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INTRODUCTION Background of the study

Self-esteem reflects a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. It encompasses beliefs and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame. It is indispensable to normal development of oneself.People with a healthy level of self-esteem do not lose time worrying excessively about what happened in the past, nor about what could happen in the future. They learn from the past and plan for the future, but live in the present intensely. They have a full trust in their capacity to solve problems, and do not hesitate after failures and difficulties. They consider themselves equal in dignity to others, rather than inferior or superior; while accepting differences in certain talents, personal prestige or financial standing.Not enough self-regard can lead people to become depressed, to fall short of their potential, or to tolerate abusive situations and relationships. Transparently, it is an important aspect in life which deserves attention.

Nathaniel Branden in 1969 defined self-esteem as "...the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness". According to him, selfesteem is the sum of self-confidence and self-respect. It exists as a consequence of the implicit judgment that every person does about, on one side, his/her ability to face life's challenges, that is, to understand and solve problems, and, on the other side, his right to achieve happiness, or, in other words, to respect and defend his own interests and needs.

Academic performance can be affected by several factors. It could be some emotional constraint, psychosocial status or the environment itself. From the late 1970s to the early 1990s many Americans assumed that students' self-esteem acted as a critical factor in the grades that they earn in school, in their relationships with their peers, and in their later success in life. Under this assumption, some American groups created programs which aimed to increase the

bad study habits and such. This can make them feel bad about themselves and hurt their self-esteem. >>>>These days.self-esteem of students. People need to establish and maintain self-esteem to overcome one s weaknesses. notions and impact from society. due to failure from winning against these. the feeling of personal capacity and the feeling of personal worth decrease resulting to a poor level of self-esteem. One may be frightened to speak. become shy and inactive in participation during class.Of course it is normal to have ups and downs in your feelings. competition is inevitable. Self-esteem is tends to decrease due to unacceptable demeanor. detaching themselves from the reality of life and lowering their own perception of worth. This affects the person s perception to the bright side of life and the performance on the daily activities. a person needsa healthy self-esteem to prevent change in the perception of worthiness to oneself. It could also keep them from socializing or affect their performances at school. The feeling of not being important can make a people sad and could keep them from trying new things. . Considering the contravening situations in life. classes at school can seem so hard that they can't keep up or get the grades they'd hoped for. Until the 1990s little peer-reviewed and controlled research took place on this topic. to win on a contest or against laziness. some may win but others may not. Alteration in the performance of daily activities in life happens most of the time. Each person may have different battle to win. Coming up into this study was influenced by the traits and self-esteem manifested by the students who had a constant failure from winning against contests they took. Perhaps. but having low self-esteem isn't good. For some.

What is the level of academic performance of the 3rd year nursing students in SSC? . What is the level of self-esteem of the 3rd year nursing students in SSC? 2.Since most people are unaware becoming educated with the effects of self-esteem to the academic performance of students in the class is valuable and has a contribution for survival and pursuing a career in life.This study reveals some of the knowledge on self. Specifically it sought to answer the following questions: 1. Statement of the Problem This study is aimed to find out the relationship of the level of self-esteem and the academic performance among the third year nursing students of Sulu State College.esteem s effectwith agreat hope that we will all be more enlightened and successful in maintaining the self-esteem within us.

This study is limited only to the thirty (30)3rd year Nursing students of Sulu State College as the respondents. Scope and Limitation To make the study feasible and manageable. having a direct effect to the dependent variable w/c is the academic performance. This study is applicable only to the thirty (30) 3rd year Nursing students of Sulu State College.3. The Self-esteem as the independent variable. . The dependent variable is the academic performance of the respondents. Hypothesis There is no significant relationship between the level of self-esteem and the academic performance of nursing students in Sulu State College. to sort out the relationship of both variables. which is the level of self-esteem. What is the relationship of the level of self-esteem and the academic performance of the 3rd year nursing students in Sulu State College? Conceptual framework This figure illustrates the conceptual framework of the study. The variables of the study were delimited to the independent variable. the researcher sets a limit on the scope of the study. It focuses on the effects of self-esteem to the academic performance of the respondents.

lf respect. This term refers to the level of respondents sense of self-worth or value Academic performance.Significance of the Study The purpose of this study is to review the effects and the relationship of self-esteem and the academic performance. This term refers to the grade and performance of the respondents at school Nursing Students. This study will increase the level of awareness of students about self-esteem and how it affects our performance and well-being. This term refers to all student nurses regardless of age. Specifically. The findings of this study are most significant to numerous people for it will further enhance the knowledge of concerned individuals. Other Individuals. It will serve as a supplemental reference to them. Researchers. Definition of terms Level of self-esteem.self . this study will give benefits to the following: Nursing students. It will be beneficial to them as to increase knowledge on the actual findings and values of the effects of self-esteem. studentsand researchers on the effect of self-esteem.self satisfaction . sex and civil status who is still learning at Sulu state college Sulu State college .

especially socially and academically when it comes to college students.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter provides an exploration of related literature and studies concerning with the numerous ideas. RELATED LITERATURE Self-esteem is how people feel about themselves and how much they like themselves. Wiggins (1987) found significant correlation between earned grades and self-esteem scores. Research supports the idea that increased self-esteem will improve academic achievement. Through the many pressures and daunting responsibilities of being a student. The beginning of the study of self-esteem is traced back to the Hindu scriptures. Cooley (1902) contributed the theory of the "looking glass self. or how well a student meets standards set out by local government and the institution itself. As determined by the researchers. which may be more or less than reality. self-esteem and academic achievement were positively correlated (Wiggins. Snygg and Combs (1949) argue that the world is what one perceives it to be. concepts and studies that would aid in the arrangement of viewpoints of the research hypothesis and serves as a support for proven and identified hypotheses. and became an official discipline with James in 1860. We know that there will be significant gains in academic performance with increased selfesteem. They found that students who gained fifteen or more points on a self-esteem inventory during the first year of the study raised their grade point averages substantially the second year. Shatz. In a previous study. Students base their opinions of themselves on the opinions of others. success is measured by academic performance.In educational institutions. ." which states that people see themselves through the eyes of others. one learns and understands the importance of having a high self-esteem in college. and West 1994). This supports the theory that gains in selfesteem and gains in academic achievement are positively correlated.

In an early study. Buckley and Scanlan) all found that a person s self-concept had a direct bearing on his/her academic achievement. and Lockett and Harrell (2003) found a positive correlation between self-esteem and academic success. would also hold true). Woodard and Suddick (1992) examined adult college students over the age of 25 and self-esteem. Lecky saw that students with high self-esteem tended to have high academic achievement. Today we may say that this point is obvious. He indicated that there could be a positive affect on one variable with a positive affect on the other variable (the opposite. thousands of studies have been conducted on this topic. the study of the interactions between self-esteem and academic achievement is relatively new to the academic world. and Pengilly (1997). Hamachek (1995) found that there is a relationship between self-concept and academic ability. These same students did not feel inferior when paired with students with the same academic abilities. negative affect. In other studies Chandler. Results showed a positive correlation between self-esteem and grade point average. In other words. 1965). Previous studies have already determined a relationship between self-esteem and the academic performance. He concludes that it is vital for educators to be sensitive to student s selfconcept and student s perceived academic ability. as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg. Reeder. this was an insight that rocked the academic world. if self-esteem were lowered. but in Lecky s time. Prescott Lecky (1945) was one of the first to point out that student s level of achievement might be related to the perceptions students have of themselves as learners. Since then. Schooler and Schoenbach 1989) Walsh (1956) found that students who had low ability felt inferior when paired with high ability students. with most finding a significant correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The relationship between self-esteem and school performance is primarily attributable to the effect of school performance on self-esteem (Rosenberg. Lee. He argues that this relationship is very interactive. students with low self-esteem tended to have low academic achievement. with each variable affecting the other. The first wave of self-esteem studies in the 1950 s (Benjamins.While the study of self-esteem has occurred for centuries. one .

a gap between successful achievement/high view of self and unsuccessful achievement/low view of self was created. He found that successful academic achievement interacted with self-esteem. . Adams and Corville-Smith (2002) when they found that once family factors are considered the relationship between self-esteem and achievement disappears. Available research has not replicated nor consistently refuted the existence of a causal relationship. El-Anzi's study continues to find the causality between self-esteem and achievement to be elusive. Fairclough (2005) offers a view that casts serious doubt on the existence of relationship as she found that when examining the relationship between self-esteem and achievement that the relationship was non-existent. students who had low academic achievement also had low self-esteem. and academic responsibility over time. self-concept. and self-concept as a learner decreasing over time. However. found that there was a mild correlation between self-esteem and achievement and when other variables are considered. self-concept. in contrast to the aforementioned. Ryan. El-Anzi (2005) found that there was a significant positive relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement. For example. He found that unsuccessful academic achievement interacted with self-esteem. one would see a drop in self-esteem. Consistent with the above. Kifer (1973) found similar results. ability and background were more apt to explain differences in achievement than self-esteem. achievement responsibility. This finding supports the theory that consistent success or failure has an effect on self-esteem and self-concept as a learner. Dorle and Sandidge (2006). One perspective on the relationship between self-esteem and achievement has offered that self-esteem influences achievement (Alpay. and if academic achievement were lowered. As time went by. This is consistent with Midgett. achievement responsibility. and self-concept as a learner increasing over time.would see a drop in academic achievement. Rubin. Students who had high academic achievement also had a high selfesteem. 2002). and academic responsibility over time. however this causal relationship has not been consistently substantiated and the association appears at best relational.

but points out that it may have an effect in three ways. constant failure and the accompanying feelings of incompetence tend to be discouraging and demoralizing. and depression can inhibit performance.the relationship between self-esteem and school performance is primarily attributable to the effect of school performance on self-esteem. have not shown a positive relationship between self-esteem and academic success (Baumeister. this research has not given adequate attention to the reciprocal effects of the self-concept and various social and personal factors. Thomas. Second. Past research has treated self-esteem either as a social force or as a social product.Studies of the relationship between self-esteem and academic success have produced conflicting results. While most research supports the theory of an interaction between academic achievement and self-esteem. They find that low self-esteem fosters delinquency and that delinquency may . Finally. If a student does not feel worthwhile. whereas those with greater self-esteem and self-confidence may be more willing to take up the challenge. 1996). Holly (1987) disagrees with the idea that self-esteem has a direct impact on academic achievement. Campbell. Relationship RELATED STUDIES According to the past research conducted by Morris Rosenberg. poor school performance. A panel of 1886 adolescent boys is used to explore the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and three problems of youth: juvenile delinquency. However. Krueger. First. entitled Self-Esteem and Adolescent Problems: Modeling Reciprocal Effects . it does not make much sense to even try. The risk-takers are more likely to score better because they are more likely to guess at questions for which they do not know the answers. they will not feel like doing their best. Cantrell. Other studies. feeling worthless can lead to depression. fear of failure can lead students to hold back. 2001. For students who are convinced that they lack the ability to succeed. & Vohs. Carmi Schooler and Carrie Schoenbach. 2003. there are a few researchers who disagree. however. and psychological depression.

and relationship between global self-esteem and specific self-esteem. Other findings indicate that the degree to which specific academic self-esteem affects global self-esteem. specific (academic) self-esteem is a much better predictor of school performance. is a function of how highly academic performance is personally valued. and policy implications of these findings are discussed.In this paper. . Carmi Schooler. Different Outcomes. particularly the positive component of global self-esteem. Finally. Carrie Schoenbach and Florence Rosenberg. They use linear structural equation causal modelling to test this hypothesis for the case of global self-esteem (Rosenberg 1979) and specific (academic) self-esteem. and specific self-esteem being more relevant to behavior.enhance self-esteem. stated that specific (academic) self-esteem is a much better predictor of school performance. Substantive. methodological. Their findings show that. the researchers attempt to shed light on the nature of. global self-esteem being more relevant to psychological well-being. A research study entitled as Global Self-Esteem and Specific Self-Esteem: Different Concepts. the causal relationship between self-esteem and depression is bidirectional. They marshal evidence that the two types of self-esteem may have strikingly different consequences. These reciprocal effects differ among socioeconomic status groups. which was developed by Morris Rosenberg. relevance of. The relationship between self-esteem and school performance is primarily attributable to the effect of school performance on self-esteem. while global self-esteem is more strongly related to measures of psychological well-being.

RESPONDENTS . and the significant relationship of the level of self-esteem and the academic performance of the 3rd year nursing students of Sulu State College. A minimum of 30 third year nursing students regardless of male or female will be purposively chosen for this study. the extent of academic performance of the 3rd year nursing students of Sulu State College.CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the following subtopics namely research design. SAMPLING PROCEDURE The subjects of the study are the 3rd year nursing students enrolled in the second semester of school year 2010-2011. A purposive sampling procedure will be adapted in this study. It will describe the following concepts: the level of self-esteem of the 3rd year nursing students of Sulu State College. sampling procedure. setting of the study. with an explanation of aims and objectives of the study. A total of 10 items of questionnaires will be distributed to the students in their respective classroom. reliability and validity. respondents. RESEARCH DESIGN This study will apply the descriptive-quantitative correlational method of research. data analysis and statistical tools. The respondents are the 3rd year nursing students enrolled in the second semester of school year 2010-2011. SETTING OF THE STUDY This study will be conducted in SULU STATE COLLEGE. research instrument.

second semester of school year 2010-2011 who are purposively chosen due to convenience. BRAY (2009) from the DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY of Missouri Western State University. THE INFLUENCE OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT ON A COLLEGE STUDENT`S SELF-ESTEEM . Disagree=2. DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTRUMENT The standardized self-esteem scale to be used will be the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. This instrument will be administered to the 3rd year nursing students of Sulu State College. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Standardized questionnaires on self-esteem scale will be used as instrument in the gathering of data for this study. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY The questionnaires of the level of self-esteem are standardized instrument which was used in the study of BRANDY M. Disagree=3. Since this is already standardized. This instrument will measure the level of self-esteem of the 3rd year nursing students of Sulu State College. Agree=2. sex and the civil status. Choices of each item for positive statements are Strongly Agree=4. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale consists of 10 questions using a 4-point likers scale and corresponding numerical value. and Strongly Disagree=1 and as for the choices in the negative statements the equivalents are Strongly Disagree=4. there will be no need for .The respondents are the thirty (30) 3rd year nursing students enrolled in the Sulu State College. This scale was previously used by BRANDY M. Agree=3. and Strongly Agree=1. regardless of the age. BRAY (2009) from the DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY of Missouri Western State University in his study entitled.

Table 1. Disagree=2. Agree=3.4 To get the overall mean of students level of self-esteem. Rating 4 3-3.2 shows the summary of scoring procedures used of students level of self-esteem.validation and to pilot test for reliability. Disagree.3 To get the mean score to be obtained under the column Strongly Agree. 1.5 Table number 1. and Strongly Disagree=1 for the positive statements and as for the choices in the negative statements the equivalent values are Strongly Disagree=4.The Rosenberg scale is a clearly established and reliable scale. and Strongly Disagree will be divided by 10 as the number of items. 1. Agree. 1. 1.9 Description Strongly Agree Agree Disagree .2 Each choice will be given a numerical value as follows: Strongly Agree=4. Disagree. both for the positive statements and negative statements. Disagree=3. DATA ANALYSIS The following procedure will be applied in scoring of the data to be gathered for this research: 1. Agree.9 2-2. Disagree. and Strongly Disagree.1 Rating scale for the students level of self-esteem. Agree. and Strongly Disagree will be divided by 4. such as are Strongly Agree. the mean scores in Strongly Agree. Agree=2 and Strongly Agree=1.1 The data on the level of the students self-esteem will be scored as follows: each of the 10 items in the Rosenberg self-esteem scale will be answered by four (4) choices.

4. 6.2 Items 1. 2. 3. 5.1-1. 7. 10.Mean: Mean . Mean: SA 4 1 4 4 1 1 4 1 1 4 A 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 D 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 SD 1 4 1 1 4 4 1 4 4 1 Gen. 9. 8.9 Strongly Disagree Table 1.