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PART -1 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
This report is a System analysis and design project, which is a study of global positioning system software receiverTechnology. In this project we studied how gps receiver will works and processed the signal get desired location,time and position . We start with gpsand its various components ,process and receiver tracking system . Hence, this system makes it possible tracking the location of things which consists gps receiver. This processes changes thesignal to digits.. The process involves many models and theories thatmakes the gps successful. Gps is used in large number of areas. For example mobile phone tracking vehicle tracking system information providing using automated call

defenceuses,robotics,etc. It facilitates the human computer interaction and also provides a way to communicate with satellite communication. The ultimate goal of the technology is to be able to produce a system that can recognize with 100% accuracy the time and location. Even after years of research in this area, the best gpssoftware applications still cannot recognize location with 100% accuracy. Some applications are able to recognize over 95% position when environment factors are constant. Computer software that tracks the location of real world objectsenable user to have conversations with the satellite.

1.2 OBJECTIVE
To study globalpositioning system receiver and its various hardware components and software used for this. . In this project our aim is to:

 Working of gps receiver  Hardware components of gps  Software used for gps receiver

1.3 PROBLEM DEFINITION


Software GPS receivers can provide full access to baseBand signal processing inside the receiver channels. Thus It has become the key component when investigating andDeveloping advanced GPS signal processing techniques. In this presentation, a pure software gps receiver, developed in the plan group of the university of Calgary, It consists of receivers that decode the signals from the satellites. The receiver performs following tasks:  Selecting one or more satellites  Acquiring GPS signals  Measuring and tracking  Recovering navigation data

1.4 WORKING OF GPS


For those who are unfamiliar with the term, GPS stands for Global Positioning System, and is a way of locating a receiver in three dimensional space anywhere on the Earth, and even in orbit about it. GPS is arguably one of the most important inventions of our time, and has so many different applications that many technologies and ways of working are continually being improved in order to make the most of it. To understand exactly why it is so useful and important, we should first look at how GPS works. More importantly, looking at what technological achievements have driven the development of this fascinating positioning system.

1.4.1SIGNALS
In order for GPS to work, a network of satellites was placed into orbit around planet Earth, each broadcasting a specific signal, much like a normal radio signal. This signal can be received by a low cost, low technology aerial, even though the signal is very weak. Rather than carrying an actual radio or television program, the signals that are broadcast by the satellites carry data that is passed from the aerial, decoded and used by to the GPS software. The information is specific enough that the GPS software can identify the satellite, its location in space, and calculates the time that the signal took to travel from the satellite to the GPS receiver.

Using different signals from different satellites, the GPS software is able to calculate the position of the receiver. The principle is very similar to that which is used in orienteering if you can identify three places on your map, take a bearing to where they are, and draw three lines on the map, then you will find out where you are on the map. The lines will intersect, and, depending on the accuracy of the bearings, the triangle that they form where they intersect will approximate your position, within a margin of error. GPS software performs a similar kind of exercise, using the known positions of the satellites in space, and measuring the time that the signal has taken to travel from the satellite to Earth. The result of the trilateration (the term used when distances are used instead of bearings) of at least three satellites, assuming that the clocks are all synchronized enables the software to calculate, within a margin of error, where the device is located in terms of its latitude (East-West) and longitude (North-South) and distance from the center of the Earth.

1.4.2TIMING & CORRECTION


In a perfect world, the accuracy should be absolute, but there are many different factors which prevent this. Principally, it is impossible to ensure that the clocks are all synchronized. Since the satellites each contain atomic clocks which are extremely accurate, and certainly accurate with respect to each other, we can assume that most of the problem lies with the clock inside the GPS unit itself.
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Keeping the cost of the technology down to a minimum is a key part of the success of any consumer device, and it is simply not possible to fit each GPS unit with an atomic clock costing tens of thousands of dollars. Luckily, in creating the system, the designers designed GPS to work whether the receivers clock is accurate or not. There are a few solutions. However the solution that was chosen uses a fourth satellite to provide a cross check in the trilateration process. Since trilateration from three signals should pinpoint the location exactly, adding a fourth will move that location; that is, it will not intersect with the calculated location. This indicates to the GPS software that there is a discrepancy, and so it performs an additional calculation to find a value that it can use to adjust all the signals so that the four lines intersect. Usually, this is as simple as subtracting a second (for example) from each of the calculated travel times of the signals. Thus, the GPS software can also update its own internal clock; and means that not only do we have an accurate positioning device, but also an atomic clock in the palm of our hands.

1.4.3 MAPPING
Knowing where the device is in space is one thing, but it is fairly useless information without something to compare it with. Thus, the mapping part of any GPS software is very important; it is how GPS works our possible routes, and allows the user to plan trips in advance. In fact, it is often the mapping data which elevates the price of the GPS solution; it must be accurate and updated reasonably frequently. There are, however, several kinds of map, and each is intended for different users, with different needs.
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Road users, for example, require that their mapping data contains accurate information about the road network in the region that they will be traveling in, but will not require detailed information about the lie of the land they do not really worry about the height of hills and so forth. On the other hand, hiking GPS users might wish to have a detailed map of the terrain, rivers, hills and so forth, and perhaps tracks and trails, but not roads. They might also like to adorn their map with specific icons of things that they find along the way and that they wish to keep a record of not to mention waypoints; locations to make for on their general route. Finally, marine users need very specific information relating to the sea bed, navigable channels, and other pieces of maritime data that enables them to navigate safely. Of course, the sea itself is reasonably featureless, but underneath quite some detail is needed to be sure that the boat will not become grounded. Fishermen also use marine GPS to locate themselves and track the movement of shoals of fish both in real time, and to predict where they will be the next day. The advent of GPS fixing has also meant that co-operative fishing has become much easier, where there are several boats all relaying their locations to each other while they locate the best fishing waters. Special kinds of marine GPS known as fishfinders also combine several functions in one to help fishermen. A fishfinder comprises GPS and also sonar, along with advanced tracking functions and storage for various kinds of fishing and maritime information.

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF GPS RECEIVER Part-11

2. REQUIREMENTS OF GPS

2.1HARDWARE COMPONENTS
y Antenna y RF Board y RF Front End y RF/IF down-conversion board (with FPGA) y DSP Board y DSP

2.2 SOFTWARE COMPONENTS


y Firmware y RF Board FPGA y DSP Board FPGA y S/W y Signal Processing S/W y Navigation S/W

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2.1 HARDWARE COMPONENTS

GPS SIGNAL RECEIVER


2.1.1 ANTENNA The GPS antenna combines a planar antenna and a frequency converter, which translates the high-frequency phase-modulated spread spectrum signal of the GPS system to an intermediate frequency. This way a standard coaxial cable (e.g. RG58) can be used for the connection with the GPS clock and a distance of up to 300 meters (with RG58) or even 700 meters (with a low-loss cable type like RG213) between receiver and antenna is possible without additional amplifier.
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Ambient temperature: -40 ... 65C Warranty: Three-Year Warranty RoHSStatus of the product: This product is fully RoHS compliant WEEE status of the product: This product is handled as a B2B category product. In order to secure a WEEE compliant waste disposal it has to be returned to the manufacturer. Any transportation expenses for returning this product. 2.1.2 RF BOARD RF board stands for Radio Frequency Printed Circuit Boards. The frequency for RF board is normally between 300MHz ~ 3GHz, or much bigger, so normally FR4 board cannot meet the requirements, so we need to use special material to achieve the high frequency and we named this kind of boards as RF boards. RF board is excellent in high frequency performance due to its low dielectric tolerance and loss of material. RF board is ideal for applications with higher operating frequency requirements. Right now, we normally use following materialThe fabricate process is similar like FR4, but the copper plating is more complex than FR4, because material characteristics, its much harder to metalize the through hole (copper plating), and other process is complex than FR4, so need unique handling method and experienced workers from the computer fans, squeaking chairs, or heavy breathing.e.g., creative sound cards,intel sound cards, acer sound card, philips sound cards. 2.1.3RF FRONT: In a radio receiver circuit, the RF front end is a generic term for all the circuitry between the antenna and the first intermediate frequency (IF) stage. It consists of
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all the components in the receiver that process the signal at the original incoming radio frequency (RF), before it is converted to a lower intermediate frequency (IF). In microwave and satellite receivers it is often called the low-noise block (LNB) or low-noise downconverter (LND) and is often located at the antenna, so that the signal from the antenna can be transferred to the rest of the receiver at the more easily handled intermediate frequency. For most super-heterodyne architectures, the RF front end consists of:
y

An impedance matching circuit to match the input impedance of the receiver with the antenna, so the maximum power is transferred from the antenna;

A 'gentle' band-pass filter (BPF) to reduce input noise and image frequency response;

An RF amplifier, often called the low-noise amplifier (LNA). Its primary responsibility is to increase the sensitivity of the receiver by amplifying weak signals without contaminating them with noise, so they are above the noise level in succeeding stages. It must have a very low noise figure (NF).

The mixer, which mixes the incoming signal with the signal from a local oscillator (LO) to convert the signal to the intermediate frequency (IF).

2.1.4 RF/IF DOWN CONVERSION: The LBC-4000 L-Band IF to 70 MHz IF (140 MHz optional) indoor converter is a 1RU 19-inch chassis withtwo front panel accessible up converter or down converter modules. It contains two diode OR-ed internalpower supplies, for increased reliability and microprocessor-based Monitor & Control (M&C) functions.The LBC-4000 up converter module translates a 70 MHz IF input signal (140 MHz optional) up to a userselectedfrequency at L-Band (950 to 2000 MHz).
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The L-Band output can drive the input of the Comtech EFData MBT-4000 block up converter or other RF equipment with an L-Band input.The LBC-4000 down converter module translates an L-Band (950 to 2000 MHz) IF input signal down to auser selected frequency in the 70 MHz (140 MHz optional) IF band. The LBC4000 can be locked to aninternal reference or an external 5 or 10 MHz reference signal. The LBC-4000 is an excellent choice forinterfacing legacy 70 or 140 MHz equipment to quad-band or tri-band block converters. 2.1.5DSP BOARD: DSP boards or digital signal processor computer boards are central to the implementation of high-performance industrial systems. They collect and process digital data from many sources, and distribute the results to other elements of the system. There are three main sources of data in a real system: signals (in and out from the DSP processor), messages to communicate with system controllers, and messages to communicate with other DSP boards. Important features of DSP boards include a fast processor and good communication channels as DSP boards need to collect and distribute data from/to many different sources. Computer backplane or bus choices for DSP boards include PCI, ISA or EISA, PCMCIA, PC/104, Mac PCI, SUN Sbus, PMC bus, PXI bus, Multibus, STD bus, VME bus, VXI or MXI bus, and DT-connect I and II interface. PCI is a local bus system designed for high-end computer systems. ISA is a standard for I/O buses that was set back in 1984 when IBM was the standard. PCMCIA devices (PC Cards) are credit-card-sized peripherals predominantly used in laptop

computers. PC/104 gets its name from the desktop personal computers designed by IBM (PCs), and from the number of pins used to connect the cards together (104). Mac PCI is a local bus
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standard

developed

by

the

Intel

Corporation. Designed by Sun in 1989, the SBus board was the standard I/O interconnect for Sun computers, which typically run under the Solaris or SunOS flavor of the UNIX operating system. The PMC Bus is actually a form factor, not a bus -it is electrically the same as the PCI Bus, but the shape of the card and the bus connectors are different. PXI is a superset of CompactPCI and adds timing and triggering functions, imposes requirements for documenting environmental tests, and establishes a standard Windows-based software framework. STD bus is often referred to as the "Blue Collar Bus" because of its rugged design and small size, the STD Bus was originally designed for factory and industrial environments. It uses 16-bit architecture. VME bus is a 32-bit bus used in industrial, commercial and military applications. Motorola developed the VME standard, with others, in the late 1970s. DT-connect I and II is Data Translation's DT-Connect Interface. Important processor or DSP performance specifications to consider for DSP boards include number of processors, clock speed, floating point performance, integer performance, operations, maximum addressable memory, and operating

temperature. General features and options to consider when looking for DSP boards include real-time clock, interrupt controller, memory management unit, dual port memory, and direct memory access. Communications options include serial I/O ports, parallel I/O ports, on board A/D converter, and on board D/A converter. Some DSP boards can accept daughter boards and some DSP boards are daughter boards. An important environmental parameter to consider when searching for DSP boards is the operating temperature. 2.1.6DSP Digital signal processing algorithms typically require a large number of mathematical operations to be performed quickly and repetitively on a set of data.
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Signals (perhaps from audio or video sensors) are constantly converted from analog to digital, manipulated digitally, and then converted again to analog form, as diagrammed below. Many DSP applications have constraints onlatency; that is, for the system to work, the DSP operation must be completed within some fixed time, and deferred (or batch) processing is not viableA simple digital processing system Most general-purpose microprocessors and operating systems can execute DSP algorithms successfully, but are not suitable for use in portable devices such as mobile phones and PDAs because of power supply and space constraints. A specialized digital signal processor, however, will tend to provide a lower-cost solution, with better performance, lower latency, and no requirements for specialized cooling or large batteries. The architecture of a digital signal processor is optimized specifically for digital signal processing. Most also support some of the features as an applications processor or microcontroller, since signal processing is rarely the only task of a system. Some useful features for optimizing DSP algorithms are outlined below.

2.2 SOFTWARE COMPONENTS


2.2.1 FIRMWARE: Firmware is software that is embedded in hardware. You can update your firmware in most GPS receivers.Firmware is the software that controls how hardware works and responds to inputs. Its called firmware instead of software because users generally arent supposed to play around with it. But youre not just any old user,
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are you? Almost all electronic hardware contains some form of firmware. A television remote control contains firmware that controls what signals are sent via IR depending on what button is pressed. A cell phone contains a lot of firmware controlling cell access, phone books, security etc

A GPS contains a lot of firmware controlling many of the key functions of the device
y y y y y y y

Reception of satellite data Decoding of positional information Processing of data Conversion of data into different formats Interpretation and display of information External communication with devices Storing and managing route/waypoint data

2.2.2RFPGA:

The FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array)implementation of an adaptive filter for narrow bandinterference excision in Global Positioning Systems isdescribed. The algorithm implemented is a delayed LMS(Least Mean Squares) adaptive algorithm improved byincorporating a leakage factor, rounding and

constantresetting of the filter weights. This was necessary as theoriginal adaptive algorithm had stability problems : thefilter weights did not remain fixed, and tended to driftuntil they overflowed, causing the filter response todegrade. Each model was first tested in Simulink,implemented in VHDL (Verilog Hardware DescriptionLanguage) and then downloaded to an FPGA board forfinal testing. Experimental measurements of anti-jammargins were obtainedSingle channel adaptive filtering techniques have beenshown to be an effective technique for
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mitigatingmultiple narrowband interferences to GPS systems. Since they can beseamlessly inserted between the existing GPS antennaand receiver.they offer a cost effective solution that involves minimumsystem disruption. However to become a fully practicalsolution the size and power demands of their hardwareimplementation should be minimised. FPGAs (Field-Programmable Gate Arrays) offer the potential forachieving the goals of small size, weight and powerconsumption and in this paper the implementation of anadaptive filter using an FPGA device is described.In Section 2 an experimental system, termed miniGISMO, is described and an overview of the systemarchitecture is presented. The use of interpolation anddecimation filters within the FPGA is also described.The main adaptive algorithm implemented is the delayedLMS (Least Mean Squares) adaptive algorithm (Haykin,2002). As discussed in Section 3 this algorithm is wellsuited to FPGA implementations. However, particularlyin the presence of strong interferences, the originaladaptive algorithm had stability problems, as on convergence, the filter weights did notremain fixed, and tended to drift until they overflowed,causing the filter response to degrade. In Section 4 it isshown that incorporating a leakage term and rounding instead of truncating resultedinthe weights remaining near the optimal values. However,this solution introduced memory effects, which produceda second null when the interference frequency waschanged. Resetting the weights every second removedthis problem and appeared to have the least stabilityeffects, as a short pulse in the output every second didntcause any undesirable results in this algorithm. Also, thebit allocations were optimised to reduce the quantization error. By reducing the quantisation noise power a smallerleakage factor is required to stabilise the adaptivealgorithm resulting in a slower drift of the weight.

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2.2.3DIGITAL SIGNAL

Digital signal processing

has

traditionally

been

done

using enhanced

microprocessors. While the high volume of generic product provides a low cost solution, the performance falls seriously short for many applications. Until recently, the only alternatives were to develop custom hardware (typically board level or ASIC designs), buy expensive fixed function processors (eg. an FFT chip), or use an array of microprocessor. Signal processing: The antenna preamplifier of a GPS receiver generally converts the incoming signal to a signal of a lower frequency. This INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY is obtained by mixing the incoming signal with a pure sinusoidal signal generated by the local oscillator (the quartz "clock"). The frequency of this BEAT FREQUENCY is the difference between the original (doppler-shifted) received carrier frequency and the local oscillator. The intermediate or beat frequency is then processed by the signal tracking.

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2.2.4 NEVIGATIONAL SIGNAL PROCEESING Digital signal processing is the processing of digitised discrete time sampled signals. Processing is done by general-purpose computers or by digital circuits such as ASICs, field-programmable gate arrays or specialized digital signal processors (DSP chips). Typical arithmetical operations include fixed-point and floating-point, real-valued and complex-valued, multiplication and addition. Other typical operations supported by the hardware are circular buffers and look-up tables. Examples of algorithms are the Fast Fourier transform (FFT), finite impulse response (FIR) filter, Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter, and adaptive filters such as the Wiener and Kalman filters. Statistical signal processing analyzing and extracting information from signals and noise based on their stochastic properties
y

Audio signal processing for electrical signals representing sound, such as speech or music

y y

Speech signal processing for processing and interpreting spoken words Image processing in digital cameras, computers, and various imaging systems

y y y y

Video processing for interpreting moving pictures Array processing for processing signals from arrays of sensors Time-frequency signal processing for processing non-stationary signals Filtering used in many fields to process signals

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2.3 SOFTWARE BASED RECEIVER Global Navigation Satellite System has become a necessity tool for navigation and positioningin both civilian and military field and applications. Global Positioning System (GPS) is asatellite-based navigation system. It is based on the computation of range from the receiver tomultiple satellites by multiplying the time delay that a GPS signal needs to travel from thesatellites to the receiver by velocity of light. GPS has already been used widely both in civilianand military community for positioning, navigation, timing and other position relatedapplications. The system has already proved its reliability, availability and good accuracy formany applications. Due to this nature, in future, other countries like Europe are going to launchnew satellite-based navigation system called Galileo. There is also a proposal to launch QuasiZenith Satellite System for navigation in Japan.It is necessary to simulate and analyze new signal structures for the development of newsatellite-based navigation systems. In the research community, many researchers come out withnew ideas and algorithms for better accuracy of GPS by mitigating or minimizing various typesof errors and effects like multipath. However, it is quite difficult to implement the userdeveloped algorithms in the current hardware-based GPS receivers. The hardware-based GPSreceivers contain ASICs that provide the least user flexibility. Thus, it is necessary to haveSoftwarebased GPS receivers, at least in the research community for easy and quickimplementation, simulation and analysis of algorithms, parameters and threshold values. Since,the CPU processing power is increasing with reduced cost, it is now possible to build real-timesoftware-based GPS receivers at least for static or low dynamic environments. As predicted byMoors Law, the CPU power is increasing and we hope that this trend will continue in future aswell and hence, it
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will be possible to develop real-time all environment software-based GPSreceivers. In this paper, we briefly introduce the architecture of a SGR, signal processingtechnique and give some examples of simulation using SGR.

2.3.1 SOFTWARE-BASED GPS RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE

The architecture of a conventional GPS receiver is shown in Figure 1. It consists of RF front-end and signal processor that are all built upon IC chips. The outputs of the signal processor are either displayed directly on the receiver display unit or fed to a PC for further processing orintegration with other devices. Since, the signal processing is all done inside the hardware chips,users have limited access to change the parameters or install new algorithms. Figure 2 showsarchitecture of a software-based GPS receiver (SGR). It consists of a RF front-end device,which is still a hardware component. The rest of the signal processing is done using high levelprogramming language like C/C++, Matlab etc. If we compare Figure a and Figure b, the onlydifference we see is the replacement of hardware components by software tools for signalprocessing. We still need RF front-end since the present capacity of CPU is still not able toprocess the signal directly from the antenna at 1.5GHz. Figure c shows the merits and demeritsof using hardware-based and software-based receiver. A hardware-based receiver is fastest insignal processing however, it has the least level of flexibility, where as a software-basedreceiver has the highest level of flexibility but is the slowest in processing speed. There areproducts using FPGA-based receivers which is the compromise between the two.

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Figure a and b
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2.3.2GPS SIGNAL PROCESSING

L1 band GPS signal is transmitted at 1.5 Ghz and since the receiver cannot process the signaldirectly at this frequency, the RF front-end device down converts from 1.5Ghz to a much lowerfrequency of about 4Mhz. This frequency is called Intermediate Frequency (IF). During thisconversion process, the signal is also digitized (A/D conversion) at 1bit, 2bit or higher rate andsampled at some frequency, e.g. 16Mhz. We use the down-converted signal for furtherprocessing. The first task of signal processing is to identify the visible satellites by finding thesatellite code phase and Doppler frequency. The code phase provides the beginning of C/A code Since the satellites are moving all the time (and probably the receiver may also move)wealways have some Doppler frequency. The rough estimation process of code phase and Dopplerfrequency is called acquisition. Basically, for acquisition, we generate C/A code for the satelliteand modulate with the carrier wave. This receiver generated signal is then correlated withincoming signal and the correlation value is evaluated to make decision whether a satellitevisible. If we think that the satellite is visible, then the code phase value and Doppler frequencies noted.Once, we complete acquisition successfully, we
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know the satellites that are visible at that time.In the next step, we track the visible satellites continuously for fine tuning of the code phase andDoppler frequency. This process is called tracking. The tracking process removes the C/A code and

carrier wave from the GPS signal and hence the remaining signal represents navigation dataand some noise. Thus, from navigation output, we can extract navigation data parameters whichare necessary to compute pseudorange from the receiver to satellite. Figure (a) shows raw GPS data collected from antenna and downconvertedto IF. This data just looks like noise and no information can be known unless weperform acquisition and tracking on the data. This is due to the fact that the GPS signal level isbelow the noise level or the signal is weaker than the noise. Figure (b) shows the result ofacquisition from raw data shown in Figure (a). The acquisition output shows the code phase(beginning point of C/A code) and Doppler frequency. Figure (c) shows tracking results. Thetracking result extracts navigation data bits as shown in which are simply the sequence.

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2.3.3SGR AS RESEARCH AND SIMULATION TOOL

We mentioned earlier that SGR has much flexibility compared to conventional receiver. We will discuss and give some examples how these flexibilities of SGR are used to extract information that are otherwise not possible in conventional GPS receiver.

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some of the fundamental parameters of signal processing in SGR. IF frequency and sampling frequency are fixed for a particular front-end device. By changing these
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two values, we can usethe same software tool for different types of frontend device that acquire GPS signal from theantenna. Below we will discuss some of the flexibilities point by point.

2.3.4 WEAK SIGNAL PROCESSING


The Doppler frequency search step, code periodacquisition integration time, noise bandwidthcode period tracking integration time depends onthe signal

quality. If the signal level is normal, wecan use 1000Hz Doppler frequency step and 1mscode period integration time for acquisition. However, if the signal is weak, and then we needFigure a: Basic parameters that can bechanged by a user in SGR for various types ofsignal processing and simulationto reduce the Doppler frequency search step and increase the code period integration time inacquisition. For example, if we integrate raw data for 3ms for acquisition then we need to reducethe Doppler frequency search step to 300Hz.
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This will increase processing speed but help us indetecting weak signals. Also, we need to increase the integration time in tracking loop. This typeof signal processing by changing the parameter values is not possible in conventional GPSreceiver. Figure b shows an example for increase in integration time from 1ms to 3ms. When the integration time is 1ms, the correlation peak is not clear enough to make a decision for satellitevisibility. But, when the integration time is increased to 3ms, we can see a very clear correlationpeak and we can make a decision that a particular satellite is now detected.Figure b (a) Signal acquisition using 1ms integration time. The result is not so clear with multiple peaks. (b)Signal acquisition using 3ms integration time with the same data as in (a). Now, the correlation peak is quiteclear and a decision can be made regarding visibility of satellite.

2.3.5 MULTIPATH MITIGATION TECHNIQUE

In spite of continuing improvements in GPS receivers and antenna technology, multipath signalhas remained a major source of error in GPS positioning. In order to minimize the error due tomultipath, we need to understand the multipath behaviour and corresponding signalcharacteristics. In order to understand the effect of multipath we can analyze the signal by usingvarious types of correlators (narrow, wide etc) by defining chip delay (listed in Figure a)between early and late chips. We can compute the correlation peak for every code period. Acorrelationpeak will appear as a perfect triangle.

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There has been no effect from multipath. Due tomultipath, the two sides of the triangle will beneither symmetrical nor straight lines. The shapeand amplitude of the triangle is deformed by theamount of multipath and some other noise. Thusby analysing the correlation peak (triangularshape) we can estimate the amount of multipathand hence develop a technique to minimize ormitigate the multipath. In this regard, we areconducting research using left hand and righthand circular polarized GPS antenna to analyzehow the reflected signal (which accounts formultipath) affects a correlation peak. Figure c shows acorrelation peak obtained by processing a rawGPS signal. Correlation peak computed fromraw GPS signal for 0.5 chip delay. The peakshape is not a perfect triangular due to effectfrom multipath

2.3.6REMOTE SENSING USING GPS SIGNAL:


Recently, GPS signals have been used for remote sensing purpose. GPS signals are transmittedat 1.2Ghz and 1.5Ghz in two different bands. This is similar to microwave remote sensing. GPSsignals are transmitted with right hand circular polarization. When, this signal is reflected bysome object the polarization may change from right hand to left hand and vice versa. Thus byobserving the reflected signal together with two different types of antennas with right hand andleft hand polarization, we can predict the object type that reflects the GPS signal. Using
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thistechnique, soil moisture and wind velocity has been estimated. In order to conduct this type of analysis, we need software-based receiver so that wecan process the received signal with different parameter values using our own algorithms. Thereflected signals are much weaker than direct signal and hence a conventional receiver cannotbe used. Also, we need to compute many intermediate values like shape of the correlation peakand its amplitude rather than the position of the GPS antenna itself. This is possible only insoftware-based receivers.Besides these analysis and simulation listed above, we need software-based receiver foranalyzing noise and interference (jamming), simulate new codes, limitation of navigation datalength and many other things. In current GPS signal, the navigation data length is limited to20ms. This impose a restriction on data integration beyond 20ms during the tracking process.However, for tracking very weak signal, we do need to integrate longer data period. Thus weneed to see what will happen if we change the navigation data length from 20ms to somethingelse in our new design. On the other hand we can also have a data less component of the signalin one of the phases of the signal which is now implemented in new forthcoming GPS signals.This assists the receiver in processing weak signals and hence make the receiver capable ofindoor positioning. All these can be simulated if we have software-based receivers. In SGR, wecan generate different types of signals for interference analysis. This will help us how differenttypes of signal with different level of strength affect GPS signal processing. For example, wecan simulate the effect of a TV signal on GPS or we can analyze the effect of other GNSSsignals on GPS or vice versa.

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2.4 FLOW CHART OF GPS WORKING

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TEST PLATFORM FOR RECIEVER

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2.4 WORKING MODEL OF GPS

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2.6 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR GPS

2.6.1 CONTEXT LEVELDIAGRAM FOR GPS

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A handheld gps system gets location data from satellites and the final destination from the user. The system then directs the user to their destination.

2.6.2 LEVEL 1 DFD

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SYSTEM DESIGN ANALYSIS OF GNSS SOFTWARE PART -3

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3.1 INTERFACE DESIGN OF GNSS Spider makes use of Microsoft SQL Database Server Desktop Engine to manage the Configuration, operational parameters settings of GPS receivers and other external devices in the stations. Multiple software modules and components in the system can then access the data from the database simultaneously and this open architecture allows the user customization and flexibility for

The software interface for generating different types of data file in different formatsMoreover the Spider server and the Microsoft SQL Database run automatically andcontinuously as a Windowsservice, so the software modules and database can beautomatically launched once the computer server is started and the whole system can run innormal operating condition according to predefined operational parameters even ifWindowsis not logged or the Spider software
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interface is closed. In case of a total powerfailure, the software will restart as the computer reboots in order to provide full reliability.At the start of the system, the network operator will define the basic GPS station parameterssuch as station name, coordinates, GPS receiver & antenna model, antenna height offset, datarate of GPS receiver as well as other external sensors, data communication ports,automatic data polling intervals and the storage path in the computer server.The Spider server will automatically be linked to each GPS reference station during apredefined interval (e.g. every 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, etc) via differentcommunication strategies as previously discussed and will download the data files stored inthe memory of GPS reference station receivers.Besides, the Spider server will then convert the raw data source to produce various data filesin different data rates, data file lengths and data formats such as Leica MDB proprietaryformat, RINEX format and GPS Hatanaka compressed format to finally store into differentuser assigned locations in the computer server. In case of having GPS reference stationreceivers and Spider server connected by PSTN or wireless dial-up communication, theSpider server can be automatically disconnected the communication line once the data filesare completely downloaded and thus save the communication costs. Furthermore, if thecommunication link is not stable and fails to complete the data downloading, the softwarewill automatically re-download that missing data files in the next downloading interval.

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In addition, the network operator is able to define a FTP server or a Web server address, so Spider server will transmit raw data, RINEX files, and other associated files such as quality checking files and event log files immediately when available or at specific timeintervals to one or multiple FTP or Web servers for an easyaccess by the GPS users community. Different files can be pushed to different FTP servers. The users can share and distribute these data files by the Internet.

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3.2 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT CONSOLE


The console management control of the whole GPS reference station network is illustrated by the network operator has a full operational status view of each GPS reference station of the whole network through the system management console interface. It displays the entire network operation status including connection status, receiver operation status such as powerlevel and memory status of the GPS receiver, data logging and real-time data broadcasting status, satellite tracking status such as the number of tracking satellites on L1 and L2, signal to- noise ratio, azimuth and elevation angles of each satellite; and external meteorology and tilt sensor data statIn case of abnormal behaviors happening in GPS In case of abnormal behaviors happening in GPS reference station such as communicationfailure, receivers power low, low memory space, data logging
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failure or RTK data output failure, then the color of the corresponding functions icons will change and error message will be displayed in order to clearly notify the network operator.

The network operator has a full operational status view of each GPS reference station of thewhole network through the system management console interface. It displays the entirenetwork operation status including connection status, receiver operation status such as power
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3.3 INTEGRITY MONITORING AND ERROR REPORTING MECHANISM


A Spider server produces quality check report file automatically every time it completes the GPS raw data files downloading and the quality control procedure checks the completeness and consistency of all data downloaded, monitors the various communication links and the operation status of the entire system. These quality check report files can also be automatically forwarded to another server or a web platform for any operators inspection. In order to be more efficient and faster response in tackling system and data quality problems, the network operator can define a range of inspection criteria and tolerance values. The diagram 5 shows the checking criteria and tolerance values defined as: GPS receivers related issues: Receivers power voltage, free memory space and internal temperature Receiver start up failure Receiver data logging status Receiver data downloading status Communication link related issues: Communication between Spider server and GPS receivers Upload / Download status FTP data forwarding status Event and alarm sending status Data quality related issues:

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In some countries, there is also an e-mails service to pager forwarding, so this alarm e-mail message can also be shown on the operators pager for immediate problem solving. Moreover, the network operator can make use of Command line processing advanced feature to launch automatically another application script which will launch for instance a SMS messaging program. In addition, this command line processing feature can also be used for performing an integritymonitoring by running other applications such the Teqc +QC developed by UNAVCO. Thenew release of the Leica processing software SKI-Pro can also be invoked automatically forcomputing the GPS baselines in a network adjustment. By this way a comparison can bemade immediately against the known values of the baselines coordinates for a continuouslyand automatically station stability checking which is definitively mandatory for such services.

3.4REMOTE CONTROL & SECURITY

The software is designed in a modern Server / Client architecture and provides a remote GUI client interface that can be installed on any remote computer. Therefore, using Internet TCP/IP networks or dial-up connections, the network operator with this GUI client interface can connect from anywhere to a Spider server which has a fixed IP address assigned. The network operator can remotely monitor the entire GPS network performances and also configure and control a Spider server anywhere in the world which control all connected As an Administrator, the client logged has full control over the Spider server and the GPS receivers. He can start and stop the various operations, create and change the configurationsset parameters and modes, etc. This access right is usually only granted to networksupervisors and operators. However, if the client has only the
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Viewer privileges, he can onlyinspect the system and receiver status but not control the operation of the software andconfiguration parameters setting.

3.5 REAL-TIME DATA BROADCASTING:

The software supports both RTK and DGPS data broadcasting on each networked GPS reference station to be used by RTK and GIS GPS rover users. The real-time data stream can be broadcasted in various formats such as the compacted Leica proprietary, RTCM v2.x CMR and CMR+ through different communication solutions including radio, GSM, ISDNand PSTN network and also Internet. The real-time data can be either transmitted directly from the GPS reference stations in the field or it can be routed back and centralized in the Spider server to be redistributed to the GPS rover users. Other sophisticated data distribution facilities such as Access Servers, web application services and charging mechanisms cancomplete the solution. A list of common use communication devices including various brands of radio modems, GSM terminals and fax modems are already defined in the device interface and the network operator can select the suitable one and configure two streams of real-time data of anynetworked reference station in different formats and output rates via different communication devices simultaneously. This is a flexible solution to meet different users needs and area coverage. It can also work in time-slicing mode for different real-time data streamsbroadcasting of different GPS reference stations in different divided time intervals by usingthe same radio frequency channel without signal interference or jamming problem To broadcast any real-time data over the Internet, the data stream from each GPS reference station needs to be routed to the Spider server and converted and
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forwarded to a unique static IP address and port number of a web server which has a permanent Internet connection. The real-time data stream is continuously available on Internet. Multiple rover users can connected to this Internet Web server by using a Pocket PC with a CDMA or GPRS PCMCIA modem, and then access the real-time data stream from thespecific IP address simultaneously. People can receive real time data corrections from any GPS reference station located in the world for real-time positioning where the wireless CDMA or GPRS signals are available without any geographical distance restriction on corrections transmission. The success of achieving high precision real-time positioning over long baseline length is however still dependent on the resolving integer ambiguity algorithms implemented on the GPS rover receivers. According to the result of a RTK field test done in Beijing PRC in August 2003 by using theSR530 GPS receiver, which accessed real-time data stream from two GPS reference stations in Beijing via Internet, the horizontal accuracy for a short baseline of around 10 km was on the 2 cm level (1 sigma); and for the long baseline test of around 55 km was on the 4 Comment [M1]

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APPENDIX

HISTORY
The GPS System was created and realized by the American Department of Defense (DOD) and was originally based on and run with 24 satellites (21 satellites being required and 3 satellites as replacement). Nowadays, about 30 active satellites orbit the earth in a distance of 20200 km. GPS satellites transmit signals which enable the exact location of a GPS receiver, if it is

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positioned on the surface of the earth, in the earth atmosphere or in a low orbit. GPS is being used in aviation, nautical navigation and for the orientation ashore. Further it is used in land surveying and other applications where the determination of the exact position is required. The GPS signal can be used without a fee by any person in posession of a GPS receiver. The only prerequisite is an unobstructed view of the satellites (or rather of the sky). The correct name of the system is NAVSTAR (Navigation System for Timing and Ranging), but commonly it is referred to as GPS (Global Positioning System).

APPLICATION OF GPS

 Navigation: GPS allows soldiers to find objectives, even in the dark or in unfamiliar territory, and to coordinate troop and supply movement. In the United States armed forces, commanders use the Commanders Digital Assistant and lower ranks use the Soldier Digital Assistan

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 Target tracking: Various military weapons systems use GPS to track potential ground and air targets before flagging them as hostile These weapon systems pass target coordinates to precision-guided munitions to allow them to engage targets accurately. Military aircraft, particularly in air-to-ground roles, use GPS to find targets (for example, gun cameravideo .

 Missile and projectile guidance: GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including ICBMs, cruise missileprecisionguided munitions. Artillery project  Rescue: Downed pilots can be located faster if their position is known.  Reconnaissance: Patrol movement can be managed more closely.

 GPS satellites carry a set of nuclear detonation detectors consisting of an optical sensor (Y-sensor), an X-ray sensor, a dosimeter, and an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) sensor (W-sensor), that form a major portion of the United States Nuclear Detonation.

CONCLUSION
In this project we analysis basic concept that are used in global positioning system. We performed the analysis gps receiverusingGnsssoftware .There are following things that can be concluded from the study:Gps receiver can be implement into two ways:  Hardware based software receiver

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 Software based receiver Gps receiver used bpsk digital modulation technique for satellite signal  It uses wass system with two parameters (corrected gps parametersionospheric parameters).  It uses six sec. time to alarm  It uses Inegrity for Montioring performed with in avionics in the RAIM.  MMR(mulitimode receiver )receive basic gps and wass.  Mathematic Model of Low Cost:This project allows us to differentiate between the accuracy that can be achieved by Appling different models.  Gps receiver used different model for different system.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Principles of digital communication byTaub and Shilling. 2. Sins integrated system for vehicle tracking byCao Fu Xiang, Law 3. GPS Made Easyby Lawrence Letham 4. GPS for Land Surveyorsby Jan Van Sickle 5. GPS Navigation Guideby Jack W. Peters
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6. Modeling and simulating GNSS signal structures and receiver by jonolafurwinkel

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