THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM

By Michael D. King Prezi Presentation Link "The Flipped Classroom" Teacher as a Facilitator The flipped classroom provides avenues for teachers to become facilitators of learning and move away from the saga on a stage approach to teaching. The foundational concepts of instructors guiding students or facilitating their progress are based on the idea that the instructor is no longer at the center of the interaction and application of knowledge. The instructor remains available to students as a facilitator of resources, a resource who should frequently check students for understanding for their learning. The teacher, when necessary will provide guidance in how to process the information for a unit of study. The facilitators role in a flipped classroom changes dramatically in that the teacher becomes a source to students in how to better use the resources, process information and how to apply the core concepts to real life situations.
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Flipped Classroom Defined In the flipped classroom, students are at the center of knowledge obtainment and are linked to the process in engaged activities as they are asked to perform authentic task. Along with the challenge of being a guide to the side comes the challenge to develop new skills in facilitation. These new instructional strategies, are to include being able to facilitate the learning process without influencing student choices or work and being able to oversee the growth and development of students throughout a unit of study so that they can contribute clearly and definitively to their own learning.

The second idea behind flipping a classroom is to reduce the amount of time spent in class on lecturing, and opening up more class time for the use of active learning strategies. These active learning strategies should be based on effective highly engaging strategies that promote student interaction. Student interaction should focus primarily on understanding and application than on recall of facts, while not sacrificing presentation of the factual base. These types of interactive practices will become even more evident as teachers experience

performance based assessment that are soon to surface on the Common Core horizon. In the near future these assessment will practically shift teaching in providing students with more control over their own learning while giving students a greater sense of their own responsibility for their learning. High engaging classrooms also provide students with more opportunities to learn from their peers through collaborative opportunities.

The model of flipped classroom seeks to alter what has been traditionally inside the classroom by moving lectures to outside the classroom. Instead the delivery of rote lecture content is placed online for students to study outside of class. The use of time inside the class is opened up for learning-based activities. Lecture material out of the classroom is accomplished through online screen-casting, vodcasting and podcasting of content. The overall goal is to extend learning time conversation outside of class through threaded discussion and move “homework” into the classroom where the instructor can serve as “guide.”

Flipping Your Classroom Learning is one of the most valuable of all human activities while time is the fundamental key to all learning activities. Increasing the amount of time available for learning and making it more productive are keys to improved learning. Both learning and time is central to the teachers responsibility to manage. Yet, American students have less learning time allocated to them than do students in other industrial countries. The idea of time and learning describes scheduled time as the umbrella component from which the allotted instructional time and learning time are achieved. Scheduled time, therefore, must be maximized so that, ultimately, high amounts of instructional and learning time can be obtained. For these reasons, educators must think carefully about how time is used in the classroom, especially when Common Core standards are applied.
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Due to deep changes in technology, education is entering a new age where students can participate in their own expansion of knowledge like never before. First, students are not the same students as they were ten years ago. In fact, the "My Space" generation is the largest online community in the world, where over100 million young people hang out daily. Since these known variables are now prevalent in today's classrooms, students of today strive on interacting using digital media. This, of course, also provides new avenues to be considered for

instructional practices. Educators of today's classrooms should design extended learning opportunities in ways that immerse students in content by using various existing technology tools that include wiki’s, blogs, and flipping their classrooms to avoid frontal delivery strategies.

The premise behind a flipped classroom is to initiate a new way of delivering content that appeals to today's students. In such classrooms, students will become self paced learners who have ownership in making choices of when and where extended learning will occur. This is not to say that flipped classrooms are to be synonyms with watching videos and placed in isolation with self paced lessons. On the contrary, flipped classrooms are very dynamic and highly engaged learning environments. The flipped classrooms are collaborative environments where teachers are facilitators of learning; where students are constantly interacting within an authentic learning environment using flip content to expand and produce in-depth knowledge. It is in the expansion of knowledge where flipped classrooms are unique.

In a flipped classroom students view short content videos in their subjects that are directly related to Common Core standards. These videos can be viewed multiple times to ensure the obtainment of content during group work or after a teacher checks for student understanding. Viewing content the flip way is to insure skill obtainment as these skills are applied to authentic assignments that are real world and relevant. The relevance to the task is where the teacher facilitates the learning to ensure students are engaged with knowledge exactness. In the flipped classroom students work through the problems during class time either in small, large groups, and at times individually to ensure mastery. It creates a student centered personalized learning environment. The premise behind the flipped classroom is to expand educational delivery in ways to include real time learning opportunities. These classrooms construct learning in ways that help children experience what they are learning and immerse students in the learning process. In these classrooms, students are more apt to participate in the learning modalities of interacting, listening, viewing and valuing their education.
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Personal Learning Environments in the Flipped Classroom The flipped classroom has its roots in creating personal learning environments for students. In these classrooms technology tools and points of information referencing become a viable foundation in supporting student learning. The PLE (Personal Learning Environment)

distinguishes the role of the individual as a self motivated learner who is capable in organizing his or her own learning through facilitation and instructional guidance. The creation of a PLE is based on the idea that learning can and will take place in co-collaborative learning environments and will not be provided by a single "one shoe fits all" learning provider.

To expand this thought of learning and how personal learning can be a motivating factor in human development would be to explore Lakhani and Wolf's work in intrinsic motivation. Lakhani and Wolf discovered, out of 684 surveys, "that enjoyment-based intrinsic motivation is the strongest and most pervasive drive for learning." In fact, most classrooms in America remain routine, unchallenging as they are directed by frontal delivery models set in motion in the early 1900's. What seems to be most reconciling is that most schools are still harnessing the algorithmic pathways to learning even after implementing Common Core standards within the curriculums delivery system. What is most apparent in the Common Core is that tasks are to be authentic. That is algorithmic tasks are no longer palatable for determining success in school. What is palatable is a more heuristic approach to constructing learning task that use multiple skills that allow experimentations for solutions. The heuristic flipped classrooms of the future must illustrate other aspects of experience in which a student is immersed. Students need to grasp larger patterns. The part is always embedded in wholes, the fact is always embedded in multiple contexts, and a subject is always related to many other issues and content.
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How to Support PLE's (Personal Learning Environments) in the Flipped Classroom In today's digital world where multiple task are required in student learning we must begin to teach students how to function in a dynamic organizational systems. These skills involve invariable adjustments to setting priorities, performing multidimensional task, evening out workloads, adjusting timeframes, prioritizing tasks and navigating networks. All of these skills in the near future will become less teacher-directed and more student-directed.

In the past teachers have taught organizational skills in a static system within a structured format. This delivery format took on the model of breaking down tasks and asking students to explicitly complete very defined units of information, such as do as I do and you will learn. A typical classroom instructional practice for developing organizational skills would include,

record my notes from the board, write your name on your paper directive, or complete your assignment on time.

Classrooms of the future especially when moving over to the common core will require a more diverse approach to the development of organizational skills, especially when working in a digital environment. The purpose of this section of Organizational Tools is to provide resource information on the types of open software applications that are designed to help learners organize their digital learning environments. One application that seems to provide substance to organization within the digital world is Symbaloo.

‘Symbaloo’ is a Greek verb that stands for ‘assembling’ and serves an assembly dashboard for bookmarking frequently used Web2.0 tools. Users can personalize their own set of Web 2.0 tools as a carpenter would keep their tools in a tool box. Additional tabs can be created to formulate sub categories for tools that can include frequently used sites for mixing content, storing content or generating content. In the education world Symbaloo not only serves as a book mark for frequently used Web 2.0 tools but can serve as an assignment marker for created content. Symbaloo can also serve as a tool for helping students to stay organized. Each time a student is taught how to use a new Web 2.0 resource a student can post an interactive link to their symbaloo navigation board. (See Symbaloo User Guide)
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How to Create a Flipped Classroom “Flipping” a classroom refers a new approach to teaching in which the students are allowed to participate in a mobile learning environment. To create a flipped classroom the teacher will need to create a plethora of videos, podcasts or vodcasts that substitute for classroom lectures. These mobile learning media rich lessons are posted to a blog, or wiki, allowing students to have on demand access to learning and the review of learning at all times. These resources of vodcast, podcast, or video streams from the internet are the skill sets represented within the standards.

To get started, a teacher would simply provide an open source platform for students to view and select assignments. A great resource for obtaining skill based screen cast in math and science has already been created by Salman Khan. At the Khan Academy teachers can select

specific screen cast that match the Common Core standards selected for a unit of study. From this resource the teacher easily incorporates what is available on the Khan Academy website and begin creating their own set of screen cast for supplemental skill enhancements.

How to Construct Screen Cast Wikipedia defines screenshot as, "a screen capture, or screen dump is an image taken by the computer to record the visible items displayed on the monitor or another visual output device. Usually this is a digital image taken by the host operating system or software running on the computer device, but it can also be a capture made by a camera or a device intercepting the video output of the computer. Screenshots, screen dumps, or screen captures can be used to demonstrate a program, a particular problem a user might be having or generally when computer output needs to be shown to others or archived, or to simply show off what you do on your computer to others."

For teachers, screen capture software can be an extremely effective tool when introducing new skills to students. Teachers, are often faced with the task of teaching skills that take multiple learning sequences to learn. To reinforce the development of specific skills sets, teachers can make use of screen recording software such as Camtasia Studio, Screencast-o6

matic, Jing, Wink or CamStudio to develop video tutorials that introduce Common Core skills needed to complete a particular task.

The video tutorials can be made readily available and accessed on demand by learners who require additional support with using a Web 2.0 technology. Screen cast tutorials may include simple tasks such as Find an Unknown in a Proportion, to more complex task of using CPI Index in economics problem. Instructional recorded tutorials that demonstrate how to use an application can be created by the teacher in about the same time it takes to teach the skill.

Screen Captures in Flipped Classrooms One use of screen recording software is the creation of animated learning material for a digitally composed interactive lesson. Animations can be created with your favorite application such as using avatars in a PowerPoint presentation and then recording the screen in Camtasia to capture the animation. Teachers can also edit the recording by transferring the file to either

your imovie or MovieMaker video software editor and create additional voiceovers or lay down music tracks. For more information on Screen Captures in the Flipped Classroom go to http://digitalsandbox.weebly.com/flipped-classroom.html

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