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Composite materials are occupying major role in several industries like Aerospace, Automotive, Construction and Industrial engineering applications because of their high strength to weight ratio and many other distinctive properties. So the Engineers deal with the structures in any domain with knowledge on composites will be in a great demand. Although much literature is available on basic mechanics of composites and composite structures, the calculations part comprise of complex trigonometric equations & matrices operation which demands a computing tool to perform efficiently. This book addresses that need by offering the computation methodology using simple and most available soft tool named Ms-Excel. The derivations and the related assumptions are presented in lucid manner. The focus of the current work is on fiber reinforced composite materials composed of fibers embedded in a matrix material and the laminates made of fiber reinforced composites. The micro mechanics of the composite materials based on different models, laminate analysis to obtain the mid-plane strains using classical laminate theory, Macro mechanics of composites to obtain detailed ply level stresses and strains in local coordinated system and implementation of various failure theories (limit failure theories, semi-interactive failure theories and interactive failure theories) are clearly explained with detailed examples. Classification of laminates and their selection procedure is also briefly described. The effect of coupling elements in the behaviour of the laminate is explained. The code explained in this book can be readily applied on a practical design problem. More than 20 solved example problems are discussed in this book. This book doesnt demand any prior cognition on matrix and trigonometric operations. This book will be of great practical use to students, researchers and practicing engineers seeking to acquire knowledge on implementation and solving the mechanics of composites.

B B V L Deepak

ii

B B V L Deepak

B B V L Deepak

ii

PREFACE

This is a book is specially designed for people, who are interested in mechanics of composite materials. In this book, how to use Ms-Excel as a calculator to perform numerical calculations needed in basic mechanics of composite materials is explained. The steps involved in the mechanical calculations at micro and macro level will be accentuated in this book. A detailed step-by-step solving methodology for mechanics of composite material problems are illustrated using Ms-Excel. Along with these the user can find readymade spread sheets for instant usability. The book is divided into 5 major chapters followed with introduction Introduction: This gives a short introduction to Ms-Excel functions and applications. Chapter-1 describes the computations involved in micro mechanics of composite materials based on rule of mixtures and Chamis equations with detailed examples. Chapter-2 is focused on the mechanical behavior of lamina at macro level, which is essential to understand the performance of laminated fiber-reinforced structures. Procedure involved in obtaining ply level stresses and strains in local coordinated systems are clearly explained with detailed examples. Chapter-3 is focused on implementation of Limit failure theories and Semi interactive failure theories on the ply level stresses and strains to evaluate the strength of the plies are clearly explained with detailed examples. Chapter-4 is focused on implementation of interactive failure theories on the ply level stresses and strains to evaluate the strength of the plies are clearly explained with detailed examples. Chapter-5 is focused on laminated composites, where types of laminates and their behaviour, Effect of coupling elements and their elimination procedure is clearly explained and obtaining Global stiffness matrix , compliance matrix and Effective laminate constants are clearly explained with detailed examples. Master example is solved, which covers from Micro mechanics to macro mechanics and the strength is evaluated using different failure criterions.

B B V L Deepak

iii

CONTENTS

List of figures List of tables vi vi

Introduction to Ms-Excel 0-1 Types of Operators Arithmetic, Comparison, Text concatenation & Reference operators Calculation order & Operator precedence General Math functions Trigonometric functions Matrix functions Chapter-I Micro Mechanics of composite materials A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Chapter-II 1-1

Basic Definitions Rule of Mixtures Equations for engineering constants Halpin-Tsai Equations for engineering constants Chamis Equations for engineering constants Rule of Mixtures Equations for hygro and thermal expansion coefficients Chamis Equations for hygro and thermal expansion coefficients Rule of Mixtures and Chamis Equations for hygro and thermal coefficients Chamis Equations for lamina strengths 2-1

Macro Mechanics of composite materials A. Basic Definitions B. Stress-Strain relations for orthotropic material C. Stress-Strain relations in an angled ply

Chapter-III

Failure theories-I A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. Failure theories Definition Maximum stress failure theory Maximum strain failure theory Maximums strain failure theory expressed in Stresses Stowell-Lin Failure theory Kelly- Davies Failure theory Prager failure theory Hashin Rotem Failure theory Hashin Failure theory Modified Puck failure theory

3-1

iv

Chapter-IV

Failure theories-II A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. Tsai Hill failure theory Tsai Wu failure theory Hoffman failure theory Norris- Mckinnon failure theory Yamada Sun Failure theory Puppo - Evensen failure theory Norris failure theory Fischer failure Puck Schneider failure theory

4-1

Chapter-V

Laminated composites A. B. C. D. E. Classical laminate theory Influence of Coupling Elements on Laminate Classification of Laminates Laminate selection criteria Effective Laminate Constants

5-1

6-1

List of Tables

Page No.

Table 1.1 Rule of mixtures equations for lamina elastic properties Table 1.2 Graphite and Epoxy 934 Material properties Table 1.3 Halpin-Tsai Equations for E2, G12 & G23 Table 1.4 Chamis Equations for E2, G12 & G23 Table 1.5 Hygro thermal coefficients of composites based on Rule of Mixture equations. Table 1.6 Hygro thermal coefficients of composites based on Chamis equations. Table 1.7 Hygro thermal coefficients of composites based on Rule of Mixture equations and Chamis equations. Table 1.8. Chamis equations for lamina strength(s). Table 2.1 Graphite Epoxy Material properties Table 6.1 AS4 fiber properties Table 6.2 3501-6 Epoxy matrix properties

1-19

1-19

List of Figures

Fig. 2.1 Schematic representation of lamina Fig. 2.2 Isotropic Material Vs Orthotropic material Fig. 2.3a Schematic representation of loads acting on an Orthotropic lamina Fig. 2.3b Schematic representation of loads acting on an Orthotropic lamina Fig. 5.1 Normal displacements along x and y axes Fig. 5.2 Shear displacement along x and y axes Fig. 5.3 Bending displacement along z direction Fig. 5.4 Representation of bending slopes in a laminated structure Fig. 5.5a Laminated composite structure Fig. 5.5b Loads on Laminated composite structure Fig 5.6 Un-deformed and Deformed cross sections Fig 5.7 Laminate configuration

2-1 2-2

2-8

vi

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APPENDIX A

Abs 0-3, 3-9.

Angled ply

5-17.

2-8.

F

Failure Failure index Failure theories Fiber failure 3-1. 3-1. 3-1. 3-1,3-17, 3-19,3-25.

Arithmetic operators

5-17.

0-1.

B

Balanced laminate Bending stiffness matrix [D] 5-17. 5-11.

4-25. 5-22.

C

Calculation order Chamis equations 0-2. 1-15, 1-19, 1-22, 1-23.

H

Halpin-Tsai equations Hashin failure theory Hashin Rotem failure theory 1-15. 3-25. 3-21.

5-1. 5-17.

Hooke's law

4-1.

2-2, 3-12.

Coefficient of moisture expansion 1-5, 1-19. Coefficient of thermal expansion 1-4, 1-19. Comparison operators Compliance matrix 0-1 2-3, 5-18.

I

Interactive failure theory Invariants Inverse transformation matrix 4-1. 2-20. 2-10.

D

Degrees Density 0-4,2-10. 1-1,1-7.

K

Kelly- Davies failure theory 3-19.

L

Lamina 2-1.

E

Effective laminate constants Extension stiffness matrix [A] Extension-bending couplingStiffness matrix [B] 5-11 5-20,5-22,6-1 5-11

Laminate selection

5-18.

M

Matrix failure Maximum strain failure theory 3-1,3-2,3-18, 3-20,3-26. 3-6.

`

Maximum stress failure theory Micromechanics Minverse Mmult Modified puck failure theory Moisture diffusivity 3-1. 1-7. 0-6,5-19. 0-6,2-6,6-10. 3-27. 1-6,1-22. Stowell-Lin failure theory Stress-strain relation Sum 16.Symmetric laminate Stiffness matrix 2-3, 2-14, 2-16, 5-11. 3-17. 2-2,2-8. 0-2, 5Strain failure theory in stresses 3-12.

N

Norris failure theory 4-23. Norris- Mckinnon failure theory 4-16.

5-17,5-18.

T

Text concatenation operator Thermal conductivity Transformation matrix Transpose Transverse matrix cracking Tsai Hill failure theory Tsai Wu failure theory 0-2. 1-6,1-22. 2-10. 0-5. 3-1. 4-1. 4-6.

O

Operator precedence 0-2

P

Poisson's ratio Power Prager failure theory 1-2,1-7. 0-4. 3-20.

U

Ultimate compressive strength 1-3,1-23. Ultimate shear strength Ultimate strains Ultimate tensile strength 1-4,1-23. 3-6. 1-3.

Puck - Schneider failure theory 4-26. Puppo - Evensen failure theory 4-24.

Q

Q matrix Q bar matrix Quotient 2-3. 2-14,2-19. 0-4.

R

Radians Rand Reference operators Reserve factor Round Rule of mixtures equations 0-4. 0-4. 0-1. 3-1. 0-5. 1-7, 1-9, 1-22.

V

Volume fraction 1-8.

Y

Yamada sun failure theory

Young's modulus

4-21

1-1,1-7,

1-15,5-21,5-22

S

Shear matrix cracking Shear modulus Specific heat Sqrt 3-2, 3-13. 1-2, 1-7, 1-15,5-21,5-22. 1-5, 1-22. 0-5, 4-4.

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