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Complete the Learning Cycle with Peer-Editing

your students must learn to develop an editorial eye by continuously re-engaging each piece of editor.shtml. No one (not even famous writers).0 blog at EarnMyDegree. Provide plenty of room for positive comments and train your students in what positive. It also wouldn¶t hurt if teachers didn¶t kill themselves with the amount of time they have to put in marking up assignments. it is important to give the students the maximum amount of feedback but the process of evaluation should also provide a venue for the maximum amount of learning. have the class follow these four steps: 1. For your students to receive the maximum benefit from the writing process (and for you to retain some sense of sanity).emints. An Adjunct Faculty member with both Antioch University and the University of Phoenix. gets everything right the first time. As with all instruction. March 3.bedfordstmartins. Have the students exchange papers and evaluate each other¶s work using the colored rubric sheets. instructor. If you¶re leaving school even more tired than your students you may want to reconsider your methods. To create an effective peer editing environment first you must create a rubric that targets the objectives for each assignment. Then. This rubric may be based on the classic 6-traits: http://www. It¶s helpful to include a list of the most common errors: http://bcs. learning should be even more exhausting. It is always hard to edit one¶s own work so exchanging papers gives each writer a fresh pair of eyes and it also allows them the new perspective in which to apply their editorial skills. It¶s also good idea to make these sheets a different color. One of the biggest consumptions of teachers¶ time is the correcting and grading of writing. Writing and evaluation are two sides of the same coin. and entrepreneur based in Seattle.Wednesday. peer editing should be an integral part of your instructional Vincent writes for the Education 3. you are removing half the learning cycle. While teaching is tough work. Washington. . If you¶re doing all the editing yourself. helpful (yet honest) feedback looks 2010 at 09:00AM By Vincent Kovar Vincent Kovar is a writer. To grow as writers. but it should always include additional details and examples of both good and poor writing.

the learning will gear up to progress faster than you ever thought possible. The first set of scores is for their own (corrected) work and the second for the editing they performed. Students will have their work completed more often. If you see certain errors cropping up repeatedly (for either the writer or editors) assign supplemental worksheets for the individual teams. this second set of points is for the peer review they gave. he or she loses points. peer-editing has several other advantages: y y Strong editors will become highly sought after by their peers. the editor also loses points. Remember. This second score is based on two things: y y The thoroughness and usefulness of their editing The final product of their writing partner If a student turns in an assignment which does not correct the errors their partner identified. Thoroughness and attention to detail will become traits of positive competition in the classroom. not the one they received. have the student writers correct their own papers. The students each receive two sets of points. students are less likely to give (or accept) them with their peers. Use the combined feedback to plan future lessons. When they turn the assignment in to you they should staple or clip together (a) the revised paper and (b) the editing sheet they received with a classmate¶s name on it. if the writer turns in work which contains errors not identified in the peer-edit. Bear in mind that the editorial process should take at least as long as the writing process. The editorial process should be viewed as its own assignment. While they may have excuses ready for a teacher. When the editor finds an error. Aside from the reduced workload on the teacher and the increased speed of writing improvement. Peer editing is a skill highly desired by employers and one that is used in higher education. The students should put their own name as the ³editor´ at the top of the colored feedback sheets that they fill-out. y y y . The first couple rounds may be slow going but quite quickly. However. 4. they should not only mark it but find a relevant reference in their text that explains why this is an error and how to fix it. The writer and editor are a team. The process increases autonomy and self-directed improvement as a life-long skill. Based on the feedback they receive. 3.2.

but the opportunity to build new skills is undeniable. and creative non-fiction. Here are 10 self-paced writing courses to explore in your spare time. A Rose for guide to Business School. Credit is not available for any of the courses and degrees are not awarded. and The Chrysanthemums) as well as discussion on each story to facilitate understanding of the short story form. Teaching Writing 10 Free Online Courses for Writing Teachers Thursday. February 18. Decades of educational research support the use of peer editing. Doing the all the revision for your students isn¶t helping them learn. teachers will find their grading time dramatically cut and they will be able to spend that time giving more sustentative feedback with less focus on mechanical errors and sloppy proofreading. Taking writing courses can help writing teachers become better writers. 2010 at 09:54AM This is a second post from education writer Karen Schweitzer. and readers. You will listent to readings of several pieces of short fiction (The Necklace. The Rocking Horse Winner. mentors. Send your students home tired and send yourself home sane. Use peer editing. . poetry.Once the process gets going. teaching techniques in Best Practices. She also writes about online degree programs for OnlineDegreePrograms. There are several free university level writing courses that can be taken online. teaching editing. playwriting. Learning Express LLC | 2 Comments | Share Article | Permalink tagged Education. it¶s depriving them of half the process.This short fiction course consists of pre-recorded class content from a writing course at the College of DuPage. not crutches. The course is designed to provide general information about creative writing and improve writing skills. Karen is the About. Studies have shown that peer editing not only increases overall fluency more than control groups which did not use the technique but it¶s been linked to improved reading comprehension as well. teachers should be coaches.The University of Utah's Department of English offers a creative writing course that covers fiction. Short Fiction Course . Creative Writing Course .

The director of the University of Warwick Writing Programme guides writers through more than 20 creative writing challenges. recorded poetry readings. From the course description: "The class is an opportunity to write. improve story architecture. Each challenge can be played online or downloaded as an mp3 file. These challenges are also great practice for writing students. and reading recommendations. This course is based on Roy Peter Clark's great book Writing Tools which can be purchased from Amazon and is highly recommended for any writer or writing teacher. explores different types of writing. The course is designed to help students learn how to read and analyze writing at the university level.Poetry Course . Screenwriting Course .This course from the University of California-Berkeley surveys major works in Anglo-American literature and includes lectures on close reading. Writing Tools Workshop .The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) provides a free course on reading and writing poetry. also from MIT. rewrite and present a point of view both orally and in written form.News University offers this course to visitors who register for a free account.This post-graduate seminar. Warwick Writing Challenges . review.Author and screenwriter Steve Barnes provides a slightly modified version of the nine-week screenwriting course he used to teach at the University of CaliforniaLos Angeles.This Open University course focuses on different ways of approaching prose fiction. a full set of assignments. The course includes lecture notes. and refine the writing voice. The course includes both instruction and assignments. Literature in English . Advanced Writing Seminar . . and videos of student presentations. The course introduces 50 writing tools to diagnose story problems. The course includes assignments. " Prose Fiction Course . The course is available in audio form and includes 28 lectures.

this Rice University course explores ownership. if you are knowledgeable enough about the subject. it must be put in words and sentences that are simple. Restrict the use of bombastic words and expressions and stick to when is comprehensive and easily understandable. science writing must be factually correct. The course is split into three parts and can be downloaded as a PDF or zip file. and if you have the dedication for the job. You don¶t really need to be adept at weaving words with skill. even by someone who knows just how to read. if you can pay attention to detail. your writing is worthless.simmons09@gmail.Available through Connexions. 2010 at 10:00AM This guest post is contributed by Nancy Simmons. When you mix up your facts and make errors. Writing. Correct: And most important of all. She welcomes your comments at her email address: nancy. Comprehensible: Any science writing course worth its salt will tell you that your writing must be easily understood. But a science writer has to strip off the rose-tinted glasses and reduce the colors of the rainbow to what they really are ± the dispersal of the light spectrum under certain environmental and atmospheric conditions. As the course introduction asks. Teaching someone to write for science involves training them in the three Cs ± good science write-ups must be: y y y Concise: You¶re not writing 1000 word essays on any random topic. authorship. If you¶re asked to write about a rainbow. you have the responsibility of stating the facts in a way that is clear and concise. you could easily learn to become a good science writer. January 20. . rather. plagiarism. Your writing has to be to the point and not include ramblings about your personal thoughts and opinions. because science is all about accuracy and preciseness. you would wax eloquent on its many colors and how it signified all that was good and beautiful about life. do you know when plagiarism is art and when it's a crime? Mitch Weisburgh | 1 Comment | Share Article | Permalink tagged Education. the biggest mistake you could make is to get your facts wrong. Professional Development. Although all forms of writing must be grammatically correct to be aesthetically pleasing to the senses. when it comes to science writing. Teaching Writing Teaching Writing For the Sciences Wednesday. who also writes on the topic of online science degrees.Text as Property . teaching writing in General Writing on scientific subjects and topics is a little different from creative writing. For science to reach the masses. straightforward and not complicated. In fact. and associated topics. Science is all about facts and there¶s no room for romanticism or the abstract in science writing. given a free hand.

Natalie. and most recently started Write Brained Learning. so . my older daughter. could hardly wait to take matters into her own hands. they¶re well on their way to becoming good science writers. was that most of her students had written their piece using complete sentences. I thought about her comparison." was the complaint of one teacher as we met to discuss her students' writing progress.writebrainedteacher. If they can crack the three Cs. Her second graders had progressed tremendously since the last time we met. 2009 at 05:28PM Using Shared Writing and Collaborative Writing to Promote Independent Application By Karren Colbert Karren Colbert has a decade of teaching experience. She's been a fourth grade teacher. so too were my experiences with spoonfeeding. well let's just say that there were moments when I wondered if she would ever feed herself. October 22. Just as no two classrooms are the same. an educational consulting company. yet she was reluctant to celebrate and discouraged by the high level of support they required along the way. Middle School. Try It Thursday. both in and out of the classroom. Teaching Writing. The problem. Education. Practice It. I was anxious to hear more. In 2005. Karren was recognized as the University of Missouri Alumni Association¶s Outstanding Young Professional. She also blogs at The Write Brained Teacher. Little did this teacher know that I was in the midst of spoonfeeding my youngest daughter and suffice it to say. Writing in other content areas Notice It. "It feels like spoonfeeding. reading specialist.Teaching a science writing course involves instilling these characteristics in your students¶ writing. eager for She holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Missouri and a Master of Curriculum and Instruction degree. also from the University of Missouri.blogspot. Since this had been the topic of our previous conversation. (www. Spoonfeeding was a perfect metaphor for good instruction. Learning Express LLC | Post a Comment | Share Article | Permalink tagged teaching writing in Best Practices. So far. Emily. She reflected that the strategies she had put in place were working well. the teacher explained. "Is that such a bad thing?" I asked the teacher. instructional coach. it was not going well.

. as I do. followed by time to write independently. I thought. ceiling. "It just took so much time and I feel like they should be able to do it without so much help. And when this happens. good teaching takes time and this can be frustrating. we pick one specific skill or craft and use mentor texts to help students identify how a writer does. Try It framework. is a research based instructional model that outlines the process necessary to promote independent application of a skill. For some reason. If we want to ensure that students begin to apply new crafts and skills. has a name.good. This is a bit like showing a baby how to use a spoon. But she did teach me that we have to meet learners where they are if we want to move them. and everywhere in between." was her reply. writing is seems to be an area where we sometimes abandon the Gradual Release Model. We need all students to notice and practice what good writers do. she couldn't. Practice It. toward independence. there's comfort in the fact that there is learning in the mess. The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model. As much as I wanted Emily to hold that spoon on her own. writing instruction often consists of a quick mini-lesson. but research tells us that our feedback is most useful it's focused on a particular skill. The 6+1 Traits define what good writers do. It is not enough to help them notice a craft or trait and send them back to their seats. If necessary. we can apply the Gradual Release Model to our writing instruction with the Notice It. step by step. hoping they will try it. with decreasing levels of teacher support. All we can do is follow their cues so that we know when it's time to let them try. first developed by Pearson & Gallagher (1993). I wasn't sure why this teacher was so disappointed. or does not. Her students were successful as a direct result of her instructional changes. If you like things nice and tidy. So when we Notice It. explaining why we use spoons. We begin in the Notice It phase by helping students identify the qualities of effective writing. we should expect carrots to end up on the floor. And what could I say? She was right. The teacher gradually decreases his or her support as students' demonstrate success. in hopes that students apply the learning to their own piece of writing. We can't know when they will finally try to hold the spoon for themselves. The gradual progression toward independence. the teacher increases the level of support when students are struggling. and then letting them fend for themselves. In my experiences. effectively use the skill.

has students performing the skill on their own. they might replace tools with hammer and nails. For example you would write. Practice It. Together. Both samples were written by students. and tomato sandwich" instead of. with the guidance of the teacher. The other example. For example. 'My Trip to Colorado'. combines Guided Instruction and Collaborative Practice steps of the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model.The next stage. Based on student interactions. 'A&W'. Skill Focus: Using Specific Nouns (Word Choice Trait) The purpose of this skill focus is to have students use specific nouns instead of more general ones. the teacher will meet with a small group of students during this time to provide additional support and practice with the activity. Try It instructional framework. They've created a complete draft and are now in the revising stage. Let me first define what I mean by these terms. but not the same students who will analyze them. The proficient writing sample. The next step. demonstrates the writers' ability to use specific and precise nouns. Shared Writing and Collaborative Writing comprise the Practice It phase of our instructional framework for writing. Try It. contains general nouns. often editing a piece that they have previously written. Practice It (Shared Writing and Collaborative Writing) Shared Writing: The class has been working on a descriptive piece about their field trip to the Nature Center where they built bird houses. Together they will choose at least three nouns to replace with more specific nouns. lettuce. and allows teachers to evaluate students' readiness for collaborative practice. but he or she may also move about the room and provide feedback to collaborative groups." Notice It (Mentor Text) Students will analyze two writing samples using Word Choice Trait criteria to determine what each writer does effectively or ineffectively. provides students with feedback. "I ate lunch. Collaborative Writing. The follow writing lesson provides an example of the Notice It. as well as which students would benefit from additional guided practice. We'll define Shared Writing as a class working together. Practice It. "I ate a bacon. to create or revise a piece of writing. Shared Writing encourages risk taking. since they mean different things to different people and are sometimes used interchangeably. Collaborative Writing: Students will work in pairs to revise a piece of writing by replacing at least three general nouns. If necessary. Students will work in pairs to revise 'My Trip to Colorado' in the Practice It step. . the teacher utilizes the strategies of Shared Writing and Collaborative Writing. the teacher can confidently decide who is ready to move on. is when students work in groups or pairs to practice the skill. The final state. During this phase.

Middle School. Education. October 1. In fact. resulting in only 19% reaching proficient or above. best teaching practices. you'll find writing samples to use as Mentor Texts with students. The Writing Fix This site. currently popular in our home. math. Mitch Weisburgh | 2 Comments | Share Article | Permalink tagged Collaborative Writing. mentor texts. I use Shared Writing and Collaborative Writing with learners of all ages. and lesson ideas.Try It (Independent Application) Students will revise their own piece of writing by replacing at least three general nouns with more specific nouns. "I can do it myself!" Resources: 1. Time after time. is a great place to find information about trait writing. including teachers. School leaders worked with teachers to create cross discipline writing assignments for HS Sophomores.writingfix. 2009 at 11:00AM The Providence Journal (Rhode Island) reports of a school wide program that uses writing to improve student achievement levels in science. and the are recognized as experts on The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model.fisherandfrey. teachers tell me how much fun it was writing collaboratively with their peers. Students at Mt. . General Writing. Why Collaborative Writing? Sometimes we tend to think that older students don't need Shared or Collaborative Writing. High School. gradual release of responsibility in Elementary. If we can provide our writers the same positive experiences and small successes. 2. social studies. Hope High School scored especially poorly on free response questions on standardized tests. Teachers commented that this was some of the best professional development they had ever received. it won't be long before teachers hear the phrase. but this couldn't be further from the truth. Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey (www. 3. sponsored by the Northwest Regional Educational Library. Not only does it make the learning more fun. Teaching Writing Using Writing to Improve Test Scores in Other Content Areas Thursday. Included in the work was for teachers to assess how well other teachers were grading the student assignments.thetraits. also by Northwest Regional Educational but the end product is better. At www.

Some of the things we are discussing are some strategies for teaching reading and writing and I thought I would share them here. or dogs. Keep a list of new words. Teach word families (ex. Create graphic organizers. 6. Point out syllables in multisyllabic words. giving more details like ³What is it?´ ³What is it like?´ and ³What are some examples?´ 13. I have five teachers and twenty children (ages 6-14) with disabilities in the program which meets for half a day for four weeks. Repeated reading: passages of 50 to 200 words long and at a difficulty level that enables the student to recognize most of the words. K-W-L technique: Students think of and state all the knowledge they have on a subject. . If you have any other suggestions or links to great websites.In less than one year. Please add them in your comments so I can share them with my teachers. or buildings. bat. Have students write their own reactions to stories and factual material. rat) 15. Word webs ± like a graphic organizer. 9. teachers are hopeful that another year will show even larger gains. I also found some websites that give great suggestions such as Reading a-z. 14. Each student thinks of wand writes on a sheet of paper what he or she want to learn from the reading. 4. 1. 2. Play word games like categories (name types of cars. 11. and Just Read Now. Ask students to retell or summarize the Language experience method: students dictate stories to the teacher. Reading and Writing Strategies 0digg This month I am supervising the Learning Disabilities Practicum. 8. 5. The student then reads the selection orally three or four times before proceeding to a new passage. While still not where they want it. The stories then become the basis of their reading instruction. the school showed a gain from 19% proficient to 27%.) 12. Put pictures of story events in order. Students read the lesson silently and write what they have learned from the reading. cat. At. Mindtools. Highlighting multiple word meanings 10. social skills. and physical activities. Reading predictable books 7. I would love to see them. The curriculum includes academics. 3. Exploring sources of vocabulary using newspapers and advertising. or clothes etc. Write in journals.

making some nice lists and thinking aloud as I went along. And then I asked them to pick their topics again. Plus. A third of them didn't like their topics any more. The kids stared back at me blankly. they wouldn't even take topics from the list we had just made together. etc. I went to my third ² I started to beg. and mostly by me running around breathlessly from desk to desk. I started class with "OK. 17.16. As the 50-minute period came to a close. So we made a shared list of possible topics anyone could choose. Express their ideas in pictures. Little by little. . the kids pretty much just sat there. Eight Great Strategies That Work for Everyone The Perfect Set of Writing Tools Up and Down the Grade Levels and Across the Curriculum by Steve Peha ________________________________________________ The Four Most Important Writing Lessons I can still remember (with a mixture of horror and amusement) the first time I tried to teach a classroom of kids how to write. laughed occasionally at my jokes or blunders. But every single day was like the day before: I'd suggest that we try something new. (ex. now that we've all got our topics. they write the message and give it to the teacher or other students. another third couldn't remember their topics from the day before. I managed over the next few days to get them all started on their pieces. How much trouble could I have with a group of 5th graders? I started with topic selection. The students figure out the story content from the pictures..". and then promptly forgot everything the very next day. and the last third swore we hadn't even gone over topic selection. coaxing and cajoling them one by one. Nothing happened. most of the kids had chosen something and the few that hadn't were pretty close. gave a half-hearted try once in a while. two kids showed up who had been absent. writing leads. please. And it didn't matter what we were working on: adding details. Written conversations ± instead of saying what they wish to communicate to the class.. So I started over. please pick a topic. The next day. I went from kid to kid. I'd beg. but at least we had gotten this part taken care of and could really begin writing the next day. Then the teacher or students respond in writing. Going in. they'd balk. I was exhausted and the kids were bored. 18. Brown Bear. Then I asked the kids to give it a try. Brown Bear) 19. to please. Use materials without words like comic books without captions or books with photos. sentence combining. I thought it would be easy. Patterned writing ± the students use a favorite predictable book with a patterned writing and then they write their own version. I had been a professional writer for years and I had tutored kids in writing from elementary school to college. I modeled some of the topics I could write about. And again nothing happened. no matter what I did or how I did it. Having failed with my first two topic selection mini-lessons.

I had to learn the four most important writing lessons and understand their implications. there's a certain amount of "down time" for each student. and having pretty much the same experience in a few other classes I was working with that year. and most other subjects work the same way. the kids all know that the teacher is going to go over the material with them as a group. the effort can shift from person to person. which require primarily that kids take in new information. even when everyone is working on a worksheet or a chapter from a textbook. individual expression. I figured we'd hit the ground running. Lesson #2: Writing requires a high degree of active participation from individual students. Aside from spelling. Lesson #3: Writing requires original. But in writing. I don't really have to worry much about it when I tackle new problems that require the same skill. In most situations. each time a student writes a piece. finally. But even if I am successful at writing a good lead or a good ending. it became obvious to me where kids would be having problems. don't even want students to repeat the writing of things they've written before. the others can just listen. they won't be successful unless they come up with output that develops what we've given them in a significant and appropriate way. even the very best writers never truly master much of anything. And they didn't improve much either as the year went along. So Now What Do We Do? Before I could develop solutions for successful writing instruction. and had been over it together so many times. we expect them to produce something new that they have never produced before. In theory. when they're working in small groups. so intense individual attention is not really needed. But things weren't much better. I don't have to learn to decode again each time I read a new book. I will face exactly the same problem on my very next piece ² and there's no guarantee that it will be any easier the second time. there is no group work. OK. In most other subjects. After more than a few failures. Unlike most school subjects. Even when we've given them some input like a prompt or a question or a theme. When kids are writing. In reading. science. But in writing. and students can't just wait for the teacher to go over the material because the teacher is counting on them to produce it. active participation is required of everyone. once I learn to decode effectively. Lesson #4: Writers face the same challenges over and over again with each new piece they attempt. the idea is for every kid to come up with the same right answer. a mini-lesson everyone could enjoy and participate in successfully! The next day I said we'd start new pieces. When we work on math problems. there are no worksheets or textbook chapters (or at least there shouldn't be). once I learn to add whole numbers reliably. Social studies. if everyone comes up with same thing we call it copying or plagiarism.At one point I suggested we take a day off from writing. I had to understand the problem. In math. Now that we all knew what to expect. I realized that I was the one who had learned the most important lessons about writing: Lesson #1: Writing is an "output" subject. After working with this class for several months. writing requires that kids put it out. . While one kid is answering a question.

The best thing we can do for students is to help them develop a repertoire of effective techniques they can use to handle the most common problems they encounter in the kinds of writing they pursue. These "somethings" became my lessons and as the kids developed a larger list of things to do. and a better knowledge of when and how to do them. a set of strategies they can use to keep them going when they get stuck. for example. and then for each problem I developed something they could do to deal with it. The best writing lesson we can all learn is this: good strategies are the key to good writing. they became more effective and I became more efficient. regardless of their age or level of experience. or coming up with a good beginning. Writers. . Every writer needs a bag of tricks or.So I started to make a list of those points in the writing process. as we like to all them in teaching. The best strategies are those that can be used to solve the toughest problems that occur most frequently ² like adding details. need reliable techniques they can use in specific situations to solve common problems.

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