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Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Pre-Hydro Water Quality Study

Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

FERC Project No. 13402 Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC

PRE-HYDRO WATER QUALITY STUDY

By:

31300 Solon Rd Suite 12 Solon, Oh 44139

November 11, 2010

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Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Pre-Hydro Water Quality Study

Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 PROJECT BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................. 3 1.1 2 STUDY OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................................... 3

PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND PROPOSED OPERATIONS .................................................... 4 2.1 2.2 DESCRIPTION OF EXISTING DAM, RIVER AND IMPOUNDMENT .......................................................... 4 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED PROJECT AND OPERATIONS..................................................................11

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METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................18 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................................18 INSTRUMENTATION ..........................................................................................................................18 SAMPLING METHODS AND LOCATIONS ............................................................................................18 SAMPLING SCHEDULE ......................................................................................................................24

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................24 4.1 GENERAL REVIEW OF FACTORS IMPACTING DO AT HYDROPOWER FACILITIES ...............................24 4.1.1 Reservoir Factors ..................................................................................................................24 4.1.2 Watershed Factors .................................................................................................................30 4.1.3 Tailwater Factors ..................................................................................................................30 4.1.4 Special Case – Below Ice Oxygen Depletion .........................................................................34 4.2 BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN .......................................................................35 4.2.1 Growth ...................................................................................................................................36 4.2.2 Reproduction .........................................................................................................................36 4.2.3 Behavior and Swimming Performance ..................................................................................36 4.2.4 Early Lifestages .....................................................................................................................37 4.2.5 Fisheries Diversity .................................................................................................................37 4.2.6 Susceptibility to Disease ........................................................................................................38 4.2.7 Trophic Interactions ..............................................................................................................38 4.2.8 Non-Fish Species Response to Low Dissolved Oxygen .........................................................38 4.3 SUMMARY OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS AT LAKE MILTON .....................................................39 4.4 GENERAL EXISTING WATER QUALITY DATA AT THE PROJECT SITE ................................................39 4.5 PRE-HYDRO DO LEVELS BELOW DAM.............................................................................................40 4.6 PRE-HYDRO TEMPERATURE DATA BELOW DAM .............................................................................42 4.7 PRE-HYDRO DO & TEMPERATURE LEVELS IN LAKE UPSTREAM OF DAM .......................................46 4.8 DISCUSSION OF POTENTIAL MITIGATION MEASURES TO IMPROVE DO LEVELS BELOW DAM .........48 4.8.1 Bypass Flows .........................................................................................................................48 4.8.2 Selective Withdrawal .............................................................................................................48

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CONCLUSIONS & PROPOSED STANDARDS ............................................................................49 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................52

APPENDIX A – RAW STUDY DATA ......................................................................................................55

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Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Pre-Hydro Water Quality Study

Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

PRE-HYDRO WATER QUALITY STUDY
LAKE MILTON HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT (FERC #13402)

1 PROJECT BACKGROUND
Pursuant to section 4.38(b) of the Code of Regulations Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC (HET) has completed the first stage consultation requirements for the proposed hydroelectric facility at the Lake Milton Dam (FERC # P-13402). During consultation the USACE requested that data be collected to determine the existing or “pre-hydro” water quality conditions (specifically dissolved oxygen and temperature). In the Provisional Nationwide Permit issued by the USACE on June 7, 2010 condition 3 states the following: Dissolved oxygen monitoring from August to October is to be conducted to determine the existing condition of the Mahoning River directly downstream of the dam. This data will be utilized in mitigating dissolved oxygen levels if necessary.

1.1 Study Objectives
The primary goal of this study was to determine the existing or “pre-hydro” water quality conditions (specifically dissolved oxygen and temperature) directly downstream of the dam from August to October. This information will be used to mitigate dissolved oxygen levels if necessary during hydro operation. Study objectives include: a. Estimate the existing range of dissolved oxygen (DO) below the dam in mg/L as well as in % saturation from August to October. b. Calculate the existing range of water temperature below the dam from August to October. c. Determine Pre-hydro DO and temperature levels and stratification patterns in Lake Milton upstream of the dam by depth from August to October. d. Collect data to determine if hydro operation using gate 2 during the winter will affect DO and temperature levels downstream or upstream of the dam.

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Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Pre-Hydro Water Quality Study

Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND PROPOSED OPERATIONS
2.1 Description of Existing Dam, River and Impoundment
The original dam located along the Mahoning River was constructed in 1913 by the City of Youngstown for the purposes of flood protection and water supply to the steel mills located in the city of Youngstown, Ohio. In 1970 seepage and evidence of instability on the downstream west abutment was noted. Youngstown relinquished control of the dam to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources and ODNR began rehabilitation of the dam which it completed in 1988. Although the dam no longer supplies water to the steel mills in Youngstown, it continues to provide flood protection to the Mahoning Valley as well as low flow regulation and recreational opportunities to the area. The dam is operated by the Lake Milton State Park under the supervision of the Pittsburgh District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The nominal surface area of the existing impoundment created by the existing dam is 1,685 acres.

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Proposed Plant Location

LAKE MILTON HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT FERC # P-13402 STREET LEVEL MAP

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Proposed Plant Location

LAKE MILTON HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT FERC # P-13402 PROJECT LOCATION MAP

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The proposed hydro plant shown in Figure 2-1 is located on the Mahoning River and is fed by a total drainage area of approximately 273 square miles. Flow levels at the proposed site were determined using the data from the USGS gaging station 03091500 on the Mahoning River located .3 miles downstream of the Milton Dam near Pricetown.

USGS Gaging Station

Proposed Hydro Site

Figure 2-1 – Mahoning River Watershed

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Figure 2-2 and Table 2-1 represent the daily mean flows from August 1979 to August 2009 for the Mahoning River at the Pricetown gaging station:
Mahoning River FDC
2,500

2,000

1,500

Flow (cfs)
1,000 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 % Time Flow Exceeded

Figure 2-2
% Time Flow Exceeded 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Table 2-1 Q (cfs) 2,430 1,110 835 615 466 362 289 247 213 186 172 162 152 138 129 115 97 85 70 47 13

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Monthly mean data from the USGS Station from years 1979 to 2009 was used to create the hydrograph and data table for the Mahoning River labeled Figure 2-3 and Table 2-2 respectively.
Mahoning River Hydrograph
400

350

300

250

Mean Flow (cfs)

200

150

100

50

0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Figure 2-3

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Mean

Mean Flow (cfs) 320 338 365 290 290 284 251 256 276 237 240 298 287.1 Table 2-2

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Current flow operations at Lake Milton Dam were described by Robert Yue of the USACE Pittsburgh district in an email received by HET on January 20, 2010 attached below. Mean historical lake elevations are shown in Figure 2-4:
Anthony, As you know, there are four 60" gate valves at Lake Milton. Gate Valves #1 & 2 are at invert 915 and Gate Valves #3 & 4 are at invert 908. Thus #1 & 2 have smaller discharge capacity. Lake Milton is operated at 942 or less during Jan-March. The lake starts to fill toward summer pool recreational pool of 948 from late March to 12 April and it remains at 948 through 15 Oct. From 15 October, it being drawdown slowly down to 942 by 20 Dec. On a 3-year trial basis, 20072010, the lake is being held at 940 or lower instead of 942. This is to check if the lower lake level helps in minimize the ice problems and if it has any negative impact in filling toward 948. So far this lower level seems to be ok for both aspects. The discharge capacities for #1 & 2 GV's range from 0 to about 1500 cfs at 60" open. For the various target elevation the capacities (at 60" opening) are as follows: Elevation 942.0 948.0 952.0 Discharge, cfs 620 690 740

The discharge capacities for #3 & 4 GV's range from 0 to about 1600 cfs at 60" open. For the various target elevation the capacities (at 60" opening) are as follow: Elevation 942.0 948.0 952.0 Discharge, cfs 700 770 810

The crest elevation is at 951.0 As for the operating schedule, Gate Valves #1 & 2 are used from May thru Oct and Gate Valves from #3 & 4 are from Nov thru April. The dates serve as guidelines. The minimum flow requirement from Lake Milton is 25 cfs.

Werner Loehlein, Chief of the Water Management Branch of the Pittsburg District elaborated on the current practice of switching to the lower gates during the winter in the emails below dated June 7, 2010 and June 17, 2010:
June 07, 2010 “We switch to the lower gates (#3 & 4) in the winter in order to flush out the poorer water quality and enhance the lake's water quality.”

June 17, 2010 We have been operating the lower gates at Lake Milton for the State of Ohio almost exclusively during the winter. Operating that way has created a water quality condition in the lake and

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Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

downstream. The Corps' policy for our projects is for non-degradation of water quality. What we would do, is gather and collect lake and downstream data to define the current state, then calibrate a model. Then we would model various scenarios and see what happens. I would start by modeling the parameters water temperature and dissolved oxygen, but there may be other parameters. The CE-QUAL and CE-QUAL2 models have been used at other reservoir projects, but there may be other models. Werner

Mean Lake Elevation
950

948

946

944
El. (ft)

942

1990-2007 Jan 2008- Aug 2009

940

938

936

934 1990-2007

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

942.59 942.35 943.65 946.73 948.03 948.19 948.19 948.21 948.03 947.27 945.03 942.95

Jan 2008- Aug 2009 940.02 941.13 942.93 947.35 948.32 948.46 948.38 948.09 948.04 947.31 944.93 942.53

Figure 2-4 – Mean Historical Lake Elevations obtained from the USACE Pittsburgh District

2.2 Description of Proposed Project and Operations
The current design (Figure 2-5) uses the existing intake and connects a 800 mm diameter 650 KW S-Type Kaplan Turbine to the exisiting 60" outlet pipe on gate 2 below the dam. The proposed powerhouse would be constructed over the existing discharge location where the turbine and generator will be housed. The proposed location of the turbine and powerhouse are shown in Figure 2-6 & Figure 2-7.

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Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Pre-Hydro Water Quality Study

Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

NEW TRASH RACK WITH 1” BAR SPACING INSTALLED OVER EX. TRASHRACK Spillway

Using Ex. Gate 2 Conduit

NEW 800 MM DIA. TUBULAR HORIZONTAL KAPLAN TURBINE

LAKE MILTON HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT FERC # P-13402 PROJECT PLAN - PROPOSED

Figure 2-5

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Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Pre-Hydro Water Quality Study

Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

Existing Spillway

Existing Outlet Works

Proposed Powerhouse Location

Figure 2-6 - Photo of existing dam and outlet works

Figure 2-7 – Conceptual Sketch of Dam and Proposed Powerhouse

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Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

LAKE MILTON HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT FERC # P-13402 PROFILE – EXISTING CONDITIONS

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Lake Milton Hydroelectric Project Pre-Hydro Water Quality Study

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SLOT FOR EMERGENCY BULKHEAD ELECTRIC ACTUATORS FOR SLUICE GATES

962.4

AIR VENT EX. SPILWAY CREST EL. 951 SUMMER POOL EL. 948.0

SLUICE GATE STEM WINTER POOL EL. 940.8 EXISTING STRUCTURE

PROPOSED 800 MM DIA. HORIZONTAL TUBULAR KAPLAN TURBINE

NEW TRASHRACK WITH 1” BAR SPACING INSTALLED OVER EXISTING

EXISTING 60” DIA. CAST IRON CONDUIT PROPOSED POWERHOUSE CONSTRUCTED OVER EX. STRUCTURE 922.0

915 INVERT EL. 913.0 TAILWATER LEVEL El 908.0 907.0 901.0 EX. SLUICE GATES USE EXISITNG 3’ CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB AS SYSTEM FOUNDATION EX. APRONS USE EXISITN STILLING BASIN EX. END SILL

SILT BUILD UP

.25” BAR THICKNES S 1” BAR WIDTH

1” BAR SPACING

LAKE MILTON HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT FERC # P-13402 PROJECT PROFILE - PROPOSED

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The proposed flow operations during hydro operation do not modify lake elevations or discharge levels dictated by the USACE. The only modification is the timing of which gates are used. Since the 250 cfs capacity turbine will be installed on gate 2, all flows up to 250 cfs are proposed to be discharged through gate 2 so that hydro power production can be continuous throughout the year except during winter when water is typically discharged through the lower gates. All flows above 250 cfs would be discharged through an alternate gate. Table 2-3 and Figure 2-8 show how the proposed gate use schedule would differ from existing operations. The total flow use curve is shown in Table 2-4.
CURRENT DISCHARGE CAPACITY AT LAKE MILTON (CFS) Lake E. (ft) GV 1 GV 2 GV 3 GV 4 940 600 600 690 0 942 620 620 700 0 948 690 690 770 0 952 740 740 810 0 DISCHARGE CAPACITY WITH HYDRO (CFS) Lake E. (ft) GV 1 GV 2 GV 3 940 600 250 690 942 620 250 700 948 690 250 770 952 740 250 810 Total 1890 1940 2150 2290

GV 4* 690 700 770 810

Total 2230 2270 2480 2610

Table 2-3 – Gate Discharge Capacity at Lake Milton (Current and with Hydro) *Gate 4 is currently inoperable and will be repaired by HET if Hydro is approved.

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Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC November 11, 2010

Flow Duration Curve November to April 1978-2008
2,500 Total Flow Hydro Flow 2,000

1,500
Flow (cfs)

1,000

500

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Time Flow Exceeded

Figure 2-8
% Time Flow Ex. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Total Flow (cfs) 2,430 1,110 835 615 466 362 289 247 213 186 172 162 152 138 129 115 97 85 70 47 13 Hydro (cfs) 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 247 212 186 172 162 152 138 129 115 97 85 70 47 0 Other 60" Discharge Pipes (cfs) 2218 898 623 403 254 150 77 35 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13

Table 2-4 – Total Flow Use Curve

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3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Literature Review
A literature review was conducted to present a brief summary of general factors impacting DO levels at hydro power facilities. Included is a discussion of the specific site conditions at the Lake Milton Project and how these specific reservoir and river characteristics might influence DO levels during hydro operation. Also included is a summary of the biological effects of low DO.

3.2 Instrumentation
HET used the YSI ProODO Optical Dissolved Oxygen Meter for this study. This is an accurate portable unit measuring dissolved oxygen (in either mg/L or % saturation) as well as temperature and barometric pressure with short term data logging capability (80 hours or more of up to 2,000 data points). The data sheet for this unit is shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10. Additionally DO and other water quality measurements taken by the OEPA in 2006 at the project site as well as temperature data from USGS gage 03091500 located .3 miles downstream of the Milton Dam near Pricetown as well as USGS gage 03090500 located upstream of the proposed project below the Berlin Dam will be used to supplement data obtained by HET. Water quality data at Berlin Lake provided to HET from the USACE Pittsburgh District in 2009 was also used in this analysis.

3.3 Sampling Methods and Locations
Condition 3 of the provisional NWP 17 states that the testing must occur directly down stream of the dam. Therefore samples were taken within the stilling basin directly below the dam as well as further down stream and in the lake at varying depths (Figure 14). HET took spot samples as well as continuously logged data (Figure 11 and Figure 12).

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Figure 9

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Figure 10

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Figure 11 - Spot Sampling with the YSI Pro ODO

Figure 12 – Continuous Data Logging was conducted using a Lock Box

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CR @ Gas Line

Pricetown @ Northbridge

WWTP Outfall

Stilling Basin

Upstream of Dam @ the Intake at Varying Depths

Figure 13 – General HET Sampling Locations

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Upstream of Dam

Samples Taken at 5 Ft. Increments

GATE 4 GATE 3 GATES 1&2

LAKE MILTON HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT FERC # P-13402 PLAN & PROFILE OF EXISTING DAM

Figure 14 – Sampling locations

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3.4 Sampling Schedule
A total of 219 Samples were taken from August 9th, 2010 to October 6, 2010. All flows were discharged through gate 2 during the study therefore most samples were taken directly downstream of gate 2 where the most re-aeration was occurring and DO levels were the highest. More samples were taken in August and September as DO levels are typically lowest during these two months. HET used spot sampling as well as continuous logging with 1 hour intervals. There were 42 samples in August that were not used (not included in the 219 total) due to excess algae growth on the probe during logging compromising the results. The sample summary is shown in Table 5 and the raw data is included in Appendix A.

Table 5: Summary of Samples Used in this Study Month Gates 1&2 Gate 3 Aug 70 27 Sep 68 4 Oct 2 1 Total 140 32

Gate 4 2 4 1 7

Lake 16 9 9 34

Other 2 4 0 6

Total 117 89 13 219

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 General Review of Factors Impacting DO at Hydropower Facilities
Sections 4.1 and 4.2 including all tables and figures are taken entirely from the 2002 EPRI report entitled Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report which provides an excellent summary of issues related to dissolved oxygen at hydro projects located at reservoirs. The sections directly taken from the EPRI report are shown in italics.

4.1.1 Reservoir Factors
Reservoir processes that affect DO are significantly influenced by the physical characteristics of reservoirs. Probably the most significant characteristics are the volume and through-flow of the project, which can be represented by the calculated retention time (summer volume/average flow rate) of water in the project. Run-of-river projects typically have retention times of less than about 25 days; storage projects typically have retention times greater than about 200 days. “Transitional” projects have retention times that fall within the range of about 25 to 200 days. At summer pool, Lake Milton has a storage capacity of 24,000 acre feet and a mean flow of 287.1 cfs which calculates to an average retention time of 42.1 days. Thermal Stratification

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Retention time and depth of outlet are the main factors that affect thermal stratification within reservoirs, which, in turn, affect the routing of “density currents” through reservoirs. An understanding of these density currents is important to determining how DO is affected at various locations within reservoirs. Figure 15 illustrates typical temperature profiles depicting annual stratification patterns for various types of reservoir projects. Thermal stratification begins when the reservoir surface water warms and floats on top of the colder water in the reservoir. Figure 16 illustrates the relationship between density and temperature of water. As the warm season progresses, the epilimnion enlarges due to solar incidence and mixing caused by wind energy. The metalimnion also increases in volume due to the withdrawal of hypolimnetic water through the outlets, as well as the spring and summer inflows that are cooler than the epilimnion but warmer than the hypolimnion. These inflows seek an appropriate water depth in the metalimnion having a density somewhere between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion. The metalimnia and hypolimnia in hydropower reservoirs are very dynamic due to the relatively high flows through these projects and the use of lower level outlets. It is in these two layers where density currents occur and DO is dominated by consumption processes and not replenished by the atmosphere or algal productivity. In deep storage reservoirs, stratification is strong (large difference in temperature between the top and bottom) and generally persists through the summer and fall. Quite often the colder water in the reservoir originally during the winter may remain in the hypolimnion until the next fall. This is especially true if the outlet is at a mid-level point within the reservoir and the withdrawal zone does not extend to the reservoir bottom. In transitional reservoirs, thermal stratification is somewhat weaker than in storage impoundments because the cold winter inflows are released more rapidly from the bottom. The winter water is replaced by warmer inflow water as the warming pattern progresses into the summer and fall. Usually these types of reservoirs will maintain some form of stratification even though it will be weaker than that of storage impoundments. Transitional reservoirs that have storage impoundments a short distance upstream will not demonstrate this typical thermal pattern if the inflows remain cold through the summer and fall because cold inflows drop beneath the warm surface and continue to maintain the strong thermal stratification. For run-of-river reservoirs, the colder water is released even more rapidly and the resulting stratification is weaker, particularly in June, July, and August. Often during these latter two months stratification may not even occur, except under low flow conditions such as those that occur during droughts. At Lake Milton Thermal Stratification is minimal in August (see section 4.7) and resembles that of a run of river reservoir. The reservoir is relatively shallow (40 ft at the intake during summer) and two of it’s 4 intakes are located at the bottom and the other two are approximately 7 ft higher than the bottom but would generally still be considered low level intakes. A summary of the reservoir characteristics at Lake Milton are shown in Table 8 in section 4.3 of this report.

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Figure 15

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Figure 16

Environmental Processes in Reservoirs that Affect DO The environmental processes that affect DO can be separated into three longitudinal zones and four thermal layers. The longitudinal zones include the riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. The thermal layers include the epilimnion, the warmer portion of the metalimnion (which usually is composed of interflows that result from inflows to reservoirs during the months of May through September), the cooler metalimnion (which usually represents inflows during the months of March and April), and the hypolimnion. In the areas of the U.S. where inflows are comprised of significant amounts of snowmelt, cooler inflows may persist until June. These zones and layers are illustrated in Figure 17 showing that DO within a reservoir is usually low immediately above the sediments and in the warmer metalimnion, which occupies a comparatively larger portion of the reservoir.

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Figure 17

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Table 6

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As discussed in the previous section, the lower layers are density currents that essentially are isolated layers that do not mix in the reservoir until the temperatures of the layers become about the same as the epilimnion, usually in the fall of each year. Hence, to determine how the DO balance is affected in a reservoir, it is important to analyze the changes that take place in each layer of water. The longitudinal zones are useful for describing the changes in water quality as the water passes through the reservoir. Table 6 presents a limnological description of the processes involved in these zones and the resulting DO dynamics.

4.1.2 Watershed Factors
Clearly, the amount of precipitation and inflow temperatures affect thermal stratification, but other factors can also be important. For example, the size of the watershed draining into the reservoir affects not only the amount of flow through the reservoir but the natural organic loading and other non-point sources of nutrients to the reservoir as well. Precipitation intensity and frequency also affect the transport and timing of watershed water quality constituents such as organic matter. Since thunderstorms occur more frequently in the southeast (Kennedy and Gaugush 1988), the reservoirs in this region may receive greater loads. Regarding streamflow patterns, upstream reservoir projects significantly alter the natural hydrologic runoff, e.g., high spring natural runoff quantities can be shifted to late summer and fall high volume reservoir releases. Such a shift in flow quantity significantly affects downstream reservoir processes affecting DO. Another significant watershed factor that affects DO levels is the dominant source of inflow. The typical storage impoundment will have one or two primary sources of inflow, accounting for 70 percent or more of the reservoir inflow volume. However, some impoundments can have significantly dispersed inflow quantities coming from multiple tributaries. Such dispersed inflows can complicate significantly the reservoir processes that may affect DO within a reservoir. An upstream (reservoir) with low-level releases can significantly alter temperature in the inflow. (EPRI 1990). Reservoirs having watersheds with significant snowmelt during the spring can exhibit the same DO dynamics seen for southeastern reservoirs. However, these dynamics will lag in time corresponding with the temperature and peak inflow hydrology that is characteristic in the northern regions. In the south, the peak inflow hydrology is dominated by more direct runoff from spring rains that occur during March through May.

4.1.3 Tailwater Factors
The DO in the tailwater is affected primarily by characteristics of the hydropower releases, various tailwater hydraulic conditions, the presence of aquatic weeds, and various DO consumption processes. Mechanistic formulations for riverine DO predictions can be found in a comprehensive review by Bowie et al. (1985). A qualitative description of the factors is provided here.

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Characteristics of DO in Reservoir Releases The large volume of reservoir releases usually dominates water quality in tailwaters. Hence, changes in operational characteristics can significantly change DO in downstream reaches and cause both short- and long-term cyclical variations. The cyclical nature of DO in a tailwater is significantly affected by the mode of operation for hydro generation and must be considered in determining the exposure characteristics of sitespecific DO variation to aquatic life. For instance, brief exposures of fish to DO levels as low as 3 mg/L may not be harmful (EPRI 1990). Because of the dominant influence of flow and release DO level on downstream DO levels, seasonal variations in these factors are important. High release flow and DO is common in the winter. Low flow and high DO is common in the spring during filling of the reservoirs concurrent with cold water temperatures. Flows increase with summer power generation and low DO is common in summer and fall due to warmer water being released from within the reservoir. Re-Aeration Atmospheric re-aeration occurs at the air-water interface and affects dissolved oxygen concentrations throughout the water column by turbulent mixing of surface water to deeper depths. The re-aeration rate is usually stated as a product of a re-aeration coefficient, K2 (see EPRI 1990 Appendix C) and the DO deficit below saturation. Expressions for the reaeration coefficient have been developed by many investigators, where K2 is directly related to mean velocity and inversely related to mean depth, suggesting a dual effect of an increase in flow on K2. However, increased depth is more significant than increased velocity, so the reaeration rate typically decreases with higher flow in most rivers (see Figure 18). Higher flows also reduce the travel times between two river stations, decreasing the opportunity for re-aeration as well as the re-aeration coefficient.

Figure 18

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Natural re-aeration in shallow tailwaters eventually masks downstream DO improvements that result from artificial aeration at an upstream dam. This occurs because water with a higher DO deficit naturally aerates more rapidly than water with a lower DO deficit and both approach saturation asymptomatically. Thus, DO improvements at the dam will gradually disappear in the downstream direction, especially at low flows. On the other hand, artificial aeration at a dam with a slow, deep tailwater will have more impact on DO improvement downstream (see Figure 19). In the slow, deep tailwater, the DO in the releases from the dam can persist for many miles, dominating the DO in the tailwater more than any other factor.

Figure 19

In most tailwaters, the effect of temperature on the DO saturation deficit is greater than that on the re-aeration coefficient, causing the overall re-aeration rate to decrease as temperature increases. During periods of high photosynthetic oxygen production, the DO can temporarily supersaturate (DO exceeding saturation) and de-aeration will occur. Small dams and other hydraulic structures can often contribute modest increments of DO improvement due to re-aeration, depending on the head differential, dam shape, and the upstream DO deficit (Thene et al. 1989). Creation of turbulence by hydraulic structures and subsequent re-aeration is a principle utilized by re-aeration weirs. Aquatic Vegetation

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Aquatic vegetation (algae, macrophytes) contributes oxygen to the water column during photosynthesis and consumes oxygen for respiration. Photosynthesis is roughly confined to the third of the day with the highest solar radiation, while respiration is more evenly distributed throughout the day and night (depending primarily on temperature). Photosynthetic oxygen production can be quite high, normally exceeding respiration demand during this third of the day (except perhaps on overcast days), while respiration demands prevail at night when there is no photosynthesis. Thus, the aquatic plant community can be a net source of oxygen in daytime hours and a net demand for oxygen at night. Depending on the aquatic plant density, respiration during low flow can create localized reaches of low DO in pre-dawn hours that are lower than the low DO caused by dam releases. Daily average production and demand may vary, but are often in approximate balance with one another in the range of 5 to 10 g O2/m2/d each. Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD) Bacterial decomposition of organic matter (leaf litter, dead bacterial growth, and dead aquatic plants) in sediments also consumes oxygen from the water column. Another source of organic deposits is particulate matter from wastewater treatment plant discharges. Respiration of the benthic community during decomposition of organic sediments can create significant oxygen demands, especially in pools where organic deposits may be significant and the residence time of water over the sediments is prolonged. Sediment oxygen demand of most river mud falls in the range of 0 to 2 g O2/m2/d, but can exceed 10 g O2/m2/d downstream from municipal and industrial discharges. Research conducted by Mackenthun and Stefan (1993) on the effects of near bottom flow velocities on SOD indicates that oxygen demand increases linearly with water velocity over the range of velocities tested (1.0 to 10.0 cm/s [0.03 to 0.33 ft/s]). In quiescent lake water in Minnesota, average SOD values range from 0.5 to 2.0 g/m2/d (Fang and Stefan 1993). Therefore, SOD can double if flow velocities are minimally increased (on the order of 1.0 cm/s (0.03 ft/s). Poorly designed lake aerators systems can disturb sediments and lower or negate their ability to aerate the hypolimnion (see further discussion in Section 4 – Hypolimnetic Aeration). Other Factors Temperature plays a role in tailwater atmospheric heat exchange due to solar and atmospheric radiation. Heat transfer and release temperatures both effect the temperatures of tailwaters. Heat transfer plays the dominant role during times of low flow, while release temperatures are more influential during periods of high flow. Solar radiation also provides energy for plant photosynthesis with associated oxygen production. As discussed earlier, temperature determines both the saturation oxygen concentration and the rates of most physical and biochemical processes affecting DO. The rates of many biochemical processes can double with a 10_C (50ºF) rise in temperature in the range of temperatures found in many tailwaters. There are additional factors specific to certain tailwaters that may have important effects on the local oxygen budget. These include: oxidation of reduced chemical elements (iron, sulfide, and

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manganese) in releases, quantity and quality of tributaries, presence of toxic compounds, and respiratory demands of localized heavy concentrations of mussels or other fauna.

4.1.4 Special Case – Below Ice Oxygen Depletion
Low dissolved oxygen conditions can also arise in colder climates during the winter months that may kill fish. This “winterkill” condition is common in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs that have long periods of ice and snow cover. Severe oxygen depletion under ice leads to fish losses. Winterkill usually occurs when a water body is entirely ice- and snow-covered. Open ice allows for a greater level of light penetration and subsequent photosynthetic activity of plants and algae. Photosynthetic activity, in turn, produces oxygen. Dissolved oxygen levels are, therefore, lowest when light penetration is minimized by snow and ice cover. Often times, DO depletion is coupled with the build-up of toxicants such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) (Fast 1994). Two processes lead to low DO concentrations under ice-cover: (1) respiratory oxygen demand and other oxidation processes exceed the level of oxygen output from photosynthesis and (2) the total oxygen reserve at the time the water body freezes over is insufficient to compensate for oxidation and respiration losses during time of ice-cover (Fast 1994). Minimum fish requirements for DO are lower under ice-cover than during other times of the year due to lower fish activity levels and subsequent low metabolic rates. Wetzel (1983) suggests that fish can survive at DO levels as low as 2 mg/L when water temperatures range from 2º to 5ºC (36º to 41ºF). Other researchers have indicated that fish will survive at even lower DO levels (Table 7) and that tolerance is species- and lifestage-specific.
Table 7

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Lakes and reservoirs most likely to be affected by winterkill are shallow, eutrophic, have little water flow-through, have mucky, silty or black organic bottom sediment and whose shorelines have a large amount of submergent or emergent plant vegetation (Piening 1977, Nickum, 1970). Analysis of oxygen depletion rates under 70 Canadian lakes by Mathias and Barcia (1980), indicates that the principal source of DO depletion occurs in the sediments rather than in the water column. Sediments in eutrophic lakes consumed oxygen three times as fast as oligotrophic lakes (0.23 vs. 0.08 g/m2/d). According to a literature review conducted by Ellis and Stephan (1989), the biochemical oxygen demand associated with the decomposition of organic materials in the sediments of ice-covered lakes may be the largest demand on DO. It is very difficult to assess the effects of winterkill management practices, because there is little opportunity to establish a control time or period. Comparing across years within the same water body is confounded by considerable year-to-year variation. Site-specific variation between water bodies even geographically proximate does not lend itself to valid comparisons. Only prevention of winterkill over many seasons, especially in water bodies that only occasionally experience winterkill (i.e., once every three, five or ten years) can convincingly demonstrate winterkill prevention techniques. Few experiments have provided such a rigorous assessment, but most provide value judgments regarding a winterkill prevention techniques’ efficacy. Several of the technologies used to mitigate low DO levels in reservoir releases during warm months can also be utilized for mitigating factors that cause winterkill conditions. Designing wintertime aeration systems may be complicated by severe weather and icing conditions. In addition, some technologies that cause mixing of stratified water layers may cause ice to weaken or disappear. If the ice surface is used recreationally (e.g., skating, ice fishing), such options may not be feasible. Wintertime aeration systems are not addressed specifically in this report.

4.2 Biological Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most influential water quality parameters on the health of aquatic ecosystems and fisheries populations. When DO concentration fall below certain levels, water becomes incapable of sustaining aquatic life. Above the lethal limit, DO acts as a limiting factor to the growth of fish. A full discussion on biological responses of fish, based on the investigation of numerous studies, is included in EPRI 1990 (Section 5). A brief summary of those findings is included here, with the addition of recent studies. The focus of the discussion below is on salmonids (Family Salmonidae), as there are more studies investigating the effect of low DO on these species than with other species, since they are readily available, easy to maintain and of great economic importance. Although it could be argued that low DO concentrations have adverse effects on all species of fish in all water body types, in the following discussion secondary emphasis has been placed on those species likely to be impacted by hydropower operation. Discussion is grouped by physiological responses or population responses to varying dissolved oxygen concentrations.

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4.2.1 Growth In general, for salmonid species, as dissolved oxygen levels decrease there is a corresponding drop in median growth rates. The effects of low DO are amplified at higher water temperatures as a result of increased metabolic activity (EPRI 1990). 4.2.2 Reproduction Very little information is available on the effects of low dissolved oxygen on the fecundity, fertility and reproductive success of fish. What information that does exist (EPRI 1990) suggests that low dissolved oxygen has a negative effect. 4.2.3 Behavior and Swimming Performance Fish can detect zones of low dissolved oxygen and will actively try to avoid them. Early lifestages (e.g., larvae, juveniles) fish appear less able to detect areas of low DO and are, therefore, less able to avoid them. The distribution of fish within a body of water can be affected by the avoidance behavior of some fish species to areas of low DO. There is often a strong link between DO levels and water temperatures. In a thermally stratified water body experiencing hypolimnetic DO depletion, DO and temperature are two of the most influential factors affecting the distribution of fish species. As water below the thermocline becomes depleted of DO, fish are faced with a trade-off between moving to shallow warmer water with higher levels of DO and associated heat stress or remaining in cool, DO depleted waters and the associated hypoxic stress. Below are some recent examples of studies conducted on the effects of low DO on the behavior (especially habitat selection) of fish. Aku et al. (1997) compared the vertical distribution of cisco (Coreonus artedi) in a basin of a lake during and after oxygenation to an unoxygenated lake. The use of hypolimnetic oxygenation increased dissolved oxygen concentrations and expanded cisco habitat up to 9 m (29.5 ft) in depth. Expansion was limited by water temperature. Bodensteiner and Lewis (1992) observed that freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) aggregated in pockets of warm backwater eddies in winter. These warmer areas had higher dissolved oxygen levels than other, cooler portions of the river. The authors speculate that winterkills may be associated with periodic man-made or natural disruptions to thermal refuges and subsequent drops in dissolved oxygen levels. Jones and Reynolds (1999) compared the parental care and hatching success in subsequent brood cycles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps) reared in hypoxic and normal oxygen conditions. In low dissolved oxygen, males increased the amount of time and the tempo with which they fanned eggs in the nest. In addition, they spent less time engaged in nestbuilding activities. Males under low oxygen conditions lost more weight than those in normal oxygen conditions, and were more likely to abandon a second brood. Hatch weight and survival of offspring did not differ between those reared in hypoxic and normal oxygen conditions, although eggs hatched an average of one day earlier under normal oxygen conditions. 36

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Knights et al. (1995) used radiotelemetry to observe the winter habitat selection of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) under varying levels of dissolved oxygen, water temperature and current velocity. When DO concentrations were above 2 mg/L, both species selected areas with water temperatures greater than 1C (34ºF) with no detectable current. When DO dropped below 2 mg/L, fish moved to areas of higher DO despite lower temperatures and current velocities at or above 1 cm/s (0.03 ft/s). For these warmwater species, DO appears to be the dominant factor in the trade-off between temperature and dissolved oxygen. Matthews and Berg (1997) observed the habitat selection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a California stream whose temperatures frequently rises to lethal levels. Distribution in two stream pools (pools 1 and 2) was largely based on temperature and dissolved oxygen. Pool 1 was observed to have a bottom temperature of 21.5C (70.7ºF) and a top temperature of 28.9C (84.0ºF), while pool 2 had a bottom temperature of 17.5 to 21C (63.5º to 89.8ºF) and a surface temperature of 27.9C (82.2ºF). After August 5, when stream temperatures were dangerously high, no trout were found in pool 1. Pool 2, however, contained trout throughout the study period. Most trout were found in the region of the pool with the lower temperature where dissolved oxygen was lowest. For this coldwater species, temperature appears to be the dominant factor in the trade-off between temperature and dissolved oxygen. 4.2.4 Early Lifestages For salmonid species, whose earliest lifestages occur in gravel substrates, low dissolved oxygen in the intergravel spaces can delay development and hatching, and increase the mortality of embryos. Although the early lifestages of salmonids do not have a greater need for dissolved oxygen than other lifestages, intergravel dissolved oxygen levels are typically lower than overpassing waters. Intergravel DO levels are dependent upon DO diffusion rates, rates of water convection, and rates of respiration of intergravel organisms. Studies and field observations indicate that DO levels in natural salmonid redds are approximately 3 mg/L lower than overpassing water (EPRI 1990). For non-salmonids, early lifestages tend to be more sensitive to the adverse affects of low DO than other lifestages. In the range of 3 to 6 mg/L, several investigations show a reduction in survival and significant damage to early lifestages. Susceptibility to low levels of DO among non-salmonids is species-specific. Largemouth bass, black crappie, white bass and white sucker appear to be more tolerant of low DO levels than channel catfish, walleye, northern pike and smallmouth bass. 4.2.5 Fisheries Diversity Previous studies have looked at the abundance of fish and their relative health in relation to dissolved oxygen levels. There is some indication that lower levels of dissolved oxygen may negatively influence the diversity of fish communities. These types of studies are limited,

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however, in their ability to quantify the long-term effects of exposure to low levels of DO on fish communities (EPRI 1990). 4.2.6 Susceptibility to Disease Fish show an increased susceptibility to disease when exposed to low levels of dissolved oxygen. Caldwell and Hinshaw (1995) observed significant variation in mortality rates of rainbow trout associated with different levels of dissolved oxygen when fish were exposed to the bacteria Yersinia ruckeri. Interestingly, increased mortality was observed in both hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions relative to normal oxygen conditions. 4.2.7 Trophic Interactions Provided that there is a species-specific response of organisms to low levels of DO, there could be possible disruptions to organism interactions when exposed to non-lethal but reduced levels of DO. Breitburg et al. (1997) showed that low dissolved oxygen affects predation rates in a “zooplankton – fish larvae – larval predator food web”. For example, low non-lethal levels of dissolved oxygen greatly increased predation of larval fish by sea nettles. Changes in species interactions varied according to each species physiological tolerance for low dissolved oxygen levels and the subsequent effects of low DO on escape behavior, swimming response, and feeding behavior. Low DO may greatly affect the relative importance of differing energy pathways. Although this research was conducted to evaluate low DO in an estuarine environment, it is possible that a similar disruption in trophic interactions may occur in riverine or lacustrine environments. 4.2.8 Non-Fish Species Response to Low Dissolved Oxygen As shown in the example above, DO levels affect all aquatic organisms, not just fish. Dinsmore and Prepas (1997a and b) describe the changes in Chironomus spp. abundance and biomass and the changes in macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity following hypolimnetic oxygenation in a eutrophic lake. Hypolimnetic oxygenation occurred in the northern basin of Amisk Lake from 1988 to 1981. During that time, mean summer DO levels in the deep hypolimnion (25 m [82 ft]) rose from a pre-treatment level of 0.0 mg/L to 2.7 mg/L. Profundal (15 to 25 m [49 to 82 ft]) Chironomus spp. abundance increased from <100 to >2000 per m3. Unlike previous studies, measures of diversity (Shannon-Weaver indices) decreased with increased oxygenation. Similar, but less pronounced, patterns of density and abundance occurred in the south basin undergoing smaller increases in DO levels. A nearby reference lake showed no change in macroinvertibrate communities during the same study period. Response to oxygenation among several macroinvertebrates was species-specific with some species increasing in abundance and density while other species declined. Nie et al. (1999) observed tadpole habitat selection during the warmer months at two ponds. One pond, exposed and shallow, was wind mixed and experienced complete water column turnover. A second pond, protected and deeper, experienced incomplete water turnover. It was found that DO in the second pond fell below critical levels at depths of less than 2 m (6.6 ft). When this

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occurred, the tadpoles favored depths near 2 m (6.6 ft), reversing their winter tendency to move towards shore and shallower water.

4.3 Summary of Reservoir Characteristics at Lake Milton
Table 8: Summary of Lake Milton Reservoir Characteristics
Lake Characteristics Retention Time (Days) Approximate Depth (ft) at Summer Pool at Dam Aug/Jul Thermal Stratification Dam Intake Location Modification of Flows Upstream Resevoir Type of Reservoir Upst Mean Flow (cfs) Drainage Area (sq mi) Source of Inflow Lake Milton 42.1 40 Minimal Bottom Yes Yes Transitional 287.1 273 Approx 91% from Berlin and 9% other drainage and tributaries Shallow and Fast Classification Transitional Run of River Run of River N/A Transitional N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Type of Tailwater

N/A

4.4 General Existing Water Quality Data at the Project Site
Existing Water Quality Data for this segment of the Mahoning River is shown in Table 9.

Table 9:

Water Quality Data from EPA Sampling For Mahoning River Upstream and Downstream of Proposed Project (OEPA, 2008) Drainage Current AttainArea (sq. Aquatic ment Location miles) Life Use Status IBI MIWB QHEI ICI Mahoning River UST of Lake Milton (RM 70.7) 248 WWH Partial 28-30 8.41-9 78.5 30
Mahoning River DST of Lake Milton (RM 62.7) 274 WWH Partial 26-34 8.14-9.18 80.5 34

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4.5 Pre-Hydro DO levels Below Dam
The data indicates that dam tailwaters below Lake Milton are well above the state average (Figure 20 and Figure 21). Beginning with the initial splashing and spraying from the outlet pipe and continuing with the shallow fast moving tailwaters there is ample opportunity for re-aeration of discharge flows for several miles below the dam. Within the stilling basin, the area labeled “Gates 1 & 2” yielded the highest DO levels since gate 2 was the only gate in operation during the study, while the areas labeled “gate 3” and “gate 4” showed lower levels due to stagnant waters. Sample sites down stream of the stilling basin were consistently high throughout for several miles (Figure 22).

DO (mg/L) Level Below Lake Milton Dam
10

9

8 All HET Samples in Varying Locations Below Dam HET Median Value

7

6
DO (mg/L)

5

EPA 2006 Samples

4

3

2

1

0 7 8 9 Month 10 11

Figure 20

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DO (%) Levels Below Dam
120

100

All HET Samples in varying Locations below the Dam HET Median Values

80

DO (%)

60

EPA 2006 Samples

40

20

0 7 8 9 Month 10 11

Figure 21

CR @ Gas Line 7.54 mg/L 88.4% sat 23.3 C

WWTP Outfall 8 mg/L 93.9 % sat 23.6 C Stilling Basin 8 mg/L 94.4 % sat 23.7 C

Pricetown @ Northbridge 8.1 mg/L 94.1% sat 22.8 C

Figure 22 – Water Quality measurements taken on September 6, 2010

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4.6 Pre-Hydro Temperature Data Below Dam
Approximately 91% of the Inflow at Lake Milton is from the Berlin Lake Dam, a 70 foot deep reservoir operated by the USACE located about 8 miles upstream of the proposed project (Figure 23). Berlin’s intake is at the bottom of the dam releasing the cooler water settling at the bottom during the summer (Figure 24). This cool water flowing in from Berlin is warmed in Lake Milton as evidenced by the warmer mean outflows below the Lake Milton Dam (Figure 25). In general 2010 temperature samples obtained by HET during the study as well as the data obtained from the USGS gage were warmer than average temperatures below the dam during August and closer to the mean in September and October (Figure 27 & Figure 28).

Project Location

Figure 23

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Berlin Thermal Stratification
0

10

20

30 Apr
Depth (ft)

May 40 Jun Jul Aug 50

60

Approx. Intake El. At Berlin Dam

70

80 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0 15.0 17.0 Temp (C) 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0

Figure 24 – Mean Thermal Stratification Patterns at Berlin Dam 1969 to 2009 (reservoir 8 mi upstream 70 ft deep with low level intake). Data was obtained from the USACE in 2009.
Mean Temperature Data from USGS gages
25

20

15
Temp (C)

Milton Outflow Temp Inflow from Berlin 10

5

0 jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec

Figure 25 – Mean Temperature Data from USGS gages upstream and downstream of the proposed project (1992-2010 for Lake Milton outflow and 1969-2009 for Berlin outflows).

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Temperature Data .3 miles Downstream of Lake Milton Dam at USGS gage
30

25

20

Temp (C)

15

Mean Max Min

10

5

0 jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec

Figure 26 - Monthly Mean, Maximum and Minimum Value .3 miles downstream from project at USGS gage (1992-2010).

USGS Temp Data Below Dam During HET Study
30

25

20

Temp (C)

15

10

5

0
8/ 9/ 8/ 201 11 0 / 8/ 201 13 0 / 8/ 201 15 0 / 8/ 201 17 0 / 8/ 201 19 0 / 8/ 201 21 0 / 8/ 201 23 0 / 8/ 201 25 0 / 8/ 201 27 0 / 8/ 201 29 0 / 8/ 201 31 0 /2 9/ 010 2/ 2 9/ 010 4/ 2 9/ 010 6/ 2 9/ 010 8/ 9/ 201 10 0 / 9/ 201 12 0 / 9/ 201 14 0 / 9/ 201 16 0 / 9/ 201 18 0 / 9/ 201 20 0 / 9/ 201 22 0 / 9/ 201 24 0 / 9/ 201 26 0 / 9/ 201 28 0 / 9/ 201 30 0 / 10 201 /2 0 /2 10 01 /4 0 / 10 201 /6 0 /2 01 0

Figure 27 – USGS Temperature Data .3 miles downstream of proposed project during study

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Temperature Data (C) below Lake Milton Dam
30

25

20
Temperature (CO

All HET Samples at varying locations below dam

15

HET median Values 10

5

0 7 8 9 Month 10 11

Figure 28 – Temperature Data obtained from the 2010 HET study directly below the dam

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4.7 Pre-Hydro DO & Temperature Levels in Lake Upstream of Dam
The data shows that Lake Milton behaves like a run-of-river reservoir in terms of thermal stratification patterns (Figure 29). During the study period (August to October) stratification was greatest in on August 30th, 2010, and by October 6, 2010 the lake was completely unstratified and mixing was complete. The lake will likely remain uniform top to bottom until the weather begins to warm in the spring.

Lake Temperature Upstream of Dam
0

5

10

15

20
Depth

25

16-Aug 30-Aug 18-Sep 6-Oct

El. of Intakes 1 & 2

30

35

El. of Intakes 3 & 4
40

45 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 Temp (C) 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0

Figure 29 – Temperature Profile of Lake Milton at the Dam Intake (note complete mixing and lack of thermal stratification by Oct 6 th)

In general dissolved oxygen levels at the dam intake mirrored temperature patterns showing the greatest top to bottom disparity in August and mostly uniform levels top to bottom were reached by October 6th (Figure 30 and Figure 31).

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Lake DO levels
0

5

10

15
Sample Depth (ft)

20

25

Aug-16 30-Aug 18-Sep 6-Oct

El. of Intakes 1 & 2

30

35

El. of Intakes 3 & 4
40

45 0 2 4 6 DO (mg/L) 8 10 12

Figure 30

DO (%) Upstreeam of Lake Milton Dam
0

5

10

15

Depth (ft)

20

25

16-Aug 30-Aug 18-Sep 6-Oct

El. of Intakes 1 & 2

30

35

El. of Intakes 3 & 4
40

45 0 20 40 60 DO (%) 80 100 120 140

Figure 31

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4.8 Discussion of Potential Mitigation Measures to Improve DO Levels Below Dam
4.8.1 Bypass Flows
Bypass flows involve discharging flows through one of the existing non-hydro gates. Changes in the timing and duration of flow releases, as well as spilling or sluicing water, increasing mixing flows can all be used to boost DO levels (Peterson et al. 2001). Benefits Bypass flows are the existing condition as well as the least invasive mitigation for low DO levels. No additional structures, machinery or pipelines are required. Bypass flows can be increased incrementally until either the minimum standards are reached or 100% of the flow is being bypassed. Cost Any flow that is bypassed is flow that is not converted in to renewable energy. The over use of bypass flows can threaten project feasibility and financial sustainability.

4.8.2 Selective Withdrawal
Selective withdrawal is a method of improving water quality both downstream and upstream of a dam. DO concentrations downstream of a reservoir are improved by withdrawing water at an elevation above the thermocline. DO concentrations in a stratified reservoir can be increased by discharging water from the hypolimnion layer, however, this approach will decrease DO downstream. The feasibility of incorporating a selective withdrawal system to enhance DO levels depends on many factors, including the configuration of the discharge structure, reservoir stratification cycle, energy budget, reservoir water quality distribution and characteristics, economics of modifications, and competing objectives (EPRI 1990). The Lake Milton Dam already has the infrastructure in place to use selective withdrawal techniques. Using the existing vertical wet well that extends throughout the depth of the reservoir, water may be drawn from different elevations by actuating a series of gates or raising or lowering a bulkhead (Figure 32). There is some trade off with selective withdrawal including:  Improving water quality downstream may decrease water quality in the reservoir and vice-a-versa.  Drawing water from above the thermocline will increase DO levels downstream but would also increase temperature levels downstream where as drawing from the hypolimnion will decrease DO downstream but would lower water temperatures downstream.

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Figure 32

5 CONCLUSIONS & PROPOSED STANDARDS
The pre-hydro DO levels below the Lake Milton Dam are well above the state average. This is most likely due to the re-aeration that currently occurs in the tailwaters beginning with the discharge splashing and spraying out of the outlet pipes and continuing with the shallow fast moving conditions of the river extending for several miles. Based on the results of this study HET proposes the following standards and operating procedures August to October:

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1. Minimum Acceptable DO Levels & Temperature Range to be Maintained During Hydro Operation

Table 10:

Proposed Minimum DO Levels to be Maintained During Hydro Operation

August September October

Pre-Hydro Sample Range (Includes HET, EPA & USGS Data) mg/L % Sat Temp © 3.19 - 7.48 37.8 - 89.2 19.7-26 6.23 - 8.31 71.5 - 92.7 15.8-29.2 6.56 - 8.82 67.3 - 90.5 10.2-22.5

Proposed Min Acceptable Levels During Hydro mg/L % Sat Temp © 6 70 19.7-26 6 70 15.8-29.2 6 70 10.2-22.5

State Average mg/L 5 5 5

State Min State Max Level Level mg/L % Sat 4 110 4 110 4 110

2. Proposed Mitigation for Lowered DO levels or Out of Range Water Temperature During Hydro Operation - If levels drop below the proposed standards, HET will use bypass flows until DO levels reach 6 mg/L and 70% saturation and temperature is within the pre-hydro range. HET proposes to use the selective withdrawal method as a secondary mitigation option if hydro operation is significantly reduced from August to October (more than 40% of the total flow is being bypassed). If no combination of bypass flows and selective withdrawal methods are able to maintain the pre-hydro standards, hydro operation will be shut down and 100% of flows will be bypassed (existing condition), until the proposed standards can be met. 3. DO Monitoring During Hydro Operation – HET will provide continuous, monitoring of DO levels below the dam during hydro operation from August to October for the first 3 years of operation. HET will use the YSI Pro ODO and post the real time data (mg/L and % sat) on the internet. The website address will be provided to all interested parties. Temperature and flow will continue to be monitored by the USGS gage .3 miles down stream and the data can be access through the USGS website. 4. Proposed Winter Hydro Operations - According to the ERPI report (1990) reservoirs that lack thermal stratification in the winter (such as Lake Milton) allow mixing of the water from all elevations. Therefore elevation of the intake is not a critical factor in the winter in terms of DO and temperature at Lake Milton. So the current practice of switching to the lower gates in the winter is not consequential in terms of temperature and dissolved oxygen above or below the dam. According to the EPRI report (1990) this practice makes sense for some storage reservoirs several hundred feet deep which typically use mid level intakes and where extreme stratification occurs in the late summer and fall (temperature range of approximately 20 degrees Celsius or more). Lake Milton does not meet any of these criteria. It is shallow (approximately 40 ft in the summer and 32 feet in the winter when the gate switch occurs), all intakes are toward the bottom, it has a short retention time of approximately 42 days while storage reservoirs have retention times of 200 days or greater, and there is minimal

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stratification in the late summer (difference of less than 6 degrees Celsius compared to the 20 degrees or more that typify storage reservoirs). According to the results of this study HET submits that operating the hydro turbine from gate two during the winter will not alter DO or temperature levels in the lake or downstream during the winter and should be authorized. HET is willing to test the DO and temperature levels at the dam intake at varying depth intervals each fall to confirm full mixing has occurred top to bottom prior to operating the turbine during the winter. If full mixing has occurred (as determined by uniform DO and temperature levels top to bottom) HET proposes that full turbine operation is authorized for the winter from gate 2. If full mixing has not occurred prior to switching to the lower gates, HET will not operate the turbine until either full mixing occurs and is documented or until HET can provide other sufficient documentation that there will be no negative impacts to water quality by operating the turbine from gate 2 during the winter. Other general conclusions reached based on the results of this study include the following:  Lake Milton behaves like a Run of River Reservoir in terms of thermal stratification during the late summer. Minimal stratification occurred in the late summer during this study with a maximum temperature disparity of about a 6 degree Celsius from surface to bottom. Although the turbine will release water more gently and provide less initial reaeration, the shallow fast moving tailwaters below the Lake Milton dam provide ample opportunity for re-aeration of discharge flows for several miles. So although there may be some temporary decrease in DO levels within the stilling basin during hydro operation compared the pre-hydro condition, it is anticipated that levels remain within the pre-hydro range (min 6 mg/L or 70% saturation) and will continue to re-aerate as flows travel down stream.

The methodologies used in this study are based on recommendations from the EPRI (1990) report and are more than adequate for determining the pre-hydro DO levels. The proposed standards to be maintained during hydro operation are well above the state average and consistent with the data obtained during this study.

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6 REFERENCES
Aku, P. M. K., L. G. Rudstam and W. M. Tonn. 1997. Impact of hypolimnetic Oxygenation on the vertical distribution of cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Amisk Lake, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 2182-2195. Bodensteine, L. R. and W. M. Lewis. 1992. Role of Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, and Backwaters in the Winter Survival of Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) in the Mississippi River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 173-184. Bowie, G. L. et al. 1985. Rates, Constants, and Kinetics Formulations in Surface Water Quality Modeling (2nd Edition). EPA/600/3-85/040, Tetra Tech, Inc. for Environmental Research Lab, Athens, GA. Breitburg, D. L., T. Loher, C. A. Pacey and A. Gerstein. 1997. Varying Effects of Low Dissolved Oxygen on Trophic Interactions in an Estuarine Food Web. Ecological Monographs 67(4): 489-507. Caldwell, C. A. and J. M. Hinshaw. 1995. Communications: Tolerance of Rainbow Trout to Dissolved Oxygen Supplementation and a Yersinia ruckeri Challenge. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 7: 168-171. Dinsmore, W. P. and E. E. Prepas. 1997a. Impact of Hypolimnetic Oxygenation on Profundal Macroinvertebrates in a Eutrophic Lake in Central Alberta. I. Changes in Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Diversity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 2157-2169. Dinsmore, W. P. and E. E. Prepas. 1997b. Impact of Hypolimnetic Oxygenation on Profundal Macroinvertebrates in a Eutrophic Lake in Central Alberta. II. Changes in Chironomus spp. Abundance and Biomass. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 2170-2181. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). 1990. Assessment and Guide for Meeting Dissolved Oxygen Water Quality Standards for Hydroelectric Plant Discharges. GS-7001 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). 2002. Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report. Palo Alto, CA: 2002 1005194. Ellis, C. R. and H. G. Stefan. 1989. Oxygen Demand in Ice-Covered Lakes as it Pertains to Winter Aeration. Water Resources Bulletin 25(6): 1169-1176.

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Fast, A. 1994. Preventing Winterkill in Lakes and Ponds. Reviews in Fisheries Science 2(1): 23-77. Fang, X. and H. G. Stefan. 1993. Model Simulations of Dissolved Oxygen Characteristics in Minnesota Lakes: Past and Future. Environmental Management 18(1): 73-92. Jones, J. C. and J. D. Reynolds. 1999. Costs of Egg Ventilation for Male Common Gobies Breeding in Conditions of Low Dissolved Oxygen. Animal Behaviour 57: 181-188. Kennedy, R. H. and R. F. Gaugush. 1988. Assessment of Water Quality in Corps of Engineers Reservoirs. Lake and Reservoir Management 4(2): 253-260. Knights, B. C., L. B. Johnson and B. M. Sandheinrich. 1995. Responses of Bluegills and Black Crappies to Dissolved Oxygen, and Current in Backwater Lakes of the Upper Mississippi River during Winter. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 15: 390-399. Matthews, K. R. and N. H. Berg. 1997. Rainbow Trout Responses to Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Stress in Two Southern California Stream Pools. Journal of Fish Biology 50: 50-67. Mathias, J. A. and J. Barcia. 1985. Gas Supersaturation as a Cause of Early Spring Mortality of Stocked Trout. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42: 268-279. Makenthun, A. A. and H. G. Stefan. 1993. Experimental Analysis of Sedimentary Oxygen Demand in Lakes: Dependence on Near-Bottom Flow Velocities and Implications for Aerator Designs. University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory Project Report No. 344. Moss, D. D. and D. C. Scott. 1961. Dissolved Oxygen Requirements of Three Species of Fish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 90(4): 377-393. Nie, M., J. D. Crim and G. R. Ulrsch. 1999. Dissolved Oxygen, Temperature, and Habitat Selection by Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Tadpoles. Copeia 1999(1): 153-162. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA), (2008). Biological and Water Quality Study of the upper Mahoning River and Selected Tributaries 2006. OEPA Technical Report EAS/200810-8, Columbus, Oh. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA), (2008). Appendices to the Biological and Water Quality Study of the upper Mahoning River and Selected Tributaries 2006. OEPA Technical Report EAS/2008-10-8, Columbus, Oh. Patriarache, H. H. and J. W. Merna. 1970. A Resume of Winter Management of Midwestern Winterkill Lakes. In: Symposium on the Management of Midwestern Winterkill Lakes. pp. 7-18. E. Schneberger (Ed). Special Publication North Central Division, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

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Peterson, M. J., G. F. Čada and M. J. Sale. 2001. Non-Structural Approaches for Addressing Dissolved Oxygen Concerns at Hydropower Facilities. Waterpower 2000. HCI Publications. Petrosky, B. R., and J. J. Magnuson. 1973. Behavioral Responses of Northern Pike, Yellow Perch, and Bluegill to Oxygen Concentrations under Simulated Winterkill Conditions. Copeia 1:125-133. Piening, R. 1977. Potential Winterkill Lakes in Walworth, Kenosha, and Racine Counties, Wisconsin 1935-1975. Fish Management Report 92. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. Thene, J. R., J. G. Stefan and E. I. Daniil. 1989. Low-Head Hydropower Impacts on Stream Dissolved Oxygen. Water Resources Bulletin 25(6) 1189-1197. Wetzel, R. G. 1983. Limnology 2nd Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.

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APPENDIX A – Raw Study Data

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