Medical Terminology

PREFIXES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a-, anir-, arab-, efad-, afambianaantebi-, bin-, di-, diplo-, co-

Meaning
w/o, lack of Not, no Away from To, toward, near Both, double, two Apart, up, back, again Before, in front of Two, twice, double Down, under, against Around, about, circle Together, w/, both (two) Against, opposite Away from, remove Across, complete, b/w, total, apart, thorough Apart or away from, reverse Out, to remove, protrude Out from, out On outer side, situate on In, w/in w/in Upon, on Upon, on, ouside, on outer side, outer layer, protrude outside Outside Excessive/over, above, more Under, below, deficient, low, less, lessor In, into, or not Below, under Between Within Into, w/in, in, into Beyond, after, change Beside, near, beyond Through, excessive, in Around After, behind Before, in front of Back, again, contrary

Examples
a/febrile; an/emia Ir/regular; ar/rhythmia (no/rhythm) Ab/normal; ef/ferent Ad/hes/ion (to/stick/process of) Af/ferent Ambi/dextr/ous (both/right/refers to) Ana/tom/y (cutting/apart/procedure of) Ante/cubit/al (in front of/elbow/refers) Bi/foc/al; bin/ocul/ar (two/eyes/refers) Diplo/coccus (double/berry); co/lateral (two/sides) Cata/bol/ Circum/duct/ion (around/draw/process of) Com/minuted (together/small) Co/lateral (both/sides) co/herent (together/stick) Contra/ception De/hydr/ate (remove/water/refers to) Dia/phragm (across/wall) Dia/gnosis (complete/knowledge) Dis/infect (away from/poison or infection) e/viscer/ate (take out/organ/refers to) Ec/top/ic (out/of place/refers to) Ecto/derm (outer/skin) En/cephal/on (in/head/refers to brain ) Endo/metri/um (within/uterus/refers to) Epi/derm/is (upon/skin/refers to) Exo/gen/ous (outside/originating/refers) Ex/ophthalm/ic (protrude/eye/refers to) Extra/cellu/ar Hyper/troph/y (over/growth/process of) Hypo/tens/ion Im/mature, in/cis/ion Infra/clavicul/ar Inter/cost/al Intra/cerebr/al Intro/vers/ion (inward/turning, process of) Meta/carp/al (beyond/wrist/refers to) Para/cardi/ac Per/meate (through/opening) Peri/oste/um (around/bone/refers to) Post/part/um Pre/maxill/ary (in front of/jaw/refers to) Pro/gnosis (before/knowledge) Re/flex (again, bend)

9. cata10. circum11. com-, con- co12. contra13. de14. dia15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. diseecectoem-, enendoepiex-, exoextrahyperhypoim-, ininfrainterintraintrometaparaperperipostpre-, pro-

37. re-

beneath Above. 66. 79. upper. beyond Beyond. arteri/oather/oarthr/omyc/omyel/omy/opyelopyopyr/oahypohyperdysanacostlaparoadenoorch/o-. metri/ohematoankylspondyllumbkyphlordscolioappendlithradiculoangihemangiembol- Artery Plaque or fatty substance Joint Fungus BM or SC Muscle Renal pelvis Pus Fever or fire Without Deficient Excessive Bad Excessive Ribs Abdomen Gland Testicle Ovary Uterus Blood Crooked. excessive Together. 69. 58. low. trans44. 76. with Across. through. 42.38. 54. 72. 48. 40. upon. 65. 59. 73. 68. ultra- 45. 52. excessive Above. 39. bent. 56. 67. 60. 62. upper. 61. 75. 47. 64. 70. injury or surgical procedure Spondylitis Lumbago = low back pain Kyphosis Lordosis Scoliosis Lithotomy radiculopathy angiitis hemangioma embolus . 46. 41. orchid/ooophor/ometr/o-. 71. 78. 53. 63. 49. 74. 77. 57. 51. syn- Backward. 55. behind Under. upon. in excess Retro/grade (backward/going) Sub/cutane/ous (under/skin/refers to) Super/i/or (above/one who) Supra/stern/al Sym/phy/sis (together/growing/state of) Syn/drome (together/run) Tran/sect/ion (across/cut/process of) Ultra/violet 43. or stiff Vertebrae Lumbar Hump Bent backwards Curve Appendix Stone Nerve root Vessel Blood vessel Something inserted endarterial Atheroma Arthralgia Mycosis myelopathy Myopathy Pyelitis Pyoderm Pyrosis (heartburn) Aplasia (lack of organ/tissue development) Hypoplasia Hyperplasia Dysplasia Anaplasia (change in structure of cells & their orientation to each other costals Laparoscopy Ankylosis = loss/absence of mobility in joint due to dx. retrosubsupersuprasym-. 50.

an ab. 15.80. -rrhagia rrhaphy rrhea rrhexis plasma ostomy otomy osis stasis ago pathy listhesis bifida desis lysis clasis Pathological Meaning Pain and suffering Pain Inflammation Ab. 33. 28. 13. 5. 9. 26. 30. 8. (X being ready to rupture & fly apart) Formative materials of cells Surgical creation of an opening Surgical incision Ab. 14. 81. 20. 12. 4. 31. 17. 27. 25. algia dynia itis malacia megaly necrosis sclerosis stenosis centesis ectomy graphy gram plasty scopy rrhage. 6. flow or discharge (refers to most body fluids) Rupture. 7. 11. condition Control Diseased condition Diseased Slipping Split Surgical fixation of a bone or joint Pathological state: breaking down or destruction Therapeutic state: loosening or setting free To break Examples Gastralgia gastrodynia Gastritis arteriomalacia Hepatomegaly arterionecrosis arteriosclerosis arteriostenosis Abdominocentesis appendectomy Arteriography Arterogram Myoplasty endoscopy Hemorrhage Myorrhaphy Diarrhea myorrhexis cytoplasm Double RRs Procedures Lumbago Spondylolisthesis Spina bifida arthrodesis arthorlysis osteoclasis . 10. 18. 16. 35. 32. softening Enlargement Tissue death Ab. narrowing Surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purpose or to remove excess fluid Surgical removal Process of recording a picture or record Record or picture Surgical repair Visual examination Bursting forth. SUFFIXES 1. 19. 29. 23. 24. excessive fluid discharge or bleeding To suture or stitch Ab. 22. 21. hardening Ab. 34. 2. 3.

2. 21. VOCAB 1. injury or surgical procedure ___ Slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage Bent Dislocation or displacement of a bone form its joint. 30. 26. 33. Bone & Joint Conditions infectious dx idiopathic d/o organic d/o functional d/o iatrogenic illness nosocomial infection ankylosis Types of dx Definition Illness caused by pathogenic organism Illness w/o known cause Pathological physical changes explain symptoms No detectable physical changes to explain symptoms Unfavorable response to medical tx Hospital-acquired infection that was not present on admission but appears 72 hrs or more after hospitalization Loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to dx. 20. 34. outward curvature of thoracic spine Ab. 14. valgus 10. seizure or spasm 8. 3. 17. 37. 29. lumbargo kyphosis lordosis scolosis prostrate suppuration ligation laceration lesion virile percutaneous prolapsed paroxysm .36. 15. 31. 32. 5. 4. 7. ankylosing spondylitis 12. lateral curvature of spine Collapse and be lying flat or to be overcome with exhaustion Formation of pus The act of binding or tying off BV or ducts Torn. 23. 22. 19. 27. 13. 18. 16. ragged wound Pathologic change of the tissue due to dx or injury Masculine trait Through skin Falling down Sudden convulsion. 24. forward curvature of lumbar spine Ab. subluxation is partial Form of RA characterized by progressive stiffening of the spoine caused by fusion of the vertebral bodies Low back pain Ab. chondroma 9. 6. 25. luxation 11. 28.

in elderly bursitis = inflamm. The Tissues of Bone y Periosteum = tough fibrous tissue. hemoglobin. Joints ankylosis = loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to dx. lined w/ endosteum & contains yellow bone marrow (fat cells & functions as fat storage area) B. degenerative joint dx (DJD) most commonly assoc. shift in joint creates P on other toes as great toe is forced laterally y luxation = aka dislocation or displacement of bone from its joint. forms outer layer y spongy bone = lighter & is commonly found in ends & inner portions of long bones. Sternum y sternum = breastbone. the symptoms are generalized and usually more severe. is the wide end of a long bone proximal epiphysis = end of the bone that is loc. is an autoimmune d/o. attached to cartilage that joins w/ sternum o last 2 pairs = floating ribs B. Ribs y costals = ribs. softening of cartilage hallux valgus = aka bunion. Ribs & Sternum A. forms the outermost covering of bone y compact bone = hard. enlargement of joint at base of great toe. of bursa that is typically caused by repetitive mvmts chondroma = slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells chondromalacia = ab. dense. other tissue s are also attacked causing joints to be/c swollen. synovial membranes are inflamed & thicken. painful & immobile o ankylosing spondylitis = form of RA characterized by progressive stiffening of spine caused by fusion of vertebral bodies . 12 pairs o first 7 pairs = true ribs o next 3 pairs = false. it is surrounded by compact bone.thrombocytes) is located w/in y medullary cavity = located in shaft of a long bone. megakaryocytes .The Skeletal System I. farthest away from the midline foramen = opening in bone thru which BV. injury or surgical procedure arthralgia = pain in joint arthrosclerosis = stiffness of joints. ab. w/ formation of uric acid crystals in joint as a result of hyperuricemia y Rheumatoid arthritis = aka RA. The Structures of Bones A. w/ aging y gouty arthritis = aka gout. strong. nerves & ligaments pass process = normal projection on surface of bone that serves as attachments for muscles & tendons II. subluxation is partial y synovitis = inflamm. Anatomical Landmarks of a Bone y y y y y y diaphysis = shaft of a long bone epiphysis = covered w/ cartilage. Arthritis y osteoarthritis = aka ware-and-tear arthritis or OA. divided into 3 parts: o manubrium = upper portion o body o xiphoid process III. in contrast to osteoarthritis. red bone marrow (RBC. esp. Pathology of the Skeletal System A. IN RA. nearest to the midline of the body distal epiphysis = end of the bone that is loc. WBC. of synovial membrane that results in swelling & pain y y y y y y y B. type of arthritis assoc.

fever. primarily responsible for 3 types of fractures: o vertebral crush fractures = aka compression fractures of the spine. unknown cause that is characterized by extensive bone destruction followed by ab. A sarcoma is malignant tumor of CT and in Ewing s sarcoma they usually occur in the diaphyses of long bones in arms & legs and then may spread rapidly to other body sites o myeloma = malignant tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic tissues of the BM. development of spinal curvature aka dowager s hump o Colles fracture = aka fractured wrist. bones be/c deformed & weakened periostitis = inflamm. infection. usually due to sports .o juvenile RA = affects children. rupture of intervertebral disk that results in P on spinal nerve roots y spondylitis = inflammation of vertebrae y spondylolisthesis = forward mvmt of body of one of the lower lumbar vertebra on vertebra below it or on the sacrum y spondylosis = any degenerative condition of the vertebrae y spinal bifida = congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy in which the spinal canal fails to close around SC. fracture of the lower end of the radius. Fractures (Fx) y greenstick or incomplete fracture = bone Is partially bent & only partially broken. lateral curvature of the spine D. loss of height. increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side o lordosis = ab. Myeloma is usually progressive. occurs when a person tries to break a fall by landing on his hands F. assoc. condition w/in a bone osteitis = is an inflamm. can be further described as tranverse or oblique fracture y open/compound fracture = bone is broken & there is open wound in skin y comminuted fracture = bone is splintered or crushed y compression fracture = bone is pressed together on itself y spiral fracture = bone has been twisted apart. Osteoporosis y osteoporosis = marked loss of bone density & increase in bone porosity freq. occurs as the result of a severe twisting motion as in sports injury y stress fracture = small crack in bones that often develop from chronic. or trauma Paget s dx = aka osteitis deformans. these tumors are growths on surface of bone that protrude as hard lumps covered w/ a cap of cartilage E. of bone osteomalacia = ab. many cases are caused by lack of folic acid y curvatures of the spine: o kyphosis = ab. congenital deformity in which the foot may be turned out ward or inward tumors of bones: o Ewing s sarcoma = aka Ewing s family of tumors. Spinal Column y herniated disk = aka ruptured disk. of the bone and bone marrow osteonecrosis = destruction and death of bone tissue caused by an insufficient blood supply. symptoms include pain & swelling in joints. may cause pathological fractures & is often fatal o osteochondroma = most common benign bone tumor. malignancy. this type of racture is usually longitudinal & occurs primarily in children y closed/simple/complete fracture = bone is broken but ther is no open wound in the skin. skin. increase in the forward curvature of the lower or lumbar spine o scoliosis = ab. occur when one or more of the vertebrae be/c so weak that they collapse spontaneously or under minimal stress pain. as the dx progresses. affects children or adolescents. group of cancers that most freq. Bone y y y y y y y y y y y exostosis = benign growth on the surface of a bone ostealgia = any pain linked to an ab. rash. of periosteum rickets = caused by calcium & vitamin D deficiencies in early childhood demineralized bones & related deformities Talipes = aka clubfoot. excessive impact. softening of bones due to dx osteomyelitis = inflamm. slowed growth & fatigue C. w/ aging. bone repair.

. controls the pain & inflamm. performed as diagnostic test to determine why blood cells are abnormal. BMT are autologous transpolant using some of the pt s own BM that was harvested before tx begain y allogenic transplants = if pt s own marrow cannot be used. Medications y nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) = administered to control pain and to reduce inflamm. y magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI) = used to image soft tissue strctures such as interior of complex joints and spinal d/os. Diagnostic Procedures of the Skeletal System y arthrocentesis = surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis y arthroscopy = visual examination of the internal structure of a joint y bone density testing (BDT) = aka bone mass measurement or densitometry. how ever med of this group may thin the blood & attack the stomach lining y acetaminophen = controls pain w/o the same side-effects as NSAIDs. if test indicates risk. uses sound waves to take measurements of heel bone. using BM form a donor. however it does nto have the ability to reduce inflamm. is a rich source of stem cells and has potential of being an alternative to BMT VI. tests are indicated for conditions such as osteoporosis. there is danger that recipeitn s body will reject transplant y cord blood = collect immed. howver unless this is a perfect match. allogenic transplant. these meds are named for the 2 cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes that are assoc.y fat embolus = may form when a long bone is fractured & fat cells from yellow BM are relased into the blood y crepitation = aka crepitus. osteomalacia & Paget s dx y bone marrow biopsy (BMB) = performed by inserting a sharp needle into the hipbone or sternum and removing BM cells. & swelling y antipyretic = ex. performed to repair a joint damaged by RA y arthrodesis = aka fusion or surgical ankylosis. not the most effective method of imaging hard tissue such as bones y radiographs = aka x-rays are used to visualize fracture bones V. both cancer & pt s BM are destroyed w/ high-intensity radiaton & chemotherapy o next healthy BM cells are transfused into the recipient s blood. & swelling. is the crackling sensation that is felt and heard when the ends of a broken bone move together y callus = when a bone heals it forms a bulding deposition around the area of the break tissue eventually be/c bone IV.s ch as removal of torn cartilage. Joints y arthroscopic surgery = tx of interior of joint. may be a possibility. are asprin & acetaminophen used to reduce & relieves fever y COX-2 inhibitors = newer class of med. more definitive testing is indicated. These cells migrate to the spongy bone where they grow into cancer-free red BM y autologous transplants = most freq. w/ the use of arthoscope and instruments inserted thru small incisions y bursectomy = surgical removal of bursa y chrondroplasty = surgical repair of cartilage y synovectomy = surgical removal of synovial membrane from a joint. w/ arthritic pain & inflammation B. use of several types of radiation tests to determine bone density. after birth. of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis whiel greatly reducing the side-effects of NSAIDs. Asprin is an example. surgical procedure to stiffen a joint or joint spinal vertebrae y arthrolysis = surgical loosening of a ankylosed joint y perosteotomy = an incision through the periosteum . also performed to find a donor match for BM transplant y bone scan = use of nuclear medicine to detect bone cancer and osteomyelitis before these pathologies be/c visible on traditional radiographs y dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) = low-exposure radiographic measurement that is most often used to detect early signs of osteoporosis y ultrasonic bone density test = aka bone sonometer. Bone Marrow Transplants y bone marrow transplants (BMT) = aka stem cell transplant is used to tx certain types of cancers such as leukemia & lymphomas that affect BM o in tx. Treatment Procedures of the Skeletal System A. this is a screening test for osteopsoris or other conditions cuasing a loss of bone mass.

dense. this may be performed w/ a diskectomy or laminectomy IX. Pathology of the Muscular System A. or fastening the bone in a fixed position w/ a strapping or cast y External Fixation = a fracture tx procedure in which pins are placed thru the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be sued to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing & is removed later y internal fixation = =aka open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Structures of the Muscular System y muscle fibers = long. each muscle consists of a group of fibers held together by CT and enclosed in fibrous sheath y fascia = sheet or band of fibrous CT that covers. Treatment of Fractures y manipulation = aka closed reduction. suturing. The affected bone is returned to its normal anatomic alignment by application of manually applied forces and then is usually immobilized to maintain the realigned position y traction = pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment y immobilization = aka stabilization is the act of holding. fibrous CT that attaches muscles to bone y aponeurosis = flat fibrous sheet of CT that is very similar to a tendon however it attaches a muscle to a bone or to other tissues II. Joint Replacement y y y y y arthroplasty = surgical repair of a damaged joint prosthesis = aka implant is a replacement part total knee replacement (TKR) = means all of the parts of the knee were replaced partial knee replacement (PKR) = only part of the knee was replaced total hip replacement (THR) = consist of 2 components: thigh component is a metal shaft fitted into the femur w/ a metal ball at the top end. of a fascia y tenalgia = pain in a tendon . Fascia & Tendons y fasciitis = inflamm.VII. is the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation. Spinal Column y diskectomy = surgical removal of an intervertebral disk y percutaneous diskectomy = in this. Bones y y y y y y y y craniectomy = surgical removal of a portion of the skull craniotomy = aka bone flap. a thin tube is inserted thru the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured disk or to vaporize it w/ a laser y laminectomy = surgical removal of lamina from a vertebra y spinal fusion = technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together tow or more vertebrae. supports & separates muscles y tendons = narrow band of nonelastic. in relation to fractures and dislocations. the ball fits into a plastic lined cup-shaped socket that replaces the acetabulum w/in the hipbone y revision surgery = replacement of a worn or failed implant VIII. surgical incision or opening into the skull that is performed to gain access to part of the brain cranioplasty = surgical repair of the skull osteoclasis = surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity ostectomy = surgical removal of bone osteoplasty = surgical repair of bones osteorrhaphy = suturing or wiring together of bones osteotomy = surgical incision or sectioning of a bone X. Fibers. fracture tx procedure in which pins or plate are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place. this form of fixation not usually removed after healing Muscular System I. slender cells .

chewing. may be caused by pathology or by disuse of the muscle over a long period of time y myalgia = muscle tenderness or pain y myolysis = degeneration of muscle tissue y myositis = inflamm. and at the rear of the knee & shoulder. mvmt o dystaxia = aka partial ataxia. esp. . These pts occur at predictable loc. means ab.y tendinitis = inflamm. of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint B. may form in muscles & internal organs as the result of injury or surgery y muscle atrophy = weakness & wasting away of muscle tissue. is difficulty in controlling vol. swallowing. progressionis slower w/ survival well into mid to late adulthood y fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) = chronic d/o of unknown cause characterized by widespread aching pain. in front of the hip and elbow. hardening of muscle tissue y Hernia = protrusion of a part of structure through the tissues normally containing it o myocele = protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia y muscle tone o atonic = lack of normal muscle tone o dystonia = condition of ab. contraction of a muscle(s) o spasmodic torticollis = aka wryneck is a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side y muscle function o bradykinesia = extreme slowness in mvmt o dyskinesia = distortion or impairment of vol. are impt diagnostic indicators of FMS. softening of muscle tissue y myorrhexis = rupture of a muscle y myosclerosis = ab. which affect only males. Muscles y adhesion = band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. Most common forms. progressive dx affecting skeletal muscles & is characterized by muscle weakness & atrophy y myomalacia= ab. violent. shortening of muscle tissues making the muscle resistant to stretching o intermitten claudication = complex of symptoms including cramplike pain of the leg muscles caused by poor circulation and may be an indication of a larger cardiovascular problem o spasam = aka cramp. muscle tone o hypertonia = condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles w/ increased resistance of muscle to passive stretching o hypotonia = condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles w/ decreased resistance of muscles to passive stretching o myotonia = delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction y voluntary muscle mvmt o ataxia = inability to coordinate the muscles in the execution of vol. eyelids. mvmt as in a tic or spasm o hyperkinesias = aka hyperactivity. survival is rare beyond the late twenties o Becker s = less severe illness and does not appear until early adolescence or adulthood. tender points and fatigue o tender points = ab. skeletal muscles y polymyositis = chronic. is myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound w/ each spasm y myasthenia = muscle weakness from any cause o myasthenia gravis (MG) = chronic autoimmune dx in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness. invol. is sudden. at the base of the neck. increased motor function or activity o hypokinesia = ab. coughing and facial expression y muscular dystrophy = group of inherited muscle d/os that cause muscle weakness w/o affecting the NS. affects the muscles that control eye mvmt. are Duchenne s muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker s (BMD) o Duchenne s = appears b/w 2-6 yrs olds and progresses slowly. mvmt o contracture = ab. decreased motor function or activity o tardive dyskinesia = late appearance of dyskinesia as a side-effect of LT tx w/ certain antipsychotic drugs y myoclonus = spasm or twitching of a muscle(s) o nocturnal myoclonus = jerking of the limbs that may occur normally as a person is falling asleep o singultus = aka hiccups. of a muscle tissue. MG most freq. localized areas of soreness. along the backbone.

inflamm. of the plantar fascia as it rubs against these bony growths y y y y D. of the tendons of the rotator cuff o impingement syndrome = occurs when tendons be/c inflamed and get caught in the narrow space b/w bones w/in the shoulder joint o calcium deposits = may form w/in tendons of the rotator cuff. w/ overuse injuries that involve stretched or torn muscle or tendon attached y shin splint = pain caused by muscle tearing away form tibia (shinbone). ¼ below the inner surface of the wrist. pain assoc. result from SCI involving C vertebrae. result from an SCI below C vertebrae y quadriplegia = paralysis of all 4 extremities. w/ this condition is due to inflamm. can develop in anterolateral or posteromedial muscles of the lower leg. The median nerve & tendons that bend the fingers pass thru this tunnel o carpal tunnel syndrome = occurs when the tendons passing thru the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and be/c inflamed & swollen. w/ plantar fasciitis. if the injury is above C5. w/ stroke or brain damage. muscle movements thru dx or injury to its nerve supply. result in sudden pain in the back of the thigh as these muscles contract suddenly y Achilles tendinitis = painful inflamm. Sports Injuries y sprain = injury to a joint such as ankle. ab. reflexes also are lost in deep coma or due to medication such as heavy sedation y electromyography (EMG) = records the strength of muscle contractions as the result of electrical stimulation y electroneuromyography = aka nerve conduction studies. This swelling creates compression on the median nerve pain. pain on the outer side of the arm of the forearm o medial epicondylitis = aka golfer s elbow. nerves & joints.C. knee or wrist. of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on the tendon E. damage to one side of the brain causes paralysis on the opposite side of the body y cardioplegia = paralysis of the heart muscles III. usually assoc. Strains usually are assoc. commonly occur in workplace or sports ergonomics = study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment overuse injuries = when minor tissue injuries due to overuse are not given time to heal myofasical damage = caused by overworking muscles. prevents nerve impulses from being carried below the level of injury y paraplegia = paralysis of both legs & lower part of the body. burning. of the tissues surrounding the elbow o lateral peicondylitis = aka tennis elbow. caused by repetitive stress to lower leg y hamstring injury = may be a strain or tear of the posterior femoral muscles. frequently caused by overuse. a sprain freq. Repetitive Stress D/os y y y y y repetitive stress d/o = symptoms involve muscles. procedure for testing & recording neuromuscular activity by electric stimulation of nerve trunk carrying fibers to and from the muscles y range of motion testing (ROM) = diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility & muscle strength . pain on the palm-side of the forearm heel spurs = assoc. involves stretched or torn ligament y strain = injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon. response indicates pathology that may be caused by disrupted innervations of the involved muscles. Damage may be either temp or permanent y spinal cord injury (SCI) = freq. cause paralysis. I t also affects respiration y hemiplegia = total paralysis of one side of the body. This P may be due to muscle spasms due to repetitive motion or caused by compression of C vertebral disks epicondylitis = inflamm. tendons. are benign bony growths on the dorsal surface of the calcaneus. results in tenderness & swelling of the muscles & their surrounding tissues rotator cuff injuries o rotator cuff tendinitis = aka tennis or pitcher s shoulders. calcaneous reflex (on Achilles tendon). paresthesia (tingling) in fingers & hand cervical radiculopathy = nerve pain caused by P on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region. may cause chronic irritation of the tendons carpal tunnel = narrow bony passage under the carpal ligament loc. Paralysis y myoparesis = weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle y hemiparesis = means slight paralysis of one side of the body y paralysis = loss of sensation and vol. Diagnostic Procedures of the Muscular System y deep tendon reflexes (DTR) = are tested w/ reflex hammer on patellar reflex.

ibuprofen. Medications y y y y anti-inflammatory = ex. flexibility and muscle strength y range of motion exercises = one form of PT. occlusion of coronary a. massage & other methods to improve circulation. resulting in an infarct of the affected myocardium y infarct = localized area of necrosis caused by interruption of blood supply B. usually due to interference w/ but not complete blockage of oxygen to myocardium y MI = aka heart attack. Coronary Artery Dx y coronary artery dx (CAD) = atherosclerosis of the coronary aa. Pathology of Cardiovascular System A. that may cause angina pectoris. Tx Procedures of the Muscular System A. goal is to increase strength. Many of these meds also relieve anxiety & tension B. also acts as analgesics antispasmodic/anticholinergic drug = acts to control spasmodic activity of the SM such as those of intestines atropine = antispasmodic that may be admin preoperatively to relax SM muscle relaxant = ex. diazepam (Valium) acts on CNS to relax muscle tone & relieve spasms. Muscles y myectomy = surgical removal of a portion of muscle y myoplasty = surgical repair of a muscle y myorrhaphy = to suture a muscle wound The Cardiovascular System I.IV. shortening of a muscle such as strabismus (crossed-eyes) y tenoplasty = aka tendoplasty. is a plaque w/in the arterial wall y plaque = similar to buildup of rust inside a pipe & may protrude outward into the opening of the vessel or move inward into the wall of the vessel y ischemia = deficiency in blood supply due to either constriction or obstruction of BV y ischemic heart dx (IHD) = group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart that is usually assoc. Physical Therapy y physical therapy (PT) = tx to prevent disability or to restore functioning thru the use of exercise. Fascia y fasciotomy = surgical incision of fascia y fascioplasty = surgical repair of fascia D. Congestive Heart (CHF) . heat. surgical repair of tendon y tenorrhaphy = suturing of a divided tendon E. Tendons y carpal tunnel release = surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve P. due to buildup of cholesterol plaques y atheroma = characteristic of atherosclerosis. w/ CAD y angina pectoris = severe episodes of spasmodic chocking or suffocating chest pain. MI & sudden death y end-stage CAD = final phase of CAD characterized by unrelenting angina pain & severely limited lifestyle in which medication is the only remaining tx option y atherosclerosis = hardening and narrowing of the aa. tx is used to relieve the P on tendons & nerves in severe cases of CTS y tenectomy = surgical removal of lesion form a tendon or tendon sheath y tenodesis = means to suture the end of a tendon to bone y tenolysis = means to free a tendon from adhesions y tenonectomy = surgical removal of part of a tendon for the purpose of shortening it y tenotomy = aka tendotomy is surgical divisonfof a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by ab. flexibility & mobility C.

the kidneys retain more fluid w/in the body and this fluid accumulates in the legs. involing several aa. y arteriosclerosis = hardening of the aa y Raynaud s phenomenon = consists of intermitten attacks of pallor. Arrhythmias y y y y y cardiac arrhythmia (dysrthythmia) = an irregularity or loss of normal rhythm of the heartbeat bradycardia = ab. of an artery y polyarteritis = inflamm. condition in which a thrombus develops w/in a BV y thrombus = a blood clot attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery . and lungs. of the lining or valves of the heart caused by bacteria myocarditis = inflamm. of a vein y varicose veins = ab. Arteries y aneurysm = localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery. fast heartbeat paroxysmal tachycardia = a fast heartbeat of sudden onset F. of blood or lymph vessel angionecrosis = necrosis of the walls of BV angiospasm = spasmodic contraction of the BV angiostenosis = narrowing of the BV hemangioma =benign tumor made up of newly formed BV hypoperfusion = deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part H. Most aneurysms occur in large BV and are named for the involved BV y arteritis = inflamm. of the inner layer of the heart bacterial endocarditis = inflamm. slow heartbeat flutter = cardiac arrhythmia in which the atrial contractions are rapid but regular (compare this w/ atrial fibrillation) tachycardia = ab. these symptoms are due to arterial and arteriolar contraction and are usually caused by cold or emotion I. Thromboses and Embolisms y thrombosis = ab. cyanosis. random & ineffective contractions of the heart y atrial fibrillation (A fib) = atrial beat faster than ventricles. Forms of Carditis y y y y y carditis = inflamm. prod. irregular quivering action of the atrial & a very rapid ventricular heartbeat y ventricular fibrillation (V fib) = result of irregular contractions of the ventricles and is fatal unless reversed by electric defibrillation G. Heart Valves y y y y valvulitis = inflammatory condition of a heart valve that results in incomplete closure of the valve mitral valve prolapsed = ab. inflamm. Fibrillation y fibrillation = rapid. and redness of the fingers & toes. Blood Vessels y y y y y y angiitis = aka vasculitis. of the myocardium pericarditis = inflamm.y CHF = syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body s needs for O2 and nutrients. of the pericardium D. ankles. protrusion of the mitral valve that results in the incomplete closure of the valve mitral and tricuspide stenosis = ab. of the heart endocarditis = inflamm. The term congestive refers to this fluid buildup C. Veins y phlebitis = inflamm. flow when a valve does not function properly and may allow blood to flow back into the heart chamber E. swollen veins usually occurring in the legs J. In response. narrowing of the opening of the mitral or tricupsid valve heart murmur = sound of the ab.

such as a blood clot. is the presence of pathogenic m/o or their toxins in the blood . or a bit of tissue or tumor that is circulating in the blood K. Blood Disorders y dyscrasia = any ab. The excess iron enters the bloodstream and accumulates in organs where it causes damage y septicemia = aka blood poisoning. or pathologic condition of the blood y hemochromatosis = aka iron overload dx. quantity of air or gas. genetic d/o in which the intestines absorb too much iron.y thrombotic occlusion = blocking of an artery by a clot y coronary thrombosis = damage to the heart caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery y embolus = a foreign obj.

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