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Ni-Resist (Austenitic cast iron

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[Source: http://www.durhamfoundry.com/austenitic_ni_resist_cast_iron.htm]

Austenitic cast iron is produced by taking a normal grey or ductile iron melt, controlling the carbon and silicon at lower levels and adding various alloys to produce a stable austenitic basic structure at ambient temperature. Nickel is the primary alloying element, hence the alternative name of Ni Resist, and is the principle reason why the resultant casting has an austenitic structure, the nickel stabilising the austenite during solidification. Because of the nickel content, austenitic cast iron is more expensive than grey or ductile iron but is usually cheaper than an equivalent alloyed steel, particularly if the cost of machining the casting is taken into account. It is far easier to machine than a nickel chrome steel.

Figure 1. S-NiCr 20 2 - Austenite with graphite spherulites. [Source: http://www.edelstahlwerke-schmees.de/content_e/index.php?austenitische-gusseisen]

Austenitic irons, which can be produced with either a flake graphite or a spheroidal graphite structure, have a range of properties which far out perform a normal grey or ductile iron. These include good scaling resistance, high resistance to heat, good thermal expansion characteristics, resistance to corrosion in sea water and alkaline liquids and atmospheres, cold toughness and resistance to erosion. Certain grades are also non magnetic. They offer numerous economic advantages compared to non-corrosive heat resistant steel because the production process control is far simpler, the melting and casting temperatures are lower, the castings don’t require heat treatment and the metal has better machining characteristics. The large variety of characteristics is controlled using a range of alloying metals. The high nickel content increases the tensile strength and elongation at fracture without adversely affecting the yield strength or hardness. The nickel also produces an alloy with low thermal expansion which can be adjusted by controlling the nickel content. Along with nickel as the primary addition, chromium will improve corrosion resistance, strength and performance at elevated temperatures but excessive amounts can cause the

formation of carbides which would give a brittle structure and problems in machining. For this reason it is controlled at much lower levels than the nickel. Copper can be added to improve corrosion resistance and manganese improves cold toughness. Molybdenum improves high temperature performance. The ability to influence such a wide range of properties has meant that austenitic cast iron can be used in many applications such as pumps and valves operating at elevated temperatures or carrying corrosive liquids and gases, exhaust gas manifolds and turbocharger housings, switchgear housings, insulator flanges, terminals and ducts, furnace components and piston ring carriers.

Ni-Resist Specification BS3468 1986 [Source: http://www.bascastings.co.uk/ni-resist.html] Chemical Composition Type Grade C%max. Si% F1 Flake Graphite F2 F3 S2 S2B S2C Spheroidal S2M Graphite S2W S3 S5S S6 3.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.2 3.0 Mn% Ni% Cu% Cr% Nb% P%max Mg% 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.06max* 1.5 - 2.8 0.5 - 1.5 13.5 - 17.5 5.5 - 7.5 1.0 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.8 0.5 - 1.5 18.0 - 22.0 0.5 max 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.8 0.5 - 1.5 28.0 - 32.0 0.5 max 2.5 - 3.5 1.5 - 2.8 0.5 - 1.5 18.0 - 22.0 0.5 max 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.8 0.5 - 1.5 18.0 - 22.0 0.5 max 2.5 - 3.5 1.5 - 2.8 1.5 - 2.5 21.0 - 24.0 0.5 max 0.5 max 1.5 - 2.5 4.0 - 4.5 21.0 - 24.0 0.5 max 0.2 max 1.5 - 2.2 0.5 - 1.5 18.0 - 22.0 0.5 max 1.5 - 2.2 1.5 - 2.8 0.5 - 1.5 28.0 - 32.0 0.5 max 2.5 - 3.5 4.8 - 5.4 1.0 max 34.0 - 36.0 0.5 max 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.8 6.0 - 7.0 12.0 - 14.0 0.5 max 0.2 max

0.12 - 0.2 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.08

Several typical characteristics are: • good scaling resistance • high heat resistance • good operating characteristics • high elasticity • erosion resistance • low-temperature toughness • not magnetisable • corrosion-resistant against seawater and basic media