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DISCUSSION TEXT 1. INTRODUCTION -phenomena / issues / facts / topics (general statements) 2.

BODY - possitive side / for the topic - elaboration / explanation +connective words+ - negative sides / agaisnt the topic - elaboration also / explanation 3. CONCLUSION - summarize / penetrate Contoh : Homework I have been wondering if homework is necessary. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps people who aren t very smart to remember what they have learned. Home work is really good because it helps with our education. But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.

noun phrase (the pencil). . The dwarfs said. short story. RESOLUTION May be the end of the story 4. CODA The effects to the character or lessons Language features : past tense. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Then Snow White woke up. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. They went inside. Oh could I? Thank you. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn t have enough money to take Snow White. you may live here with us. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. adjective. ORIENTATION character. the different to recount text is the structure (recount : orientation + events)and its genre. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. Then she saw this little cottage. My name is Snow White. legend. Meanwhile. one of the dwarfs. what is your name? Snow White said. fable. myth. COMPLICATION Conflicts 3. She ran away into the woods. place 2. She saw the dwarfs. Doc. time. action verbs.NARRATIVE TEXT to entertain. Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. Snow White said. Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. conditonal sentense (if clause). time conjuction. adverb. said. There they found Snow White sleeping. to tell story genre : folktale. etc 1. CONTOH : Snow White Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. If you wish.

beating the water furiously with their wings. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. CONTOH : THE PELICAN REPORT The white pelican is one of the most successful fish-eating birds. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.REPORTS TEXT 1. 2. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. classification. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. in terms of parts. qualities. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. A group. The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. acting verbs. driving the fish before them. As the bird lifts its head. relating verbs. present tense. DESCRIPTION tells what the phenomenon under discussion . GENERAL CLASSIFICATION subject of the report. perhaps two dozen birds. . habits or behaviors Language features : general nouns.

Cars today are our roads biggest killers. contribute to most of the pollution in the world. valuable. Technical verbs. (certainly. cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed. or concentrate on your homework. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Action verbs. As we all know. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. and triggers off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Thirdly. . etc. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Firstly. and especially talk to someone. cars create pollution. which causes them to die. trustworthy. ARGUMENTS Elaboration 3. cars. etc. In conclusion. Abstract nouns (policy. government. If you live in the city. as we all know.ANALYTICAL EXPOSITORY TEXT to persuade the readers with representing arguments 1. cars are very noisy. THESIS 2. lung cancer. Modal adverbs. the city is very busy. Evaluative words (important. Secondly. Modal verbs. Connectives. REITERATION reviewing the points above / conclusion Language Features : General nouns.).) contoh : Cars should be banned in the city Cars should be banned in the city. Thinking verbs.etc). we.

(certainly. . even though those programmes may be someone s favourite. Action verbs. Thinking verbs. etc. trustworthy. and they are sometimes put a stop to people s favourite shows. And they make people want things they do not really need and can not.etc). Technical verbs.HORTATORY TEXT to persuade the readers with representing arguments that something should/shouldn t happen 1.Finally. THESIS 2. That is because they want to put all their ads on popular programs that a lot of people watch. Some programmes which are not so popular get stopped because they do not attract enough ads. ads are bad influence on people. ads are nuisance. ARGUMENTS Elaboration 3. especially during our favourite programmes. We are sick of ads. Evaluative words (important. the people who make ads have too much say in what programmes people watch. valuable. Modal verbs.). and now we mostly watch other channels. First. We think they should be stopped for a number of reasons. Sometimes there seems to be more ads than programmes.Second. They interrupt programmes. Abstract nouns (policy. RECOMMONDATION we suggest / recommon (the different to analytical is THIS) Language Features : General nouns. government. They try to encourage people to buy unhealthy food like beer. candy and chips. etc. Modal adverbs. we think TV station should stop showing ads.) contoh : A letter to TV Station Dear Editor. They go on for a long time and there are so many. soft drink. For those reasons. They are bad influences on people. There are so many ads. Connectives. We are writing to complain about ads on TV. we.

(means he is not rich) WISH (UNREAL) I hope he could come to the party. he usually goes to school on foot c) Command If + S +Simple present .. please mail this letter for me. I ll buy a car. + S + must/may/wil/can+ v1 If i have much money. (means perhaps he could come to the party) I wish he could come to the party.Conditional Sentence / if clause 1. (means he can t come to the party) ........ b) Habitual If + S +Simple present .. so i m not going with you b) Past Time If + S + past perfect. + S + could/would/might + v1 If i had time now.. + S + could/would/might + have + v3 If i had had the time yesterday. i d go with you. + command form If you go to post office.. REAL CONDITION (possibly true) a) True time If + S +Simple present . (means she didn t study engineering) He looks he were reach. i d have gone with you. means : i don t have time now.... + S + simple present If he has time. 2. AS IF / AS THOUGH He acts as if he had studied engineering. UNREAL CONDITON (not true) a) Present or Future If + S + simple past.

CONNECTIVE WORDS (CONTOH2NYA) namely such as EXPLAINING IDEAS as already stated firstly PUTTING IDEAS IN ORDER meanwhile initially further in addition ADDING TO IDEAS also likewise in a similar way nevertheless yet by contrast COMPARE AND CONTRAST all the same after all conversely because CAUSE AND EFFECT consequently however still rather but on the other hand on the contrary secondly next afterwards lastly moreover too similarly then finally later most importantly furthermore besides in like manner for example in other words that is for instance notwithstanding nonetheless for all that despite this in order that for thus at the same time though so that for that reason as a result as a result thus all this suggests that this resulted in to sum up all this leads to therefore hence CONCLUSION all in all all this evidence points to so in conclusion finally consequently .

Mrs. Olsen's poodle. P ar t i c i pl e s a s A dj e c t i ve s y The crying baby drew a long breath and sucked in a spider crouching in the corner of the crib. P ar t i c i pl e s a s N o un s y y We gave bungee jumping a chance. With a broom.PARTICIPLES Verb Simple Present Simple Past Past Participle Present Participle Infinitive giggle giggle(s) giggled Giggled giggling to giggle help help(s) helped Helped helping to help jump jump(s) jumped Jumped jumping to jump P ar t i c i pl e s i n M ul t i pa r t V e r bs y y Our pet alligator ate Mrs. Olsen was beating our alligator over the head in an attempt to retrieve her poodle. Valerie hates cooking because scraping burnt gook out of pans always undermines her enjoyment of the food. .

the actors bowed. we found his wallet. (Participial phrase) To raise enough money in time. (The infinitive phrase is used as a modifier) . (Comma optional. but helpful due to length of phrase) Under the pile of clothes. Mary had to issue stock in her business. Introductory Participial and Infinitive Phrases y y Looking for help. Introductory Clauses y y Before the curtain fell. Under the spreading chestnut tree. not in a series) Introductory adverbs y y Clearly. the man fell on his knees to beg. (Two prepositional phrases. one and one make two. the village smithy stands. The play's run will be extended if the next two nights are sellouts. Clearly mistaken was the witness.INTRODUCTORY Introductory Phrases y y y Under the kitchen table the dog cowered.

2. c) shows manner : He did as I told him. d) shows cause: It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors. e) shows purpose : She bought a book so (that) she could learn English. ADVERBAL CLAUSE Adverbial clauses are typically introduced by subordinate conjunctions answer "why?". f) shows contrast : Although it is late. 3. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE adjective clauses are usually introduced by relative pronouns answer "which?" or "what type of?" o I know the house where he lives. "to what degree?" a) shows time: You may begin when(ever) you are ready. o I know where he lives.CLAUSES 1. * Adjective Phrase: The ideas presented in that book are interesting. . o The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting. (where he lives adalah objek dari kata know) o He gives money to whoever needs it. we'll stay a little longer. "where?". g) shows result: it was such a dreary day that i didn t feel like doing anything. yang merupakan objek dari kata know) o The man who is talking to Taylor is from Japan. b) shows place : The guard stood where he was positioned. * Adjective Phrase: The man talking to Taylor is from Japan. (where he lives mempunyai antecedent the house. "when?". NOUN CLAUSE Clause yang digunakan sebagai pengganti noun atau berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda).