PaeiIc fill into four
.. BJ.,...eet ...... of eHIIlY atteUth (R,,-
baul, BOQpbmDe. W.... JIanOtwari all11
b. NeutnliRd Areu (JW, Aroe. Tanirr'blll"
and the lIOUthem Dutcb New Guinea area)·
Co Forwud Area (Soemba. TImor and
do Zone of major land warfare (the Pbilill-
BAAF Spit.ftra were MDt to the oewly-eon-
IIb'UCtIlId Kirhrina airPOrt In Qctober 19t5. and
with AllBtft,lian.piloted KittybawkB, belan air
Dll\lt:raIiIation of all enemY polJ!tiona within
nDJ\l, EnemY lUl'face traftle movtnr along
the N.... Britain cout. practkaUy eeased to-
warda the end of 19d. '
Da:riDI' ()eWber 1943 asruaft of the RAAF
.ad the USAAF eombined to carry out a de-
1tt'Uet.I" .ttaet on ahippbl' IMtailations lind
aIrenft at Blbaul. Several more attacks in
rapid cauMd heavy Japane>:Je air-
crdt IoIIM which tile enemy attempted to re-
pl8oe, thenbJ welkentnr hll all' defenses el.<>e-
...... TowudI tile end of December 1943 air
att:adaI fadlitated AUied landlnp at Calle

J'eIlnar1 1944 .w the completion of II
...._t to Nlldlab Airport in the Markham
V..., of 11 RAAP operational Bquaor<)lls and
cl1al'tq t;be foUowlnr DIOIIth three fightl.'l"
OM Army co-operatlon ll(IUlldro
..mar, UDlta wen moved to Capl;l GlolI-
.... In Nw Britain. After the 8/)izure b)'
A11Itd of x.. NlItP'G8 Wand in the Ad-
two ILAAF apter lIqual1rons 111ld
__'hi,."" Ull _tllten_nel.' unib f,'olll
OB • April 11Mair headquarters l}CrSOllnel.
..... wttb peund penonnel and equipmenl
..... departed In Illndin!: crn
It"_bIDed Allied force \I!hich OTI invllded Ailll'''' ILL
d W' ..... \UC Wcell
an eWlIk ltl ..nOl'thern New Brit_
captured Tad)1 aiTllOrt fMm I
AnRAAF . 'u lit'
with h lIlrfield cOllstruction winl(
h t e tllllk force lind "'ithin n
oul"ll rellllired und extended Ih·
l\{[lladronl\ l>ocllmc fully
at Tadjl on 24 April 1944 nud
more 81lundron8 moved from
I during early Mny. A short time
forces captured Hollllndill, RAAF
lCIuadrons wcrc moved to lh' b f
8 .
. oth the TlHlji and Hollandill lluit._
L••"I::/h.e large scale air attacks 011 Wewlik
.....Mew JalJallcllC atronghold in
ew GUlIlca. For the lirst time Libel"
__ (B-':Na) manned by AUlltralian cre"'11
JU1: In the IItUlek8.
f, .-awhile, with the advanoo of thl' Allieu
=ong the northeTl: Nell' Guinea coast.
A-.. lIQuadrons statIOned in northwest
la made II maximum effort to assist
enc1!'Y'p0rta and hllrOOl"1I as far aliel;1
..&t1arabaja III northern Ja\'n and Tal'lIkau
in Borneo
DwdDI' Septem\ler 1944 Ihe Allies under
=MacArthur landed lit Morotai in the
tlda>lnalslands. At first enemy air attacks ill
tbte...were frequent. To assist in combut-
IUONlI attacks t.hree Spittil'(' squadrons wel"<l
II from J)arWlll to Morotai. Enemy int<lr-
__lOOn ended.
.. time RAAF units in
......,. were spread O\'<lr some 2.000 mil<ls. able to carry out opcrutions wilh
degree of eftieienc.r undCl" these eondi-
of"= had dict1,ted th,] IJY]JII!ssiull:
tl'OOPl COnUllnlllg strong forcl!!' of <lnemy
a..v.ein order t? speed the lIdVlInCe welltward.
r-.( of the of lIUII]Jb', the HAAF
aree."': the prlmar.r task of keeping the""
reet nder COllllhlllt IIUack and providing di-
Aledeu'::'rt for. Australian grolllHI forces en-
(lUtebel redUClll1t' them, Medium
Darwin III and Ventul"ll.lI) operlllinK from the
V4IIlttna :rea eminentl." in pr..-
or NIDI ny I!Olllllflel"able of
... orcementll from rClichiug the 1J"IJassed
nautrallU'd I . .
01:11111 the IIrella IIIU III grlldulIlly weak-
power to resist of "uem." forcel!
[I"lIIlP(,<1 th"re Thl n (].
lacked ,'le mmll 'CoullilltenUy 'II
I'e .an}· !:luitlllJle encmy targets and
dell,tructionll of considcrable
ClligO vessels b I
lCcrs lind other f ,arJl"Cl!, ug-
.. 0 coastal shipping
n I(ddition RAAF [. .
from bll$Cs in' north o])('I'lItlug
in , I Australia lItruck targcts
_ ."," C( al'ellS of th N 'h
1'.lIst Indies from th C e ,e erillmill
Jllvll. In the I '" e entral Celebes to Ellst
a CI' lIrell the bo be' .
out lIu'lIlegic aU'lcks on th . m IS curned
stations III K r e Important power
southwest of 50 miles
of 19"" . II, llll'olvmg round trips
• uv nllutlcal miles Th .
plantll. The\' also carr' . I l!!:lC wreek<ld thc
recounlliIlSIU;C<l in
which resulte<l iu the . k' Jnpanese ShlPPlll1t'
muny \'es,'rels Ql _ ,. Sill mg' or damaging of
" " Ime when th J
could nOI alford such I e apan('sc
urlng April fiv B
were l' <lllufol't squadrons
maximum' . II JI lind bombed with
the W 'kstlength lIlsl.illintions lind IrOOIlll in
e\\3 area. On 14 M' HI·
ground forC<l,; 8Ulll>O t I 4" Australian
British nal';ll 'unitiS and
" combined land and a . I. IIlrcraft. made
rellulted' h mph,blOu.'! attack which
ho'id. l!l t Co captur<l of this Japanese .'!I1'Ong-
The most iml>oriant Sirate '
Southwest P".,'fi, ' glc targ<lts in the
flrell were th '1'
tiolls of BOl"neo 1 I bl e 01 1Il1ltfllla_
Blllikpaplln on' ;;," ,those at Tal'llkan and
L' ells coast. The .
uvlllOO<! llltermittellth' b' A' . se "ere
ing 1943 a"d [944 b t Lc llied aircraft dur_
of Jllnn ,. h' : u allSC of the decline
S IPllll1g and the Allied' d
sell blocknd... lifter October all' an
no longer werc able to k th? Japanes..,
to the home island.'! mil e ext<lIl.'!I\'e export._
Th<l oil still iu "uem . h
<l\'er, IItHI IItlll.\'llilable to th }. 1I11(\.'S, how-
of RAAF l'l._
Allies. In the
,1""ralor8 o ral·
rom the vicillih' nf P 'I . mg • v er I m wC8te A .
through staging l.>a8<l1l . rn ustralill
began.l.>laliketing with
j>ortll Itl JII\'a from wh'"h 'h apanese all'-
bT ere WIUI any .
. I It)' of 1111 lIir I'eaction 10 an Allierl III
In Borneo. Australian Liberlltors f n Inl(
1)111'" III lIn'll and 8 21 f th U Ihe
. . 0 e, S. Thlrtee Ih
"Iso pnrtlclpllied Th . n
10 hlctical later was
HdJIICenl "I""as ill BOTlll'o and the and
1 III Hi Allied jfl"ound forces,
" om

re!ICrve aircraft, /lircrart 8pares, tools and I!X-
perienced personnel were lacking. For a time
ground ataffa at all stationa worked double
When the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff
/lgreed to place the air force under American
/luthority for eommand and supply and allo-
cated 540 U. S. aircraft for deli"ery before
April 1944, aupply became considerably less of
a problem but many new maintenance prob.-
lems were created. Extreme difficulty in !leo-
curing specialilCd tools still existed. Different
thre.ada and unfamiliar types of gauges sen'ed
to puule inaufficil!ntly-trained technical pElt-
sonnet Shortages of apare parts for both air-
frames and engines de,'eloped.
Local manufacturing wu resorted to where
spares "'ere unobtainable elsewhere. In some
eases. partll originally inwnded for one aircraft
type were adapted for use on another. But as
late all March 1945 it was neces.sary to deeom-
mill&ion a bomber-reeonnaissance squadron be-
cause the aquadron's Ventura aireraft "'ere
needed by other squadrons operating further
fOn\·lrd without re5Cn·es.
Shipping difficulties limited RNZAF opera-
tions until the end of tbe war. Earl)' in 1945
the United States Navy Commander, South
Pacific, agreed to releaae for service under
General MacArthur two bomber-reconnaissance
squadroJU operating in the SolomoJU area. but
shipping difficultiea pre"ented the mO"ement
from taking place before the Japanese sur-
Durllla' certain perioda disease wu an im·
portant limitilla' factor. In MalB)'a early in
1942 the incidence of malarial infection among
personnel of a fighter squadron had been below
two percent, but after units mo\'ed to the New
Hebrides in NO\'ember 1942 and to the hJ.-per-
endemic zone in the Solomons in January J943,
malarial rates reached 90 percent infected
after three month8. By the end of 1943, how.
ever, prel'entative measurea had brought the
8ituatioll under <:ontrol. Between Januar)"
1944 lllld March 1944 dengue fever and
tery <:aused a high rate of noneffecth'enellll
among air force personnel. but thia aituation
also was soon controlled. Diaeaaell of infection
or infelltatlon Cllu800 roughly 26 percent of the
total diaability, and di80rdera of the digeath'e
caused an /ldditional 2Iperc:ent.

T_l . . ... 1.309
1"LIu.. of OjH!nJtiolU. The RNZAF par-
...... In the following phllllCll of war in the
The Defense Agairult the Japanese Of-
feDaive (De<:ember 19·11_March 1943).
The Allied Limited Offerulive and Hold-
blc Ph8llC (March 1943-&>pwmber
) The All-Out Allied Offensive (Septem-
..... 1943-August 1945).
Uwdting Faetors. From the out&!t, the
...,. bad aupply difficulties and these never
.... lalved completel)·. Rapid expansion was
-.,. at a time when the European Thelt-
.... other air forces in the Pacific had
hfebw prtorltiea for receiving new production.
DvIq 1942 and 1943 this created a condition
-- dMeribed u "equipment starvation,'·
CaDllclerable difficulty WBII experienced during
tIdI ptriod in maintaining in an ail'worthy con-
dllSqrn the aircraft which were available, ainc"
ill trltllsport and communica.
from the United Kingdom,
AllaillIblc. At the beginning of
BNZAF had J09 aircraft of various
... Tiger Moths, a light biplane
Iport and training. A few month8
..,.., Harbor, the air force rt'Ceived iu
planes-34 Lockheed Hudson
bombers. Although for a time
for the RNZAF to beeome a bal-
.... baving all types of aircraft. it wu
that greater effectiveness would reault
activities were stressed. In 1942
i1t Kittyhawks were introduced
1944 New Zealand fighter squadron8
forward areas were rearmed with Cor.
.,. "uly 1945 the air fon::e had 13 fighter
eaeh manned by 27 pilot.&, the policy
..,. keep eight squadrorul aeth'ely enpged
__ with the enemy in forward areas.
.... J945 the aircraft al'ailable were
ZIP Hcaed &!I follows:
-- reeon _
....Ia _ .
t--na ..
.,........, bombe-rs ,
_ .
'fraiDi _
III. Opuarioos 01. me Jtoral N_ Zealand
"" ....
1. N", z.Jand', pseetime
(.-.1939) Air FOfte had a planDed .uength
of only 100 ol6eenl and 900 alnnea. Its re-
lIeI"ft eonsisted of of driUan Aero
Ctubs flying lieht airplanea. Aft« the start
of war with the European AJda, a eonaidenble
upaUon of airport fllcilitiel bep.D, but h
..... qft('Cl that N_ Zealand', pr\IDar1
tiolI woukI be die trainiq- of piJota and alr-
crew in conDel:tion with the Britl!lh
Commoawe.lth Air TrairU"I' For
thiI reuon. milituY aviation In New Zealand
at the time of Peart Harbor eonsUted _inl,)-
of a tnininl' orpnization dLmibuted over
both North aDd South III1aDd with no provl.
NOll for oft'euift operationl In the Puitlc or
even for repelIiq' an illvuion. Not. fta'hter
!IIq1J8dron ..... operational in the Dominion.
The only Ro$al N_ Zsland Air Fora unit
outRde the Dominion ..... a detached ftlrbt of
• boIIlber-recoanai..- ..uadron operating
from Nandi. Fiji. a!tbouP .-rIy 1,000 Ne.....
z.JanderI MId ao-ealIed Mlt\ort term" CQm·
IlIiIIiou in the Briliah RAF.
2. Area of After Pearl Harbor
New Zealand onderUlok, with the aid of iu
aIHM, the buUdlaa' of an air force capable of
bodI defeDalve and offensive action In a hug('
_ of ....ter apace dotted with ialanda thai
bad bIlekward aative populatioM and little in·
duItrJ. (RNZAF open,tloM were carried oul
within a radi.. of 4.000 milea from Aucklaad.
DomblJon capital.)
New ZeUaDd iteelf la primarily an agricul·
tun! eountry with a population of Ica8 than
1,700.000. Before the war ita principal exports
were food (meat and dairy produetJl) lUld
wool. MOlt manufactured artlclea,

RNZAF were operating outaidp the domillion
nJ_ 1M J...... 0'...."01· --'
_' _ eeriee in the .,..... F'"
1.-tor- ..... ID One bGmber n'COunailllllUlCf' lIIIuadron .at IJl
..... ill ... Pad& until UIiI7 IlJId GudaleanaL
...bided In 11M 8oIomODl acd iD the moa.n- One ftyIllI' boat aqudron at Lauthala Bay,
taIDl ... of Part JlombJ In New Two /lshter squadrons at Espiritu Santo anll
.. llltutioa aebaaIb' ... not aUbiUJed uatil Guadalana
. .
..... lNl. DuriDl1:hII period .. New z... S. AUkd AU-O"t Offtfl8ive. In September
........... partic:lpdlld in tIM UD- 1948. after Allied air superiority had made
....... lIefeDII of SinPJlOfeo aDd .. bombu· poAible the atorming of. the strong·
,.,....;_... aqladrvD wu aalOJII the lll'It '--Id at r..e In New GUinea. the Allied offen-
..-1M .m tAl aaaIat United ....
I air6lld .ve gathered momentum.
Stat8 JaoIdiq G_"" . The otfebl!ve moved forward from island to
The Ne1I' z.JaDd APter aquadroD ao: island toward the Philippines, leavilli' behind
.,........ took put ill the aueb bYPa-d or neutralized areas &8 Rabaul
1...- daJ'JIP\ IIo!DbbJr Ittt:aeb in New Britain. Boupinville in the Solomons.
Gged....na1 and by \:he time .Iapaneat air Wewalt in nortbern New Guinea and the H81-
pcnNJ' _ broken I.. the So}omcnIs area b-d maheraa. It aoon became apparent that the
"eDerI1Y aircraft plua an additional alJ'Sdy atrained supply organization of the
14 pNWJ.... RNZAF eould DOt be stretched much further.
DvnII the time It appeared poIIfbae that tM even tboul'h a traJIlIport lI((uadren had been
I ........ mJPt read! AUBtraIia .Ild New !ea. formed in May .nd wa doing an es:ceUent job
and, :be trailli!ll' orpniiatlOD wu toneeD- in' ,upplying forward lI((uadrene. Therefore
tNt.ed lID 80utII I*nd and airporta tueh a New Zealand lIQuadrent received the primary
WIlIIIu.... ud Cbak_ on North bland were tuk of givilll' both c10ae and 100000-range air
.... ...,. for operatlonalllying. An tralnlnr support to Au,tralian ground troops eqage<1
......,... equipped to earry boID'- and in mopping-up the bypall'led or neutralize'!
.-ehkle.-. At the ..... time exi8tinr alr- areall.
IaIda weN IIIproved to prG\'fde fadlltles for
lilt to 4llO Ilea.,. bomberL At the end of the war New Zealand Ventura"
were making daily bombing BWeepll over New
T. MIfIlI u.ited Of_" 41Uf HoWirtg Britain. New Ireland and the Solomons. The
, .... DarIDa' the period between JWch INS
and Ieptember IHI when the enemy drive nWn striking arm COnailted of fichter-bomber
dIIbIIIIb' .... halted the main aeUvftIes of l!lIIuadrona equipped with Cot'8lil'll. The RNZAF
die RNZAF were In the 8oIomona area onder found that thia aiNrat't, originally built for
UlIibd ... Naval CO!ltrol At the end of carrler duty with the United State'
..,. 1_ No. 8 Bomber Reeoona..._ WIllI an ideal weapon for the wk llIlIIigned.
....... CIIIIBPIeted .ab:: motltbI of CODtinuoua Small formaUona of Conali'll were able to
.,.1111. flam Fieki, GtlldaJetnal. dlapoR accurately of IJmIII pinpoint target"
1'IIt ....." IIIiIIIoIl of tile aquadron wa In the forefront of the attack through jungle
..... IMIt til IIireraft canted oat bombing anaa, and Iarpr fomaUona were able to
..... ...., lind tupU aDd durlllf blanket enemy .... 'with hip.expl08ive and
AprI ...dlebdl...... mbmarillell. The ineendiary bombe. Durinr luly 1945 the eight
........... of made daily by the· ftPter-bomber lI((uadrona of the RNZAF ac-
..... wu _ dari8r ilardi; IAI dllriq tively enppd In forward .reaa were based at
AId 4arIIIr May. After P*aary the followinc places:
1 of....,. JhIpt In the 8010- Four at Boupillville (the
...- wIdJe.DUmberofenemy Twoatluqulnot Bay (New Britain).
...... iJIIInI thin Ia- 0tIe at EmiNU.
c1arlllr x.dI mil OneatLolN....
:.:::-.,. reIIeetIq 9. OpnoHmtol Ruord. From 7 Decemoo
r _
__ 1N1 through the end of the war in August
- U!dta of tile INI aU t)'()elI of RNZAF planes lIew
ped 12,1!l6 tons of bombs. with a
combat of 228 aircraft. The fighter
bomber) units flew 41.751 sorties
total, and dropped 6,94Q tOllS of
combat losses of 175. The eonsid-
in strikiug power of the nir force
by the fIlet that during the )'ear
lIay 1945 RNZAF squadrons flew
N. exclusive of those carried out
aquaol"Ons. No four-engine heavy
were opersted.
May 1943, when the first air trans-
ren of the ait' force was established,
end of the war the air transport service
dent involl'ing injurr to personn('l
During this period the serviee car-
than 20,000 passengers, 960,000
of mail and performed 6,700.000 "uS('-
'Iea of work."
1943, at the request of the United
.. "Pacific Ferr)'" of the air force Was
This ferried bombers, flying boats
port aircraft ft'om the American
and Hawaii to Nell' Zealand. Up
1 July 1945 211 aircraft were flown
to Zealand without loss.
I Important to recall that while conduct-
me ve comlmt operations against the Japa-
Jl8IIt, New Zealand continued to meet full com·
under the Bl'itish Commonwealth Air
TNIJIpa Program. Under the scheme, somc
?.I09JJiew Zealander.s went to the I'arious
...... lIOnes and 11,500 ndditional were full
trained for itl'iation duties in
COlU'lusiml$ (A SUlllm<ltiml). The
RNIflI' which consisted of little more than a
trabtAM' organil-ation Ilt the time of Pearl
HarW. made the following eonU'ibutioM to
the Weat of JaJ)lln:
( ilt up. ,,·jlh the aid of .supplies Wi-
maIIQr from the United State.s, an air force
of both olfensive 'lOlt d(.fensi,·e opera-
tlq Q the Pacific.
(it) Contributed to the gaining of Allied air
in the Solomon Islands carnpnign.
wbieb halted the ;.dl'll1lce eastward.
, (ill) AIded. the Allied offensive culminating
capture of the Philippine Islamls by
........... UDder eonstant air attack targets in
or neutralized in the rapid nd-
I'IlI'ICe of the Allied ground forces.
IiI') Met full commitments under th" Commonwealth Air Training Program,
!'Cndlng some 7.500 pilots and aircrew mem-
bers from the Dominion to the various fighting
II. .
[' '_m... '9<1 ,........ 11
T.... I So •• """1 TG•. _;'I '- (2o'mo'
Il..... """"."
"""om"""'.... '.1" U.s C"l ,/0/0
'.'IO ,.. " """
.... 11.'.1 ..... '" U..,./.
>1, .". ,-, !.OS1 I-- • I • ././.
T..., I-.:u•• I...-;;-H --m-
"'AM· ,,.'m_ of ,.-;.,;;-.J......" <1<0<0'0>'''' ,,;;;:bi.
.."...-..... .
IV. Operadons of (he Ro}'al Netherlands
Easl Indies Air Forces
I. OJ'Ull1lizali(l!! and Back.qnmud. The Neth_
erlands EMt Indies GoveJ'nment began build.
ing both an Army snd a Nal'al air force after
World War 1 when it became apparent that
IIiI' j)(lwer pro,·ided an excellent means of link_
ing together and defending its scattered island
domain. The Army Air Force had headquar_
ters at P-andoeng and the Naval Air Arm cen-
tered. its actil'ities at Soeralmja, with flying
boat bases located throughout the islands.
Both forces at the time of the Nazi invasion
of the Netherlands were equipped mostly with
Dutch-built Fokker and Germ,llI_uuilt Dornier
llircl·aft for which no further spare parts could
l)(' obtained from Europe.
Some of the personnel of the Netherlands
Air Force escaping to England were sent to
the NEI to strengthen defenses a pos-
sible JalJanese attaek. A prOCIlN)ment miSlliOIl
came to the United States to gecure aiNraft
for re·C(luipping the air forces, and in 1940
an unoflicial "American mission" of 12 pilols
went to the Indies to instruct Na\'al flying
cadets. During late 1940 and 1941 deliveries
of Catalina flying boaL'I nnd P-S6 fighter,; be_
gan to rel\ch Jal'a.
2. Defe1ll1C 0; the h.dic$. B)' Deeember 1941
the Air Force had II strength of more
than 300 aircraft, while the "aval Ai .. Force
had 75-100 long_runge flying boats. Man}" of
th(!Se airCl"aft were obsolete. The NEI Airways
(KNILM) was operating a fleet of approxi .
matel)· 20 modern Amel'ican-built transport
planes. Within II fe'" hours of the new, of the
Tutal I P.......
Tot>l I

,,- .f """I
10,101 100.00
,.. t ....
Il.rn I .....
..." lO.m
1••09 1M' u.
..... l .... IMIO
'.]1 ..
.. ...
l28 I.U ll.

"' ...

• • •

lJomb "'""
dUl'ing Ih, Al'· d . , Ie offenSive of
(IV) Performed val bl I '
duty in the I d' 0 lUI e ong-range patrol
6 "U Ian cean thl'oughout the war
t' :, Statls/lcS. Detailed on the ac'
lVltles the RNE1AF during the Pacific Wa;
a.lthough il is known that sevel'lll
t "usan were flown and numerous vic-
111 IIiI' combat. The early records
ere losl III the el'acllation of the NEi II d t
lealltapartofll' ,na
.' _'. a er operations are included
III the of the RAAF,
No. 01 "W d . 1 (1 .. ,,'r e lo.te agaiMt Jap<>.u
'-"'«-mbt, It'' - " I.")
, The RNEJAF aCC<lmplished
In the war against Japan'
attrition on the .
• d
orees uring the Malayan and
of 1942.
lzed, with the aid of the Unitel1
the Army lind NlII'Il1 air forces
Iy were wiped OUl in the above
April 1942, V\ee-Admiral C. E. L. Helfrich
was ptMed in eommand of .U Dutch air. sea
and IaDd forces In the Far Eut. and. 12-man
deJep.tio1l headed by Dr. Van Kook and Maj.
Glm. L. H. Van Oyen, cornmandlnr offieer of
the AI'IIl)' Air Force, arrived in the United
States to d'-CUlI8 '8 plan to tTain Duteb pilots
in the United States. FlJinr Mboola were 01',
pulled at Fort Leavenworth, ][aD•• and Jaek.
IIOU, liIi.., and in September 1942 the first
cl.... of NEt air cadets wu graduated.
A second ct.N of 130 W8I graduated In Feb-
ruary 1943. The importanee which the Dutch
at;tadted to air power ia illustrated by the fact
that Queen Wilhelmina eonferred the )lilibire
WllIemaorde. hiPest NEt militarY decoration.
on all ArmY lUId Navy pilots trainllll' at United
States baae!I.
4. Rtt1tra to the FigAl. A small number of
Dutch pilots had been operatilll" &plnat the
Japanese ainee early 19012 from northern Aus-
tralia .. part of General MacArthur'1I Alliell
Air Foree8. For administrative pIltPOlIll9 the)'
were .ttaebed to the RAAF, and they played
a part in the air battlu over Darwin. During
INS, as newly-trained pilots and American-
built B-26 "Mitchell" bombera belan arriving
from the United States. the Dutcll
Bomben llowD by Dutch pilots attacked tur·
pta in Timor 011 SO different occasions durint
1943. In July of that year Duteh pilots led
an AJHed attaet aplDat 5oerabaja. Their
Iioo. ... to aid the Autralianll in attackinl.!
taI'pt. on GeDenl MacArthur', western fhmk,
and at,.ariowI they raided Kai, the Tro-
brWadI and tarPta In wenern New Guinea.
NDorI.. FeImw7' 19" the final grouP of
pDotI tralned In the United Staws left
1be Padk Nayal Air Foree bombers ill
0IJl0a. that .... month. att&eked targets ill
BunDa. Ia I'IIIJ 1944 the lint NEIAF squll
011. DutdllOil since 1942 began
LQDI IOUtbern New Guinea,
foIcII" AMlnBan and New Zealand air
..utIq DDtab fteI1Yed the ll8lIignment of
..... ..:: JIIllDIld fore. in mopping-up b,l'
lila.... of IQaIlMe atreqth and of
tuk ..'*i*"'tIy neutralized by ail' nl·
.bDa tba AlUI4 denslve rolled closer
_ ...__performed thia duty 8uccess
IIImlDlIer In 1945,
Oil OI..lIOon, FI... I Rep:>rt
Oil DI.;.lon. F,nal Report, Appendl.
Po..""r. Elploli..... Special RoekeW ""d Jet Pro·
pell.nta, War G_ and SlIIOb Acid (.11I__
rial Report II: I)
Uud I'O..nd .nd Oia.....,..1 "-nt. In G.-.r
ee n)'
Th. Ce n OU Indlldl1', .11I1aM1'iaJ Report
T..m 78
"Iniat<rlal Report ....
-- O"b.anee '''''_ry
Friedrieb Krapp G.......n.. A G......bulll,
Blxho_r \'erein t..... Gu..ahlrahrikation A G.
Blxh.. m. ee.....n)'
lI.n",,1>o:1 II: Snhn. K....l. Ge.....n)'
Rhe'nmetall·80......, D..-Iciort. Ge......ny
lle.....nn Goerinr; Wem. O.........h-'l'. Hallea:
clod. ee......n)'
..he .....IIinenl-.u, Hanonr. Ge......n)'
Gu...l.Ilhlfabnk Fril'dri<h Knopp. Eum, eer.any
'" ,..
Motor V.hid......1T.n" B.-.""h
77 German Motor V.hld.. Induatry Report
78 Tank Indultry R.port
79 nalmler Bent A C.·
8(l Renault Yotor Vehk:ltll Plant, Oillanc:ou.rt. Pari.
8l Adam Opel, Ru_l.heim. Co......any
82 Daimler Benl·Ca.t/tenau Worka. Cacgeuu, Ger·

113 )l ...hlnenfabrik AUll'lbulll,Surnl>o:lll'. NUrrll>o:l"k.
8-1 Aoto UnOon A C. Ch.mnlh .ad Zwiekau. Ger·

8Ii lIelllCh,d II: Sohn, Kauel. Ge......ny
86 l ..,"-eh M"'nr Worb. Friedri.hsbafeo Ger-
man)' •
87 Voi¥tl.n.... r. Yuchi"l: A G. PI.""n. c..r·

88 FalJen!d>en. CO......n)'
89 0 '11&" NAC, O w\c:k, German)'
eo N hlenl-.o ,""ll&l. A G (Miq) 0 .... ....,.;.,".
Ge...... n)'
FriNlri<h Krapp G.......n_rto•. )Ia.J:debu.Ill. Cor·

R. C.
EIl'..rt .... (;e...... "
Na<...... Tool> Bnndo
ToolI;.Ie lhch'ne•.,. as Cap,tal t:q,,'p_nt
TooIlnd.... ry in Ge.......n)·
Koib Co. German)'
...... Ot'fenbach. (Ie......,,).
U..ion. Fnnklnn on :Ih'n, e;.,
H...,. ........1') IlnDch
CakiDll' Induatry Report on Ge....... ,,)'
PIa..t keport No. I. Seo:tions A.
El«l.rical Bn..."
..trital Equipment Indu.try R.:port
.....i tt Cit, Mannheim Kafertal. Cu-
.-.I ,,-,<ion In""'MftI[ 8nn<h
UlCl P......ion In.trument Indu.try lIeport
Del-. 01..1.1000>-......1 R<-I"'rl
CIIlIpe n.w RepoI1
a.- I'W4 Report
......... fWd !ltopo11_Vol I. Tnt; Vol II
.... """'" """"""
'I A....... ........
II A. o.w"" of * El'eeU of A.. BonIN"
as A 1WaiIM" of. EI'_ of A.. B..
U A o.lkd"" vlllw It.__ of ....... "-oh"
Ii A DeaUed ..., of eM "_of A.... Romh
.- M A o.taiW..., ••p-,- of " .... IIom\"'"
... • ,II
n A DeUiIM ..., of tM U.c. of A.... Il.oml...
.- . • A Detailed 8bIdr". U_of Ana &",10"
• A Brld 8tad7 of !.be BI'_ of A.... IkJmbl1\1f ".
Berti.. ...._. L.ips'lI".
Dort."lId Obo"._ Srh...Jnfurl,
........................ ......,.
-.. 1 •
... 0.-.. ....,
e-04 ( ,
.................... -*....-
lIIr .............,
....... .y..... ,...... ......
............... s..., .. ..-..:=
•• _ __-
.... ., ..,.. «
... ,,, ...
............ ', ...
Ai,e,af. Di.i"""
Tho Japenae Ai..,r..ft 'Ilduat.ry
Mlt.ubi.hi H_yy 1J>d..nia. Lt4.
Repor, No. I
(Mitaubilhi JuJo:>uo KK)
("Irf,__ " £.ali .... )
Nakajima "i..,raft eo.-puy, L4<L
('_po",,;o. R'jW>rl N•• If
(Nakajim. Hil<ooki K",
(A'r'........... " £.a.'n..
""..ani.hi Ai..,"'! C_"'''J'
C..rp"""O" Re_, ,\'.. III
(,ah, Kolluki K._/U)., J(a...... ,
" "i..,raft ,,,,,...t.- C_panJ', I ....
C."""""I;"'" N•. IV
(K..-.-IIi Xnt<....i Kelluloiki
(Alrf..... " Enci ..... '
20 Aicch' Ai..,raft Coatpany
C_..rin He,...r .v•. \'
(A.d.l Kahil KKl
(Airhea...... " ....
:1 Sum,_ )leta! l""u P"'Il"llu Di..........
C.?.....lIie.. R.,..rt , VI
(s-i_K;_.. KK, Pu......-..
!! lliud" ",..,rtr, Coatpoony
C_..,_R. __ ,..... VII
(Hit&<hi KoI"w KK)
(A'rhea...... " Encina)
Japan Inl<t'NolMnal AIlr ,-.1_... Ltd.
C_,..,.... N.. VIII
(N,ppon KolltlSal ]{nt<. 1'.")
J ..... "oaai<;al IlLIu.._t .... Coat.
C......... r.... H.,..., N•. IX
(Nitl_ c.ul SeIao K'"
(PrfIJIeI..... )
T..,"ik.a... Ainraft e-.all¥
C."p'..rin R-, N... Z
(T...IoIb HiUlti Kit.
(Aid )
U .'uJ' Airpt. e-pany
C tin.. R'pert N•• XI
(Fuji Hl l Kit)
(Alrl )
Sloowa AI.p1 Company
Cor""",';".. Jrq<lrl No. XII
llUoo•• IlIko&i ,,_1'.'"

113 I.hlb..aji_ Al__fI Lcd..
C_..u.. N.. Zlll
(Iah.1luo....,... Eob ...... &HaUIkl
Pacinc War
OfFKJ: Of nfJ: C.HMlUlAN
.....,. Report (Pari6e Wu)
.......•• Struale to End The Wu
,.. UeetlI of "toni.. Bomt. on Hi ...... i....nd
...... EI"euie lJtilitia Indu.r.l'J' Report
1 .. 10 in "01 , Di.ition Plant R...
U 10 to i .. Vol " Di'l'ilion Plan. R...
.. alori.....fw..W_t.li3<be Elelrtna'taftolwen "

Cioil.... 0;........
W'Ilold Report Co'terillll "ir lla>d P1'Ot«'tlOn and
A1Iloed Subjfct&, Tokyo. Japan
hpon. C""erinC lur Raid P........,lOn and
AJliod Subject&. S J.pan
W'Ilold Report Coverillll "ir Raid Pt"OIfrtion and
AIlietI SUbJ...... Krotn. J.pan
Repon C<werinc Air Raid Pl'OIeetlOn and
AUIed Subjflcta, Kobe, J.pan
a-n An RaHl P.....oetion and
ADied Subj«u, O&ab, Japan
.....n Coverirlc "ir Raid Prot...tion and
ADied Subject&, Hi""'hi....... Japa.....-No. I
......., Repon Co\oerillll Air R..M P........lIOn
.... A1IN4 Sltl>jeou in Japan
Report eo.erillll Air Raid ..........tion .nd
Aalold 8ltl>jeoto in Japan
Medial Diy;......
"'- U- of Bolllbinc on Hulth and )Iediul
....... In J.",,"
.,.. -.a. of Atom.. Bo"'b< on Heollh and
IIedJaI Be"",,", In Hi"",hi",. and Napuki
NunIa DiYi......
:It ..... of St...tes\e Botnbil\Jf on J_p.on... _h
.. VIc&oI ea.tnl...Rauul. Gotrma"l'
a......,.,. o...a. VI.. Ge
B",-Uolo Pl.nt, Bott", 80y. (;er
MIeWbt Tin Pado"..
a-_ ..... Aero 1:...... ".dory. I", Ma".,
- '
EC" ......... IIaII Plant, 0 ..,-
AiJeraf\ Plant. orouo-. F,,,nr<
.. C A .. E AlTenn PlPt. Toulou..•.
A L A. Ahaaft P\ant, Fnne"
VW...... r--..
hWk Air IlaW ...... bI Goo......,.
............ 'ha-.I DIdric Power Stilt,,,,,
......... or-l_ • 8wlUIl"'" S\ato"""
8lanP DqoIC. Hall............. 0..-1\)'
a.n-:,. &DIl ..... Bridp, u.d 1111_. Gn-
blI-" KIln" aer-"I'
G-w'-W Wa-. 0.-.,
IleAodotJ G • b H. Ku.I, o--nl
A... lkneJ M Pl._o..r-..,

.. A N w,.... AIIIId>oRa AIIPbVK. Goo"''')
......ridI It"""" A G t:-n.
Eria X-Il __m t.. "Hettonblkk. (;••
A T G 1IaKIP....I.D (;. fl

Sa"""'" __-no. D1uTe f. Gtmulll'
11-....._.... G H. Ta
sm-...... r.- llooul8t1le- w..m. HaoQc;", (;r.
Itnll:tu... H......... Gfo"'''l
("4w¢I-w o-1-'e, H_-.n', Ge...m
........ y K.-.L Ger.anr
A_werb. 1I t-, ..l
a..... 8oo'eri • a. Kar,N1. f;.,
.0\.... Opel A G. a ! tnw
Daimer-ae- Ii. GU'II_""''' Gr..... ,")
V.-u. sa...rlae "-IIq "'rrof. Gf,'manl'
V.........'Wftb. ............... a......,,)
....., VMlohoot at IllofIeWd.",
IWp v.... R (0<: ,,)
........ V_ 1Ih"... Rambo Ge 11)
.... A G. lIa,,"1ooo III, Germa,,)
Oil"',,!.. lIII_rbftll Hallllou... (;cr
'" no

G_2 Di";';OfI
97 Japan."" Mil,tary and NuallnteUige..."
9S Evaluation of Photocraphic InUllilrClle<! in the
Japane.e Homeland. Part I. C""'prdeN.i....
99 or l'hoUlj<raphie IntelliJtence in the
Japan..... Homeland. Part II. Airfie/do
100 Evalualion of Photographie [nteUigenee in
Japane.. Homeland, Pan III. Co...p",ed 80"'6'
10J E:;valuation of Photographic Intelligence in the
Japane.., 1I0meiand, Pan IV, Ur""..

Evaluation or I'hotographi. lnlellige"ee in the
Japane.. Homeland. Part V. CalltG"jia,e
103 ".alualion of Photographic Intelligence in the
Japane.., Homeland, Part VI. SAippinfl
104 Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in the
Japane.. 1I0meiand, Part VII, EI••lronie.
16& Evaiuation of Photographic IntellilfCnC. in the
Japan."" Homeland. Part VIII. B.nd 'nldU_
]00 "val"ation of Photographic Intelligence in tho
Japanes. Homeland, Pan IX, Arlit/.ry
J\)1 Evaiuation of Photographic InUllilfCnee ill 110<
Japan...., Pan X, 11"",1, nnd Ilui!·
108 Ev.luation of I'hotographic Intelligence in tho:
Japan.... Homeland. Part XI, ,.<1...,.",1 ,r.·
dW. i•
NaftI Anal).i. 1)"';.;oo_(Con,.)
01 Ship. Bombardmeot Survey I'acty ("n. Fl, Shimizu Atea
oIShipa Bombard"'eot
eao.m- G .nd H). Shiollomi-Saki and Nojima_
8Ul. Area.
Ieport 01 Ship>< Bombardme", Survey Party n:,,-
"'11" I), Comment. and nata on Effectivene••
01 ADlmunition
a.port of Ship. Survey Party (En_
0IlI1in J), Comments on Aooutaey of
-. Jteporte of g),ip. f!<>mb.",lment Survey Party
(Enelosure KL Effect. of SUI·fae. lIombard·
menu on Japane.., Wal' Potential
Ph),.kal I),mace I)'.i"on
U"'lt of the Incelldiary Bomb Attach on Japan
(a Report on Eight Cities)
The Ell'""t. of the Ten Thousand Pound Bomb on
J....".... Ta,'gets fa Report on Nine Incidenta)
Ell'""ts of the Atomie Bomb on Hiroshima. Japan
Meete of the Atomie Bomb 0" Nags••ki, Japan
EfF"'lU of the Four Thousand Pound 110mb on
J.... Target. (a Repon on Fi.e Ineidentsl
ElI'''''l-a of Two Thousand. One Thousand, and
Five Hundre:! Pound Bombs On Tar·
fa Report 0" Eight Incidenta,
A R.port On Physical Damalt" in (SUlll-
mary Report)
NlUlARY mrolES
IIiIbPJ' AMlroiI Oi.......
III Air ,"0_ Allied with the United Stau. in the
War J.,.n •

18 Air WeIopoQ..,d Taetid
" The BlI'eeta of Air Aetkm on ".panae Graun,1
A..,. LocIatlo
1& hploJmmlt of Fo..- Under the South"'C'1
....... e-..'"
611 The 8tn\ck Air ()pentIou or Very Heavy
In the War Apinat Jan.n
(Tweau.ll Air Fo_1
n A1r Operatlou In CIIi.... Bu,... Indl_World
War II
18 The Air Traupon ComIlIand In the W.. A..ain..
69 The TIll_ttl Air Foree in the War Again"
10 TboI 8eTnth and E1e-ventb Air in the Wa,
ApIIl1t Japan
11 The Fifth Air Fo_ in the War ApillBt
N-r Aaa1yt;I. Dhioioa
11 T1:MI Illtel'l'll!Ptlollll of J,paD_ 0fIIt1,1a (Vol. I
ell II)
Ta of the PacIAe War
1.. The WlletloA 01 Wwlalalld
16 TU AIIMd c.mpe.lp lut R.b&ul
,. n. A....rle&n CuI)l&ip fnIt Wotle.
lap. 11m.. ell 1,11IIt (V 1,lIaftll Ill)
T7 T1IlI WIIeticNl 01 TraIt
18 ... IIhw La)1nc Campe.illll
'- Tt a.,ww of 8IliJt- 9uI'ft)' l'uly-
P..-rd, IDtndnotkNl, Cont'I...Ione. and Gen·
.... .......
80 Rtpon 0I81lipt BooIIbardment Su"", Pany fRn.
doaun AI, X,1II&iahl Area
II 8epDri of lid,. Bomt.anbult S......., P.ny
_""' B), R_teII Area
81 811I,. Bombardment 8ul'ftJ' Party
..... C) IIltaebl Area
• ....-not8lll,. rdment 9u""y P.ow It:"-
...... 01 .....
1M ........ ...,. SUI'ft)' Party it:,,-
.....) ••_Arw. •
.. ny,s".7 (CMIJ

c:.............. N..
e- N..
I ....,.)
(0.., I"
........ ........
e-,.w..... ..,., N.. %VII
(KIlab KGb s.po bbaIiIlld KUbaI
CC'a.JIIII ..'llti

N.. ZYlll
(N .lw-ba IX)
(s )
U .,., Air " HI"'" AIr Dtpca
a.r-c H.. ZIX

31 ...... Atrer.ft UIlClw.......
.......,N.. U
II t.I 1a 1.,..4 Will'

ll'I on. ""'-C 7 acdaa t-dUb7
31 .JQaMR D.d:rIIlII BiIal....
• ,..".......... IIaIl4lalr I........,.
• ':'lIe Po..- 1JlbI&J7 ef Japul
tl !lIB ........ I""'" of ,I.,... (Plut
_." QriMoa J:lfot<w.
• ':"lIt J...- WartIMe II U't'ins and
_.. -
... ,..... WId' hIIDctIIa , .......
.. ,-"•..Jan-
• 1..-,4nII' 0-...

ft .....- v !IIIIIItrr
• fblptd
01. a-ilIII IJforWM
• "...... Wu-AJIIIIIldbl:
a 01.. , ..
• 1lIIt.. • .,..
............ DhfII.-
.. ,........................1.,..... ".
, ':::,..:,l-':
....... B 0- NdoMJ.
• .,.. ...... c.; a&; A"..

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