Computer Networks

Lecture 1: Basics. Physical layer

´ Marcin Bienkowski
Institute of Computer Science University of Wrocław

Computer networks (II UWr)

Lecture 1

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Communication

Communication (1)

Communication = the process of sending data between sender and receiver

Computer networks (II UWr)

Lecture 1

2 / 19

Communication Communication (2) Depending on the number of participants broadcast unicast multicast Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 3 / 19 .

Communication Communication (3) Depending on the connection model client-server peer-to-peer Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 4 / 19 .

Communication Communication (4) Depending on the channel capabilities simplex half duplex full duplex Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 5 / 19 .

. post office) connection-oriented (e.Communication Communication (5) Is connection established? connectionless (e.g. phone) Acknowledgements? With (letter with advice of delivery. video conference) Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 6 / 19 . dictating over a phone) Without (normal unregistered letter..g.

g..Communication Communication (5) Is connection established? connectionless (e. video conference) Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 6 / 19 .. post office) connection-oriented (e. dictating over a phone) Without (normal unregistered letter.g. phone) Acknowledgements? With (letter with advice of delivery.

Communication Communication (6) Successful communication requires: communication channel (medium: e.g. cable) communication protocol: Protocol fixed (or negotiated for a single session) scheme defines data format and transition function necessity of open protocols (widespread protocols) Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 7 / 19 ..

g.Communication Communication (6) Successful communication requires: communication channel (medium: e. cable) communication protocol: Protocol fixed (or negotiated for a single session) scheme defines data format and transition function necessity of open protocols (widespread protocols) Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 7 / 19 ..

Protocols Protocols RFC documents: http://www.rfc-editor.org/ Produced mainly by IETF workgroups (Internet Engineering Task Force) Undergo formal process of standardization (Normal RFC document → Proposed Standard → Draft Standard → Internet Standard) Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 8 / 19 .

layer 3 protocol Layer 3 L3 ↔ L2 interface Layer 2 L2 ↔ L1 interface Layer 1 Layer 3 layer 2 protocol Layer 2 layer 1 protocol Layer 1 physical medium Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 9 / 19 .Protocols Layered approach Each protocol is based on something and enables something else (otherwise the protocol would have to encompass everything starting from description of single bit transmission).

Protocols Example of layer communication Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 10 / 19 .

) accepting data from layer 5. physical user-space protocols (FTP.) routing (IP. access to shared media (Ethernet.) can send and receive a bit Note 1: this model with layers 1 and 2 glued is called TCP/IP model Note 2: OSI model has two additional layers: session and presentation (between 4th and 5th) Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 11 / 19 .. dividing it into smaller segments. network 2. . SMTP. HTTP.. . assuring that these segments arrive. data link 1. ... ...Protocols Internet reference model 5.. transport 3. application 4. combining them back (TCP.) sending frames of data..

network 2..) sending frames of data. . access to shared media (Ethernet.. SMTP.) accepting data from layer 5. . application 4.. dividing it into smaller segments. HTTP... transport 3..) can send and receive a bit Note 1: this model with layers 1 and 2 glued is called TCP/IP model Note 2: OSI model has two additional layers: session and presentation (between 4th and 5th) Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 11 / 19 . data link 1. combining them back (TCP... .) routing (IP. . assuring that these segments arrive.Protocols Internet reference model 5. physical user-space protocols (FTP.

Protocols Logical connections: point-to-point or chained Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 12 / 19 .

Protocols Encapsulation Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 13 / 19 .

Physical layer Physical layer Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 14 / 19 .

Physical layer Network card (1) Network card vs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_card Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 15 / 19 . network interface Figure from http://en.

g. Mbit/s or Gbit/s). Note: 1 kbit = 1000 bits.. Fixed frequency of transmission → bandwidth (in kbit/s. 1 as 5V. Signal propagates on the medium (cable) and is received by another card Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 16 / 19 . e.Physical layer Network card (2) Send bits as electric signals. 1 Mbit = 1000 kbits. 0 as -5V.

phy.html Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 17 / 19 .Physical layer Cables: coaxial cable Cable up to 200m half duplex transmission Figure from http://www.davidson.edu/StuHome/phstewart/IL/speed/Cableinfo.

Physical layer Cables: optical fibre Rather used at higher bandwidths Invulnerable to electric and electromagnetic signals Could be very long Hard to tamper with → security Usually simplex transmission: sending and receiving diodes Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 18 / 19 .

5 .100 Mhz cat.Physical layer Cables: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) (1) Cheapest and most popular solution Different categories cat.250 Mhz Works up to 100m. 3 . 6 .16 Mhz cat. Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 19 / 19 . afterwards repeaters needed.

Physical layer Cables: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) (2) 8 wires inside Point-to-point: computer with computer or computer with network device In both cases. cables are the same but the permutation of wires in the connectors is different. straight-through cable crossover cable Full duplex possible Computer networks (II UWr) Lecture 1 20 / 19 .