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• • • • • • Site Selection Office Shelter and Transportation Power Requirements Communications and Data Recording Equipment o Water Testing Kit o Outside Sampling o Personal Safety Equipment o Inside Site Hut o Stationery o Miscellaneous o Additional Equipment for coring Accommodation Timing Pre-drill checklist and Authority to Drill
• • •
Drillsite Setup Daily Drilling Procedures
• • • • • Arrival on site Safety Pre drilling Mud gas detection system setup for mud drilling During Drilling o Chipping o Air drilling o Mud drilling o Coring Evening
• • • • • • • • • •
Gas Flow testing Procedures to convert from mud to air drilling for flow test Estimating gas flow rate in the field Water sampling and testing Estimating water flow rates using V-notch weir Flare lighting Geophysical logging Coal desorption Methane adsorption isotherms
• • • • • • • • • • Gas detector operation Check list for gas detector on night before drilling Check list for gas detector on day of use Importing data into downhole explorer Mud drum design How to determine lag time How to construct a water trap using a 600ml plastic bottle Laptop and internet setup How to send an email from the field using the LG CDMA phone How to send an email from the field using the Kyocera CDMA phone
Contact Details Miscellaneous
• • • Conversion Tables Water flow Table Metric and Imperial conversions
Pre Drilling Site Selection
• • Talk to landholder. They might have areas that are more suited and areas where they don’t want you to go. Make sure the site won’t disturb people or stock. Don’t drill within 400m of the house. Ask if any stock will be in the same area. If so, ask if the stock can be moved to another paddock. If they can’t then fencing will have to be erected around mud pits to stop stock falling in. Good access for drill rig and support equipment. Possible all weather access would be ideal. Scrub maybe ok if it can be cleared. Check with landholder prior to this. Close to water supply. Landholder may have dam closeby. Check with them before hand whether you can use the water, especially in drought conditions. If not, ask if they know where you can get water. As a last resort you may have to get water carted in. Be aware of security concerns. How far away from a main road are you? Can you be seen? Assess security risks and take appropriate action. Ie. Locking everything up at night. Check phone reception for CDMA coverage. If none then take satellite phone when drilling. Look around the place for the best reception and take note.
• • • • •
• • • • • • • Complete Pre-drilling checklist Collect BLIN maps and QVAS for property from DNR (AXA Building, 144 Edward st Brisbane). Forms, compensation cheque and notices sent to appropriate people. Drilling and desorption contracts to be finalised. Drilling proposal to be completed and checked. Template should be available at office. Contact drillers with drilling proposal. They should organise casing and other associated logistics. Signs for onsite ie. Authorised personnel only. Organise other contractor and onsite equipment.
Shelter and Transportation
• • • • • • • • • Site office and toilet from Wreck air/Master hire, 16’x 8’ and should come with table and chairs. Delivery on site or drillers may be able to pick it up. Transportation to and from site (private or rent a car). May have to be taken off road.
Power source. Check with drillers if we can run power off the drill rig using the inverter. Must be steady current. Inverter 600Watt capacity. Extension cords, 3x20m heavy-duty tradesman. 2 power boards (6 outlet). Nickel metal hydride batteries (at least 8) and chargers. Drillers may also supply diesel generator if extra power is needed. Diesel generator will be required for coring. Minimum 12 KVA with 2-phase outlet.
Office. Laptop (all necessary software including Internet explorer. VRAE gas detector with water filters. Owners have a key onsite. calico 11’ x 5’. extra tubing 5. Inside Site Hut o Microscope (Handle with care). pocket knife. o Flow prover 2”npt. zip ties. sediment. . o 10L Bucket. 20x and 40x binocular with light above. Downhole explorer. 10-15m rope (~5mm) and 4 star pickets for drying samples and setting up gas detector near blooie line. o 2x20L jerry cans. charger and spare rechargeable batteries (NiMH). Cables for internet (Modem to phone line). aperture plates. ProRAE suite and report template). Must have key for padlock. o 600ml plastic coke bottles for making field water traps. Data cable.Communication and Data Recording • • • CDMA mobile phone. o 3 medium sized plastic containers for storing chips in before washing. Water Testing Kit o Digital conductivity meter and calibrating solution. o 5L gas bags (Seismic Supply) o 500mL/1L water sampling bottles o 5 compartment. external antennae and recharger. o GPS. Outside Sampling (Gas. hand lens. Drinking water and Chip washing water. camera (digital optional). Phone must be capable of turning into modem to send emails from the field. o Sample bags. Flash card and NiMH batteries Iridium Satellite phone • • Equipment Pick up any equipment from the Storage shed at Centenary Allstore Self Storage. Challenge gas bottle. printer (optional). 43 Oldfield Rd. o Small desk light. o 50 Pegs. water) o Outside worktable (card table).5m of 6mm copper tubing. Personal Safety Equipment o Hard hats o Steel capped boots o Ear plugs o Work gloves. o Cigarette lighter. PCMCIA modem Digital camera. Laptop requires PS2 mouse as to leave the serial port free for gas detector and mobile phone data link. 8 & 10 mm plastic and 1. water traps. first aid kit. data cable. o 3-4 Sieves (1mm from hardware store) of various sizes. clear plastic chip trays for in-house records (seismic supply). o Digital pH meter and buffer solutions for calibrating. o Water quality tables. o fire extinguisher. 6. Up to 200 per hole. Seventeen Mile Rocks. 2 x 1000 kpa pressure gauges.
notebooks. Topographic maps of area and any nearby drillholes. o Old towel or rags for drying hands. snap lock clear bags. o Expanding file to store documents in. o Reference material ie. Additional Equipment for coring • As for standard drilling • 6m x 3m site hut • 12 Kva generator with at least 4 power outlets and 2 phase outlet • Full mud gas detection system including air compressor and agitator barrel • Digital Camera for photography of core. Stationery o Pens. Separate rooms for desorption personnel. Geological textbooks. o Small bottle of HCl acid with dropper. which will help in correlation. • Pens for marking core • Calico Bags • Bucket and brush for washing core Accommodation • • Organise accommodation for yourself and any other contractors. cut lunch and dinner. To be placed near gas detector. o Plastic plates for sediment viewing under microscope. (Leatherman) o Portaloo (If requested or required). $50/m o Steel wire (approx <1mm) for sewing mesh to sieves. o Clipboards o Excel sheets printed out showing time. Attempt to see if they will charge back to the hotel etc. depth. Miscellaneous o Small tool kit including tweezers and shifting spanner. waterproof markers. scissors. post its. sealing tape. Budget on $100/day/person for food and accommodation.o 2 Stacking boxes for samples (plastic or wooden). marine strength sealant. scientific calculator. o Broom o Credit card for purchases. Bottle and dilute to x10). Darra in Brisbane. stapler. o Mesh. (buy conc. computer disks. masking tape. One for washed samples to DME in Zillmere and one for unwashed coal samples to be stored at JD’s. pencils. . 475micron from Seismic Supply. and tripod • Tape for measuring core • Core logging sheets • 4m Plastic core boxes for photographing core. Alarm clock for mornings (start drilling at 7am). o Padlock for site hut. gas readings and lithology. gas seal tape. 110L with wheels (Kmart ~$30 each). extra drill proposals. o Esky and ice block for storage of drinking water and lunch (Optional). Organise place for early breakfast (Around 6am). ruler.
• • Access to phone socket in room for internet to send off daily reports Clothes washing facility (optional) .
Put drillers on hold if they are ready and waiting for you to set up the mud/gas detection system. Logging will take at least 5-6 hours. To pick coring point check prediction section. Earth data to arrive day before coring starts Inform Logging Company everyday before logging is set to take place when nearing the end of the well. They require at least 24hr to get on site. coal and increased gas shows. Contact drillers daily to estimate when the well will be ready for chipping. This should be enough time to allow the cement to cure and to setup and test BOP. Do not start drilling until pre-drilling checklist has been completed and all sections signed off by 2 Directors and the responsible Geologist/Engineer . No chipping is to be conducted until geologist is onsite and mud/gas detection system is installed. Make sure for certain you are in the target formation (Walloon Coal Measures) before switching to coring.Timing • • • • • • Leave approx 24 hours after concrete poured for conductor pipe (surface casing). Look out for increase fine-grained sediments. Call Earth Data a week before drilling starts and call them to tell them when you expect to start coring.
Funding Issues .PRE DRILL CHECKLIST AND AUTHORITY TO DRILL Activity Project Responsible Geol Direct ogist/ or Engi neer Other Director Drill Hole Funding Equity Arrow ________% ________% JV Partners Nominated Responsible Director: Nominated Responsible Project Geologist / Engineer: 1. Technical Issues A Geological Stratigraphic review completed and reported to Responsible Director Seismic data review completed and reported to Responsible Director Magnetic review completed and reported to Responsible Director Gravity review completed and reported to Responsible Director Predicted section completed and reported Arrow engineer hole design completed Drill proposal completed and reported to Director for approval Drill proposal sent to JV partners JV partners approval received for Drill proposal Form M sent to DNRM Form M approval received from state mining engineer B Permits Compensation agreement signed and sighted DNRM notified by ___________________ Freehold land Yes or No OR If No:Culture and heritage approval Native Title clearance sighted by _______ Any other permits required NIL OR Permits from DNRM sighted by _______ 2.
Arrow Staffing Roster settled Notification list completed for daily updates . signed and tabled Cash call issued to JV Partners Cash received from JV Partners Commence date notified and agreed Geologist notified when funding and start date are confirmed Contractors notified of confirmed start date 3.Drill proposal supplied to JV Partners Budget approved by Board AFE issued to JV Partners Driller informed of expected conditions / difficulties by Project Geologist Drill contract approved.
. Drillers and gas detector should be in full site from inside the hut.Drillsite Setup Drilling rig BOP Water Truck/ compressor Drill stem trailor Core Table Diesel generator Mud Pit Site Hut with power hook up to rig or to diesel generator. This setup should be used as a guide only. The site setup will depend on surrounding vegetation. Rope tied to picket for chip drying Flow control unit Gas Detector Flow Line Blooie Line Flare Pit Site hut should be within 30m of drill rig for power. access etc.
Setup outside table with 5”x 7” calico sample bags. Attach external phone antennae to top of site hut (magnetic). safety glasses. Do not attempt to wire it yourself. Signature of attendance is required. microscope. Connect heavy-duty extension leads from inverter/generator to site hut. ignition sources or smoking within 50m of rig Before arriving on site or within site hut check that gas detector is operating within normal parameters. black is negative. Drillers will usually refuel generator every couple of days. • • • • • • • • • . Do not use a 24V battery. Talk to the drillers about what time they want to start. Red is positive. DO NOT REFUEL GENERATOR WITHOUT READING DIESEL MSDS If site hut will be used for a couple of months get an electrician to hard wire the site hut to the generator using a 2 phase plug and cable. ropes and pegs for drying of samples. Setup field laptop. Check rig and surrounding areas for any residual gas. If drilling on mud. hard hat. If two extension leads are used make sure the join is waterproof (wrapped in plastic and is sealed using sealing tape). DO NOT PROCEED WITH ELECTRICITY UNTIL YOU HAVE READ ELECTRICITY MSDS. Some operation may require the use of a generator. this is to be used instead of the invertor. If this is the case. Setup gas detector using the connection welded onto blooie line (if air drilling). Safety Leave all gates as you have found them. Caution must be used when running equipment straight from the generator as surges may occur. Ask driller which battery to use. Generators require refuelling every 24 hours. Try to be onsite in the morning at the same time as the drillers. Also any emergency procedures that should be taken. with the location of fire extinguishers and first aid kit explained and pointed out. At beginning of drilling conduct Safety and Visitor Induction Course. Pre Drilling • Hook up 12V/240V inverter to drill rig 12 volt battery when drill rig is started up. waterproof markers and bucket of water for washing samples. Check that all non-essential vehicles are parked more than 25m away from rig. Setup star pickets. Set temp at 40-50°C 24hrs before coring begins. setup detector using mud trap system as explained in this manual. Daily safety “tool box” meeting to discuss any concerns (Complete form as attached). The 12V battery should on the right side of the rig near the exhaust. or sooner depending on size. Ensure proper personal safety equipment is used. If coring. steel caped boots and ear plugs. setup heat tank and fill with water.Daily Drilling Procedures Arrival on site • • • • • • • • • • Depending on daylight hours will affect what time you should start drilling. sieves (1000 micron and 475 micron mesh). During summer it might be beneficial to start earlier because the sun is up earlier. Try to get at least 10 hours of drilling a day. Ie. Use a couple of star pickets to hang detector. tubing and clipboard folder containing spreadsheets to record gas and drilling rates. No naked flames.
Gas detector can be setup near the rig with a star picket to hang it from. Hook up hose from air compressor to regulator. Make sure hoses are secure and won’t detach from the gas detector. Air compressor requires refuelling every 3-4 hrs.Mud Gas Detection System Setup for mud drilling Requirements: Air Compressor (JD Drilling. Attach hose from gas outlet to water traps and finally the gas detector. Tie agitator to a star picket and place inside metal drum. 8mm. . fuel filters and water traps) Engine Oil. (JD also has and electric air compressor which can be run off the generator) Agitator Regulator Mud drum Plastic tubing (10mm. the mud should flow into the metal drum where the agitator expels the mud. Check regularly to see that water is coming out of the outlet on the agitator. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Every well site will be different so changes to the setup of the mud gas detection system will depend on the conditions. Hoses should be kept out of the way of the drillers in case they trip over them. DO NOT REFUEL UNTIL YOU HAVE READ LEAD REPLACEMENT FUEL MSDS. The agitator should expel a steady stream of water out of the side. Check regularly that any hoses have not fallen out Check mud system occasionally by adding some sodium carbide to the mud and the drum and watching for the gas spike. If not then the drum maybe full of sediment and the agitator maybe unable to spin. When attaching tubing or combining two different sized hoses use a hose clamp to seal them. 5mm and 2mm in various lengths) Hose clamps Star picket Water traps (coke bottle traps. Try to minimize leaks in all hose. (The star picket should lay across the gap in the mud pit and may have to be raised with wooden blocks to get the height right). with lead replacement fuel. Attach tubing from outlet of the air pump to a water trap and the other end to the gas detector. Place metal drum below the flow T and the mud chute. When drilling. The outlet should be above the rim of the metal drum. Experiment with different ways of securing the agitator. Lift out the agitator and scoop out the sediment. Make sure the agitator is spinning before placing it back in the drum and that a steady stream of water comes out the side.
.Hose from air compressor Agitator Water Exhaust Hose to gas detector nearby Mud trap drum Mud chute from Flow T Mud/gas trap system for drilling with mud.
Concentrated HCl is very corrosive and should be handled with extreme caution. but still be able to react with any calcite. This could tell you what’s going on without being next to the drillers. samples should be hung out to dry. sandstone or siltstone. Hole Name and what type of sample it is (eg washed. This allows easy track of depth. Once the chips are described and data inputted into excel. Remember to take into account lag time. Rows should be around 50m in length containing 50 x 1m samples. For HCl get a small glass dropper bottle and pour about a fifth of concentrated HCl into bottle. Having the sediment on the ground may help work out where in the section you are. The drillers also know what they are drilling through. Even the smallest detail may provide useful when trying to correlate or work out where you are in the section. cement (dilute HCl acid in dropper bottle) and anything else that should be recorded. Coal is usually black or brown and forms conchoidal fractures when it is drilled. predominant chip sample. sorting.During Drilling Do not proceed with drilling if: • You or anyone on site has not read the safety manual and completed Arrow Energy’s Pre-drilling and visitor induction course. unwashed 500g etc). collecting at least 200grams (Or whatever is stated in the drill proposal). Fill rest of dropper with water. Replace water if it becomes too dirty and not washing away mud. • You are on sure about gas detector operation. whether it is coal. The engine pitch will also change as the drill bit will speed up when going through coal. (Read MSDS on HCl and how to handle dangerous chemicals within safety manual). Once dried. When you hit coal the cable will unravel quickly. Wash samples in sieves to remove excess drilling mud. The steel cable attached to the Kelly gives the best indication of drilling rate. The concentration should be low enough to be able to put on skin and not burn. Sample every 3 meters. colour. remove bags from drying line and place a small representative sample within the clear. This is useful to know as there is always some lag time when drilling with mud and the chips may come up later. It is also important for someone to watch the drilling breaks. 110L plastic containers that are clearly labelled with Arrow Energy. Talk to the drillers regularly and ask for their opinions on what kind of lithology they are drilling through. rounding. Use judgement to determine what is drilling mud and what is actually clay coming from the formation. Place excess sediment on ground to keep track of depth and lithology. When describing chips note grain size. This allows you to estimate how much coal there was and what depth it was at. Coal is drilled very quickly and can be noticed by the drill bit jumping. 5 compartment trays to be used in the office. • • • • • • • • • • • . or have not read instruction manual or had operation demonstration Chipping • • Setup 3 plastic buckets for drillers or field hand to place sediment caught every meter. Get to know the drill rig engine noises and what correlates to what. Pack bags into clear.
Thoroughly log the core inserting sampled coals.Air Drilling • • • • Setup sieve to collect chip sample from valve on blooie line. only take the best 1m sample. For example if a 2m seam is intersected. which are likely to have more gas then more samples maybe required to get the best reserve estimates later on. Experiment with different sieves and sizes to work out the best option. Place on outer edge of chute so that there is a steady stream flowing into it and not the full force. Press “Y” to restart pump. the pump on the gas detector will stall. The cuttings will hopefully fall to the bottom while the mud overflows. Once core is recovered and brought to surface. If there is too much. measure and record drilled versus retrieved core. . Should be a small ball valve on blooie line to put hose to gas detector. If you are constantly not getting any cuttings returns talk to the driller. Check constantly that air is flowing through and at the right pressure. Make sure no mud or water is coming up into the gas detector. Remove coal for desorption. But be wary of formation damage and the type of hole you are drilling (ie production/exploration) • • Coring • • • • • • • • • • • • • As for standard drilling Requires diesel generator to run 24hr a day Desorption company needs water to fill their heat tanks and generator (with fuel) on arrival Arrow Geologist to arrive and set-up air compressor and agitator for gas detection system before chipping and coring commences Drill length of core When drilling through coal packages. Thoroughly clean the remaining core. For important formations. Even try a bucket sitting under the mud chute.e. (i. Mud Drilling • • Setup 475 micron sieve and collect sediment out of the drilling mud. This is only a temporary solution and the stocking may have to be replaced at regular intervals. Only take representative samples of each seam. Don’t put the stocking into the full flow of the mud. Put the frame on the side of the bucket and make sure the majority of the stocking is sitting in the drilling mud. core to be recovered and coal placed in canister as soon as possible. If this doesn’t work as well try using some stockings tied to an old sieve frame. Tie a knot in the leg. as this will cause tears. Record all coal thicknesses on the log. Box core for logging and photography marking where coal is missing with a wooden block showing depth and thickness of sample taken. They may thicken the mud up a bit. core retrieved before adding drill stem). Cut the stocking in half and use one leg at a time.5mm wire. Place a plastic bucket will holes cut in the side so as to let the mud flow out. Turn handle to control amount of fluid and chips coming out. as the stocking will stretch. Check regularly that the water traps are working and empty them of water. Quickly wash excess drilling mud of the core. The 475micron mesh should be sewn onto existing sieves with 0. recording depth from and to of coal and brief description. Put the bucket beneath the mud chute in the drilling mud.
For example KN-1 234. a week before and in the days leading up to the end of the well so they are on site to log as soon as the hole is finished. Make sure to turn on the datalog again. Insert a digital log of the core with gas readings at the end of the report.• • • Photograph core. Keep a running total for the well for each interval on the Daily Drilling Report. write with permanent mark on the outside of the trays the Depth From and Depth To of the tray. • Remove 20-30cm representative sample of the Tangalooma and Eurombah sandstones. depth from. Usually four photographs per box. • Place filled core trays onto a shipping pallet. If coal is intersected in the bottom of the last run then another run will have to be completed until you are out of the coal. Write down in folder the depth range of each box and the photo range (4 photos). • Constantly check gas detector battery throughout day. Water pressure is usually high. This could give you an idea on what you are drilling through. • Drillers can also tell if the coal is tight by the water pressure when drilling through the coals. • Daily Drilling Report every night should include summary of: Days Operations Number. . size. • Once the trays are stacked. • It is important to be aware of daily finishing depths. The pallet should be positioned out of the way of the drillers. Fine-grained sediments usually take longer to core. second photo of box 234. If gas detector battery goes flat then hook inverter up to rig battery and run extension lead to the gas detector. label and place in bags for possible porosity and permeability testing. and well name.67b (Kogan North-1. Tests the coals yourself by trying to break it up in your hand. • Repeat above for each core barrel. Record on daily drilling reports and downhole. with scale and mark box with. meters drilled and recovered Net coal for day and Total coal for the well.67m) • Remove samples of coal noting depth and thickness taken. Brief interpretations of where you think you are in the section. It should last all day but you never know. Keep in touch with the logging company. • Watch the penetration rate out on the drilling platform as wells as the water pressure. • Take note of coal for cleats and fractures etc. • At the end of each day circulate for 20mins to get the rest of the gas readings (lag time). Depth At and order of photos. Use this convention: Abbreviated well name. This time will vary depending of depth. Take special note of possible completion zones and take extra sandstone samples that may pose problems when completing later on. If the coal is permeable you will lose water pressure and will drill quickly through it. • Enter data into computer and digitise the core log into excel. depth to. At night download the photos and rename the photos. This could indicate permeability. Talk to desorption contractors about rates of desorption as this is an early indication of whether the seams contain a lot of gas and also if they are permeable. Talk to drillers as they will have an approximate idea of lag time. and any other clean looking sand units (~4 sand samples per well). Take specific notes on how thick each coal is as well as how much is taken for desorption. as it is better to finish an hour or so early then leaving coal seams open to release gas overnight. and depth of coal desorption samples Number of core barrels. The core trays usually come with a pallet or the drillers may have one which they brought their cement and mud additives on.
Open up Microsoft Outlook express. TAKE ALL RUBBISH WITH YOU WHEN YOU LEAVE If site hut is not required then pack up the entire site hut. Andy Kozak (DNRM) or any other email address that is given to you. Earth Data personnel can pack up and leave. Once coring is complete. If hole is being completed as a producer then Arrow engineer may take over supervision of the well. Take all rubbish with you when you go. Leave lights on for Earth Data night shift. Download data from gas detector. Download data from the gas detector onto the laptop and into excel. Pack up the mud/gas detection system. batteries and mobile phones. Dial zero to get outside line. Hole Completion Once you have reached TD call the office or the person in charge to confirm depth. Readings should be every 15 secs. Place agitator in bucket of water to clean off any mud. Fold up any table and chairs. Geophysicallly log hole. Save a copy of the data file and the excel file. . If using petrol air compressor then refill jerry car with correct fuel every second day. Evening • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Make sure everything is packed up and locked into the site hut. Also estimate lag time and take into account this when determining gas readings per metre. Noting that the gas detector measures in time not depth so you have to convert. Contact the hire company to organise pick up of the hut. Pack up all equipment and store in the site hut. Input all data into downhole and create pdf of updated well summary. It should be already be setup for email use. Watch the logger while the hole is being logged to make sure that the results are what they should be. any joint venture partners.• • • Pack-up site while the well is being logged. Refill water bottles.90 PCMCIA fax modem into slot and attach cord from modem to telephone socket. Save excel files and downhole explorer files. Bring all necessary samples back to Brisbane. The inverter can stay in the battery housing. Use the daily log sheet and determine the average gas reading per metre drilled. Recharge gas detector. Put V. Daily report should be written continuously during the day so in the evening there is little to do. Get a copy digital and paper copy of the logs from the logger before they leave to return to the office. Making sure that the dialling properties are correct ie. Compose message to all board members. Sweep out site hut. If coring place an empty plastic core tray up side down over the core and tape it down with silver tape. Take jerry can back to hotel to fill with water for washing chips.
stopwatch. Fold up rubber tube and wrap sealing tape around end. Another gas other than methane can be recognised by methane levels staying the same and oxygen dropping in concentration. • Gas should start to come out of the end. • Open the valve that connects the flow line to the flow prover. The air compressor will be turned off. They will acknowledge to you that everything is fine to proceed and they will open the valves on the flow control unit. Use the gas detector to make sure there is methane coming out. . • When flow test is complete tell the drillers and they will shut off the valves on the flow control unit. • Take pressure readings every minute until pressure stabilises. depth sampled. • Take out gas detector. notebook. gas bag and rubber hose.Well Testing Gas Flow Testing DO NOT PROCEED WITH FLOW TEST WITHOUT READING FREE/SAMPLED METHANE MSDS The timing of flow tests will vary depending on location and drilling method • Once you have penetrated coals and gas readings are high tell drillers to stop and do a flow test. hole name. Note final pressure. date sampled and any other relevant information. scissors. pen. Cut off rubber tubing and place end near flow to collect gas. • After flow test is completed collect gas sample in silver gas bag. Leave flow prover open to allow gas to escape from the flow line. The valve connecting the flow line to the flow prover should be closed. Do not leave in direct sunlight. Allow room for heat expansion. • The drillers will check that the BOP is operational and that there are no leaks. Start stopwatch and note pressure gauge. • The drillers will setup up everything making sure that the valves on the flow control unit (which is attached to flow line) are closed. • Attach flow prover with pressure gauge to end of flow line noting the size of the choke used. • Check using the gas detector that gas coming out is methane. Write on bag Arrow Energy. DO NOT FILL GAS BAG UP COMPLETELY.
Withdraw rods. Adjust flow T.To convert from mud drilling to air drilling to do gas flow test (not recommended) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • If any aquifer is open ie. High water flow may also kill gas flow. Cannot be done on a core hole. Remove bit. Recommence drilling. Test BOP. Springbok Sandstone then test will be useless due to the amount of water entering the hole. Warning: Exposing hole to large water flow again will cause instability . Withdraw rods and put bit on. May have to be done in stages. Remove rotating head. Drillers strongly recommend not doing it. 30-60 min for flow test. May take up to at least ¾ to a day to complete. (If hole collapses then bit and rods will be stuck in hole and impossible to retrieve. Circulate mud. Connect blooie line Run down rods Attach rotating head Flush hole of mud. Disconnect blooie line. Puts rods back down hole. Pressurise hole. Coal may also contain large amounts of water and will kill gas flow thus wasting an entire day drilling and upwards of $2500.) Move Flow T in line with blooie line.
51 43.Estimating Gas Flow rate in field All flow rates calculated using standard choke nipple gas flow equation (gravity and temperature are unknown): Q = C x (P + 15) 18 Q = Flow rate in MCF per day at a pressure of 14.13 112.4 psi and a temperature base of 60° F C = Coefficient (see table below) P = Pressure in psi 1 psi = 6.99 Note: The above formula is used to approximate gas flow for field estimates only.74 260. .72 179.25 14.21 Choke Size (Inches) 7/16 ½ 5/8 3/4 Coefficient 85.64 61.89 kpa CHOKE TABLE Choke Size (Inches) 1/8 3/16 ¼ 5/16 3/8 Coefficient 6.44 26.
1L of water is required for testing by ALS to determine water quality. Test water with pH meter and conductivity meter making sure both instruments have been calibrated. Label bottle with Hole name. depth sampled. take a water sample. Conduct test approximately 10 times or more to allow an accurate evaluation of the flow rate. Take two 500ml water bottles and collect water coming out of blooie line or from the choke manifold. as long as they are rinsed out. date sampled and flow rate. If flow rate is to high and flow rate cannot be determined accurately using the bucket method then driller maybe able to construct a v-notch weir board test.Water Sampling and Testing • • • • • • • • • If a significant water flow is encountered or when flow testing. Wash instruments in fresh water before conducting tests. Caution is required due to the possibility of large rock fragment coming out of blooie line.25L plastic water bottles from the shops are also adequate. Determine flow rate in L/s and convert to barrels/day. . Place 10L bucket in front of flow and time how long it takes to fill it (a stopwatch maybe required for high flow rates). Take sample. 1. Fill an extra bottle to conduct field tests on it. Conduct flow rate test.
8m/s2) Vertex angle of the weir (90°) Head over weir crust (ft) Discharge Coefficient This discharge coefficient Cd is used to account for the viscous and surface tension of the flow.Estimating Water Flow Rates using V-notch weir • • A v-notch weir board should be set up when flow rates become to inaccurate when using the 10L bucket method (>3L/s). Before taking a measurement.58 to 0. Then by using that height. Flow rates can be determined by measuring the height above the apex of the 90° v-notch at which the water is flowing over. Typical values of Cd for triangle weirs are in a range of 0. The discharge over the weir can also be determined by the following equation: • • Q = (8/15*Cd*√2g*tan(θ /2))*H(5/2) Q: G: θ : H: Cd: Flow rate (ft3/sec) Acceleration due to gravity (9. 90° H . make sure that everything has reached equilibrium and that the flow over the v-notch is constant.62. Reynolds # and Weber #. It is a function of the vertex angle. work out the flow rate from the table below.
367 4.383 5.583 6.6 155.The following table shows the conversion from height above apex in a V-notch weir to various flow rates.5 217.216 3.082 0.88 67.4 599 13 66 172 356 620 977 1426 1993 2666 3472 4422 5491 Gal/h Barrels/day 8.4 290.7 44.72 38.8 244 425 652 977 1203 1828 2380 3031 3765 .45 0. Head Above Apex (mm) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0.933 L/sec m3/day 1.68 106.783 1.2 18.9 378.7 482.8 2.217 0.5 117.44 7.016 0.233 1.
Talk to the drillers about possible problems with the hole condition. PR and resistivity are similar. If the hole is blocked. The signal will be slightly attenuated but results should be ok (you can lower the scale range on Downhole to show up the logs). Soak sample bag in diesel (supplied by driller). Mae sure density is in g/cc. Take special notice of clays that have the potential to swell and block off the hole. Using safety gloves approach flow with lit bag making sure all onlookers are at least 20m from end on flow line. Advise them of the tools you will need. Send the logger a mud map and directions of how to get to the site. • • • • • • • Geophysical Logging • • • • When well spuds call Australian Logging Services and advise them that drilling is taking place and every few days contact them and advise them of progress. SP/PR and resistivity. Light bag using a lighter at least 20 meters from drill rig and flow line. It is better and more cost effective if the logger is waiting around on site rather than the geologists and drillers waiting for the logger. Ask the logger to call when they are about 90mins away so that it will give the drillers time to circulate the hole and pull drill rods out. Get contact number of the person who will be doing the logging. Once the hole is completed choose a scale you want the logs at. Make sure the logs show coal where you have intersected coal. Another possibility is running the rods just past the blockage and attempting to log the hole again. caliper. Contact them again a few days and 24 hours before TD is expected to be reached. Once completed the drillers will turn off the valves extinguishing the flame. Therefore as soon as the drillers are finished the logger can begin. sonic. Also ensure gas detector is far enough from the end of the Flare line so as not to catch on fire if wind blows flare in its’ direction. Do not proceed unless driller has approved. Once bag is alight driller will open valves on flow control unit to allow gas to flow. Take necessary photos. Use the strat logs you have done up during the well to compare what the logger gets. Light flow and retreat. Remove flow prover and flow line attachment from flow line. Leave gas detector close to end of flow line to ensure that the entire area is not filled with methane. Ensure gas detector is not reading high amounts of methane before lighting torch.Flare Lighting • • • • Ensure you are wearing appropriate safety equipment If a significant gas flow rate is encountered then lighting of the gas maybe required for pictures. then run in the rods to the bottom and log gamma and density through the rods. The logger should ideally arrive first thing in the morning. (Readings every 10cm usually works well) • • • • • • . Extinguish any flame still burning from the lit bag by using either water or dirt. SP isn’t as useful through the Walloons but does give an excellent response going through the Hutton Sandstone. Tie a calico sample bag to end of long stick. density. Make sure logs are depth corrected. Gamma.
generally high density. fast (60-100 ms/ft) High gamma (clays). Results may come back with a high nitrogen to oxygen ratio (we still not to sure why) Request desorption curves out in the field (to be sent every couple of days). If you take a sample too soon there is going to be high argon content. Check lithology logs if coal was recorded if you are unsure. Methane desorbs at a relatively constant rate. You can be putting the logs into downhole while he is doing the next logging run. density and slow. CO2 is only a problem in coals when you have intrusions nearby. Compare your lithology logs with the geophysical logs making sure any anomalies are sorted out or can be explained. slow (120-140 microsecs/ft). which could be interpreted as coal. • • . Request a printout copy of the logs in the field. low density. Print out a set of complete lithology logs from the excel spreadsheet or use the field logs to compare with what the logger is recording. A washout could show up as a low gamma. Usually the longer you leave it until you take a sample. Coal Coal Desorption • • • • • • • After coal is selected and canned it is purged with Argon gas (inert). CO2 desorbs really quickly and then nothing. The data can then be easily imported into excel and manipulated into the spreadsheets. The desorption geologist will know if it is methane desorbing or another gas. Placed into water baths at average reservoir temperature. flushed and circulated again. Make sure that where you have intersected coal matches with the downhole logs. Readings are taken every couple of minutes initially and then decrease over time. Request all digital copies of the files to be in LAS format. When collecting gas samples from desorption canisters wait until at least 5L of gas has been produced. Washouts preferentially occur with weaker rocks ie. They should come up on the screen inside the logger’s truck. Just in case the tool gets stuck on the side of the hole or there has been a significant collapse within the hole. fast Be wary of large washouts that could give false interpretations.• • • • • Ask the logger to put the LAS files onto disk while he is logging. In these cases the hole has to be reamed out. the better the sample will be. resistive Generally low gamma. low density. This is done to allow the gas to purge most of the argon out of the canister. so the curve flattens out very quickly (coals cannot hold the gas). Make sure the drillers stay around until the logger reaches the bottom of the hole. Updates should be sent to head office every 1-2weeks after you have returned from the field. which will affect the results. The rate of desorption (sorption time) will also give an indication of how permeable the coals are. Geophysical Log Characteristics: Coal: Sandstone: Silt/Clay: • • Low gamma.
You also require gas contents from the desorption report. Find below how to interpret methane adsorption isotherms. critical desorption pressure and abandonment pressure. So he doesn’t only test one specific coal from the interval. Turn around could be up to 8 weeks. Basically he gathers all the coal from that interval and crushes it until it is a certain size.Methane Adsorption Isotherms • • • • • • ¼ of each coal sample after desorption is sent to Peter Crosdale at JCU. Approx $1500 per interval Send email telling Peter Crosdale what the intervals are. Ie Kogan. Then takes a sample of this and tests it. Macalister etc. Use isotherms to determine the saturation of the seams. (See below for definitions) .
Water Samples Australian Laboratory Services (ALS) 32 Shand st Stafford Qld Ph. Ask for extended storage) Cutting/Sediment Samples Exploration Data Centre (Core Library) Pineapple St Zillmere Qld Ph (07) 3263 6833 110L plastic containers Sandstone Porosity/Permeability Amdel 35 Stirling st Thebarton SA 5031 Ph (08) 8416 5200 20-30cm Sandstone core Note that all water and gas samples should be clearly marked with identifying features such as hole name.Post Drilling Upon Returning from the field samples are to be taken to the following locations Gas Samples Simtars 2 Smith st Redbank Qld Ph. depth. . AT ALL SITES YOU MUST RECEIVE SOME SORT OF DOCUMETATION SAYING THAT THEY HAVE RECEIVED THE SAMPLES. (07) 3810 6360 (direct) Fax (07) 3810 6388 Desorption contractors may have steel cylinders with gas samples. Plastic containers should be marked with Arrow Energy and Hole Name on top of the lid and on the sides. 3243 7222 2x500ml sampling bottles (Quote No EN/106/03. date sampled.
Make sure downhole explorer file is complete with geophysics and that it works . Transfer all data from laptop to computer hard drive. Complete Form N and fax to Andy Kozak Make sure all paperwork is filed in the correct folder.• • • • • Return any samples or equipment to the storage shed.
time. When downloading data it does not tell you when it switches to VOL%. The spreadsheet should be labelled with the hole name and have date. %LEL. Take note of numbers around the 90 LEL and when it drops to 5 assume it is VOL %. as well as a back up if something happens to the gas detector. once unblocked press ‘Y/+’ ‘L’ will not be displayed if gas detector is in switch over (for CH4 only) mode To display different functions press ‘ON/MODE’ button • Instantaneous reading • Sensor Name • Min (Lowest Value measured so far) • Peak (Highest Value so far) • STEL (last 15 min average) • TWA (accumulated reading/8hrs since monitor turned on) • AVG (running average) • Battery Voltage (pump cuts out at 4.9 Other values for toxic gases are in ppm Oxygen reading Amount of CH4 (LEL – see conversion table) If PUMP flashes. Methane) • Pump Speed H/L (to remain on high) • Comm with PC? (only to be used when not measuring gas) Gas detector should normally be in switch over (for CH4 only) mode to allow readings to be taken in %LEL until 100LEL before it automatically switches to %vol. This allows time to depth conversions and drilling rate to be monitored. depth.Technical Information Gas Detector Operation BEFORE USING GAS DETERTECTOR READ THE MANUACTORS INTRUCTION MANUAL AND OPERATION DEMONSTRATION To turn ON press ‘ON/MODE Button’ To turn OFF press ‘ON/MODE Button’ and hold while detector counts down ‘L’ Flashing means datalog running Screen display 3 L 20. A spreadsheet should be kept near the gas detector to record the gas reading and the time at each meter mark. . Pump should normally be in PROGRAMING MODE to allow any changes to the setup to be made quickly and with little effort. %Vol and comments columns.2 volts ~10hrs on fully charged battery) Readout displays warning when 20-30mins power left • Run time clock and Temperature • Start/Stop Dlog? (start and stop data log) • LEL Gas Name ( i.e. line is blocked.
Check list for gas detector on night before drilling • Download and save to computer the datalog from days use. • Delete downloaded datalog from gas detector • Using computer check configuration making sure − Alarm values okay − Location set − User ID set − Security Level = 2 − User Mode = Display − Pump speed = high − Datalog interval set (15sec) − All gases selected − Manual start/stop datalog • Send configuration to gas detector • Check date and Time are accurate using Gas Detector • Turn-off gas detector and plug in for charging overnight. to ensure accurate averages for each metre record when the drillers stopped and started again. Check detector and line regularly during the day to ensure no problems occur. Save the averaged values as an individual excel spreadsheet as an extra back-up. Make sure back-up batteries are also charged. Within 2 or 3 LEL’s error is acceptable. Ask the driller if he can keep an eye on it and let you know if any problems occur. • • • • . do not rely entirely on him to check it all the time. • Should be done before drilling and once a well. Average readings for each metre (Don’t forget to account for lag time) and insert them into the well file for downhole explorer. Though. Can be done once every couple of days. Export each event individually as a text file to be imported into excel. After every few meters the data should be entered into a spreadsheet in excel. Record on excel spreadsheet the time and gas reading for each metre to allow depth conversions and back-up of data. • Import datalog values into excel and copy in depth values from days recording sheet. These spreadsheets should be within a clipboard folder and placed near the gas detector. Check list for gas detector on day of use • • Check date and Time are accurate Pump challenge gas through line (detector should read 25LEL ) or whatever the percentage on the challenge gas says. DO NOT PROCEED UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THE COMPRESSED METHANE MSDS Reseal Line Start Datalog when ready NOTE: Every time the line-seal is broken or when drillers are not actually drilling.
Sheet 2 etc to the correct name). Click finish and it will then ask for the location of the excel spreadsheet and what version ie. The only type of tables to import will be lithology. Downhole needs a collar file (Hole name. It will then ask for the data fields you want to import. 2000 and then press select workbook. depth from. My best advice is to play around with it to get an idea of how to manipulate the logs. . Interval table should be used for data such as drilling rate. If there are any queries consult the help file or any major difficulties contact David Tullberg from Datamine on 08 9479 1771 • • • • • • • • • • • • . northing. column orientation. The buttons in the bottom left corner can access the individual tables. The spreadsheet should contain a worksheet for each of the data sets collected (Remember to change the name of the worsheets from Sheet 1. Select ODBC (pre release). Select them and press ok. It will ask which table to refresh. For example to header. interval and depth log table. etc Once this is setup open downhole and click new. If any occur check out the original data in the excel spreadsheet. depth to or depth at and the data you are presenting. format columns. You cannot directly input data into downhole. Whatever goes in the data column will be shown in downhole ie. easting. Click new and it will then ask for the type of data eg. density etc) will require headings in the worksheet. long. lat. A stratigraphic log showing a grouping of the tables can also be accessed using these buttons. date spudded etc. It will then ask for you to assign fields to the data. A Depth log table should be used when measuring at specific depths such as water flow rates and gas flow rates and has the Depth At component. It should come up with a list of worksheets within the spreadsheet and select the collar worksheet. Setup Excel spreadsheet as previous holes. When you are importing interval and depth tables use Grade115 when assigning fields. gas readings and geophysical logs as they contain a Depth From and Depth To component. The headings should include hole name. Once these are imported downhole will create a report telling you if there are any inconsistencies with the data. You have to setup the spreadsheet and tell downhole what to import. Downhole already has some (Assigned Fields) for example hole name. Select the spreadsheet extension and click next.xls spreadsheet or database etc. colours etc. drilling rate. Gas flows. northing. Make up a name which I suggest using the hole name. It will ask for collar file and press import. sonic. length of hole to be shown. To change the format of the logs go to format. Each different type of data collected (Lithology. Select the location and press ok and then ok again. Press ok and the data will import. surveys (don’t need to worry since all holes will be vertical). footer. Excel 97. Total Depth. easting. Downhole will then ask for a series of other tables to import eg. Sonic maybe shown as Sonic (microseconds/ft). In this window anything can be changed (See previous logs).Importing Data into Downhole Explorer • • • Downhole works by importing data from spreadsheets or databases. So where you have your table fields match them up with the assigned fields. Once the data is imported it can be manipulated using different visual styles. This is done by pressing data and then refresh. Downhole is set up so that when you add data to the excel file it will change the data automatically.
Remember that problems can occur and stuff up the table. Copy the data into the excel spreadsheet you developed for the hole. .• • • Once the column titles in Excel have been imported they cannot be changed. This file will show a depth at column and the value. Manipulate the data so that it can imported as a interval log table in Downhole ie. They can be changed but you will have to import the table again. the original file should be in LAS format. When importing geophysical logs. Open up excel and click new and then the las file. It should open automatically. Depth from and Depth To column. It maybe easier to delete the sheet and re-import the data again.
. . which will allow the release of gas from the mud and may also help recover a lot more sample.Mud drum design This design has been proposed for a mud drum.
1 stroke = 3. • • • • • Place about ¼ of a plastic cup of carbide in absorbent paper and wrap it up with a rubber band or sticky tape. preferably in non-coal bearing strata (Tangalooma Sandstone) Use these formulas to determine lag time. of strokes / strokes per minute Lag Time = Total time – time to bottom Ask drillers what the RPM is when you do the test and conversion use the below conversions.17 US Gall 297 RPM = 200 US Gall/min 1 Barrel = 42 US Gall/ 35 Imp Gall/ 183. of strokes to pump mud to bottom = (No. Should be done 2-3 times per well. Lag time can also be estimated by the time it takes from when the drillers intersect coal to the time a gas spike is recorded. DO NOT PROCEED WITH TEST UNTIL YOU HAVE READ CALCIUM CARBIDE MSDS. DO NOT GET WET. Just as the driller is about to put the Kelly back on for a new rod put the wrapped up carbide inside the Kelly just before he screws it back on. Record the total time it takes to register a gas spike. The driller should start drilling. CALCIUM CARBIDE REACTS WITH WATER TO FORM LARGE AMOUNTS OF METHANE.How to Determine Lag time This procedure will require the use of calcium carbide. Making sure that the size will fit down the inside of the rod. Max RPM 417 = 317 Gall/min . Begin timing. of barrels inside rods = (Barrels/ft) x (Total depth in feet) No.9 L Place carbide pill in the upper rod before the drillers connect. Total Time = Down time + Up time Barrels/ft = (Inside diameter of rod in inches)2 / 1024 No. of barrels inside rods) / (barrels/stroke) Time to bottom = No.
Clear 75g Selleys Silicone marine sealant. If you hear any air escaping then it is not sealed properly. 10. 3. Allow to set for 10-15min. Skewer or knife with sharp end. Make sure there is a tight fit between the tubing and the bottle. With the lighter heat up the area briefly being careful not to melt it to much. 8. 7. Make 1 small hole (approx 2-3mm) in the harder plastic at the top. . Do not melt the bottle too much as the hole may become too big and wont seal properly. 5. 6. Once a relatively tight fit is achieved spread the sealant around the join between the tubing and the bottle making sure that join is completely sealed. The detector should display ‘pump’ if sealed. 4. Step 3 and 4 may have to be done a few times to push the tubing through. 2. See diagram. 9. Once the area has been softened try to push one piece of the tubing through the hole. Note it takes 24hrs for the sealent to cure properly. Cigarette lighter. Test seals using the gas detector by hooking up the water filter and blocking one end.How to construct a water trap using a 600ml plastic bottle 600ml plastic softdrink bottle or water sampling bottle 10cm pieces of 3mm and 4mm plastic tubing. Or alternatively block off one end and blow into the other. Repeat for other side of bottle. Turn bottle upside down so that the lid is at the bottom. 1.
. 3mm tubing Gas continues Water drops down From blooie line (Water and Gas) 3mm tubing Diagram of simple water trap design.Sealant To gas detector.
7.com Incoming (POP3) Outgoing SMTP Start Microsoft Outlook and select Tools and new account. Make sure that it is set for the 14400 bps modem and that all the dialling properties are correct. 1 and then select). Press select and then Data/Fax in. How to send an email from the field using the LG CDMA phone 1. 2. Open up Microsoft Outlook Express and create new message. If possible large files should be sent at night using the 56K PCMCIA modem. Make sure that the computer and dialling properties is setup for a standard 14400 bps modem. 8. It will come up with the dial in connection window. Press Connect and phone should dial up connection and send message. 6.com mail. Connect data cable to phone and the data cable to the serial port. Large files such as photos etc may prove difficult to send and the phone will cut out. The phone should say “Modem In”. The wizard should start.com) Login Name arrowenergy Password 38394766 mail.bigpond. 4. Microsoft Outlook Setup Obtain: email address you wish to use (arrowenergy3@bigpond. 9. It will ask for the above information. 7.90 Fax modem card. Press send. .bigpond. This is only a small modem and should only be used for sending small email. LG/Kyocera CDMA phone is a standard 14400bps modem. Make sure that the account you have set up is set as the default. (Or press Menu. 5.Laptop Setup (Should be completed and tested prior to going in field) Internet Setup Modem is a standard PCMCIA 56000bps V. Add new account to Mail. Press next to show “Data In” and then select. Once this is completed you should be able to send and receive emails. Telstra is the ISP User Name: arrowenergy To connect to internet The server number is User Name: Password: 0198 308 308 arrowenergy 38394766 133 933 If staying in a hotel make sure the dialling properties are changed if you have to dial “0” to get an outside line. On the phone press ‘Menu” then scroll down to advanced. 3.
Make sure that it is set for the 14400 bps modem and that all the dialing properties are correct. Large files such as photos etc may prove difficult to send and the phone will cut out. 3. 4. Press OK Go down to Network and press OK Press OK on Data/Fax Calls In Select Data. Connect phone to computer using 9 pin serial port. 5. This is only a small modem and should only be used for sending small emails. Press Connect and phone should dial up connection and send message. next call. Phone should read DATA ONLY on screen. 2. It will come up with the dial in connection window. 6. If possible large files should be sent at night using the 56K PCMCIA modem . Open up Microsoft Outlook Express and create new message. Press Menu and cycle right until settings.How to send an email from the field using the Kyocera CDMA phone 1. Press OK Press the back button until back to start. Press send.
au firstname.lastname@example.org 0439 033 351 0417 880 448 0439 039 892 0409 898 044 0408 655 710 0411 044 015 0429 490 013 0427 163 054 0428 766 849 0409 898 044 0407 633 481 0412 529 166 3839 4766 3832 6488 3237 1491 0419 828 190 (08) 9225 4446 JD Drilling Earth Data Pty Ltd Amdel Peter Crossdale Seismic Supply Adsorption Isotherms Re: John Elder or Bob Fox Bill Smith Ron Wilson Michael Wade 46 627 257 (02) 4932 3077 (08) 8416 5200 47 815 195 3375 3300 3376 5188 3268 4700 46 384 444 46 625 622 Australian Logging Services Airmet (Vrae Gas Detector Suppliers) Wreckair (13 18 10) Graham (167 Herries st) Master Hire (Dalby) .au DNRM Anzoil Strike Oil email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.Contact Details Ron Prefontaine Nick Mather Michael Oberhardt Adam Scott Brad Pinder Kent Anson Arrow 1 Arrow 2 Arrow 3 Adam Scott Peter Bubendorfer Bob Day Arrow Energy Office Paul Marshall Andy Kozak Andrew Dodman Andy Lydyard email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.
00 63.80 3.00 27.5 25 22.5 135 PPM 50000 49500 49000 48500 48000 47500 47000 46500 46000 45500 45000 44500 44000 43500 43000 42500 42000 41500 41000 40500 40000 39500 39000 38500 38000 37500 37000 36500 36000 35500 35000 34500 34000 33500 33000 32500 32000 31500 31000 30500 30000 29500 29000 28500 28000 27500 27000 %VOL 5.05 2.80 1.00 65.85 3.5 215 212.00 74.55 1.00 62.00 42.10 3.30 4.00 88.60 3.30 0.5 90 87.5 185 182.00 1.00 12.70 4.5 160 157.45 1.00 90.70 0.5 195 192.90 0.40 3.00 10.00 Units 125 122.00 19.15 3.00 18.55 3.60 4.65 0.25 4.95 3.30 3.00 40.75 0.00 97.00 26.00 31.25 0.60 0.00 83.00 15.5 30 27.45 3.50 1.30 1.00 72.00 36.00 34.5 15 12.00 66.5 205 202.00 14.95 1.90 4.5 180 177.00 35.10 2.5 80 77.5 230 227.00 29.5 155 152.00 17.5 105 102.00 94.00 59.5 150 147.85 1.00 86.00 92.00 32.5 100 97.00 13.40 4.80 2.95 2.5 20 17.00 80.00 78.00 77.5 95 92.00 46.15 4.00 11.00 93.5 235 232.00 0.60 1.00 61.00 91.05 1.20 LEL 50.00 49.00 3.85 2.00 4.75 4.5 85 82.00 33.5 190 187.65 3.75 2.00 5.00 37.00 81.20 2.05 4.90 2.55 4.45 0.50 0.00 28.00 16.90 1.00 68.00 8.05 3.00 55.00 48.00 67.5 115 112.35 2.00 41.5 110 107.5 170 167.5 65 62.45 2.5 145 142.5 120 117.00 .15 2.00 7.40 2.5 220 217.00 82.25 3.15 1.5 140 137.00 44.00 6.00 38.5 40 37.65 1.00 76.80 4.00 22.00 73.00 4.5 75 72.00 60.20 1.00 64.00 20.35 3.00 24.00 56.00 2.00 54.50 4.70 3.5 35 32.00 75.00 21.85 4.5 70 67.75 3.90 3.55 0.5 245 242.35 0.Miscellaneous Conversion Tables Units 250 247.00 57.20 4.65 4.40 1.85 0.00 30.50 2.5 10 PPM 25000 24500 24000 23500 23000 22500 22000 21500 21000 20500 20000 19500 19000 18500 18000 17500 17000 16500 16000 15500 15000 14500 14000 13500 13000 12500 12000 11500 11000 10500 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 %VOL 2.00 71.00 45.50 3.00 47.00 85.5 240 237.00 98.95 0.00 9.00 70.00 99.30 2.35 4.80 0.00 23.45 4.25 2.00 69.5 55 52.00 58.5 50 47.5 60 57.5 210 207.00 79.00 96.5 175 172.20 3.5 165 162.75 1.5 45 42.00 87.10 1.00 25.70 1.5 200 197.10 4.00 43.00 39.00 95.00 89.95 4.25 1.40 0.00 84.5 225 222.70 LEL 100.35 1.
Water Flow Table L/s 0.785 L.54cm.0833 ft.5 0. 5280 ft. 0. 1 ft = 0.25 0.5 3 3.205 lb Temperature in °F = (T in °C x 9/5) + 32 . 1 US gallon = 3. 0.02778 yards. 1 kg = 2.5 2 2.5 Barrels of water/day 136 271 407 543 815 1086 1358 1630 1901 Metric and Imperial conversions 1 inch = 2.75 1 1.3048m. 0. 12 inches. 1 mile = 1609m.0238 bbl pet.
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