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Streptomycin is a kind of antibiotic drug, and gained renown for being the first antibiotic to be used against tuberculosis

. It belongs to a group of drugs known as aminoglycosides. Streptomycin is a very strong antibiotic and is used to treat severe illnesses.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. It is derived from the actinobacteriumStreptomyces griseus. Streptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic.[3] Streptomycin cannot be given orally, but must be administered by regular intramuscular injections. An adverse effect of this medicine is ototoxicity.Generic Drug:

streptomycin
Brand Name: Streptomycin Sulfate Generic Name: streptomycin sulfate General Action:Antibiotic, anti-tubercular,anti-infective

Specific Action
Inhibits CHON synthesis strains of gram negative bacteria, mechanisms of lethal action and fully understood, but functional integrity of cell membrane appears to be disrupted.

Indication

In infants and small children.. do not use the periphery of the upper outer quadrant of the gluteal region unless necessary (e. 3.g.2. medical condition.2. to minimize the risk of sciatic nerve damage. mL. Reconstitution Reconstitute vial containing 1 g streptomycin powder with 4. IM Administration Administer IM deeply into a large muscle mass (e.. . can take nine months or more. or 400 mg/The most common method of administering streptomycin is by intramuscular injection (IM) usually into one of the large muscle groups. Dosage is based on several factors including the type of infection being treated. and response to side effects. inject cautiously to avoid radial nerve injury. respectively. alternate IM injection sites. or 1. Do not administer IM injections into the lower or mid-third of the upper arm.Infections caused by susceptible strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis. In children. administer into the midlateral muscles of the thigh. Treatment time with this medication varies depending on the condition being treated. burn patients). Use deltoid area only if well developed in certain adults and older children.8 mL of sterile water for injection to provide a solution containing approximately 200. 250. gluteus maximus or mid-lateral thigh) after aspiration to avoid possible inadvertent intravascular injection. To minimize irritation. a regimen for tuberculosis for example. Serious infections caused by susceptible strains of Yersinia Pestis Dosage and Administration Administration Administer by IM injection or IV infusion‚. the patient's weight. Intrathecal administration not recommended.g. The levels of streptomycin already in the blood are also taken into consideration.

However. Use lowest possible dosage for shortest duration of therapy. However at low concentrations Streptomycin only inhibits growth of the bacteria by inducing prokaryotic ribosomes to misread mRNA. Base dosage on patient's pretreatment body weight and renal status. not usually recommended for other indications. .[5] Streptomycin is an antibiotic that inhibits both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. thereby allowing the selectivity of this antibiotic for bacteria. desirable peak streptomycin concentrations (30±60 minutes following IM injection or 15±30 minutes after completion of an IV infusion‚) during parenteral therapy are 5±35 mcg/mL and trough concentrations (just prior to the next dose) should not be >5±10 mcg/mL.[4] This leads to codon misreading. A casual relationship between maintenance of certain peak and trough serum concentrations and clinical response or toxicity is not established for streptomycin dosage regimens. interfering with the binding of formyl-methionyl-tRNA to the 30S subunit. It binds to the small 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome.Some clinicians recommend avoiding persistent concentrations >20 mcg/mL. eventual inhibition of protein synthesis and ultimately death of microbial cells through mechanisms that are still not understood.Dosage Available as streptomycin sulfate. some evidence suggests that an increased risk of toxicity may be associated with prolonged peak concentrations >40±50 mcg/mL. Do not exceed peak serum concentrations of 20±25 mcg/mL in patients with renal impairment. AHA and IDSA recommend adjusting dosage to achieve 1-hour peak serum concentrations of 20±35 mcg/mL and trough concentrations <10 mcg/mL. For the treatment of enterococcalendocarditis.[6] and is a therefore a useful broad-spectrum antibiotic. In general. Mechanism of action Streptomycin is a protein synthesis inhibitor. dosage expressed in terms of streptomycin. Do not use once-daily regimens for treatment of enterococcal or streptococcal endocarditis. Humans have structurally different ribosomes from bacteria. Once-daily administration of streptomycin is recommended for the treatment of active (clinical) TB and brucellosis.

The dosage of streptomycin depends on factors such as the weight of the patient. viruses. Enterobacteraerogenes. M. ‡ Gram-negative aerobes: Active in vitro and in clinical infections against Brucella. M. Enterococcus faecalis. and other physical conditions that the patient may have. Haemophilusducreyi. M. INDICATION: This antibiotic cannot be taken orally. ‡ Mycobacteria: Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. streptomycin is allowed to be introduced intravenously. streptomycin is not the first choice in tuberculosis treatment today anymore. and some strains of M. The area where it is injected is usually one of the large muscle groups. influenzae. ‡ Gram-positive aerobes: Active in vitro against Erysipelothrix. bovis. including some multidrug-resistant strains. marinum. kansasii. Klebsiellapneumoniae. genavense. In a few countries. however. Nocardia. M. Escherichia coli. and most anaerobic bacteria. and Streptococcus viridans. hence its use must be closely monitored by medical professionals. szulgai. H. and M. ‡ Resistant strains of Y. Klebsiellagranulomatis (formerly Calymmatobacteriumgranulomatis). ‡ Partial cross-resistance occurs between streptomycin and other aminoglycosides. Inactive against fungi. especially in areas where other . M. malmoense. the specific illness. avium complex (MAC) with intermediate or high-level in vitro resistance reported.SPECIFIC ACTION: Actions ‡ Usually bactericidal. ‡ Inhibits protein synthesis in susceptible bacteria by irreversibly binding to 30S ribosomal subunits. Since it is a strong antibiotic. While it was the first antibiotic to have been used to treat tuberculosis. Resistant strains of M. pestis reported. ‡ In vitro spectrum of activity includes many gram-negative aerobic bacteria. and Yersinia pestis. ulcerans. Pasteurellamultocida. M. Francisellatularensis. but is instead introduced to the body via intramuscular injections. avium complex (MAC). some mycobacteria. there are adverse side effects associated with it. and some aerobic gram-positive bacteria. Proteus. It is still used for this purpose.

Report hearing changes. the drug is the the treatment of choice. and tularemia. The drug is also used in large animals such as horses and cattle. or Yersinia pestis. There are potentially serious side effects which should be immediately reported to the doctor. and perhaps a loss of appetite. and often go away rather quickly. . This drug can only be given by injection. Other serious illnesses that are treated with streptomycin are bacterial meningitis. Nursing Responsibilities Use in route only: give by deep IM injection. however. Streptomycin is also used to treat plague. Ensure adequate hydration of patient before and during the therapy. though: rapid heartbeat. certain strains of pneumonia. SIDE EFFECTS: Common side effects of streptomycin are an upset stomach. vomiting. In this case. endocarditis. nausea.dizziness. rash. pain at injection site. bleeding or bruising. Monitor for hearing changes.options are too costly. chronic diarrhea. and fever. These are not serious side effects.