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Basics, Design, Function, Operation
based on a lecture of
Univ.Prof. Dr.Ing. Dr. h.c. Gerhard Henneberger
at
Aachen University
iii
Preface
This script corresponds to the lecture “Electrical Machines I” in winter term 2002/2003 at
Aachen University.
The lecture describes the status quo of used technologies as well as tendencies in future
development of electrical machines.
Basic types of electrical machines, such as transformer, DC machine, induction machine,
synchronous machine and lowpower motors operated at single phase AC systems are
likewise discussed as innovative machine concepts, e.g. switched reluctance machine (SRM),
transverse flux machine and linear drive.
Basic principles taking effect in all types of electrical machines to be explained, are combined
in the rotating field theory. Apart from theoretical reflections, examples for applications in the
field of electrical drives and power generation are presented in this script.
Continuative topics concerning dynamics, power converter supply and control will be dis
cussed in the subsequent lecture “Electrical Machines II”.
It is intended to put focus on an allembracing understanding of physical dependencies.
This script features a simple illustration without disregarding accuracy. It provides a solid
basic knowledge of electrical machines, useful for further studies and practice. Previous
knowledge of principles of electrical engineering are required for the understanding.
Please note: this script represents a translation of the lecture notes composed in German. Most
subscriptions to appear in equations are not subject to translation for conformity purposes.
Aachen, in November 2002 Gerhard Henneberger
Revision: Busch, Schulte, March 2003
5
Content
1 SURVEY ................................................................................................................................................. 8
2 BASICS ................................................................................................................................................. 10
2.1 FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS.............................................................................................................. 10
2.1.1 First Maxwell Equation (Ampere’s Law,) ................................................................................. 10
2.1.2 Second MaxwellEquation (Faraday’s Law) ............................................................................. 11
2.1.3 Lorentz Force Law................................................................................................................... 12
2.2 REFERENCEARROW SYSTEMS.......................................................................................................... 14
2.3 AVERAGE VALUE, RMS VALUE, EFFICIENCY....................................................................................... 16
2.4 APPLIED COMPLEX CALCULATION ON AC CURRENTS ......................................................................... 17
2.5 METHODS OF CONNECTION (THREEPHASE SYSTEMS)......................................................................... 19
2.6 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS............................................................................................................ 20
3 TRANSFORMER................................................................................................................................. 23
3.1 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ....................................................................................................... 24
3.2 DEFINITION OF THE TRANSFORMATION RATIO (Ü) .............................................................................. 27
3.2.1 ü=w
1
/w
2
, design data known..................................................................................................... 27
3.2.2 Complete phasor diagramm..................................................................................................... 30
3.2.3 ü=U
10
/U
20
, measured value given............................................................................................. 31
3.3 OPERATIONAL BEHAVIOR ................................................................................................................. 34
3.3.1 Noload condition .................................................................................................................... 34
3.3.2 Shortcircuit ............................................................................................................................ 35
3.3.3 Load with nominal stress.......................................................................................................... 36
3.3.4 Parallel connection.................................................................................................................. 38
3.4 MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION .......................................................................................................... 39
3.4.1 Design..................................................................................................................................... 39
3.4.2 Calculation of the magnetizing inductance ............................................................................... 41
3.4.3 Proportioning of R
1
and R‘
2
..................................................................................................... 41
3.4.4 Calculation of the leakage inductances..................................................................................... 43
3.5 EFFICIENCY ..................................................................................................................................... 44
3.6 GROWTH CONDITIONS ...................................................................................................................... 45
3.7 THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER........................................................................................................... 46
3.7.1 Design, Vector group............................................................................................................... 46
3.7.2 Unbalanced load...................................................................................................................... 49
3.8 AUTOTRANSFORMER........................................................................................................................ 52
4 FUNDAMENTALS OF ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES ................................................... 53
4.1 OPERATING LIMITS........................................................................................................................... 54
4.2 EQUATION OF MOTION...................................................................................................................... 55
4.3 MECHANICAL POWER OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES............................................................................... 56
4.4 LOAD AND MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS, STABILITY ............................................................................ 58
4.4.1 Motor and generator characteristics ........................................................................................ 58
4.4.2 Load characteristics................................................................................................................. 58
4.4.3 Stationary stability................................................................................................................... 59
5 DC MACHINE...................................................................................................................................... 61
5.1 DESIGN AND MODE OF ACTION.......................................................................................................... 61
5.2 BASIC EQUATIONS............................................................................................................................ 65
5.3 OPERATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ............................................................................................................... 67
5.3.1 Main equations, ecd, interconnections...................................................................................... 67
5.3.2 Separately excitation, permanentfield, shunt machine.............................................................. 69
5.3.3 Series machine......................................................................................................................... 70
5.3.4 Compound machine ................................................................................................................. 72
5.3.5 Universal machine (ACDC machine) ...................................................................................... 73
5.3.6 Generator mode....................................................................................................................... 77
5.3.7 DC machine supply with variable armature voltage for speed adjustment ................................. 80
5.4 PERMANENT MAGNETS..................................................................................................................... 82
Survey
6
5.5 COMMUTATION................................................................................................................................ 86
5.5.1 Current path ............................................................................................................................ 86
5.5.2 Reactance voltage of commutation ........................................................................................... 88
5.5.3 Commutating poles .................................................................................................................. 88
5.6 ARMATURE REACTION...................................................................................................................... 90
5.6.1 Field distortion ........................................................................................................................ 90
5.6.2 Segment voltage....................................................................................................................... 92
5.6.3 Compensating winding............................................................................................................. 94
6 ROTATING FIELD THEORY ............................................................................................................ 95
6.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW........................................................................................................................ 95
6.2 ALTERNATING FIELD ........................................................................................................................ 96
6.3 ROTATING FIELD.............................................................................................................................. 98
6.4 THREEPHASE WINDING.................................................................................................................. 100
6.5 EXAMPLE....................................................................................................................................... 103
6.6 WINDING FACTOR .......................................................................................................................... 105
6.6.1 Distribution factor ................................................................................................................. 106
6.6.2 Pitch factor............................................................................................................................ 109
6.6.3 Resulting winding factor ........................................................................................................ 111
6.7 VOLTAGE INDUCTION CAUSED BY INFLUENCE OF ROTATING FIELD ................................................... 112
6.7.1 Flux linkage........................................................................................................................... 112
6.7.2 Induced voltage, slip.............................................................................................................. 113
6.8 TORQUE OF TWO ROTATING MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCES................................................................... 115
6.9 FREQUENCY CONDITION, POWER BALANCE...................................................................................... 119
6.10 REACTANCES AND RESISTANCE OF THREEPHASE WINDINGS ............................................................ 121
7 INDUCTION MACHINE................................................................................................................... 123
7.1 DESIGN, METHOD OF OPERATION .................................................................................................... 123
7.2 BASIC EQUATIONS, EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS ....................................................................... 126
7.3 OPERATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ............................................................................................................. 132
7.3.1 Power balance....................................................................................................................... 132
7.3.2 Torque................................................................................................................................... 132
7.3.3 Efficiency............................................................................................................................... 134
7.3.4 Stability ................................................................................................................................. 135
7.4 CIRCLE DIAGRAM (HEYLAND DIAGRAM) ......................................................................................... 136
7.4.1 Locus diagram....................................................................................................................... 136
7.4.2 Parametrization..................................................................................................................... 137
7.4.3 Power in circle diagram......................................................................................................... 138
7.4.4 Operating range, signalized operating points ......................................................................... 139
7.4.5 Influence of machine parameters............................................................................................ 141
7.5 SPEED ADJUSTMENT ....................................................................................................................... 142
7.5.1 Increment of slip.................................................................................................................... 142
7.5.2 Variating the number of pole pairs ......................................................................................... 144
7.5.3 Variation of supply frequency................................................................................................. 144
7.5.4 Additional voltage in rotor circuit .......................................................................................... 146
7.6 INDUCTION GENERATOR ................................................................................................................. 147
7.7 SQUIRRELCAGE ROTORS................................................................................................................ 149
7.7.1 Particularities, bar current – ring current .............................................................................. 149
7.7.2 Current displacement (skin effect, proximity effect)................................................................. 151
7.8 SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MACHINES ............................................................................................. 157
7.8.1 Method of operation............................................................................................................... 157
7.8.2 Equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) ............................................................................................ 158
7.8.3 Singlephase induction machine with auxiliary phase winding ................................................ 160
7.8.4 Splitpole machine ................................................................................................................. 162
8 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE............................................................................................................ 163
8.1 METHOD OF OPERATION ................................................................................................................. 163
8.2 MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION ........................................................................................................ 166
8.3 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM, PHASOR DIAGRAM......................................................................... 167
8.4 NOLOAD, SUSTAINED SHORT CIRCUIT............................................................................................. 169
8.5 SOLITARY OPERATION.................................................................................................................... 170
7
8.5.1 Load characteristics............................................................................................................... 170
8.5.2 Regulation characteristics...................................................................................................... 171
8.6 RIGID NETWORK OPERATION........................................................................................................... 172
8.6.1 Parallel connection to network............................................................................................... 172
8.6.2 Torque................................................................................................................................... 173
8.6.3 Operating ranges................................................................................................................... 175
8.6.4 Current diagram, operating limits.......................................................................................... 177
8.7 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE AS OSCILLATING SYSTEM, DAMPER WINDINGS........................................... 178
8.7.1 without damper windings ....................................................................................................... 178
8.7.2 with damper winding.............................................................................................................. 180
8.8 PERMANENTFIELD SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES................................................................................. 183
8.8.1 Permanent excited synchronous motor with starting cage ....................................................... 183
8.8.2 Permanentfield synchronous motor with pole position sensor ................................................ 184
8.9 CLAW POLE ALTERNATOR............................................................................................................... 187
9 SPECIAL MACHINES....................................................................................................................... 189
9.1 STEPPING MOTOR ........................................................................................................................... 189
9.2 SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINE.................................................................................................. 192
9.3 MODULAR PERMANENTMAGNET MOTOR ........................................................................................ 193
9.4 TRANSVERSE FLUX MACHINE.......................................................................................................... 194
9.5 LINEAR MOTORS ............................................................................................................................ 195
9.5.1 Technology of linear motors................................................................................................... 195
9.5.2 Industrial application opportunities........................................................................................ 198
9.5.3 High speed applications......................................................................................................... 199
10 APPENDIX...................................................................................................................................... 201
10.1 NOTATIONS ................................................................................................................................... 201
10.2 FORMULAR SYMBOLS..................................................................................................................... 202
10.3 UNITS............................................................................................................................................ 204
10.4 LITERATURE REFERENCE LIST ......................................................................................................... 207
8
1 Survey
The electrical machine is the essential element in the field of power generation and electrical
drives. Duty of the electrical machine is a save, economical and ecological generation of
electrical energy as well as its lowloss transformation for distribution purposes and its
accordant utilization in electrical drive applications.
Fig. 1: The electrical machine in the field of power engineering
The electrical machine is utilized in centralized as well as in distributed energy transducer
systems. Electrical machines appear as alternators in power plants and in solitary operation,
also as transformers and transducers in electrical installations. They are also used as drive
motors in industrial, trade, agricultural and medical applications as well as in EDPsystems,
machine tools, buildings and household appliances. Railway, automotive, naval, aviation and
aeronautic systems are equipped with electrical machines as well. Special machine models are
used in magneticlevitation technology and induction heating. The power range leads from
µW to GW. Requirements of the entire system determine the design conditions of the
electrical machine. Essential factors like functionality, costs, availability and influence on the
environment need to be taken into account.
Focus on research at the IEM is put on electrical machines. Besides calculation, design,
dimensioning and construction of electrical machines, the investigation of their static and
transient performance characteristics and their interaction with converters and controllers
pertain to the scope of our duties. The coverage of new application areas for electrical
machines in the field of power generation and drive systems is aimed.
The electrical machine is the particular part of a drive, converting electrical energy into
mechanical energy. The according operational status is called motor operation. Every kind of
electrical machine is also able to work in generator operation. In this case mechanical energy
is transferred into electrical energy.
VM
WK
Tu L
HGÜ
Ba
AM
Centralized Power Supply
Distributed Power Supply
U
Household Appliances
EDP
Trade
Agriculture
Medicine
Industry
Conveyor Engineering
Machine Tools, Robots
Chemical Engineering
Buildings
Railway Applications
Automobiles, Ships, Aircrafts
DieselLocomotives
Solitary Operations
Emergency Generating Sets
AM
Survey
9
Electromechanical energy transduction is reversible. This transduction is mainly based on the
effect of electromagnetic fields, because its energy density is about decimal powers higher
than the energy density of the electric field. This is shown in the following example:
3
8
2
0
2
4 . 0
10 256 . 1
10
2 cm
Ws
Acm
Vs
cm
Vs
B
w
m
·
⋅
,
`
.

· ·
− µ
(1.1)
3
4
2
13
2
10 4 . 4
2
10
10 886 . 0
2 cm
Ws cm
kV
E
w
e
−
−
⋅ ·
,
`
.

⋅
·
⋅
·
ε
(1.2)
Electrical machines appear as different types of construction. Most common types are DC
machines as well as rotating field machines such as induction or synchronous machines.
Due to its name, the DC machine is fed by DC current. Rotating field machines are to be
supplied by a threephase alternating current, called threephase AC. In case of a singlephase
AC current availability, universal motors (ACDC motors) and single phase induction
machines are applied.
Basically three kinds of electrical energy supply are to be distinguished: DC, singlephase AC
and threephase AC. Sometimes the present form of energy does not match the requirement.
In order to turn the present energy into the appropriate form, power converters are utilized in
drive systems, being capable to change frequency and voltage level in a certain range. Also
motorgeneratorsets (rotary converters) in railway applications as well as transformers in the
field of energy distribution are used for converting purposes.
Power Electronics and their control are means to establish so far surpassed and improved
operating characteristics. Innovative concepts such as an electronically commutating DC
machine (also known as brushless DC machine, BLDC), converter synchronous machine,
power converter supplied induction machine, switched reluctance machine (SRM) and
stepping motor are to be mentioned as typical examples.
10
2 Basics
First of all some fundamental aspects which are required for the understanding of the lectures
„Electrical Machines I&II“ and the respective scripts, need to be discussed.
For explicit information please see pertinent literature, please see references for this.
2.1 Fundamental equations
Despite the number of machine type varieties, the method of operation of any type of
electrical machines can be described by just three physical basic equations. These are as
follows the First MaxwellEquation (also known as Ampere’s Law), Faraday’s Law and
Lorentz Force Law.
2.1.1 First Maxwell Equation (Ampere’s Law,)
First Maxwell Equation is defined in its integral and differential form as follows:
∫ ∫∫
· ⋅ · ⋅
c F
F d G s d H θ
r r
r
r
( ) G H rot
r r
· (2.1)
The line integral of the magnetic force along a closed loop is equal to the enveloped current
linkage.
All w turns per winding carry single currents I, being of the same value each. In electrical
machines, the magnetic circuit is subdivided into quasihomogeneous parts (statoryoke +
stator teeth, rotoryoke + rotor teeth, air gap).
I
ds
Fig. 2: circulation sense
∑
⋅ · ⋅
i
i i
I w s H (2.2)
Direction convention:
Current linkage and direction of the line integral are
arranged to each other, as shown on the left.
Hint: right hand directions: thump = current(linkage),
bent fingers = direction of the line integral (Fleming’s
RightHandRule).
A relation between magnetic force H and magnetic flux density B is given by the permeability
µ , a magnetic material attribute:
H B ⋅ · µ
0
µ µ µ ⋅ ·
r
(2.3)
Magnetic constant (permeability of the vacuum):
m A
s V
10 4
7
0
⋅
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ·
−
π µ (2.4)
Basics
11
B
H
linear range
µ
r
> 1000
S
aturation
µr
1
Relative permeability:
1 ·
r
µ in vacuum (2.5)
10000 1L ·
r
µ in iron (ferromagnetic material) (2.6)
magnetization characteristic
( ) H f B · (2.7)
nonlinear coherence
( ) H f
r
· µ (2.8)
Fig. 3: BH characteristic
The magnetic field is zerodivergenced (no sinks or sources).
0 · B div
r
(2.9)
Its effect is described as the area integral of the flux density:
∫∫
⋅ ·
A
A d B
r r
φ (2.10)
The magnetic flux φ represents the effect of the total field. In case of a homogeneous field
distribution and an orientation as per B A
r v
 , equation 2.10 simplifies to:
B A⋅ · φ (2.11)
2.1.2 Second MaxwellEquation (Faraday’s Law)
Second Maxwell Equation is given in its integral and differential form as follows:
∫
− · ⋅
c
dt
d
s d E
φ r
r
,
`
.

− ·
dt
B d
E rot
r
r
(2.12)
The line integral of the electric force E
r
along a closed loop (which matches voltage) is equal
to the variation of the magnetic flux linkage with time.
In electrical machines w turns per winding are passed through by the magnetic flux φ.
i L w ⋅ · ⋅ · φ ψ ,
dt
d
w u
i
φ
⋅ − · (2.13)
Basics
12
u
i
i
w
φ
Fig. 4: flux linkage, voltage
Direction conventions:
• Magnetic flux and current are arranged to each other
according to Fleming’s RightHandRule (see also 2.1.1).
• An induced current flows in a direction to create a
magnetic field which will counteract the change in
magnetic flux (Lenz’s Law).
The flux linkage of a coil is a function of x and i: ψ(x,i). Depending on the way the change of
the flux linkage being required for the induction process is caused, the according voltage is
called transformer voltage or rotational voltage (transformer e.m.f. or rotational e.m.f.).
( )
{ {
v l B
dt
di
L
dt
dx
x dt
di
i
i x
dt
d
u
v L
i
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ − · ⋅
∂
∂
− ⋅
∂
∂
− · − ·
ψ ψ
ψ , (2.14)
Convention of the rotational voltage:
B(v)
v(u)
E = v x B(w)
( ) l E l B v u
i
r r r r
r
⋅ · ⋅ × · (2.15)
Fig. 5: directions of 2.15
assumed for the case with direction of the fieldvector (v) being arranged orthographic
towards the direction of the speedvector (u) of the conductor (uvw direction convention).
2.1.3 Lorentz Force Law
2.1.3.1 Lorentz Force
A force on a currentcarrying conductor in presence of a magnet field is given by:
B(v)
l(u)
F(w)
( ) B l
r r
× ⋅ · I F (2.16)
Fig. 6: directions of 2.16
In case of fieldvector and direction of the conductor including a right angle (90°), due to the
uvw direction convention, equation 2.16 simplifies to:
B l I F ⋅ ⋅ · (2.17)
Basics
13
Magnetic Force
A magnetic force appears at the surface between iron and air.
A
B
δ
Fig. 7: magnetic force
Tractive force of an electromagnet:
A
B
F
0
2
2µ
·
(2.18)
2.1.3.2 Force caused by variation of magnetic energy
For the determination of forces and torques exerted on machine parts, a calculation embracing
the variation of the magnetic energy is practical, linear systems assumed.
i
Ψ
dW
m
= id
Ψ
dW'
m
=
Ψ
di
Fig. 8: magnetic energy in linear systems
const i
m
x
W
F
·
∂
∂
· (2.19)
with r x ⋅ · α
α ∂
∂
· ⋅ ·
m
W
r F M (2.20)
The calculation of exerted force in nonlinear systems requires the determination comprising
the variation of the magnetic coenergy.
i
Ψ
dW
m
= id
Ψ
dW'
m
=
Ψ
di
x
W
F
m
∂
∂
·
`
(2.21)
Fig. 9: magnetic energy in nonlinear systems
Basics
14
2.2 ReferenceArrow systems
An unambiguous description of conditions in electrical networks requires voltages, currents
and powers to be assigned to their accordant positive and negative directions  the choice of
the direction is arbitrary, but nonrecurring and definite. A negative signed result means a
variable, assumed as of opposite referencearrow direction.
A choice of two possible referencearrow systems for voltage, current and power are
provided:
Load referencearrow system (VZS)
V
P
i
u VZS
Fig. 10a: VZS
Voltage and currentarrow
of same orientation at load,
power is absorbed.
VZS
voltage drop
u
i
R
R i u ⋅ ·
u
i
L
dt
di
L u ⋅ ·
u
i
C
∫
⋅ · dt i
C
u
1
Fig. 11a13a: VZS directions at R, L, C
components
Generator referencearrow system (EZS)
E
P
i
u EZS
Fig. 10b: EZS
Voltage and currentarrow
of opposite orientation at source,
power is delivered.
EZS
voltage generation
u
i
R
R i u ⋅ − ·
u
i
L
dt
di
L u ⋅ − ·
u
i
C
∫
⋅ − · dt i
C
u
1
Fig. 11b13b: EZS directions at R, L, C
components
Basics
15
The PoyntingVector defines the power density in electromagnetic fields:
H E S
r r r
× · (2.22)
U
E
I
H
S
Fig. 14a: power (density) in VZS
U
E
I
H
S
Fig. 14b: power (density) in EZS
A definition of the positive directions of current and voltage according the energy flow is
proved practical.
This is illustrated by the example of a simple DC machine (see below).
P
I
U
VZS
U
I
P
EZS
+

Fig. 15: sample of energy flow (DC machine)
Basics
16
2.3 Average value, rms value, efficiency
On the one hand the knowledge of the instantaneous value is important for the evaluation of
according variables. On the other hand a reflection over a longer range of time (e.g. an entire
cycle) is of importance, e.g. when determining peak value, average value or rms value
(rms=root mean square). Common literature knows different appearances of variables and
values. In this script assignments for voltage and current are chosen as follows:
• capital letters for constant variables
• lower case letters for variables variating with time.
Magnetic und mechanic variables, such as e.g. magnetic field and force, are always
represented in capital letters. Peak values are usually used for magnetic variables, whereas
electric variables appear as rms value.
Further definitions to be used in the following:
• instantaneous value ( ) t u u · timevariant variable at instant t
• average value: ( )
∫
⋅ ⋅ ·
T
dt t u
T
U
0
1
variable, averaged over a certain period
• rms value: ( )
∫
⋅ ⋅ ·
T
dt t u
T
U
0
2
1
squareroot of averaged square value
• complex quantity:
ϕ ⋅
⋅ ·
j
e U U complex representation of sinusoidal variables
• peak value: U
ˆ
maximum value of a periodical function
( U ⋅ · 2 for sinusoidal functions)
• efficiency:
auf
ab
P
P
· η ratio of delivered and absorbed power
Basics
17
2.4 Applied complex calculation on AC currents
In the field of power engineering time variant sinusoidal AC voltages and currents usually
appear as complex rms value phasors.
( ) { ¦ { ¦
t j t j
e U e U t U u
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
ω ω
ω 2 Re 2 Re cos 2 ;
0 ⋅
⋅ ·
j
e U U (2.23)
( ) { ¦ { ¦
t j j t j
e I e e I t I i
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
ω ϕ ω
ϕ ω 2 Re 2 Re cos 2 ;
ϕ ⋅ −
⋅ ·
j
e I I
(2.24)
Complex power results from the multiplication of the complex voltage rms value and the
conjugate complex rms value of the accordant current:
apparent power: Q j P I U S ⋅ + · ⋅ ·
*
( )
ϕ ⋅ + ∗
⋅ ·
j
e I I (2.25)
active power: ϕ cos ⋅ ⋅ · I U P (2.26)
reactive power: ϕ sin ⋅ ⋅ · I U Q (2.27)
Complex impedance (phasor, amount, phase angle) are determined by:
ϕ ⋅
⋅ · ⋅ + ·
j
e Z X j R Z ;
2 2
X R Z + · ;
R
X
· ϕ tan (2.28)
In contrast to the common mathematical definition, the real axis of a complex coordinate
system is upward orientated and the imaginary axis points to the right in power engineering
presentations. The voltage phasor is defined as to be in parallel to the real axis. Thus the
direction of the current phasor follows as shown in Fig. 15:
 Im
+ Re
U
I
ϕ
ϕ ⋅ −
⋅ · ·
j
e
Z
U
Z
U
I (2.29)
complex rms value phasor
The phase angle ϕ points from the current
phasor to the voltage phasor.
Fig. 15: complexe coordinate system
Basics
18
VZS
U
 Im
+ Re
~
Fig. 16a: components in VZS
R
U
I ·
active power input
L
U
j
L j
U
I
⋅
⋅ − ·
⋅ ⋅
·
ω ω
absorption of lagging reactive power
U C j I ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ω
absorption of leading reactive power
~
active power output
EZS
U
 Im
+ Re
~
Fig. 16b: components in EZS
R
U
I − ·
active power input
L
U
j
L j
U
I
⋅
⋅ ·
⋅ ⋅
− ·
ω ω
absorption of lagging reactive power =
delivery of leading reactive power
U C j I ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ω
absorption of leading reactive power=
delivery of lagging reactive power
~
active power output
Basics
19
2.5 Methods of connection (threephase systems)
Applications in power engineering often use threephase systems: m = 3
Typical arrangements of balanced threephase systems without neutral conductor:
star connection (y, Y) (Fig. 17a)
delta connection ( ) D d, , ∆ (Fig. 17b)
1 2 3
U
v
I
v
U
s
I
s
1
2 3
2
π
3
U
v
U
s
1 2 3
U
v
I
v
U
s
I
s
1
2 3
2
π
3
U
v
U
s
phase quantities (subscript „s“)
U
S
, I
S
∑
· 0
S
I
U
S
, I
S
∑
· 0
S
U
linked quantities (subscript „v“)
S v
S v
I I
U U
·
⋅ · 3
S v
S v
U U
I I
·
⋅ · 3
power is always defined as
v
v
S S
I
U
I U S ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
3
3 3
v
v
S S
U
I
I U S ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
3
3 3
I U I U S
v v
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · 3 3
Since rating plate data is always given as linked quantities, usually the subsript „v“ does not
appear in the power equation!
Transformation star connection ↔ delta connection:
v
v
S
S
Y
I
U
I
U
Z
3
· ·
(2.30)
Z
Y
Z
∆
3
v
v
S
S
I
U
I
U
Z · ·
∆
(2.31)
Fig. 18: star/delta connection
Eqt. 2.30 and 2.31 lead to (equal values of U and I assumed):
Y
Z Z ⋅ ·
∆
3 (2.32)
Basics
20
2.6 Symmetrical components
In case of unbalanced load of a balanced threephase system, caused by e.g.:
• supply with unbalanced voltages
• singlephase load between two phases or between one phase and neutral conductor,
the method of symmetrical components is suitable for a systematic processing.
An occurring unbalanced threephase system is split up into three symmetrical systems
(positive/negative/zero phase sequence system). Based on this subdivision, the network is to
be calculated separately for each of these systems. The superposition of the single results is
equal to the total result (addition⇒linearity!).
Therefore the complex phasor a is utilized:
;
3
2π
j
e a · ;
3
2
3
4
2
π π
j j
e e a
−
· · ; 0 1
2
· + + a a
a resp. a
2
are supposed to express a time displacement of
3
2π
ω · t resp.
3
4π
.
Fig. 19 shows an unbalanced threephase system to be split up into three symmetrical
systems:
+Re
Im
I
I
I
u
v
w
+
Fig. 19ad: unbalanced system, split up, symmetrical systems
positive
phase
sequence
system
negative
phase
sequence
system
I
I I
mu
mv
mw
I
m
I
g
I
gu
I
gw
I
gv
I
0
I
0u 0v
I
0w
I
zero
phase
sequence
system
Fig. 19b: positive (m)
m mw
m mv
m mu
I a I
I a I
I I
·
·
·
2
Fig. 19c: negative (g)
g gw
g gv
g gu
I a I
I a I
I I
2
·
·
·
Fig. 19d: zerosequence system (0)
0 0 0 0
I I I I
w v u
· · ·
Basics
21
Each single current (phases u, v, w) is represented by three components (m, g, 0):
(2.33)
(2.34)
w gw mw w
v gv mv v
u gu mu u
I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
0
0
0
+ + ·
+ + ·
+ + ·
(2.35)
Insertion of the definitions (due to Fig. 19bd) results in:
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
,
`
.

0
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
I
I
I
a a
a a
I
I
I
g
m
w
v
u
(2.36)
Hence follows by solving matrix 2.36:
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
,
`
.

w
v
u
g
m
I
I
I
a a
a a
I
I
I
1 1 1
1
1
3
1
2
2
0
(2.37)
With set 2.37 voltage equations can be established:
~
Z
U
I
U
m
Lm
m
m
Fig. 20a
~
Z
U
I
U
g
Lg
g
g
Fig. 20b
~
Z
U
I
U
0
L0 0
0
Fig. 20c
m m Lm m
I Z U U − · (2.38)
g g Lg g
I Z U U − · (2.39)
0 0 0 0
I Z U U
L
− · (2.40)
Usually the supply is provided by a symmetrical threephase system. Then follows:
L LM
U U · (2.41) 0 ·
Lg
U (2.42) 0
0
·
L
U (2.43)
After calculation of the positive, negative and zero sequence voltage components, the wanted
phase voltages (u, v, w) can be determined by inverse transformation:
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
,
`
.

0
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
U
U
U
a a
a a
U
U
U
g
m
w
v
u
(2.44)
Equivalent to the case of an unbalanced load, the same process is to be applied in case of a
given unsymmetrical power supply with demanded phase voltages.
23
3 Transformer
Fig. 21: threephase transformer 150 MVA (ABB)
Fig. 22a/b: threephase transformer 100 kVA (Ortea)
Transformer
24
3.1 Equivalent circuit diagram
The general twowinding transformer is a linear system, consisting of two electric circuits.
R R
u L L u
i
1 2
1 2
i
1 2
1 2
1 2
M
VZS EZS
Fig. 23: transformer, general single phase equivalent circuit diagram
The ohmic resistances R
1
and R
2
as well as selfinductances L
1
und L
2
and the mutual
inductance M can be measured between the terminals of the transformer. Neither the spatial
distribution of the transformer arrangement, nor a definition of the number of turns is taken
into account initially. Side 1 is defined to be subject to the load referencearrow system
(VZS), whereas side 2 is assigned to the generator referencearrow system.
Thereby the voltage equations for both sides (1 and 2) appear as:
t
i R u
d
d
1
1 1 1
ψ
+ · (3.1)
t
i R u
d
d
2
2 2 2
ψ
− − · (3.2)
with the accordant flux linkages:
2 1 1 1
Mi i L − · ψ (3.3)
1 2 2 2
Mi i L − · ψ (3.4)
Currents i
1
und i
2
magnetize in opposite direction, due to the real physical occurrence.
Disregarding ohmic resistances , the transformer voltage equations simplify to:
dt
di
M
t
i
L u
2 1
1 1
d
d
− · (3.5)
t
i
M
t
i
L u
d
d
d
d
1 2
2 2
+ − · (3.6)
Transformer
25
If the transformer is supplied from only one side, respective inductances for noload and
shortcircuit can be determined:
supply from side 1 supply from side 2
noload
0
2
· i
t
i
L u
d
d
1
1 1
· (3.7)
0
1
· i
t
i
L u
d
d
2
2 2
− · (3.8)
short circuit
0
2
· u
t
i
L
M
t
i
d
d
d
d
1
2
2
· (3.9)
t
i
L
L L
M
t
i
L
t
i
L
M
t
i
L u
d
d
1
d
d
d
d
d
d
1
1
2 1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1 1
σ ·
,
`
.

− ·
− ·
(3.10)
0
1
· u
t
i
L
M
t
i
d
d
d
d
2
1
1
· (3.11)
t
i
L
L L
M
t
i
L
t
i
L
M
t
i
L u
d
d
1
d
d
d
d
d
d
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2 2
σ − ·
,
`
.

− − ·
+ − · (3.12)
Result: The ratio of short circuit and noload inductance is equal to σ, independent from the
choice of supply side. The variable σ is called Heyland factor.
const
0
0 2 1
2
1
·
· · − ·
u
k
k
I
I
L
L
L L
M
σ (3.13)
It turned out to be convenient, to use a general equivalent circuit diagram (ecd), with
eliminated galvanic separation and only resistances and inductances to appear.
R R
u L L u
i
1 2
1 2
i
1 2
1 2
1 2
M
VZS EZS
Fig. 24: ecd with galvanic separation
t
i
M
t
i
L i R u
d
d
d
d
2 1
1 1 1 1
− + · (3.14)
t
i
M
t
i
L i R u
d
d
d
d
1 2
2 2 2 2
+ − − · (3.15)
Transformer
26
Therefore an arbitrary variable ü, acting as actual transformation ratio is introduced. The
derivation of ü is discussed later.
t
i
üM
t
i
üM
t
ü
i
üM
t
i
L i R u
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
1 1
2
1
1 1 1 1
+ − − + · (3.16)
t
ü
i
üM
t
ü
i
üM
t
i
üM
t
ü
i
L ü
ü
i
R ü üu
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
2 2
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
+ − + − − · (3.17)
There is a general transformation as follows:
2
*
2
üu u · ,
ü
i
i
2 *
2
· ,
2
2 *
2
R ü R · ,
2
2 *
2
L ü L · (3.18)
The transformation is power invariant so that:
2 2
*
2
*
2
i u i u · (3.19)
2
2 2
2 *
2
*
2
i R i R ·
(3.20)
2
2 2
2
*
2
*
2
2
1
2
1
i L i L · (3.21)
Based on equations 3.163.21 the following equation set can be established:
( )
,
`
.

− + − + ·
t
i
t
i
üM
t
i
üM L i R u
d
d
d
d
d
d
*
2 1 1
1 1 1 1
(3.22)
( )
,
`
.

− + − − − ·
t
i
t
i
üM
t
i
üM L i R u
d
d
d
d
d
d
*
2 1
*
2 *
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
(3.23)
These equations (3.22, 3.23) form the basis of the Tecd as the general transformer ecd:
R R
L üM L üM
üM
1 2
1 2
* *
i
u
i i*
u
i
1
1 1 2 2
2
*
*
Fig. 24: Tecd as general transformer ecd
Transformer
27
3.2 Definition of the transformation ratio (ü)
Two opportunities for the definition of the transformation ratio ü need to be discussed.
3.2.1 ü=w
1
/w
2
, design data known
It is not possible to determine the ratio of
2
1
w
w
by either rating plate data or by measuring. The
definition of
2
1
w
w
ü · is quite important for construction and calculation of transformers. It
permits a distinction between leakage flux and working flux. This facilitates to take saturation
of the used iron in the magnetic circuit into account. Using
2
1
w
w
ü · , a definition of variables
arises as follows:
σ 1
2
1
1
L M
w
w
L · − leakage inductance on side 1
h
L M
w
w
1
2
1
· magnetizing inductance
'
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
σ
L M
w
w
L
w
w
· −
,
`
.

leakage inductance on side 2
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
·
·
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

'
2
2
1
2
'
2 2
2
1
'
2 2
2
2
1
'
2 2
2
2
1
i
w
w
i
u u
w
w
R R
w
w
L L
w
w
variables converted to side 1 (using ü)
These replacements lead to the following voltage equations:
t
i
L
t
i
L i R u
h
d
d
d
d
1
1
1 1 1 1
µ
σ
+ + · (3.24)
t
i
L
t
i
L i R u
h
d
d
d
d
1
'
2 '
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
µ
σ
+ − − · (3.25)
Transformer
28
with:
'
2 1
i i i − ·
µ
(3.26)
and the accordant ecd:
R R'
L L'
1 2 1 2
i
u u'
i'
1
1 2
2 L
µ
σ
i
σ
1h
Fig. 25: Tecd with converted elements
µ
i is called the magnetizing current, exciting the working flux
h
φ , which is linked to both
coils (on side 1 and 2):
µ
φ i L w
h h 1 1
· (3.27)
If magnetic saturation is taken into account,
h
L
1
is not of constant value, but dependent on
µ
i :
) (
µ
φ i f
h
· (magnetization characteristic) (3.28)
Leakage flux fractions, linked to only one coil each are represented as leakage inductances
'
2 1
und
σ σ
L L , as shown on the horizontal branches in Fig. 25.:
1 1 1 1
i L w
σ σ
φ · (3.29)
'
2
'
2
'
2 1
i L w
σ σ
φ · (with reference to side 1) (3.30)
Leakage flux fractions always show linear dependencies on their exciting currents.
Definition of the leakage factor:
h h
L
L
1
1
1
1
1
σ σ
φ
φ
σ · · (3.31)
h h
L
L
1
2
1
2
2
` `
σ σ
φ
φ
σ · · (3.32)
Transformer
29
Equations 3.273.32 potentiate a description of the total flux in the magnetization circuit by
distinguishing between working flux and leakage flux, excitet by currents through
magentizing and leakage inductances:
φ
'
φ
φ
1
2
u
i
u'
i'
1
2
1
σ
1h
2
σ
( )
h h 1 1 1 1 1
1 φ σ φ φ φ
σ
+ · + · (3.33)
( )
h h 1 2 2 1
'
2
1 ` φ σ φ φ φ
σ
+ · + · (3.34)
( )
h h
L L L L
1 1 1 1 1
1 σ
σ
+ · + · (3.35)
( )
h h
L L L L
1 2
'
2 1
'
2
1 σ
σ
+ · + · (3.36)
Fig. 26: working flux, leakage flux in magnetic circuit
Interrelation of inductances and leakage factor:
( )( )
2 1
1
'
2
1
1
'
2 1
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
2 1
2
1 1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
σ σ
σ
+ +
− ·
⋅
− ·
− · − · − ·
h h
h
L
L
L
L
L L
L
L ü L
M ü
L L
M
(3.37)
Complex rms value phasors are utilized for the description of steady state AC conditions.
Thus voltage equations 3.243.25 can be depicted as:
µ σ
I jX I jX I R U
h 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + · (3.38)
µ σ
I jX I jX I R U
h 1
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
+ − − · (3.39)
'
2 1
I I I − ·
µ
(3.40)
This leads to the accordant ecd as follows:
R R'
X X'
1 2 1 2
I
U U'
I'
1
1
2
2
X
µ
σ
I
σ
1h
Fig. 27: ecd using complex rms value phasor designations
Transformer
30
The ratio between both side 1 and side 2 noload voltages is to be calculated as follows:
0 `
2
· I d.h.
10
` I I ·
µ
(3.41)
( )
10 1 1
0
10 1 10
I X X j I R U
h
+ + ·
·
σ
3 2 1
(3.42)
An occurring voltage drop at the resistor R
1
can be neglected (for
h
X R
1 1
<< ):
10 1
'
20
I jX U
h
· (3.43)
1
1
1 1
20
10
20
10
1
`
σ
σ
+ ·
+
· ·
h
h
X
X X
U u
U
U
U
& &
(3.44)
Voltage transformation ratio:
( )
2
1
1
2
1
20
10
1
w
w
w
w
U
U
≠ + · σ ! (3.45)
20
10
U
U
is measureable due to VDE (see reference). Only if transformation ratio
2
1
w
w
is known,
equation 3.45 can be separated into
2
1
w
w
and ( )
1
1 σ + .
3.2.2 Complete phasor diagramm
With knowledge of the voltage equations 3.383.39 and appearing ecd elements the complete
phasor diagram of the loaded transformer can be drawn.
With a given load of R
B
and X
B
, as well as voltage U
2,
current I
2
results from:
B B
jX R
U
I
+
·
2
2
(3.46)
R R'
X X'
1 2 1 2
I
U U'
I'
1
1
2
2
X
µ
σ
I
σ
1h
U
h
I'
2 R'
X'
B
B
Fig. 28: ecd of loaded transformer
Transformer
31
Hence U
2
‘ and I
2
’can be determined:
2
'
2
U ü U · (3.47)
ü
I
I
2
'
2
· (3.48)
ϕ
2
jX
I
U'
R'
I'
I
U
U=
jX I'
R I
I'
2
1
1
2
1h
jX I
h
µ
µ
2 2
2
2
1
1 1
I
1
σ
Fig. 29: phasor diagram
Voltage drops on R
2
‘ and X
2σ
‘ are vectorially added to U
2
‘:
h h
U I jX I jX I R U · · + +
µ σ 1 2 2 2 2 2
` ` ` ` ` (3.49)
I
µ
arises from the voltage drop on X
1h
:
h
h
h
h
X
U
j
jX
U
I
1 1
− · ·
µ
(3.50)
I
1
is equal to the sum of
'
2
I and
µ
I :
µ
I I I + ·
'
2 1
(3.51)
The addition of voltage U
h
and the voltage drops on R
1
and X
1σ
results in U
1
:
1 1 1 1 1
U I jX I R U
h
· + +
σ
(3.52)
Voltage drops on resistances and leakage inductances are illustrated
oversized for a better understanding. In real transformer
arrangements of power engineering application those voltage drops
only amount a low percentage of the terminal voltage.
3.2.3 ü=U
10
/U
20
, measured value given
a) ü is defined as the voltage ratio in noload condition on side 2 (with R
1
=0).
( )
M
L
w
w
L
L L
w
w
U
U
ü
h
h 1
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
1
20
10
1 ·
+
· + · ·
σ
σ (3.53)
With ü chosen as in 3.53, the elements of the general transformer ecd:
0
1
· − üM L (3.54)
1
L üM · (3.55)
Transformer
32
σ
σ
σ −
·
,
`
.

−
−
·
,
`
.

− · − · −
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
2
2 1
1 1 2 2
2
1 *
2
L L
M
L L
L L L
M
L
üM L
(3.56)
( ) ( )
'
2
2
1 2
2
2
1
2
1
*
2
1 1 R R
w
w
R σ σ + ·
,
`
.

+ · (3.57)
( ) ( )
'
2 1 2
2
1
1
*
2
1 1 u u
w
w
u σ σ + · + · (3.58)
( )
1
'
2
2
1
1
2 *
2
1
1
σ
σ
+
·
+
·
i
w
w
i
i (3.59)
form the reduced (simplified) ecd:
R R'
L
1 2
1
i
u u'
i'
1
1 2
2 L
0
i
σ
1
(1+ σ
1
) 1 σ
2
(1+ σ
1
)
(1+ σ
1
)
Fig. 30: reduced ecd of a transformer
( )
0
1
'
2
1
*
2 1
1
i
i
i i i ·
+
− · −
σ
(noload current) (3.60)
With neglect of the magnetic saturation this ecd (Fig. 30) based on the definition
20
10
U
U
ü ·
is equal to the ecd based on
2
1
w
w
ü · (Fig. 27) concerning operational behaviour.
Since
σ 1
L is set to 0
1
·
σ
L , the calculation is simplified. All elements of the ecd can be
determined by measures. Therefore the described representation is also often used for
rotating electrical machines.
The shunt arm current i
0
complies with the real noload current if 0
1
· R applies.
Transformer
33
b) The definition of ü to be the voltage ratio at noload condition on side 1 with 0
2
· R
shows equivalent results:
( ) ( )
( )
2
'
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
'
2 1
2
1
1
2
2
1
20
10
1
L
M
L L
w
w
w
w
L
L L
w
w
L
w
w
U
U
ü
h
h
h
h
·
+
,
`
.

·
+
·
+
· ·
σ
σ
σ
(3.61)
This choice of ü leads to:
1
2 1
2
1
2
2
1 1
1 L
L L
M
L
L
M
L üM L σ ·
,
`
.

− · − · − (3.62)
( ) σ − · · · 1
1
2 1
2
1
2
2
L
L L
M
L
L
M
üM (3.63)
( ) ( )
2
2
'
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 *
2
1 1 σ σ +
·
+
,
`
.

·
R R
w
w
R (3.64)
( )
2
'
2
2
2
2
1 *
2
1 1 σ σ +
·
+
·
u u
w
w
u (3.65)
( ) ( )
2
'
2 2
2
1
2 *
2
1 1 σ σ + · + · i
w
w
i
i (3.66)
an ecd which is also used for rotating electrical machines.
R
R'
L
1
2
1
i
u
u'
i'
1
1 2
2
L
0
i
σ
1
(1+ σ )
(1 σ)
2
(1+ σ )
(1+ σ )
2
2
2
noload current
( )
0 2
'
2 1
*
2 1
1 i i i i i · + − · − σ
(3.67)
Fig. 31: ecd for alternative definition of ü (due to b.))
There are other opportunities left, expressing ü, which are not subject to further discussion.
Transformer
34
3.3 Operational behavior
Four essential working points need to be discussed. Those are named as follows:
• noload condition
• shortcircuit condition
• load with nominal stress
• parallel connection
3.3.1 Noload condition
The operational behavior of a transformer in noload condition is characterized similiarily like
an ironcored reactor with ohmic resistance. Occurring losses are caused by magnetic reversal
in iron parts and also in windings by Joulean heat.
Iron losses compose of two different physical effects:
• Eddycurrent losses caused by alternating flux.
insulated laminations
core
I
d
φ
dt
φ
,
eddy
An induced current flows in a direction to create a
magnetic field which will counteract the change in
magnetic flux (Lenz’s Law, see also 2.1.2). Eddy
current losses emerge as:
2 2
~ f B V
W
(3.68)
Those can be reduced by using isolated, laminated
iron for the core and by admixture of Silicon to the
alloy, increasing the specific resistance.
Fig. 32: eddy current
• Hysteresis losses, caused by magnetic reversal.
B
H
The amount of occurring hysteresis losses is
proportional to the enclosed area surrounded in a
cycle of the hysteresis loop:
f B V
H
2
~ (3.69)
Therefore magnetically soft material with narrow
hysteresis loop width is used for transformers.
Fig. 33: hysteresis loop
The specific iron losses of electric sheet steel is specified in W/kg at 1,5 T and 50 Hz.
Transformer
35
Iron losses can be taken into account by using resistance R
Fe
, arranged in parallel to the
magnetiziation reactance X
1h
. Joulean losses at noload operation are regarded with R
1
.
R
X
1 1
I
U
10
10
X
µ
I
σ
1h
I
v
R
Fe
Fig. 34: ecd, regarding losses
U
R
I
10
1h
1
µ
σ
10
I
µ
I
v
jX I
I
10
jX
1
I
10
Fig. 35: phasor diagram regarding losses
The noload current I
10
is fed into the primary windings. It is composed of the magnetizing
current I
µ
and the current fraction I
V
responsible for iron losses.
3.3.2 Shortcircuit
The highresistive shunt arm, including X
1h
and R
Fe
can be neglected in short circuit operation
( )
'
2 1
, R R X
Fe h
>> . With that assumption, the equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) appears as:
R
X
1 1
I
U
1K
1K
I´
σ
2K
X´
2σ
R´
2
Fig. 36: shortcircuit ecd of an transformer
0
'
2
· U (3.70)
K K
I I
1
'
2
· (3.71)
All resistances and leakage reactances are combined to a shortcircuit impedance, referred to
side 1:
'
2 1 1
R R R
K
+ · (3.72)
'
2 1 1 σ σ
X X X
K
+ · (3.73)
K
K
K K K k
R
X
X R Z
1
1 2
1
2
1 1
tan , · + · ϕ (3.74)
Also in shortcircuit operation the response of a transformer is equal to an ironcored reactor
with ohmic resistance. Mind
10 1
Z Z
K
<< in this case!
Transformer
36
Shortcircuit measurement with nominal current due to VDE regulations:
Shortcircuit voltage U
1k
is called the voltage to appear at nominal current and nominal
frequency on the input side, if the output side is shortcircuited (terminals connected without
resistance):
N K K
I Z U
1 1 1
· (3.75)
R
X
1K 1k
I
U
1K
1N
Fig. 37: shortcircuit ecd
ϕ
K
jX
1K
I
1N
R
1K
I
1N
I
1N
U
1K
Fig. 38: phasor diagram
For a reasonable comparison of transformers of different sizes and power ratings, a variable
called “relative short circuit voltages” is introduced. These are short circuit voltage values
normalized to the nominal voltage.
N
N K
N
K
K
U
I Z
U
U
u
1
1 1
1
1
· · (in practice ≈ 0,05 – 0,1) (3.76)
N
N K
R
U
I R
u
1
1 1
· (3.77);
N
N K
X
U
I X
u
1
1 1
· (3.78)
2 2
X R K
u u u + · (3.79);
R
X
K
u
u
· ϕ tan (3.80)
Shortcircuit current at nominal voltage is determined by:
K N
K
N
N
K
u I
Z
U
I
I 1
1
1
1
1
1
· · (real ≈ 10 – 20) (3.81)
3.3.3 Load with nominal stress
Due to relations applied in real transformers
R : X
σ
: X
h
: R
Fe
≈ 1 : 2 : 1000 : 10000,
sufficient accuracy is reached with usage of the simplified ecd (shown in Fig. 39).
Transformer
37
R
X
1K 1K
I
U
1
1
U'
I'
2
2
Fig. 39: simplified ecd (nominal stress)
This leads to a simplified phasor diagram
(Fig. 40).
The input voltage U
1
and the terminal
voltage U
2
‘ (being referred to the input
side) differ from an incremental vector,
being hypotenuse of the Kapp’s triangle
(see Fig. 40).
At constant frequency and constant current
stress I
1
the lengths of the triangle legs
remain constant. Kapp’s triangle turns
around the phasor tip of a given input
voltage U
1
, dependent on the phase angle
of the input current I
1
.
The voltage ratio depends on the type of
load as follows
• ohmic – inductive load: U
2
‘ < U
1
voltage reduction
• ohmic – capacitive load: U
2
‘ > U
1
voltage increase
ϕ
ϑ
I = I'
1 2
U
1
ϕ
ϕ
X I sin
ϕ
1K 1
X I
1K 1
R I cos
ϕ
1K 1
R I
1K 1
U'
2
2
2
2
2
2
Fig. 40: simplified phasor diagramm,
Kapp’s triangle
Determination of the relative voltage drop:
2 1 1 2 1 1
'
2 1
sin cos cos ϕ ϕ ϑ I X I R U U
K K
+ + ·
(3.82)
with 1 cos ≈ ϑ and
N
U U
1 1
· follows:
,
`
.

+ ·
−
2
1
1 1
2
1
1 1
1
1
1
2 1
sin cos
`
ϕ ϕ
N
N K
N
N K
N N
N
U
I X
U
I R
I
I
U
U U
(3.83)
( )
2 2
1
1
sin cos ϕ ϕ
ϕ X R
N
u u
I
I
u + · (3.84)
Transformer
38
3.3.4 Parallel connection
Two variations of parallel connections need to be distinguished:
• network parallel connection: compensating networks are arranged between transformers
connected in parallel – noncritical
• bus bar parallel connection: transformers are directly connected in parallel on the
secondary side (output side).
A B
Fig. 41: transformers in parallel
In order to achieve a load balance according to the
respective nominal powers it is of importance not to
cause compensating currents.
Usage of the simplified equivalent circuit diagram, converted to output side values:
R
X
1K 1K
I
U
1
1
U'
I'
2
2
Fig. 42: conversion to side 2
Z
2K
U
20 U
I
2
2
Fig. 43: impedance
ü I I
1 2
· ,
ü
U
U
1
20
·
σ
σ
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2 2
jX
ü
X
j R
ü
R
jX R Z
K K K
+ + + ·
+ ·
Z
2KA
U
20B
U
I
2
2
Z
2KB
U
20A
I
2A
I
2B
U
∆
Z
Fig. 44: parallel connection on output side
If 0
20 20
≠ − · ∆
B A
U U U , compensating currents flow (already in noload operation):
KB KA
B A
Z Z
U
I I
2 2
2 2
+
∆
· − · (3.85)
Transformer
39
The noload voltages of both transformers must be of the same value concerning amount and
phase angle, in order to avoid compensating currents. That requires:
• same transformation ratio (ü)
• same connection of primary and secondary side, same vector group (threephase
transformers)
Condition 0 · ∆U is taken as granted. The partition of the load currents is directly opposed to
the shortcircuit impedances. Load current ratio and shortcircuit impedance ratio are
reciprocal. The voltage drop at both shortcircuit impedances must be the same for 0 · ∆U .
( )
KA KB
j
KA
KB
KA
KB
B
A
e
Z
Z
Z
Z
I
I
ϕ ϕ −
· ·
2
2
2
2
2
2
(3.86)
In case of different short circuit phase angles, both load currents are phase displaced against
each other.
I
2A I
2
ϕ
KB

ϕ
KA
I
2B
U
20A
=U
20B
=U
20
This results in a lower geometrical sum of the load
currents compared to the arithmetical sum.
KA
KB
N
AN
KA
N
BN
KB
BN
B
AN
A
u
u
U
I
Z
U
I
Z
I
I
I
I
· ·
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(3.87)
The percental load shares react contrariwise to the
relative shortcircuit voltages. That means higher
percental load for the transformer with lower u
k
.
Fig. 45: phase shift of load currents
3.4 Mechanical construction
3.4.1 Design
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
w
w
2
1
φ
2
φ
2
x
x
x
x
x
w
2
w
1
x
x
x
x
x
φ
x
x
x
x
x
φ
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
w
1
2
w
2
2
w
2
2
w
1
2
Fig. 46: shelltype transformer Fig. 47a,b: coretype transformers
low overall height high magnetic leakage
→ useless!
low magnetic leakage
Transformer
40
windings: lowleakage models
OS US
φ
OS
φ
US
2
US
2
φ
US
n
OS
n
Fig. 48a: cylindrical winding Fig. 48b: double cylindrical
winding
Fig. 48c: disc winding/
sandwich winding
improved magnetic coupling, lower leakage
core cross sections: adaption to circle
Fig. 49a: VA Fig. 49b: kVA Fig. 49c: MVA
joints: air gaps are to be avoided
Fig. 50: joints, air gaps of a core
Transformer
41
3.4.2 Calculation of the magnetizing inductance
x
x
x
x
x
φ
h
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
w
1
2
I
1
w
2
2
I
2
Fig. 51: core, windings
Appliance of Ampere’s Law:
s H
r
r
d
∫
· θ (3.88)
(magnetical quantity: peak values,
elektrical quantities: rms values)
Fe
0
Fe
Fe Fe
1
2 1
2
1 1 2 2 1 1
2
2 2 2
l
B
l H
I w
w w
I
I w I w I w
r
µ µ
µ
·
·
·
,
`
.

− · −
r
µ high, so that 0 →
µ
I !
µ
µ µ
I w
l
B
r
2
1
Fe
0
Fe
· (3.90)
The calculation of inductances using the magnetic energy is most reliable:
2
2
1
d
2
1
Li V HB W
V
m
· ·
∫
(3.91)
( )
2
1
2
1
0
0 0
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
µ µ
µ µ
µ µ µ µ
I L A l I w
l
V
B
W
h Fe Fe
Fe
r
r r
Fe
m
·
,
`
.

· · (3.92)
Fe
Fe 0 2
1 1
l
A
w L
r
h
µ µ
· ⇒ (3.93)
For ∞ →
h
L
1
high permeable steel is assumed – e.g. coldrolled, grainorientated sheets.
3.4.3 Proportioning of R
1
and R‘
2
For ∞ →
h
X
1
, leading to 0 →
µ
I follows:
2 2 1 1
I w I w · (equivalent to
'
2 1
I I · ) (3.94)
2 2 2 1 1 1
S q w S q w
L L
· (3.95)
2 2 1 1
S A S A
cu cu
· (3.96)
(3.89)
Transformer
42
with equal current densities:
2 1
S S · (3.97)
then follows:
2 1 cu cu
A A · (3.98)
and therefore:
2 1 m m
l l · (3.99)
This means equal dimensions of primary and secondary windings.
Copper losses (ohmic losses) result in:
2
2
1
'
2
2
'
2
'
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1 1
2
1 1 1
cu m cu
m cu
L
L
L
m
cu
V I R I R I R l A S
l A S I
q
q
q
l w
I R V
· · · · ·
· · ·
ρ
ρ ρ
(3.100)
This leads to:
'
2 1
R R · and
2 1 cu cu
V V · .
Time constant of an ironcored reactor: transformer in noload:
1
1 Fe
0
1
1
Fe
Fe
0
1
1
1
1 1
Fe
Fe
0
2
1
1
1
1
1
m
cu
Fe
r
cu
m
r
L
m
r
h
l
A
l
A
A
l
A
l
w
w
q
l w
A
l
w
R
L
T
ρ
µ µ
ρ
µ µ
ρ
µ µ
· ·
,
`
.

· · (3.101)
The time constant is independent from the number of turns. Effective influence is only given
by:
• core permeance:
Fe
Fe
0
l
A
r m
µ µ · Λ (3.102)
• conductivity of the winding:
1
1
1
m
cu
el
l
A
ρ
· Λ (3.103)
which leads to:
el m
T Λ Λ ·
1
(3.104)
Transformer
43
3.4.4 Calculation of the leakage inductances
x
φ
x
x
x
x
x
w
2
w
1
I
2
I
1
h
a b
σ
a
1 2
B
max
B
0 x
( )
1
max
a
x
B x B
·
( )
max
B
x
B
·
( )
2
2 1
max
a
x a b a
B x B
− + +
·
Fig. 52: leakage flux of core
Assumption: transformer to be shortcircuited
0 ·
µ
I , d. h.
'
2 1
I I ·
Ampere’s Law:
h
x B
h x H s H x
0
) (
) ( d ) (
µ
θ · · ·
∫
r
r
(3.105)
) ( ) (
0
x
h
x B θ
µ
· (3.106)
2 2
2 2
0
1 1
0
max
I w
h
I w
h
B
µ µ
· · (3.107)
A mean length of turns
m
l is introduced for
simplification purposes of calculations.
Calculation of the shortcircuit inductance based on the magnetic energy:
( )
( )
2
1
2 1
2
1 1
0
0
2
2
2 1
0
2
1
2
max
0
0
2
0
2
2
1
3 3
2
2
d d d
2
2
d
2
1
2 1
1
1
1
1
2 1
I L
a
b
a
I w
h
hl
x
a
x a b a
x x
a
x
B
hl
x B
hl
V HB W
K
m
a b a
b a
b a
a
a
m
a b a
m
V
m
·
,
`
.

+ +
,
`
.

·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
,
`
.
 − + +
+ +
,
`
.

·
· ·
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫
+ +
+
+
+ +
µ
µ
µ
µ
(3.108)
,
`
.

+ + · + · →
3 3
2 1 0
2
1
'
2 1
a
b
a
h
l
w L L L
m
K
µ
σ σ
(3.109)
K
L is just arbitrarily separable into
σ 1
L and
'
2σ
L . In order to keep leakage inductances low, the
distance b between windings needs to be reduced, without neglecting winding insulation. The
winding dimensions
1
a and
2
a are limited by specified current densities.
Alternatives: Double cylindric winding or disc winding (sandwich winding)
Transformer
44
3.5 Efficiency
efficiency:
Fe Cu 2
2
1
2
V V P
P
P
P
+ +
· · η (3.110)
iron losses:
2
0 Fe Fe
,
`
.

·
N
U
U
V V (3.111)
copper losses (ohmic losses):
2
Cu Cu
,
`
.

·
N
N
I
I
V V (3.112)
delivered power:
N N
N
U
U
I
I
P P ·
2
(3.113)
For operation in networks of constant voltage, efficiency is defined as:
0 Fe
2
Cu
V
I
I
V
I
I
P
I
I
P
N
N
N
N
N
N
+
,
`
.

+
· η (3.114)
Maximum efficiency appears if:
2
Cu 0 Fe
2
Cu
2
0
d
d
N
I
I
V P
I
I
P P V
I
I
V
I
I
P
I
I
N
N N
N
N N
N
N
N
N
N
,
`
.

+ −
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+
·
·
,
`
.

η
(3.115)
This operational point is characterized by equal iron and copper losses:
N
N
V
I
I
V
Cu
2
0 Fe
,
`
.

· (3.116)
Is the transformer intended to be stressed
with partial load, it is useful to choose the
efficiency maximum peak as per
2
1
0 < <
N
I
I
. In case of a durable full load,
a choice as per 1
2
1
< <
N
I
I
is proven
reasonable.
V,
Cu
V
η
η
V
Fe0
I / I
N
Fig. 53: losses, efficiency characteristic
Transformer
45
3.6 Growth conditions
Interdependencies between electrical quantities and size can be shown for transformers and
also for rotating machines.
If the nominal voltage is approximately set as:
Fe Fe 1 1 1
2 2
A B w w U
N
h
N
N
ω
φ
ω
· · (3.117)
and the nominal current amounts:
1
1 1
1
w
A S
I
cu
N
· (3.118)
the nominal apparent power follows as:
Fe 1 Fe 1 1 1
2
A A B S I U S
cu
N
N N N
ω
· · (3.119)
With constant flux density and current density, the nominal apparent power is proportional to
the 4th power of linear dimensions:
4
~ L S
N
(3.120)
Nominal apparent power, referred to unit volume, increases with incremental size:
L
L
S
N
~
3
(3.121)
Equations for Joulean heat and core losses show size dependencies as follows:
3
cu
2
Cu
~ L A l S V
m
ρ · (3.122)
3
Fe Fe Fe
~ L A l v V
Fe
·
(3.123)
Cooling becomes more complicated with increasing size, because losses per surface unit
increase with size:
L
O
V V
~
Fe Cu
+
(3.124)
Efficiency improves with increasing size:
L S
V V
N
Fe Cu
1
1 ~ 1 −
+
− · η (3.125)
Transformer
46
Relative short circuit voltages show the dependencies:
L S
V
I
I
U
I R
u
N N
N
N
N K
R
1
~
1 Cu
1
1
1
1 1
· · (3.126)
L
A B w
w
A S a
b
a
h
l
w
U
I X
u
Fe Fe
N
Cu m
N
N
N K
X
~
2
3 3
1
1
1 2 1
2
1 0
1
1 1
ω
µ ω
,
`
.

+ +
· · (3.127)
means: increasing size leads to decreasing u
R
and increasing u
X
.
3.7 Threephase transformer
3.7.1 Design, Vector group
A threephase transformer consists of the interconnection of three singlephase transformers
in Y– or ∆ – connection. This transformer connects two threephase systems of different
voltages (according to the voltage ratio).
U
V
W
u
v
w
φ
u
φ
v
φ
w
u
i
=0 u
u
i
u
u
w
i
w
u
v
i
v
This arrangement is mainly used in
the USA – in Europe only for high
power applications (>200 MVA)
because of transportation
problems. The combination in one
single threephase unit instead of
three singlephase units is usual
elsewhere.
Fig. 54: threephase assembly
The technical implementation is
very simple. Three singlephase
transformers, connected to three
phase systems on primary and
secondary side, are to be spatially
arranged. A complete cycle of the
measuring loop around the three
iron cores results in 0 ·
i
u and:
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( · + + t t t
w v u
φ φ φ (3.128)
Fig. 55: spatial arrangement
Transformer
47
• threeleg transformer
x
x
x
x
x
φ
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
φ φ
OS US U V W
U V W
• fiveleg transformer
x
x
x
x
x
φ
U
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
3
φ
3
φ
φ
V
φ
W
The magnetic return paths of
the three cores can be dropped,
which results in the usual type
of threephase transformers.
One primary and one secondary
winding of a phase is arranged
on any leg.
Fig. 56: threeleg transformer
Fiveleg transformers are used
for high power applications
(low overall height).
Fig. 57: fiveleg transformer
Primary and secondary winding can be connected in Y– or ∆ – connection, according to
requirements. The additional opportunity of a so called zigzag connection can be used on the
secondary side. The separation of the windings into two parts and their application on two
different cores characterize this type of connection. This wiring is particularly suitable for
singlephase loads. Significant disadvantage is the additional copper expense on the
secondary side increased about a factor
3
2
compared to Y– or ∆ – connection.
A conversion from linetoline quantities to phase quantities and the usage of singlephase ecd
and phasor diagram is reasonable for the calculation of the operational behaviour of balanced
loaded threephase transformers.
The method of symmetrical components (see 2.6) is suited for calculations in case of
unbalanced load conditions.
In a parallel connection of two threephase transformers the transformation ratio as well as the
phase angle multiplier of the according vector group need to be adapted.
Transformer
48
Examples for vector groups (based on VDE regulations):
phasor diagram ecd phase angle
multiplier
vector
group primary side secondary side primary side secondary side
ratio
0 Yy0
0
U
V W
0
u
v w
0
U V W
0
u v w
2
1
w
w
6 Yy6
0
U
V W
u
v w
6·30°
0
U V W
u v w
2
1
w
w
5 Yd5
0
U
V W
0
u
v
w
u
5·30°
0
U V W
u v w
2
1
3
w
w
Yz5
0
U
V W
0
u
v
w
u
5·30°
0
U V W
u v
+

u v w
w
2
2
w
2
2
2
1
3
2
w
w
Fig. 58: table showing phasor diagrams and ecd according to vector group and multiplier
with:
• upper case letter à vector group on primary side
• lower case letter à vector group on secondary side
• Y, y à star connection
• D, d à delta connection (? )
• z à zigzag connection
The multiplier gives the number of multiples of 30°, defining the total phase shift, of which
the low voltage (secondary side) lags behind the higher voltage (same orientation of reference
arrow assumed).
Mnemonic: clock
o higher voltage: 12 o’clock
o lower voltage: number of multiplier (on the clock)
Transformer
49
3.7.2 Unbalanced load
A threephase transformer of any vector group may be singlephase loaded on the neutral
conductor:
B u
I I · , 0 · ·
w v
I I
transformer
Z
B
I
B
u
v
w
0
U
V
W
Fig. 59 unbalanced load of threephase transformer
Appliance of the method of symmetrical components:
1. segmentation of the currents into positive, negative and zero sequence system:
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
,
`
.

B
B
B
w
v
u
g
m
I
I
I
I
I
I
a a
a a
I
I
I
3
1
1 1 1
1
1
3
1
2
2
0
(3.129)
2. set up of the voltage equations:
• note: → · ·
K g m
Z Z Z generally valid for transformers
and: →
0
Z dependent on the vector group.
• regard: noload voltages are balanced
L Lm
U U · , 0
0
· ·
L Lg
U U
3
B
K L m m Lm m
I
Z U I Z U U − · − · (3.130)
3
B
K g g Lg g
I
Z I Z U U − · − · (3.131)
3
0 0 0 0 0
B
L
I
Z I Z U U − · − · (3.132)
3. inverse transformation
( )
0 0
2
3
Z Z
I
U U U U U
K
B
L g m u
+ − · + + · (3.133)
( )
,
`
.

+ + − · + + ·
− ·
0
1
2 2
0
2
3
Z Z a a
I
U a U U a U a U
K
B
L g m v
3 2 1
(3.134)
( )
,
`
.

+ + − · + + ·
− ·
0
1
2
0
2
3
Z Z a a
I
U a U U a U a U
K
B
L g m w
3 2 1
(3.135)
Transformer
50
With neglecting the voltage drop along Z
K
and assumption of a pure inductive load, the phase
voltages are determined by:
3
0
B
L u
I
jX U U − · (3.136)
3
0
2
B
L v
I
jX U a U − · (3.137)
3
0
B
L w
I
jX U a U − · (3.138)
0
U
U U
L
w v
U
u
I
B
jX
0
I
B
3
jX
0
I
B
3
jX
0
I
B
3
Fig. 60: phasor diagram
Since the voltage drop along X
0
is equal and inphase, the threephase phasor diagram
(Fig. 60) is distorted, caused by a star point displacement.
This voltage drop needs to be limited, otherwise phase voltage U
u
collapses in a worst case
condition – leading to increased phase voltages U
v
und U
w
by factor 3 .
A correspondence of
K
Z Z ·
0
is aimed for a troublefree single phase load.
Transformer
51
It is to be discussed, which of the vector groups match the requirements and how the zero
sequence impedance can be determined.
Measurement of the zero sequence impedance:
transformer
I
0
U
0
0
0
0
3
I
U
Z · (3.139)
Fig. 61: transformer, zero sequence impedance
a) Yy...
0
I excites inphase fluxes in all of the three limbs. The
flux distributions establish a closed loop via leakage
path, ambient air or frame. This effect leads to improper
temperature rise. High resistance of the leakage paths
leads to:
h K
Z Z Z < <
0
→ star loading capacity: 10% I
N
(maximum)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Fig. 62 a
b) Dy...
The ? connected higher voltagewinding (primary side)
is equal to a short circuit of the inphase fluxes:
K
Z Z ≈
0
→ load with zero sequence system possible
I
0
I
0
3
U
0
Fig. 62b
c) Yz...
Currents in a winding of any limb equalize each other,
without exciting working flux:
K
Z Z ≈
0
→ load with zero sequence system possible
u v
I
0
3
I
0
3
I
0
U
0
Fig. 62c
Fig. 62 ac: selection of vector group combinations matching requirements (due to 3.7.2)
Transformer
52
3.8 Autotransformer
U
2
I
2
U
1
I
1
w
1
∆
w
w
2
∆
U
Fig. 63: autotransformer
A special type of power transformer, consisting of
a single, continuous winding that is tapped on one
side to provide either a stepup or stepdown
function (inductive voltage divider).
Advantage: significant material savings
Disadvantage: primary and secondary side feature
galvanic coupling
voltage ratio: ( 0 , 0
1
> >
σ µ
L I )
w w
w
w
w
U
U
ü
∆ +
· · ·
1
1
2
1
2
1
(3.140)
throughput rating = transmittable power:
( 0 , 0
2 1
· · R R )
2 2 1 1
I U I U P
D
· · (3.141)
unit rating = design rating:
( )
( ) ü P
U
U
I U
I U U UI P
D
T
− ·
,
`
.

− ·
− · ∆ ·
1
1
2
1
2 2
2 1 2 2
(3.142)
In contrast to separate winding transformers, the throughput rating P
D
of autotransformers is
only partially transmitted by induction (unit rating P
T
), the residuary fraction is transmitted by
DC coupling (galvanic). In border case condition characterized by ü close to 1, the unit rating
P
T
becomes very low.
Applications: power supply of traction motors, system interconnection 220 / 380 kV
Another disadvantage of the economizing circuit of autotransformers is given by the increased
shortcircuit current (compared to separate winding transformers) in fault scenarios.
Example: shortcircuit on secondary side
( )
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
) (
ü Z
w
w w
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z
K
K
K
K
K
K K
K K
KST
− ·
−
·
∆
·
∆ +
∆
·
(3.143)
For ü close to 1, the shortcircuit current rises high!
53
4 Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
Rotating electrical machines are electromechanical energy converters:
motor – generator
The described energy conversion, expressed as forces on the mechanical side, whereas it
appears as induced voltages on the electrical side. Basically electrical machines can be
operated in both motor and generator mode.
air gap
stator
rotor
motor
P
mech
P
el
P
el
generator
n
P
mech
motor
generator
v
Fig. 64: scheme of energy conversion
The general design of rotating electrical
machines in shown in Fig. 64. Electrical
power is either supplied to – or dissipated
from the stator, whereas mechanical power
is either dissipated from – or supplied to
the rotor. The electrical energy conversion
occurs in the air gap. Losses appear in
stator and rotor.
Stator and rotor are usually fitted with
windings, with voltages to be induced,
caused by spatiotemporal flux alteration.
Forces either appear as Lorentz force in
conductors or as interfacial forces on (iron)
core surfaces.
Technical demands on energy converters:
1. time independent constant torque (motor) and according constant power output
(generator) in steady state operation
2. quick adjustment of torque and speed (motor) and according voltage and current
(generator) in transient operation
Electrical machines are usually supplied by either DC or AC systems. The latter differ from
balanced threephase rotating field systems or singlephase alternating systems. Time
independent and constant power is to be found in DC and threephase systems. Transmitted
power of singlephase systems pulsates at doubled system frequency.
Basically three types of electrical machines need to be distinguished:
• DC machines: air gap field with steady orientation towards stator; rotating armature
• Rotating field machines:
o induction machines (asynchronous behaviour)
o synchronous machines
synchronuous speed of air gap field, rotor follows synchronous or asynchronous
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
54
4.1 Operating limits
Operating limits as borders cases in a specific M/n operation diagram (torque/speed diagram)
exist for any electrical machine. The complete range of achievable load cases is contained in
this diagram (Fig. 65).
Nominal quantities and maximum quantities need to be differentiated. Working points with
nominal quantities such as nominal torque M
N
and nominal power P
N
can be operated
enduring, whereas maximum quantities such as maximum torque M
max
and maximum power
P
max
can only be driven momentarily. Limiting parameters are temperature, mechanical
strength and life cycle. In the event of a load condition exceeding the specified range, the
machine becomes subject to a thermal overload, caused by excessive currents. Bearings
operated at excessive speed reach their thermal acceptance level, followed by a reduction of
the life cycle. Excessive speed may destroy the rotor by centrifuging, provoked by centrifugal
force (radial).
M
n
N
overload
base
speed
M
max
M
N
P
max
P
N
M~n
1
n
N
n
max
field
weakening
range
field
weakening
range
Fig. 65: M/n operation diagram
Two general operating areas appear for
electrical machines. There is the base
speed range at first. This range is
characterized by the opportunity that at
least the nominal torque can be performed
at any speed, even at 0 rpm. At constant
torque M
N
the mechanical power increases
linear with increasing speed, until nominal
power P
N
is optained. Nominal speed n
N
is
reached in this working point:
N
N
N
M
P
n
⋅
·
π 2
(4.1)
Nominal power P
N
must not be exceeded in enduring operation. In order to still run higher
speeds, driving torque must be decreased at increasing speed.
n
P
M
N
⋅
·
π 2
(4.2)
This area – being the second out of the two described  is called range of constant power
(according to equation 4.2). The described condition of decreased driving torque is achieved
by weakening of the magnetic field, therefore the operation range is also called field
weakening range.
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
55
4.2 Equation of motion
Electrical drives are utilized for conversion of electrical energy in mechanical motion
processes and also the other way around. The torque balance of a drive system describes the
fundamental relation for the determination of a motion sequence. It necessarily needs to be
fulfilled at any time.
0 · − −
B W A
M M M (4.3)
M
A
driving torque of a motor
M
W
load torque or resistance torque of the load engine with friction
torque and loss torque contained
dt
d
J M
B
Ω
⋅ · acceleration torque of all rotating masses (4.4)
∫
⋅ · dm r J
2
mass moment of inertia (4.5)
n ⋅ ⋅ · Ω π 2 mechanical angular speed (4.6)
In stationary operation, characterized by n=const, the acceleration torque is M
B
=0.
m
v
r
Ω
Fig. 66: rot./trans.
conversion
The conversion from rotary motion into translatory motion (and the other
way around as well) is performed with regard to the conservation of
kinectic energy:
2 2
2
1
2
1
Ω ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ J v m (4.7)
2
2 2
r m
r
m
v
m J ⋅ ·
,
`
.

Ω
⋅ Ω
⋅ ·
,
`
.

Ω
⋅ · (4.8)
56
The following table shows rotary and translatory physical quantities:
translation rotation
name and symbol equations unit name and symbol equations Unit
distance s
ϕ ⋅ · r s
m angle ϕ
r
s
· ϕ
rad
speed v
dt
ds
v ·
m
r v Ω ⋅ ·
m/s
angular speed Ω
m
dt
d
m
ϕ
· Ω
r
v
m
· Ω
1/s
acceleration a
dt
dv
a ·
m/s
2
angular
acceleration α
dt
d
m
Ω
· α
1/s
2
tangential
acceleration a
t
α ⋅ · r a
t
m/s
2
mass m kg
mass moment of
inertia J
∫
· dm r J
2
kg m
2
force F
dt
dv
m F ⋅ ·
N torque M
dt
d
J M
m
Ω
⋅ ·
Nm
power P v F P ⋅ · W power P
m
M P Ω ⋅ ·
W
energy W
2
2
1
v m W ⋅ ·
J
energy W
2
2
1
m
J W Ω ⋅ ⋅ ·
J
Fig. 67: rotary and translatory quantities, according symbols, equations and units
4.3 Mechanical power of electrical machines
An electrical machine can either be used as motor or as generator. In motor mode electrical
energy is converted into mechanical energy, in generator mode mechanical energy is
transformed into electrical energy. The power rating plate data is always given as the output
power. Mechanical power working on the shaft is meant for the motor operation, electrical
power being effective at the terminals is meant for the generator.
Mechanical power P is determined by
M n M P ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ Ω · π 2 (4.9)
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
57
Mechanical speed n and torque M are signed quantities (+/) – per definition is:
• output power signed positive
That means positive algebraic sign (+) for mechanical power in motor operation.
generator
P < 0
backward braking
motor
P > 0
forward driving
motor
P > 0
backward driving
generator
P < 0
forward braking
M
n
Fig. 68: operation modes, directions of electrical machines
An electrical drive can be driven in all of the four quadrants of the M/n diagram (see Fig. 65
and 68). An automotive vehicle is supposed to be taken as an example: if speed n and torque
M are signed identically, the according machine is in motor operation. We get forward driving
with positive signed speed (1st quadrant) and backward driving with negative signed speed
(3rd quadrant). In case of different algebraic signs for speed and torque, the machine works in
generator mode, battery and supply systems are fed with electrical energy. This takes effect in
braked forward driving (4th quadrant) as well as in braked backward driving (2nd quadrant).
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
58
4.4 Load and motor characteristics, stability
Motor operation and generator mode of operation need to be discussed separately.
4.4.1 Motor and generator characteristics
motor characteristics: ) (n f M
A
· generator characteristics: ) (I f U
G
·
M
n
N
n n
N 0
A
M
N
R
.
I
N
R
U
U
U
I
G
0
N
N
Fig. 69a: shunt characteristic
0
, const n n
M
≈
series characteristic
n
M
1
~
Fig. 69b: shunt characteristic
0
, const U U
I
≈
series characteristic
) ( ~ I U φ
4.4.2 Load characteristics
) (n f M
w
· ) (I f U
B
·
M
n n
N
W
M
N
~ n
const
n
~
~ n
2
1
n
Fig. 70a: motor load characteristic
U
I I
N
G
~ I
const
I
U
N
Fig. 70b: generator load characteristic
const ·
w
M :
friction, gravitation
n M
w
~ :
elektric brake
const · ·
N B
U U :
stiff system
2
~ n M
w
:
fans, pumps
RI U
B
· :
load resistance
n
M
w
1
~ : winches
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
59
4.4.3 Stationary stability
stable motor operation
n
M
n
M
A w
∂
∂
>
∂
∂
(4.10)
M
n
W
M
A
M
W
stable
unstable
Fig. 71a: motor stability characteristic
The load torque needs to increase stronger
with increasing speed than the motor
torque.
stable generator operation
I
U
I
U
G B
∂
∂
>
∂
∂
(4.11)
U
I
U
B
U
G
U
B
stable unstable
Fig. 71b: generator stability characteristic
The voltage at the load needs to increase
stronger with increasing current than the
generator voltage.
61
5 DC Machine
5.1 Design and mode of action
The stator of a DC machine usually consists of a massive steel yoke, fitted with poles. Those
stator poles carry DC exciter windings. The magnetic field excited by the excitation current
permeates the rotor (also called armature for DC machines), the magnetic circuit is closed via
the stator iron core. The armature core is composed of slotted iron laminations that are
stacked to form a cylindrical core. The armature winding is placed in the armature slots.
The method of DC machine armature current supply to create uniform torque in motor
operation is subject to the following consideration.
X
X
x
F
I
n
F
I
pole (solid)
exciter windings
yoke (solid)
brush
commutator
armature (lamin.)
f = p n
armature winding
z conductor
.
Fig. 72: DC machine, general design
Is the conductor (Fig. 72) fed with DC current
of constant value, a force F is exerted on the
conductor as long as it remains underneath the
stator pole. Effective field and according force
are equal to zero beneath the poles. Does the
armature pass these regions caused by its mass
moment of inertia, a magnetic field of opposite
direction is reached next. With unreversed
current direction a braking force is exerted on
the rotor.
This consideration leads to the result, the armature current needs to be reversed until the
armature conductor reaches the field of opposite poles. This current reversal is performed by
the so called commutator of collector. The commutator is composed of a slip ring that is cut in
segments, with each segment insulated from the other as well as from the shaft. The
commutator revolves with the armature; the armature current is supplied or picked up by
stationary brushes. The current reversal, performed by the commutator, is done in the way to
create a spatiotemporal magnetomotive force (mmf), perpendicular orientated to the exciter
field.
The armature needs to be laminated, because armature bars carry currents of frequency
n p f ⋅ · . Since number of pole pairs and speed is not related for DC machines, frequencies
higher than 50 Hz may appear.
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
+

+ 

+
p = 3
φ/6
Fig. 73: DC machine, poles
Large DC machine models are designed with more than
2 poles. Machines with p poles show ptimes repeating
electrical structure along the circumference.
Advantages: lower core cross sections, shorter end
turns, short magnetic distances
Disadvantages: more leakage, more iron losses, caused
by higher armature current frequency, commutation
more difficult.
DC Machine
62
Fig. 74: DC motor 8440 kW (ABB)
Fig. 75a/b: section through DC motor 30 kW (side/left)
Fig. 76: DC generator 1 kW (Bosch)
DC Machine
63
Fig. 77: permanentfield transmission gear 1.5 kW (Bosch)
Fig. 78: DC disctype rotor1 kW (ABB)
Fig. 79: universal motor (ACDC) 300W (Miele)
DC Machine
64
The armature winding of a DC machine is modelled as double layer winding, consisting of
line conductor in the top layer and return conductor in the bottom layer.
Around the armature circumference, a number of z bars altogether are uniformly distributed in
slots, connected to the according commutator bar. Two different wiring methods are used for
separate windings:
• lap winding (in series)
• wave winding (in parallel)
Lap windings are characterized by a connection of a coil end at the commutator directly with
the beginning of the next coil of the same pole pair. Only one coil is arranged between two
commutator bars. In cause of the existence of 2p brushes, all p pole pairs are connected in
parallel. The number of parallel pathes of armature windings amounts 2a = 2p.
Wave windings consist of coil ends at the commutator, connected with the beginning of the
accordant coil of the next pole pair, so that a complete circulation around the armature with p
coils leads to the next commutator bar. Using only 2 brushes, all p pole pairs are connected in
series. The number of parallel pathes of armature windings amounts 2a = 2 in this case.
Usual for the design of large DC machines is an arrangement of any coil being composed of
more than one turn (w
s
> 1) and a slot filling with more than one coil each (u > 1).
N S N S N
Fig. 80b: lap winding Fig. 80b: wave winding
DC Machine
65
5.2 Basic equations
As the general design of a DC machine is illustrated in Fig. 81, Fig. 82 shows the air gap field
caused by exciter windings versus a complete circumference of the armature.
main pole (solid)
exciter winding
yoke (solid)
armature winding
n
X
X
x
x
x
x
x
F
I
A
I
A
F
Fig. 81: DC machine, basic design
B(
α
)
B
L
B
L
0
π
2
π
p·
α
α
·
π
i
Fig. 82: air gap field vs. circumference angle
Faraday’s Law (VZS) is utilized for the calculation of the induced voltage:
t
w
dt
d
w
dt
d
u
i
∆
∆
⋅ · ⋅ · ·
φ φ ψ
(5.12)
Equivalent to an armature turn of one pole pitch, the flux linkage of the armature winding
reverses from +φ to φ.
φ φ ⋅ · ∆ 2 (5.13)
the according period of time lasts:
p n
t
⋅
⋅ · ∆
2
1 1
(5.14)
The number of armature conductors is z. With 2a pairs of parallel paths of armature windings,
the effective number of armature windings is determined by:
a
z
w
⋅
⋅ ·
2
1
2
(5.15)
e.g.: 2 2 · ⋅ a
I
A
I
A
/2
I
A
I
A
/2
Fig. 83: armature current
DC Machine
66
This leads to an equation for the induced voltage of DC machines  first basic equation:
φ φ
φ
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ·
∆
∆
⋅ · n
a
p
z p n
a
z
t
w U
i
2 2
2
1
2
(5.16)
n k U
i
⋅ ⋅ · φ
a
p
z k ⋅ · (5.17)
The armature winding shows an ohmic resistance R
A
, to be regarded in a complete mesh loop
 second basic equation :
A A i
R I U U ⋅ t · (+) motor, () generator (5.18)
Torque can be derived from the magnetic energy with same assumptions (see equations. 5.12
5.16 above) concerning parallel paths of armature windings, pole pitch etc. as for the induced
voltage – third basic equation:
I
a
p z
p
a
z
I
w I
d
d I
d
dW
M
m
⋅ ⋅
⋅
· ⋅ ⋅ ·
∆
∆ ⋅ ⋅
·
Ψ ⋅
· · φ
π
π
φ
α
φ
α α 2
1 2
2
1
2
(5.19)
I
k
M ⋅ ⋅ · φ
π 2
(5.20)
The power balance equation confirms described dependencies (+ motor,  generator):
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1
Cu mech auf
V
A A
P
A i
P
A
R I I U I U ⋅ t ⋅ · ⋅
2
(5.21)
M n I n k I U P
A A i mech
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · π φ 2 (5.22)
A
I
k
M ⋅ ⋅
⋅
· φ
π 2
(5.23)
The armature resistance of a DC machine can be determined by using Joulean heat losses:
A A
L
p
A
Cu
R I
q
l z
a
I
V ⋅ ·
+ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
,
`
.

·
2
2
) (
2
τ
ρ (5.24)
( )
L
p
A
q
l
a
z
R
τ
ρ
+
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
2
4
(5.25)
DC Machine
67
5.3 Operational behaviour
5.3.1 Main equations, ecd, interconnections
The following general ecd is used for DC machines:
R
A
U
I
A
I
A
M
G
n
U
i
φ
Fig. 84: DC machine, general ecd
Sense of rotation:
motor operation (VZS):
armature current arrow rotates in direction
of exciter field
generator operation(EZS):
armature current arrow against the direction
of the exciter field
The operational behaviour of a DC machine is completely described with appliance of the
three basic equations (5.26 – 5.28):
n k U
i
⋅ ⋅ · φ (5.26)
A A i
R I U U ⋅ t · (5.27)
A
I
k
M ⋅
⋅
⋅
·
π
φ
2
(5.28)
Neglect of saturation in the magnetic circuit of the DC machine assumed, a linear dependence
between air gap flux and exciter current is supposed:
F
I M k ⋅ · ⋅φ (M: magnetizing inductance) (5.29)
The dependency ) (
F
I f k · ⋅φ can be measured as noload characteristic. The DC machine is
therefore driven with currentless armature (I
A
= 0) at constant speed (n = const.), the induced
voltage is measured with variating exciter current.
k·
φ
I
f
unsaturated
saturated
n=const
I = 0
A
Fig. 85: noload characteristic
n
U
k
i
· ⋅φ (5.30)
DC Machine
68
The characteristical speed/torquebehaviour likewise ensues from the basic equations
(equations. 5.265.28):
speed:
φ φ φ ⋅
⋅
−
⋅
·
⋅
·
k
R I
k
U
k
U
n
A A i
(5.31)
torque:
A
I
k
M ⋅
⋅
⋅
·
π
φ
2
(5.32)
The operational behaviour of DC machines is dependent on the exciter winding
interconnection type arrangement versus the armature. The following types of interconnection
are discussed in the following:
Fig. 86ae: DC machine interconnection variations
separately excited
U
I = I
A
A
B
U
F
I
F
I K
shunt
U
A
B
I
F
I
A
I
C D
R
FV
U
I = I
A
A
B
permanent field
U
A
B
series
I
F
I
A
= I
F
E
R
P
U
A
B
compound
I
F
I
A
F E
I
D C
DC Machine
69
5.3.2 Separately excitation, permanentfield, shunt machine
As long as separately excited, permanentfield and shunt machine are supplied by constant
voltage U
N
, their operational behaviour does not differ at all. Only the amount of exciter
voltage is different for shunt machines. No opportunity for an exciter flux variation is
provided for permanentfield machines.
There is:
const const I const U
N f f
· → · → · φ
torque:
A
I M ~ (5.33)
noload:
shunt characteristic
0 · I ,
N
N
k
U
n M
φ ⋅
· ⇒ ·
0
0 (5.34)
speed:
N
A A
N
A A
N
N
U
R I
n n
k
R I
k
U
n
⋅
⋅ − ·
⋅
⋅
−
⋅
·
0 0
φ φ
(5.35)
The shortcircuit current needs to be limited by a series resistor.
N
A
N
K
I
R
U
I 〉〉 · (5.36)
Speed can be adjusted by either:
• variation of the armature voltage (1):
N
A A
N
N
U
R I
n n
U
U
n U U
⋅
⋅ − ⋅ · <
0 0
: (5.37)
• field weakening (2):
N
A N N
N
U
R I
n n n
⋅
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ · <
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ φ
0 0
: (5.38)
• utilization of starting resistor (3):
( )
0 0
: n
U
R R I
n n R R R
N
AV A A
A AV A
⋅
+
− · + ·
∗
(5.39)
DC Machine
70
The sense of rotation can be reversed by changing the polarity of either the armature or the
exciter voltage. Speed adjustment using variation of the armature voltage is nondissipative,
whereas the speed adjustment utilizing a starting resistor is lossy. With regard to armature
reaction, the field weakening range needs to be limited to f < 3.
n, M
I
A
n
0
generator motor
3)
2)
1)
M
Fig. 87: shunt characteristic
A continuous transition from motor to generator mode permits utilization as variable speed
drive in conveyor motor and manipulator applications.
5.3.3 Series machine
A series machine is characterized by a series connection of armature and exciter windings.
The total resistance to be measured at the terminals is:
F A
R R R + · (5.40)
Exciter windings are supplied by the armature current:
A F
I I I · · (5.41)
with neglect of saturation follows:
A
I M k ⋅ · ⋅φ (M = magnetizing inductance)
torque proportionality ensues as:
2
~
A
I M
speed is determined as (by insertion): series characteristic (5.42)
M
R
I M
U
n
A
N
−
⋅
·
mind the noload case with: 0 ·
A
I
( )
∞ →
·0
A
I
n !!!
conclusion: a series machine runs away in case of unloading!
DC Machine
71
Short circuit current
R
U
I
N
K
·
A polarity change of the armature voltage does not lead to a reversal of the rotation sense of a
DC series machine.
Speed can be adjusted by either:
• variation of the armature voltage (1):
M
R
I M
U
U
U
n U U
A
N
N
N
−
⋅
⋅ · < : (5.43)
• field weakening (2):
A F
I I < mit R
P
:
P
F
F
A
R
R
I
I
f + · · 1
M
f
R
R
f
I M
U
f n
F
A
A
N
+
⋅ −
⋅
⋅ · (5.44)
• utilization of starting resistor (3):
F A V
R R R R + + ·
∗
(5.45)
M
R
I M
U
n
A
N
∗
−
⋅
· (5.46)
M
I
motor
3)
2)
1)
n, M
Fig. 88: series machine characteristic
A continuous transition from motor to generator mode is not possible for a series machine!
Series machines must not be unloaded!
DC series machines are utilized for traction drives in light rail and electric vehicle
applications as well as for starters in automotive applications. Major advantage is a high
torque value already at low speeds, sufficing traction efforts particularly at startup.
DC Machine
72
5.3.4 Compound machine
By separation of exciter windings in shunt and series windings, shunt characteristic is
achieved in the proximity of noload operation, series characteristic is achieved under load.
Machines which are designed due to this method are called compound machines.
Note their features:
• definite noload speed
• continuous transition from motor mode to generator mode ppossible
• under load: decreasing speed according to the dimensioning of the series windings.
Fig. 89 and 90 show comparisons of the different characteristics of all discussed DC machine
types for both motor and generator mode.
motor operation
n
M
GNM,
GMF
GDM
GRM
GMF
1
:
separately excited DC machine
GNM:
DC shunt machine
GRM:
DC series machine
GDM:
DC compound machine
Fig. 89: DC machine types, motor operation
DC compound machines are used as motor in flywheel drives as well as generator in solitary
operation.
generator mode
U
I
GMF
GDM
GNM
Fig. 90: DC machine types, generator mode
___________________________________________________________________________
1) abbreviations, based on their German origin are not intuitive in English. They have not
been translated for conformity purposes.
DC Machine
73
5.3.5 Universal machine (ACDC machine)
Universal machines are DC series machines as a matter of principle, their stator is composed
of stacked iron laminations. A universal machine can be supplied either by DC or by AC
current – therefore the alternative denomination as ACDC machine. The described DC
machine basic equations 5.265.28 are still applicable for AC supply at frequency f, in this
case to appear in their timevariant form.
U
~
I
~
Fig. 91: universal machine, general ecd
Approach for flux determination:
( ) ( ) t t ⋅ ⋅ · ω φ ϕ sin (5.47)
A phase shift applies for the armature current
approach:
( ) ( ) ρ ω − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · t I t i sin 2 (5.48)
The induced voltage results in:
( ) ( ) n t k t u
i
⋅ ⋅ · ϕ (5.49)
2
n k
U
i
⋅ ⋅
·
φ
(5.50)
the torque equation appears as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ρ ω ρ
φ
π
ϕ
π
− ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
· ⋅ ⋅
⋅
· t
I k
t i t
k
t M 2 cos cos
2 2 2
(5.51)
ρ
φ
π
cos
2 2
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
I k
M
mittel
(5.52)
The time variant torque pulsates with twice the nominal frequency f between zero and the
doubled average value (as shown in Fig. 92).
M(t)
t
M
mid
Fig. 92: torque waveform vs. time
highest possible direct component
assumes:
1 cos → ρ and 0 → ρ
meaning: flux and armature current
need to be inphase!
DC Machine
74
This condition is fulfilled for the series motor. Occuring pulsating torque is damped by the
inert mass of the rotor. The working torque is equal to the direct torque component.
As to be seen on equivalent circuit diagrams (Fig. 93a,b) and phasor diagrams (Fig. 94a,b),
a phase shift of almost π/2 between armature current and flux occurs for the shunt machine,
whereas they are inphase for the series wound machine.
u
u
i
R
i
L
ϕ
n
u
u
i
R
i
L
ϕ
n
Fig. 93a: shunt machine, ecd
( )
2
,
π
ϕ ≈ i
Fig. 93b: series machine, ecd
( ) 0 , ≈ i ϕ
U
I
R
~ i
I
L
~
ϕ
I
Fig. 94a: shunt machine, phasor diagram
for 0 0 · ⇒ ·
i
U n
U
I
~ i
~
ϕ
U
R
U
L
Fig. 94b: series machine, phasor diagram
for 0 0 · ⇒ ·
i
U n
Additionally to the ohmic voltage drop at the resistor sum
F A
R R R + · , (5.53)
the inductive voltage drop at the inductance sum
F A
L L L + · (5.54)
must be taken into account for universal machines with AC supply.
Therefore the voltage equation due to a mesh loop is determined by
I jX I R U U
i
⋅ + ⋅ + · (5.55)
DC Machine
75
Induced voltage U
i
and armature current I are inphase, because
n
k
U
i
⋅
⋅
·
2
φ
(5.56)
U
i
is inphase with φ , as well as φ is inphase with I.
U
U
i
R
A
,L
A
I
R
F
,L
F
Fig. 95a: universal machine, ecd
U
i
U
N
jXI
R·I
I ϕ
Fig. 95b: phasor diagram
Universal motors absorbes lagging reactive power (inductive):
9 . 0 cos ≈
N
ϕ
The motor utilization in AC operation is decreased by 2 / 1 compared to DC operation –
same thermal and magnetic stress assumed.
The according speed characteristic is the same as of DC series wound machines
=
~
M
n
Fig. 96: universal machine, speed characteristic (AC, DC)
DC Machine
76
Appliance
Single phase series wound motors are used as universal motors in household and tool
applications at 50 Hz supply:
• power < 1 kW
• speed < 40.000 min
1
• speed variation by voltage variation
Types of construction
Fig. 97: universal machine, design variations
Large machines are mainly used for traction drives in railway applications.
The linefrequency needs to be reduced down to 16
2
/
3
Hz in cause of the induced voltage
( ) f ~ U
ind
.
exciter windings
yoke
armature windings
poles
DC Machine
77
5.3.6 Generator mode
Some specific features of shunt and series wound machines need to be taken care of in
generator mode, which do not appear for separately excited and permanentfield machines
with constant energy flux.
5.3.6.1 Shunt generator
Process of selfexcitation:
U
U
I
A
R
A
i
n
R
FV
R
F
I
F
Fig. 98a: shunt generator, ecd
U
U
R
U
i
I
F
(R
A
+R
F
+R
FV
)
n=const, I=0
I
F
Fig. 98b: shunt generator, noload char.
Using a series resistor the exciter windings are to be connected in parallel to the armature. The
machine is to be operated with constant speed at noload. A remanent voltage
R
U is induced
by remanence, which is present in any magnetic circuit. This induced voltage evokes an
exciter current
F
I then. The engendered exciter current reinforces the residual magnetic
field – the induced voltage is increased perpetually. A stable operating point is reached if the
induced voltage is as high as the voltage drop to occur at the exciter circuit resistors.
(„dynamoelectric principle“):
( )
F FV A F i
R R R I U + + · (5.57)
In case of false polarity, the exciter current
F
I acts demagnetizing, a selfexcitation process
does not occur.
Voltage can be adjusted using series resistor
FV
R .
Load characteristic:
In comparison to a separately excited machine, the load characteristic ) (I f U · of a self
excited generator is nonlinear
A A N
R I U U − · (5.58)
and with eqt. 5.58 the terminal voltage is even more loaddependent.
DC Machine
78
As ensued for the load case:
U
U
I
A
R
A
i
n
R
F
φ
I
R
B
I
F
Fig. 99: self excited generator, load case (EZS)
F F A A i
R I R I U + · (5.59)
F A
I I I + · (5.60)
F F
R I U · (5.61)
then follows:
( )
F A F A i
R R I R I U + + · (5.62)
and
( ) ( )
F A F i
A
R R I U
R
I + − ·
1
(5.63)
With cognition of the noload characteristic and the resistance line, the load characteristic can
be created graphically.
U
U
i
I
F
(R
A
+R
F
)
I
F
~U
~I
U
0
I
F0
Fig. 100: noload/resistor characteristic
U
I
U
0
I
max
separate excitation
shunt
stable
unstable
I
RK
Fig. 101: load characteristic
The generator current is limited to I
max
. The terminal voltage collapses at higher loads with
the consequence of only shortcircuit current flowing, to be evoked by the remanent voltage.
DC Machine
79
5.3.6.2 Series generator
Are DC series machines operated in generator mode, the selfexciting process takes place
simultaneously to shunt machines. A distinction is to be made whether the series machine is
working on a system of constant voltage or on a load resistor.
U
N
U
R
A
i
R
F
φ
n I
A
R
B
Fig. 102: DC series generator (EZS)
U
U
i
I
F
(R
A
+R
F
+R
B
)
I
A
= I
F
U
N
Fig. 103: load characteristic
A stable operation with load resistor R
B
is given, because of
A
i
A
B
I
U
I
U
∂
∂
>
∂
∂
.
Terminal voltage is not adjustable, but dependent on R
B
.
Stable operation at constant voltage system is not possible, because of
A
i
A
N
I
U
I
U
∂
∂
<
∂
∂
.
The series generator as such is unpopular, it is only used as dynamic brake in traction drive
applications.
DC Machine
80
5.3.7 DC machine supply with variable armature voltage for speed adjustment
A WardLeonardConverter is a machineset, consisting of an induction machine (motor) and
a DC machine (generator), which feeds another DC machine (to be controlled) with variable
armature voltage. A WardLeonardConverter can be operated in any of the four quadrants.
M
3~
G M AM
Fig. 104: WardLeonardSet
The longterm used and popular WardLeonardSet is almost completely replaced by power
converter supplied DC drive systems. The following circuit arrangements are mainly used.
• backtoback connection of two controlled threephase bridges with thyristors for high
voltage applications and fourquadrantoperation („reversible converter“). Voltage
adjustment is achieved by phase control.
M,G
Fig. 105: backtoback converter arrangement
DC Machine
81
• uncontrolled converter bridge with voltage DC link as a composition of transistors in H
arrangement for low power applications („servo amplifier “). Therefore usually utilized
permanentfield DC motors can be operated in any of the four quadrants, if either a
braking resistor or an antiparallel converter bridge is provided. Voltage adjustment is
performed by timing devices.
M
n
M
Fig. 106: DC drive (servo), fourquadrant converter
• Simple DC choppers with transistors or thyristors are often used in battery supplied
systems. Voltage adjustment is also performed by timing devices. Without reversion, only
onequadrant operation is possible.
Fig. 107: electric vehicle drive, DC machine with chopper
U
B
Th
I
M
I
G
M
J
n
φ
driving
braking
DC Machine
82
5.4 Permanent magnets
If permanent magnets are used instead of electrical field excitation, the following advantages
appear for DC machines as well as for synchronous machines in principle:
• higher efficiency
N N
Fe F F A A
auf
I U
V R I R I
P
V
⋅
+ ⋅ + ⋅
− · − ·
·
∑
8 7 6
0
2 2
1 1 η (5.64)
• less volume and weight
xx
x
x
D
1
D
2
electric
Fig. 108a: electric excitation
D
1
D
2
permanent
N
S
Fig. 108b: permanent field
D
1elektr.
= D
1perm.
D
2elektr.
> D
2Perm.
• improved dynamic behaviour
.
.
1
AElektr
M
AElektr
A
A
A
T
h
T
R
L
T <<
+
· ·
δ
(5.65)
• cheaper production
Permanentmagnets are mainly used in DC, synchronous and step motors for automotive
auxiliary applications, household and consumer goods, office and data systems technology as
well as for industrial servo drives.
Besides some exemptions, the power range of permanentmagnet equipped motors leads from
a few W to some 10 kW. Power limitations are either given by material parameters or by costs
of the permanentmagnets. A widespread implementation of permanentmagnets in electrical
machines as well as an expansion up to higher power ranges are to be expected for the future.
DC Machine
83
Permanentmagnet materials are desribed by their hysteresis loop in the II. quadrant.
H
B
B
R
H
C
I II
III IV
hysteresis loop
Fig. 109: hysteresis loop
B
B
R
H
C
II
H
M
H
G
H
M0
∆
H
M
∆
H
M
B
M0
cutout, 2nd quadrant
Fig. 110: hysteresis loop, II. quadrant
demagnetization curve:
M R R M
H B B ⋅ ⋅ + · µ µ
0
remanent flux density: H = 0 : B = B
R
coercive field strength: B = 0 : H = H
C
reversible permeability: 1 ≈
R
µ
border case field strength: H
G
In order to avoid enduring demagnetization, permanentmagnets are supposed to be operated
in between the linear range of the characteristic (Fig. 110). The operating point exceeds the
linear range at opposing field strengths higher than H
G
(break point), irreversible flux losses
appear as a consequence.
A cross section of a fourpole permanentfield DC machine is shown in Fig. 111. Current
directions are assumed for motor operation and counterclockwise rotation. Field strength
distribution along the air gap is depicted in Fig. 112 for noload and load case.
n
N
S
N
S
Fig. 111: DC machine, cross section
B
max
τ
p
B
min
B
0
b
p
0
x
Fig. 112: field strength distribution
DC Machine
84
The operating point of magnetic circuits can be determined with appliance of:
1) Ampere’s Law at pole edges for µ
Fe
→∞ (D):
p i M M
L
A h H
B
τ α δ
µ
⋅ ⋅ t · ⋅ + ⋅ 2 2
0
(5.66)
2) Demagnetizing curve (E):
M R R M
H B B ⋅ ⋅ + · µ µ
0
(5.67)
3) zerodivergence of the magnetic flux for σ
M
= 0 (Q):
M M L L
A B A B ⋅ · ⋅ (5.68)
with current coverage:
D
a
I
z
A
A
⋅
⋅
·
π
2
(5.69)
and pole pitch factor:
p
p
i
b
τ
α · (5.70)
The air gap line (L) results from D and Q:
( )
p i M M
M
L
M
A h H
A
A
B τ α
δ
µ
⋅ ⋅ t ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ · 2
2
0
(5.71)
The operating point ensues from intersection of L and E :
L
M
M
R
R
M
A
A
h
B
B
⋅ ⋅ +
·
δ
µ 1
0
M
L
R
M
R
R
M
A
A h
B
H
⋅
⋅
+
−
·
µ δ
µ µ
1
0
0
(5.72, 5.73)
,
`
.

+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ t
· ∆
M
L
M
R
p i
M
h
A
A
A
H
δ µ
τ α
2
(5.74)
Static load or noload respectively lead to the operating point of the magnet defined by H
M0
and B
M0
. This is the intersection of the demagnetizing curve of the magnet and the load line of
the magnetic circuit.
DC Machine
85
The operating point gets moved about ∆H to the right (field strengthening) or to the left (field
weakening) caused by armature reaction. Demagnetizing is getting critical at the leaving edge
of the magnet. The magnetic circuit needs to be designed in the way, that the operating point
does not exceed H
G
even under maximum load condition in order to avoid irreversible partial
demagnetization. The higher a magnet is designed, the higher is the amount of air gap flux
density and the lower the demagnetizing field strength gets.
A selection of magnet materials is given in Fig. 113:
Fig. 113: Selection of magnet materials
Most suitable magnet materials for costefficient applications are:
• Ferrites: cheap, low energy density
• AlNiCo: costefficient, B
R
high, H
C
low
and for highquality smallbatch production:
• SmCo: expensive, high energy density, linear characteristic down to III. quadrant
• NdFeB: new, eventually more economic than SmCo, high energy density.
1600 1200 800 400 kA/m
field strength H
f
l
u
x
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
B
NdFeB
AlNiCo
SmCo
Ferrit
0
0
,
4
0
,
8
1
,
2
T
100
200
300
(B H)
max
.
kJ/m3
DC Machine
86
5.5 Commutation
5.5.1 Current path
Commutators permanently reverse the current direction in revolving armature windings using
brushes mounted in neutral zones. The direction therefore changes from + to – and the other
way around. Armature windings are riddled with AC current of pn f
A
· . A commutation of
the coil currents is necessary in order to achieve timeconstant exciter field with perpendicular
orientation towards the armature magnetomotive force (mmf).
a
I
A
2 a
I
A
2
a
I
A
K
v
0
≤
t
Fig. 114ac: commutation
?
·
i
a
I
A
K
v
K
T t
< <
0
?
·
i
a
I
A
2
a
I
A
K
v
K
T t
≥
a
I
A
2
coil current:
a
I
A
2
(5.75)
brush width:
B
b
commutator circumferential speed: n D v
K K
π · (5.76)
commutating period:
K
B
K
v
b
T · (5.77)
armature frequency: pn f
A
· (5.78)
current coverage:
D
I w
D
a
I
z
A
A A
A
π π
2
2
· · (5.79)
An idealized illustration of the current in a single armature coil is given in Fig. 115:
Sp
i
a
I
A
2
a
I
A
2
−
pn
1
T
K
t
commutation
Fig. 115: current in single coil (idealized)
DC Machine
87
Before the commutation process, an armature coil carries a current
a
I
A
2
+ , whereas after the
process the current amount is
a
I
A
2
− . The current form in the shortcircuited armature coil is
formed according to a function determined by contact resistance (brushes) and coil inductance
during the commutating period. With usage of electrographite the influence of the coil
resistance is negligible.
At first 0 ·
Sp
L is to be assumed (this restriction will be abolished later). With that
assumption and
Sp B
R R >> , simplified illustrations of the arrangement and equations apply as:
a
I
A
2
a
I
A
K
v
Sp
i
a
I
A
2
2
i
1
i
2 B
Λ
1 B
Λ
x b
B
x
b
B
Fig. 116: commutation, (simplified)
t T
t
x b
x
i
i
K
B B
B
−
·
−
·
Λ
Λ
·
1
2
1
2
(5.80)
2 1
i i
a
I
A
+ · (5.81)
a
I
i i
A
Sp
2
1
+ · (5.82)
With 5.805.82 the current flow in shortcircuited coils can be calculated:
a
I
2
a
I
a
I
2
−
Sp
i
Sp
i
2
i
1
i
K
T t 0
0
Fig. 117: commutation, current flow
,
`
.

− ·
K
T
t
a
I
i 1
1
(5.83)
K
T
t
a
I
i ·
2
(5.84)
,
`
.

− ·
K
Sp
T
t
a
I
i
2
1
2
(5.85)
A linear current run is to be ascertained („resistance commutation“) and furthermore to be
aimed with regard to the reactance voltage of commutation.
DC Machine
88
5.5.2 Reactance voltage of commutation
Getting back to the assumption of negligible coil inductance, the reality actually shows a
commutating coil with finite inductance, caused by slot and coilend leakage. This results in
selfinduced voltage, excited by current change in the shortcircuited coil:
n I n D
b
a
I
L
T
a
I
L
t
i
L u
A K
B
A
Sp
K
A
Sp
Sp
Sp s
~
d
d
π · · − · (5.86)
a
I
2
a
I
2
−
K
T t
0
Fig. 118: commutation, reactance voltage
u
s
is called “reactance voltage of
commutation”. A proportionality exists
between this voltage and the armature
current and rotational speed . Due to Lenz’s
Law, the reactance voltage of commutation
is orientated in the way to counteract its
original cause  the change of current, which
leads to a lagging commutation. This effect
causes sparks at the leaving brush edges,
resulting in increased wear of brushes and
commutator.
5.5.3 Commutating poles
A compensation of the reactance voltage in commutating coils (evoked by selfinduction,
caused by current change) by inducing a rotatory voltage is aimed, in order to achieve linear
commutation.
A
W
I
p
w
2
W
B
A
θ
φ
W
B
n
So called commutating poles are arranged
in the commutating zone (= pole gap, in
which the commutation takes place). Their
windings are connected in series with the
armature windings.
The commutating pole mmf needs to:
1) eliminate the backampereturns
mmf in the pole gap
2) excite a commutating field in order
to compensate the reactance
voltage of computation.
Fig. 119: DC machine, commutating poles
Fig. 119 shows the reactance voltage trying to maintain the current direction in the
commutating coil and the compole voltage counteracting.
DC Machine
89
Appliance of Ampere’s Law on the commutation circuit leads to:
(Exception: commutating windings implemented)
( )
W
W
i A W
B
δ
µ
α θ θ 2 1
0
· − − (5.87)
( )
A P i A
W
W
W
I A I
p
w
B ~ 1
2
0
,
`
.

− − · τ α
δ
µ
(5.88)
Commutating field strength and flux density are proportional to the armature current I
A
, as
long as the commutating pole circuit is unsaturated. The compole voltage calculates from:
A A S W w
nI v lw B u ~ 2 · (5.89)
Therewith the compensation of u
s
by dint of the u
w
condition (equation 5.89) is fulfilled for
any rotational speed and any current. In case of proper design, commutating poles act as if
0 ·
Sp
L .
The installation of commutating poles raises the price of DC machines significantly, so that
an implementation makes sense only for large DC machines.
DC Machine
90
5.6 Armature reaction
5.6.1 Field distortion
Magnetic fields in DC machines are to be considered as being excited only by the exciter
windings, arranged on the main poles so far. This does only apply in noload, where the
magnetic flux density underneath the poles is to be seen as almost constant. Considering load
cases, armature reaction is to be regarded additionally. Armature currents automatically
evolve mmf with perpendicular orientation towards the pole axis – armature quadratureaxis
mmf –, which superposes the exciter mmf, adding up to a resulting field. Under load, there is
no constant field distribution underneath the poles, so that the orientation of the field axis
changes.
n
F
θ
R
θ
x
ϑ
A
θ
Fig. 120: DC machine, armature reaction
A twopole DC machine is considered for
the determination of the resulting field
under load. Ampere’s Law applies to:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) α δ
µ
α
α θ α θ 2
0
B
A F
· + (5.90)
with neglect of saturation effects and the
magnetic voltage drop along the iron core
( ∞ →
r
µ ).
exciter mmf:
( ) ( ) π α α
π
α
π
α < < + − < <
i i
1
2
, 1
2
0 ( ) 0 · α θ
F
(5.91)
( ) ( )
i i
α
π
α α
π
+ < < − 1
2
1
2
( )
F F F F
I w θ α θ · ⋅ · (5.92)
armature mmf::
π α < < 0
,
`
.

− ⋅ ⋅ ·
π
α
τ θ
2
1
P A
A (5.93)
resulting field:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) α θ α θ
α δ
µ
α
A F
B + ·
2
) (
0
(5.94)
DC Machine
91
The axis of the resulting field and therefore the neutral zone moves to oppose the sense of
rotation in motor operation with dependence on the armature current.
B
min
θ
A
θ
F
π 2π α
B
max
B
L
B
R
Fig. 121: armature reaction, field distortion
Field distortion comes up: the magnetic field
strength increases on the leading edge
whereas is decreases at the leaving edge.
Maximum field distortion appears at the pole
edges:
( )
i Pk
α
π
α t · 1
2
(5.95)
B B A B
L P i F Pk
∆ t · t · τ α
δ
µ
θ
δ
µ
2 2
0 0
(5.96)
In order to assure the commutation process within the neutral zone under load, brushes can be
moved about an according angle ϑ:
• motor operation: opposing the direction of rotation
• generator operation: in direction of rotation
This method is advantageously for the life cycle of the used brushes.
Besides displacement of the neutral zone, occurring field distortion under load also results in
increased segment voltage.
θ
R
θ
F
θ
A
ϑ
α
Bk
n
Fig. 122: universal machine, FEcalculated field distribution at nominal load
DC Machine
92
5.6.2 Segment voltage
Segment voltage is to be mentioned as an important item to be treated in DC machine
operation, to occur between two adjoining segments.
The segment voltage average value computes from the armature voltage, divided by the
number of segments per polepitch:
Fig. 123: DC machine, segments
p
k
U
pitch pole per segments
voltage armature
U
L
2
mittel ,
·
−
·
(5.97)
Caused by field distortion under load, the segment voltage is not evenly spread over
corresponding commutator segments, but only
p
k
i
2
⋅ α coils participate at the accumulation of
voltage underneath the poles. Therefore the real segment voltage ensues for the noload case:
i
L
L
U
U
α
mittel ,
· (5.98)
Coils voltage underneath the poles is U
L
, whereas coil voltage in the pole gap is 0.
Flux density at pole edges is ( )
Pk
B B · α under load and therefore the segment voltage of
these coils:
,
`
.
 ∆
+ · ·
L
L
L
Pk L
L
B
B
U
B
B
U
U 1
i
mittel ,
max ,
α
(5.99)
that means: segment voltage may increase significantly regionally.
Segment voltage turned out to find a maximum limit at 40V that may not be exceeded.
Otherwise spark overs between segments may occur, that may finally lead to a flash over
around the entire commutator.
DC Machine
93
The ratio U
L,max
/U
L
gets awkward in field weakening operation, because the main field gets
weaker as the armature reaction remains constant.
L L
L
B
B
U
U ∆
+ ·1
max ,
B
B
L
B
R
α
f = 1
Fig. 124a: ratio of:
B
B
L
B
R
α
f = 2
Fig. 124b: ratio of:
B
B
L
B
R
α
f = 4
Fig. 124c: ratio of
5 . 1
max ,
·
L
L
U
U
2
max ,
·
L
L
U
U
3
max ,
·
L
L
U
U
The resulting field may turn negative underneath the leaving edge in motor operation!
DC Machine
94
5.6.3 Compensating winding
DC machines can be fitted with compensation windings in order to compensate armature
reaction and its negative consequences. Main poles are slotted. Bars are placed inside the
slots, to carry currents of a direction opposing the armature current. The number of conductor
bars is design in the way to just equalize the armature mmf underneath the poles.
x
A
θ
K
θ
φ
A
w
K
w
Fig. 125: compensating windings
Armature mmf quadrature fraction is
equalized by the effect of the
compensating windings in regions around
the main poles, whereas commutating
windings are supposed to compensate in
pole gap regions..
p i A A K K
A I w τ α θ θ · · ·
!
(5.100)
Field distribution underneath the poles is
equal to that of noload. Axis directions of
resulting field and exciter field are alike.
Commutation is performed within the
neutral zone, as it is supposed to be.
B
L
θ
A
θ
Κ
π 2π α
B,
θ
Fig. 126: equalizing mmf fractions
Design of compensating windings:
p
w
I
p
D
D
I w
I
A
w
A i
A
A A
i
A
p i
K
α
π
π
α
τ α
·
· ·
2
2
(5.101)
The installation of compensating windings
has a significant influence on the price of
DC machines, so that an implementation
makes sense only for large DC machines.
Highquality DC machines feature both
commutating and compensating windings.
95
6 Rotating field theory
6.1 General overview
Basically two different types of rotating electrical machines need to be discussed in case of
threephase rotating system supply.
u
n
1
w
x
y
z
v
n
1
Fig. 127: synchronous machine
u
n < n
1
w
x
y
z
v
n
1
Fig. 128: induction machine
Both synchronous machine and induction machine use the same stator arrangement as a
matter of principle. This is composed of insulated iron laminations, provided with a three
phase winding, to create a rotation field revolving with p f n
1 1
· . Both machine types only
differ in their rotor design.
Synchronous machines consist of permanent field or electrical excited rotors to follow the
stator rotating field synchronous (therefore the name), whereas the rotor of induction
machines feature a shortcircuitwinding, which is pulled asynchronous by the rotating stator
field, due to Lenz’s Law.
A combined discussion of voltage and torque generation for both types of threephase
machines in a separate chapter about “rotating field theory” is found reasonable, until both
types are discussed in detail later.
Rotating field theory
96
6.2 Alternating field
w i
w i
stator
rotor
µ
Fe
δ
∞
α
θ
(
α
)
α
π 2π
+w·i
w·i
An unwinded rotor enclosed in an
arrangement of a stator equipped with 2
opposing slots carrying w windings each is
shown in Fig. 129.
The according slotmmf is either i w⋅ + or
i w⋅ − . Therefore revolution along the
dashdotted line includes an mmf due to
i w⋅ + or i w⋅ − . Direction assignment is
based on Fleming’s righthandrule.
Fig. 129: unwinded rotor, winded stator
( ) i w⋅ · < < α θ π α : 0 (6.1)
( ) i w⋅ − · ⋅ < < α θ π α π : 2 (6.2)
Fig. 130: mmf according to Fig. 130
In case of i being alternating current to be stated as ( ) t I i ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
1
cos 2 ω , Ampere’s Law
being applied over one polepitch, neglecting field strength and radial distribution of air gap
flux density:
( ) ( )
( )
δ
µ
α
δ α α θ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ·
∫
2 2
0
B
H s d H
r
r
(6.3)
spatiotemporal dependent flux density results as follows:
π α < < 0 ( ) ( ) ( ) t I w t b
w
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
· ⋅
⋅
·
1
0 0
cos 2
2 2
, ω
δ
µ
α θ
δ
µ
α (6.4)
π α π ⋅ < < 2 ( ) ( ) t I w t b
w
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
− ·
1
0
cos 2
2
, ω
δ
µ
α (6.5)
Rotating field theory
97
ω
t = 0
ω
t =
π/3
θ(α)
π 2π
0 α
b
w
(
α,τ)
b
1
(
α,τ)
Spatial field distribution and zero
crossings remain the same, whereas
the field strength amount changes
periodically with current frequency.
This kind of field is called alternating
field.
Fig. 131: alternating field distribution
With more than one polepair, the process repeats ptimes per circumference, the number of
windings is distributed on p polepairs.
p
π
α
τ
p
i
p
w
i
p
w
−
u
1
u
2
x
2
x
1
Fig. 132: stator, two polepairs
I
p
w
2
+
I
p
w
2
−
0
0
2
π
2
3
π π
π 2
π
2
π π
3
π
4
α
β·
p
α
Fig. 133: mmf for two polepair stator
The fundamental wave of the squarewave function (Fig. 131 etc.) can be determined by
Fourier analysis. This results in an infinite count of single waves of odd ordinal numbers and
antiproportional decreasing amplitude with ordinary numbers. The amplitudes of
fundamental waves and harmonics show proportional dependency to the current, zero
crossings remain the same. These are called standing wave.
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
∑
∞
·
−
⋅ −
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ·
1 '
1
0
1 ' 2
1 ' 2 sin
cos 2
2
4
,
g
W
g
p g
t I
p
w
t b
α
ω
δ
µ
π
α (6.6)
The existence of harmonics is
to be attributed to the spatial
distributions of the windings.
The generating current is of
pure sinusoidal form, not
containing harmonics.
Fig. 134: fundamental wave, 3rd and 5th harmonics
Important hint: it necessarily needs to be distinguished between
• wave: spatiotemporal behaviour,
• oscillation: pure time dependent behaviour
ωt=0
g'=2: 3. harmonic wave
g'=3: 5. harmonic wave
g'=1: fundamental wave
I
p
w
2
Rotating field theory
98
Main focus is put on the fundamental wave, which is exclusively significant for voltage
generation and torque exertion:
( ) ( ) ( ) t p B t p I
p
w
t b
w w
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ·
1 1 1
0
1
cos ) sin( cos ) sin( 2
2
4
, ω α ω α
δ
µ
π
α (6.7)
with:
I
p
w
B
w
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ · 2
2
4
0
1
δ
µ
π
(6.8)
ω
1
π
2π
0 α
b
1
w
B
1
w
ω
1
Fig. 135: sinusoidal wave (as standing wave)
sinusoidal alternating field ·ˆ
standing wave
6.3 Rotating field
ω
1
π
2π
0 α
b
1
D
B
1
D
ω
1
Rotating fields appear as spatial
distributed fields of constant form and
amount, revolving with angular
speed ω
1
:
progressive wave
Fig. 136: progressive wave
A mathematical formulation is depicted as:
( ) ( ) t p B t b
D D
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ·
1 1 1
sin , ω α α (6.9)
With:
const t p · ⋅ − ⋅
1
ω α (6.10)
for any fix point of a curve, the mechanical angle speed of a progressive wave can be
calculated:
1
1
Ω · ·
p dt
d ω α
(6.11)
with positive α: revolving clockwise (with positive sequence).
Rotating field theory
99
A rotating field with:
( ) ( ) t p B t b
D D
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ·
1 1 1
sin , ω α α (6.12)
revolves with a mechanical angular speed of:
1
1
Ω − · − ·
p dt
d ω α
(6.13)
with negative α: counterclockwise (with negative sequence).
A sinusoidal alternating field can be split up into two sinusoidal rotating fields. Their peak
value is of half the value as of the according alternating field, their angular speeds are
oppositely signed:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
]
]
]
]
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
4 4 3 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
sequence negative sequence positive
w
w w
t p t p
B
t p B t b
1 1
1
1 1 1
sin sin
2
cos sin , ω α ω α ω α α (6.14)
ω
1
ω
1
− ω
1
ω
1
− ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
t = 0
ω
1
t =
π
/ 3
Fig. 137a: alternating field shape Fig. 137b: split alternating field
This enables a dispartment of rectangular fields (evoked by slot pairs) into
clockwise/counterclockwiserotating fields – fields with positive/negative sequence
rotational sense:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
−
⋅ + ⋅ −
+
−
⋅ − ⋅ −
⋅ ·
·
−
⋅ −
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
∑ ∑
∑
∞
·
∞
·
∞
·
1 '
1
1 '
1 1
1 '
1 1
1 ' 2
1 ' 2 sin
1 ' 2
1 ' 2 sin
2
1 ' 2
1 ' 2 sin
cos ,
g
quence negativese
g
sequence positive
W
g
W W
g
t p g
g
t p g B
g
p g
t B t b
4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 1
ω α ω α
α
ω α
(6.15)
The angular speed of the single waves amounts:
1 ' 2
1
) 1 ' 2 (
−
Ω ·
− ⋅
·
g
g p dt
d ω α
clockwise rotation (positive sequence) (6.16)
1 ' 2
1
) 1 ' 2 (
−
Ω − ·
− ⋅
−
·
g
g p dt
d ω α
counterclockwise rotation (negative sequence) (6.17)
with single wave peak value:
1 ' 2
1
1 ' 2
−
·
−
g
B
B
W
W
g
(6.18)
Rotating field theory
100
6.4 Threephase winding
u
w
x
y
z
v
air gap
stator
rotor
α
=
3p
2
π
Fig. 138: threephase winding, stator
R S T
u v w x y z
Fig. 139: threephase winding, star point
+ Re
 Im
I
w
I
v
I
u
β
= 2/3
π
Fig. 140: phase currents, phasor diagram
Most simple arrangement of a threephase
stator consist of:
• core stack composed of laminations with
o approximately 0,5 mm thickness,
o mutual insulation
for a reduction of eddy currents.
• m=3 phases with spatial displacement of
an angle
p ⋅
⋅
·
3
2 π
α against each other.
Leads of windings are assigned as U, V,
W, whereas line ends are indicated with
X, Y, Z (shown in Fig. 139 for star
connection).
• The number of pole pairs is p=1 in Fig.
138. In case of p>1, the configuration
repeats ptimes along the circumference.
α : mechanical angle
α β ⋅ · p : electrical angle
The pole pitch is given as
p
D
p
⋅
⋅
·
2
π
τ
The number of slots per pole and phase is
!
2
·
⋅ ⋅
·
m p
N
q integer
There are three phases connected due to U
X, VY, WZ, which are supplied by three
AC currents, also displaced by a phase shift
angle
3
2 π ⋅
:
( ) t I i
U
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
1
cos 2 ω (6.19)
,
`
.

⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
3
2
cos 2
1
π
ω t I i
V
(6.20)
,
`
.

⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
3
4
cos 2
1
π
ω t I i
W
(6.21)
Rotating field theory
101
An alternating field is created by any of the phases, to be segmented in both positive and
negative sequence rotating field. Only fundamental waves are taken into account.
( ) ( )
I
p
w
B
t p B b
t p B b
t p B b
w
w
W
w
V
w
U
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
,
`
.
 ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
,
`
.
 ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ ·
,
`
.
 ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
,
`
.
 ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
2
2
4
3
4
cos
3
4
sin
3
2
cos
3
2
sin
cos sin
0
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
δ
µ
π
π
ω
π
α
π
ω
π
α
ω α
(6.22)
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( )
]
]
]
,
`
.
 ⋅
− ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ·
]
]
]
,
`
.
 ⋅
− ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ·
3
8
sin sin
2
3
4
sin sin
2
sin sin
2
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
π
ω α ω α
π
ω α ω α
ω α ω α
t p t p
B
b
t p t p
B
b
t p t p
B
b
w
W
w
V
w
U
(6.23)
∑
· 0
The total field results from a superposition of the 3 phases at any time. Negative sequence
rotating fields eliminate each other, whereas positive sequence fields add up to a sinusoidal
rotating field. Its amplitudes are 3/2 times higher than those of single alternating field
amplitudes.
( ) ( ) ( )
I
p
w
B B
t p B t p B t b
D
D w D
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ⋅ · ≡
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
2
2
4
2
3
sin sin
2
3
,
0
1
1 1 1 1 1
δ
µ
π
ω α ω α α
(6.24)
The rotational speed (= synchronous rotational speed) can be determined by taking a look at
the zero crossing condition ( ) 0
1
· ⋅ − ⋅ t p ω α :
p
f
n n
p
f
p dt
d
t p
1
1 1
1 1
1
2
2
· ⇒ ⋅ ⋅ ·
⋅ ⋅
· · ⇒ ⋅ · ⋅ π
π ω α
ω α (6.25)
The air gap field of multipole rotating field machines revolves with synchronous rotational
speed
p
f
n
1
1
· , so that the following speeds occur at 50 Hz:
p 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 20 30
min
1
1
n 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500 300 150 100
Fig. 141: speeds due to number of pole pairs (example: 50 Hz)
Rotating field theory
102
Visualization:
u
v
w
x
y
z
u
v
w
x
y
z
ω
t
1
= 0
ω
t
2
=
π
/3
I 2
2
1
⋅
I 2
2
1
⋅ −
I 2
⋅ −
I 2⋅
I 2
2
1
⋅ −
I 2
2
1
⋅
I 2
2
1
⋅
I 2
2
1
⋅
I 2⋅ −
I 2
2
1
⋅ −
I 2
2
1
⋅ −
b
u
b
v
b
w
1/2
1/2 1
b
1
D
1
b
u
b
v
1/2
b
1
D
1/2
b
w
π/3
I
w
I
u
I
v
t
1
t
2
ω
ω
I 2
⋅
Fig. 142: field shares of phases U, V, W while rotation from 0
1
· ⋅ t ω through p/3
1
· ⋅ t ω
If slot mmf harmonics of the three phases are regarded, the total field ensues to:
( )
( ) [ ]
∑
∞
−∞ ·
+
⋅ − ⋅ +
⋅ ·
'
1
1
1 6
1 6 sin
,
g
D D
g
t p g
B t b
ω α
α (6.26)
Again, equation 6.26 defines an infinite sum of positive and negativesequence single
rotating fields with ordinal number 6g+1. Field components with ordinary numbers divisible
by three disappear for the case of superposition:
• positive g: 1, 7, 13, 19,... positive sequence
• negative g: 5, 11, 17,... negative sequence
The mechanical angular speed of the single waves amounts:
) 1 6 (
1
1 6
+ ⋅
· Ω
+
g p
g
ω
(6.27)
as well as the amplitude of single waves:
1 6
1
1 6
+
·
+
g
B
B
D
D
g
(6.28)
Rotational speed as well as the amplitudes of the harmonics decrease with increasing ordinal
number.
Rotating field theory
103
6.5 Example
z
v
x
u
y
w
α
Fig. 143: threephase stator, rotational angle
with
p
w
I
N
2 · θ (6.29)
we get
( ) t
N u
ω θ θ cos · (6.30)
,
`
.

− ·
3
2
cos
π
ω θ θ t
N v
(6.31)
,
`
.

− ·
3
4
cos
π
ω θ θ t
N w
(6.32)
Determination of slot mmf for different moments (temporal)
• quantity of slot mmf is applied over the circumference angle.
• line integrals provide enveloped mmf, dependent on the circumference angle.
• total mmf is shaped like a staircase step function, being constant between the slots. At slot
edges, with slots assumed as being narrow, the total mmf changes about twice the amount
of the slot mmf.
The air gap field results from the total mmf:
( ) ( ) t t B ,
2
,
0
α θ
δ
µ
α ⋅ · (6.33)
The fundamental wave runs to the right at speed
p
ω
, harmonics run to both right and left, at
speed
( ) 1 6 + g p
ω
. Amplitudes of fundamental waves and harmonics remain constant. The
shape of the air gap field changes periodically at times K ,
3
,
6
, 0
π π
ω · t between both
extrema. The change of shape is based on the different rotational speeds of fundamental wave
and harmonics and hence different results of their addition.
Rotating field theory
104
α
α
θ
N
θ
N
−θ
N
−θ
N
2θ
N
−2θ
N
p
ω
p 5
ω −
π
2π
u z v x w y u
2π
π
α
α
θ
N
θ
N
−θ
N
−θ
N
2θ
N
−2θ
N
p
ω
p 5
ω −
π
2π
2π
π
α
α
p
ω
p 5
ω −
π
2π
N
θ
3
N
θ
2
3
−
−
2π
π
N
θ
2
3
θ
3
N
N
θ
2
3
−
N
θ
2
3
π/6
−π/30
π/3
−π/15
u z v x w y u
u z v x w y u
2
2
0
N
w
N
v
N u
t
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
ω
− ·
− ·
·
·
N w
v
N u
t
θ θ
θ
θ θ
π
ω
2
3
0
2
3
6
− ·
·
·
·
N w
N
v
N
u
t
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
π
ω
− ·
·
·
·
2
2
3
Fig. 144: mmf, sequence
Rotating field theory
105
6.6 Winding factor
If w windings per phase are not placed in two opposing slots, but are moreover spread over
more than one slot (zone winding) and return conductors are returned under an electric angle
smaller than < 180°, the effective number of windings appears smaller than it is in real:
number of slots per pole and phase
1
2
≥
⋅ ⋅
·
m p
N
q (6.34)
chording
7
6
6
5
< <
τ
s
(6.35)
resulting number of windings
w w
res
≤ (6.36)
This is taken into account, introducing the winding factor ξ :
1 ≤ ξ : ξ ⋅ · w w
res
(6.37)
w
x
v
z
y
u
US
OS
Fig. 145: threephase winding, chording
This means is utilized for a supression of harmonics, which cause parasitic torques and losses,
influencing proper function of a machine..
Actually there is no machine with 1 · q . Only zoning and chording enable disregarding
harmonics.
Rotating field theory
106
6.6.1 Distribution factor
w
pq
w
pq
w
pq
α
N
α
N
u
z
x
w
y
v
Fig. 146: stator, distribution factor
All w/p windings per pole and phase are
distributed over q slots. Any of the w/pq
conductors per slot show a spatial
displacement of.
q m p N
N
⋅ ⋅
· ·
π π
α
2
(6.38)
against each other. This leads to an
electrical displacement of
q m
p
N N
⋅
· ⋅ ·
π
α β (6.39)
The resulting number of windings w
res
per
phase is computed by geometric addition
of all q partial windings w/pq. The vertices
of all q phasors per phase, being displaced
by β
N
(electrically), form a circle. The total
angle per phase adds up to q β
N
.
β
N
β
N
w
pq
w
pq
w
pq
w
res
β
N
β
N
q
.
.
Fig. 147: displaced windings
Circle radius:
,
`
.

⋅
⋅
·
2
sin
2
1
N
q p
w
r
β
(6.40)
chord line:
,
`
.
 ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ·
2
sin 2
N
res
q
r w
β
(6.41)
Rotating field theory
107
Therefore follows for the resulting number of windings:
,
`
.

⋅
,
`
.

⋅
·
2
sin
2
sin
N
N
res
q
q
p
w
w
β
β
(6.42)
The ratio
,
`
.

⋅
,
`
.

⋅
·
2
sin
2
sin
N
N
res
q
q
p
w
w
β
β
(6.43)
is called distribution factor.
Rotating field windings feature:
q
N
⋅
·
3
π
β (6.44)
which leads to
q
q
Z
⋅
⋅
·
6
sin
6
sin
π
π
ξ , (6.45)
considering the fundamental wave.
Regarding harmonics, the electrical angle β
N
needs to be multiplied (6g+1)times the basic
value, with (6g+1) being the harmonic ordinal number. Then follows for the harmonic
distribution factor:
( )
( )
]
]
]
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
]
]
]
+ ⋅
·
+
1 6
6
sin
6
1 6
sin
) 1 6 ( ,
g
q
q
g
g Z
π
π
ξ . (6.46)
Purpose: The purpose of utilizing zone winding is to aim
• slot mmf fundamental waves adding up
• harmonics compensating each other, as they suppose to do.
Rotating field theory
108
Example for q = 3
Figure series 148ac illustrates how different distribution factors (abbrev.: df) accomplish for
different g:
° ·
⋅
·
· +
·
20
3 3
1 1 6
0
^
1
π
β
N
g
g
° ·
· +
·
140
7 1 6
1
7 N
g
g
β
° − ·
− · +
− ·
−
100
5 1 6
1
5 N
g
g
β
Fig. 148a: df for g=0
Fig. 148b: df for g=1
Fig. 148c:df for g=1
960 . 0
18
sin 3
6
sin
1
· ·
π
π
ξ
Z
177 . 0
7
18
sin 3
7
6
sin
7
− · ·
π
π
ξ
Z
( )
( )
218 . 0
5
18
sin 3
5
6
sin
5
·
−
−
·
−
π
π
ξ
Z
See table below for a list of the distribution factor for the fundamental wave:
q
1 2 3 4 ... ∞
1 Z
ξ
1 0.966 0.960 0.958 0.955
Rotating field theory
109
6.6.2 Pitch factor
If windings are not implemented as
diametral winding, but as chorded
winding, return and line conductor are not
displaced by an entire pole pitch τ
p
(equal
to 180° electrical), but only by an angle
s < τ
p
, being < 180° (el.). Mentioned
stepping s/ τ
p
can only be utilized for entire
slot pitches τ
N
= 2π/N.
In practice the windings are distributed
over two layers. Line conductors are
placed into the bottom layer, whereas
return conductors are integrated into the
top layer. That arrangement complies with
a superposition of two winding systems of
halved number of windings, being
displaced by an angle α
S
(mech.).
x
w v
τ
p
u
y
z
π
p
s
.
S
α
Fig. 149: threephase winding, chording
This leads to an electrical displacement of β
S
= pα
S.
Both fractional winding systems add up
to the resulting number of windings.
w
2p
w
2p
p
α
s
.
p
α
s
π−
2
w
res
Fig. 150: angle displacement
,
`
.

− ·
p
S
s
p τ
π
α 1 (6.47)
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ·
,
`
.
 ⋅ −
⋅ ·
p
S
res
s
p
w p
p
w
w
τ
π α π
2
sin
2
sin
(6.48)
The ratio
,
`
.

⋅ · ·
p
res
S
s
p
w
w
τ
π
ξ
2
sin (6.49)
is called pitch factor (or chording factor).
Rotating field theory
110
Considering harmonic waves, the electric angle β
S
needs to be multiplied by times the ordinal
number, which leads to the harmonic’s pitch factor:
( )
,
`
.

⋅ + ·
+
p
g S
s
g
τ
π
ξ
2
1 6 sin
) 1 6 ( ,
(6.50)
The effect of using chorded windings is based on a clever choice of the ratio
p
s
τ
, leading to a
mutual elimination of the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics of primary and secondary side, so that they
disappear for an outside view.
e.g.:
5
4
·
p
s
τ
0
5
·
S
ξ
7
6
·
p
s
τ
0
7
·
S
ξ
It is proven useful to choose a median value (e.g. 5/6) in order to damp 5
th
and 7
th
harmonics
at the same time.
Then follows:
o 966 . 0
1
·
S
ξ
o 259 . 0
5
·
S
ξ
o 259 . 0
7
·
S
ξ
Rotating field theory
111
6.6.3 Resulting winding factor
The resulting winding factor for threephase windings results from the multiplication of zone
winding factor and chording factor.
• fundamental wave:
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅
· ⋅ ·
2
sin
6
sin
6
sin
π
τ
π
π
ξ ξ ξ
s
q
q
S Z
(6.51)
• harmonic waves:
( )
( )
( )
,
`
.

⋅ + ⋅
]
]
]
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
]
]
]
+ ⋅
· ⋅ ·
+ + +
p
g S g Z g
s
g
g
q
q
g
τ
π
π
π
ξ ξ ξ
2
1 6 sin
1 6
6
sin
6
1 6
sin
) 1 6 ( , ) 1 6 ( , ) 1 6 (
(6.52)
With regard to the winding factor, a mathematic formulation for a rotating field generally
appears as:
( )
( ) [ ]
∑
∞
−∞ ·
+
+
⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ·
'
1 ) 1 6 (
0
1 6
1 6 sin
2
2
4
2
3
,
g
g D
g
t p g
I
p
w
t b
ω α ξ
δ
µ
π
α (6.53)
Assumption for the fundamental wave:
( ) ( ) t p B t b
D D
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ·
1 1 1
sin , ω α α (6.54)
with
I
p
w
B
D
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ⋅ · 2
2
4
2
3
0
1
ξ
δ
µ
π
(6.55)
Rotating field theory
112
6.7 Voltage induction caused by influence of rotating field
Voltage in threephase windings revolving at variable speed, induced by a rotating field is
subject to computation in the following:
Spatial integration of the air gap field results in the flux linkage of a coil. Induced voltage
ensues by derivation of the flux linkage with respect to time. Using the definition of slip and a
transfer onto threephase windings, induced voltages in stator and rotor can be discussed. The
following considerations are made only regarding the fundamental wave.
6.7.1 Flux linkage
The air gap field is created in the threephase winding of the stator, characterized by the
number of windings w
1
and current I
1
:
( ) ( ) t p B t b
D D
1 1 1
sin , ω α α − ⋅ · (6.56)
1 1
1 0
1
2
2
4
2
3
I
p
w
B
D
ξ
δ
µ
π
· (6.57)
First of all, only one single rotor coil with
number of windings w
2
and arbitrary
position α (angle of twist) is taken into
account.
Flux linkage of the rotor coil results from
spatial integration of the air gap flux
density over one pole pitch.
( ) ( ) ( )
∫
⋅ ⋅ · ·
p
D
x l t b w t w t
τ
α α φ α ψ
0
1 2 2 2 2
d , , ,
(6.58)
α d
2
d ⋅ ·
D
x (6.59)
Fig. 151: threephase winding
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) t p B
p
D l
w
t p B
D
l w d
D
l t b w t
D
p D p D
1 1 2
1 1 2 1 2 2
cos
d sin
2 2
, ,
ω α
α ω α α α α ψ
π
α
α
π
α
α
− ⋅ ⋅
⋅
·
− ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
∫ ∫
+ +
(6.60)
fundamental wave of air gap flux:
D
B
p
D l
1 1
⋅
⋅
· φ (6.61)
flux linkage of the rotor coil:
( ) t p w
1 1 2 2
cos ω α φ ψ − ⋅ ⋅ · (6.62)
Rotating field theory
113
6.7.2 Induced voltage, slip
Induced voltage in a rotor coil of arbitrary angle of twist α(t), which is flowed through by the
air gap flux density ( ) t b
D
,
1
α , computes from variation of the flux linkage with time.
Described variation of flux linkage can be caused by both variation of currents i
u
(t), i
v
(t), i
w
(t)
with time, inside the exciting threephase winding and also by rotary motion α(t) of the coil
along the air gap circumference.
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
t
t
t
t
t
t d
t u
i
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− · − ·
,
d
d ,
d
,
,
2 2 2
2
α ψ α
α
α ψ α ψ
α (6.63)
( )
,
`
.

− ⋅ − ·
1 1 1 2 2
d
d
sin ω
α
ω α φ
t
p t p w u
i
(6.64)
mechanical angular speed of the rotor:
n
t
π
α
2
d
d
· Ω · (6.65)
rotational speed of the air gap field:
1
1
1
2 n
p
π
ω
· · Ω (6.66)
definition of the slip:
1
1
1
1
n
n n
s
−
·
Ω
Ω − Ω
· (6.67)
Slip is the referenced differential speed between stator rotating field and rotor. Rotational
speed of the stator rotating field is taken as reference value.
The rotational speed of the stator field fundamental wave is called synchronous speed.
p
f p
f
p
n
1
1 1
1
1
2
2
2 2
·
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

·
Ω
·
π
π
π
ω
π
(6.68)
As per 6.67, slip s=0 applies at synchronous speed, whereas s=1 applies for standstill.
Therefore follows for the induced voltage of the rotor winding:
( ) ( )
( ) t p w s
p
t p w t u
i
1 1 2 1
1
1
1
1 1 2 2
sin
sin ,
ω α φ ω
ω
ω
ω
ω α φ α
− ⋅ ⋅ − ·
− Ω
⋅ − ·
(6.69)
114
α
Ω
t
0
R
α
stator
rotor
Fig. 152: rotor position, rotation angle
Spatial position of the rotor coil can also
be depicted as:
( ) t t
R
Ω + · α α (6.70)
Therefore follows for the induced voltage
in the rotor coil:
( ) ( )
( ) t s p w s
t
p
p w s
t p t p w s t u
R
R
R i
1 1 2 1
1
1
1
1 2 1
1 1 2 1 2
sin
sin
sin ,
ω α φ ω
ω
ω
ω
α φ ω
ω α φ ω α
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ − ·
,
`
.
 Ω −
− ⋅ ⋅ − ·
− ⋅ Ω + ⋅ ⋅ − ·
(6.71)
• Some aspects regarding induced voltage dependencies are listed below:
• the amplitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the line frequency of the stator
and to the according slip.
• frequency of induced voltage is equal to slip frequency.
• at rotor standstill (s=1), frequency of the induced voltage is equal to line frequency.
• when rotating ( 1 ≠ s ), voltage of different frequency is induced by the fundamental
wave of the stator windings.
• no voltage is induced into the rotor at synchronous speed (s=0).
• phase displacement of voltages to be induced into the rotor is only dependent from the
spatial position of the coil, represented by the (elec.) angle p
R
α .
Is a rotor also equipped with a threephase winding, instead of a single coil  similar to the
stator arrangement – with phases being displaced by a mechanical angle ( )
p
k
R
3
2
1
π
α − ·
(k=1,2,3), a number of slots per pole and phase greater than 1 (q>1) and the resulting number
of windings w
2
ξ
2
, then follows for the induced voltage of single rotor phases:
( ) ( )
,
`
.

− − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · 1
3
2
sin
1 1 2 2 1 2
k t s w s t u
k i
π
ω φ ξ ω (6.72)
For s=1, equation 6.72 applies for induced voltages in stator windings using
1 1
ξ w :
( ) ( )
,
`
.

− − · 1
3
2
sin
1 1 1 1 1 1
k t w t u
K i
π
ω φ ξ ω (6.73)
Rotating field theory
115
The rms values of induced voltages in stator and rotor windings ensue to:
2
1
1 1 1 1
φ
ξ ω ⋅ ⋅ · w U
i
(6.74)
2
1
2 2 1 2
φ
ξ ω ⋅ ⋅ · w s U
i
(6.75)
s w
w
U
U
i
i
1
2 2
1 1
2
1
⋅ ·
ξ
ξ
(6.76)
Voltages behave like effective number of windings and relative speed.
6.8 Torque of two rotating magnetomotive forces
As fulfilled previous considerations, only the fundamental waves of the effects caused by the
air gap field are taken into account.
Rotating mmf
D
1
θ , caused in stator windings, is revolving with
1
1
p
ω
:
+Re
U
1
Im
ϕ
1
π−ε
α, ω
θ
1
D
I
0
ε
θ
0
D
θ
2
D
Fig. 153: space vector representation for θ
time vector representation for U,I.
( ) ( ) t p t
D D
1 1 1 1
sin , ω α θ α θ − · (6.77)
1
1
1 1
1
2
4
2
3
I
p
w
D
ξ
π
θ · (6.78)
An according rotating mmf is evoked in
the rotor windings
D
2
θ , revolving with
2
2
p
ω
and being displaced by a lagging angle ε:
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
sin , p t p t
D D
ε ω α θ α θ − − · (6.79)
2
2
2 2
2
2
4
2
3
I
p
w
D
ξ
π
θ · (6.80)
Initially no assumptions are made for the number of pole pairs, angular frequency and phase
angle of rotating magnetomotive forces of stator and rotor.
With appliance of Ampere’s law, the resulting air gap field calculates from superimposing of
both rotating magnetomotive forces of stator and rotor:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
t
D D D
t t t b
,
2 1
0
0
, ,
2
,
α θ
α θ α θ
δ
µ
α + · (6.81)
Rotating field theory
116
The magnetic energy in the air gap ensues to:
( )
∫
·
V
m
V
t B
W d
2
,
0
2
µ
α
(6.82)
α δ δ d
2
d d
D
l x l V · · (6.83)
Fig. 154: dimension, air gap surface
Torque computes from the derivation of the magnetic energy with the relative mechanical
displacement ε of both rotating fields against each other:
( )
∫
∂
∂
·
∂
∂
·
π
α δ
µ
α
ε ε
2
0 0
2
d
2 2
, D
l
t B W
M
m
(6.84)
Derivation with regard to chain rule (math.):
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
ε
α θ
α θ α θ
δ
µ
ε
α
α α
ε ∂
∂
+
,
`
.

·
∂
∂
·
∂
∂ t
t t
t B
t B t B
D
D D
,
, ,
2
2
,
, 2 ,
2
2 1
2
0 2
(6.85)
Only ( ) t
D
,
2
α θ is a function of ε, ( ) t
D
,
1
α θ is independent from ε.
Replacing variables:
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) [ ] α ε ω α θ
ε ω α θ ω α θ
δ
µ
µ
δ
π
d cos
sin sin
2
2
4
2 2 2 2 2
2
0
2 2 2 2 1 1 1
2
0
0
p t p p
p t p t p
D l
M
D
D D
− − −
− − + −
,
`
.

·
∫
(6.86)
Equation 6.86 can be modified and simplified by appliance of trigonometric relations.
With regard to the validity of:
0 d cos sin
2
0
·
∫
π
x x x (6.87)
equation 6.86 simplifies to:
( ) ( )
∫
− − −
⋅
−
·
π
α ε ω α ω α θ θ
δ
µ
2
0
2 2 2 1 1 2 1
0 2
d cos sin
2 4
p t p t p
lD p
M
D D
(6.88)
Rotating field theory
117
with:
( ) ( ) ( ) y x y x y x − + + · sin sin
2
1
cos sin (6.89)
follows:
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ] ( )
∫
+ − − − + − + − +
⋅
−
·
π
α ε ω ω α ε ω ω α
θ θ
δ
µ
2
0
2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
2 1 0 2
d sin sin
2 2 4
p t p p p t p p
lD p
M
D D
(6.90)
x
1
x
2
in general:
( )
∫
¹
'
¹
·
≠
· +
π
ϕ π
ϕ
2
0
0 für sin 2
0 für 0
sin
n
n
dx nx (6.91)
Since p
1
and p
2
are integer numbers, x
1
is always equal to zero and x
2
is only unequal to zero,
if p
1
= p
2
=p.
Therefore the number of pole pair of stator and rotor must agree, in order to create torque at
all.
With this assumption follows:
( ) [ ] p t
plD
M
D D
ε ω ω π
θ θ
δ
µ
+ − −
⋅
−
·
2 1
2 1 0
sin 2
2 2 4
(6.92)
A timevariant sinusoidal torque with average value equal to zero appears which is called
oscillation torque. Only if angular frequencies of the exciting currents agree, which means
ω
1
=ω
2
=ω and therefore speed of rotation of stator and rotor rotating field agree (at equal
number of pole pairs), a timeconstant torque derives for 0 ≠ ε :
( ) p
plD
M
D D
ε θ πθ
δ
µ
−
⋅
· sin
2 4
2 1
0
(6.93)
As to be seen in equation 6.93 the torque of two magnetomotive forces is porportional to
their amplitudes and the sinevalue of the enclosed angle.
• M = maximum for
p 2
π
ε ·
• M = 0 for ε = 0
Magnetomotive force
D
0
θ reflects the geometrical sum of stator and rotor mmf, which
complies with the resulting air gap field.
D D D D
B
1
0
2 1 0
2
µ
δ
θ θ θ · + ·
r r r
(6.94)
Rotating field theory
118
The appliance of the sine clause leads to:
( ) ε π
θ
ϕ
π
θ
−
·
,
`
.

−
sin
2
sin
0
1
2
D D
(6.95)
then follows:
1 1
0
1 0 2
cos
2
cos sin ϕ
µ
δ
ϕ θ ε θ B
D D
· · − (6.96)
Inserted into the torque equation finally results in:
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1
cos 3
cos
2
3
cos 2
4
2
3
4
cos
4
Ω
·
Ω
· ·
· ·
D
D D D
P I U
I w
p
B I
p
w plD
B
plD
M
ϕ
ϕ
φ
ξ ω
ω
ϕ
ξ
π
π
ϕ θ
π
(6.97)
Displacement between U
1
und I
1
is represented by ϕ
1
.
The voltage phasor U
1
is orientated in the direction of the +Reaxis (real) whereas I
0
is
orientated in direction of the –Imaxis (imaginary), for complex coordinate presentation.
Rotating field theory
119
6.9 Frequency condition, power balance
If stator windings of rotating field machines are fitted with a number of pole pairs p, supplied
by a balanced threephase system of frequency f
1
, a rotating field is evoked in the air gap,
revolving with synchronous speed
p
f
n
1
1
· .
If n may be rotor speed, then follows for the relative speed between stator rotating field and
rotor speed n n n − ·
1 2
.
If rotor slots are also fitted with symmetrical threephase windings (number of pole pairs p,
currents with slip frequency
2 2
n p f ⋅ · are induced into the rotor. Those currents likewise
create a rotating field, revolving relatively to the rotor speed at speed p f n
2 2
· .
The rotating field, caused by rotor currents features a rotational speed
1 2
n n n · + , according
to the stator field. This necessity is called frequency condition.
0
n
1
n
2
n
α
Fig. 155: speed overview
Stator field and rotor field show the same
rotational speed, same number of pole pairs
assumed. That means they are steadfastly to
each other, which is the basic assumption for
the creation of timeconstant torque.
If the described frequency condition is fulfilled
for every possible speeed, the behaviour is
called “asynchronous”. That case is
characterized by rotor frequencies to adjust
according to their rotational speeds.
Is the frequency condition only fulfilled at one
speed n
1
, the machine shows synchronous
behaviour. In this case, rotor frequency is
defined fix, e. g. 0
2
· f .
slip:
1
2
1
2
1
1
f
f
n
n
n
n n
s · ·
−
· (6.98)
slip frequency:
1 2
f s f ⋅ · (6.99)
rotor speed:
( ) s n n − ⋅ · 1
1
(6.100)
Rotating field theory
120
If rotating field machines are directly supplied by threephase lines, the accepted active
power, less occurring copper losses in windings is equal to the air gap power:
mech
P
1
P
D
1 Cu
V
P
el
P
Fig. 156: power balance
1
1
Cu
V P P
D
− · (6.101)
Air gap power is converted inside the air gap:
1 1 1 1
2 cos 3 n M I U P
i D
⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · π ϕ (6.102)
exerted power on shaft:
D mech
P s n s M n M P ⋅ − · ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 2 2
1
π π (6.103)
The difference of air gap power less mechanical power on the shaft is converted to heat losses
inside the rotor windings:
D D D mech D el
P s P s P P P P ⋅ · ⋅ − − · − · ) 1 ( (6.104)
Rotating field theory
121
6.10 Reactances and resistance of threephase windings
The magnetizing reactance of a threephase winding computes from the induced voltage in
noload case:
1
1
I
U
X
i
h
· (6.105)
with
2
1
1 1 1
φ
ξ ω w U
i
· (6.106)
1 1
B
p
lD
· φ (6.107)
1
1 1 0
1
2
4
2
3
2
I
p
w
B
ξ
π δ
µ
· (6.108)
follows
δ π
ξ
µ ω
lD
p
w
X
h
2
2
3
2
1 1
0 1
,
`
.

· (6.109)
The leakage reactance of threephase windings results from a superposition of three effects,
being independently calculable:
• end winding leakage
• slot leakage
• harmonic leakage
} Σ · X
1σ
Same conditions apply for the rotor leakage reactance. Detailed discussion is to be found in
literature as given.
The total reactance of a threephase winding results in:
σ 1 1 1
X X X
h
+ · (6.110)
to be measured in noload operation, I
2
=0, f
1
=f
1N
, R
1
=0:
0
1
1
I
U
X · (6.111)
Rotating field theory
122
The phase resistance of threephase windings can be determined by basically considering
geometric dimensions and specific material parameters:
E
l
τ
p
z ,
N L
,
q a
Fig. 157: windings, geometric dimensions
with an approximate length of windings of
( )
p E m
l l τ + ≈ 2 (6.112)
and the number of windings per phase:
m
a
z
N
w
N
2
· (6.113)
Then follows for the resistance per phase at working temperature:
( ) [ ] K T
aq
wl
R
l
m
20 1 − + · α ρ (6.114)
with copper temperature coefficient:
K
004 . 0
· α (6.115)
The maximum overtemperature in nominal operation depends on the insulation class (VDE):
e. g.: A: 105°C (enamelled wire)
F: 155°C (foil insulation)
123
7 Induction machine
7.1 Design, method of operation
u
w
x
y
z
v
stator with
windings
air gap
rotor
Fig. 158: induction machine, design
I
v
I
u
I
w
U
UUU
X
UU
V
W
Y
Z
M
3~
Induction machines state the most import type
of threephase machines, to be mainly used as
motor. Stator and rotor are composed of slotted
iron laminations that are stacked to form a core.
A symmetric threephase winding is placed in
the stator slots, which is connected to a three
phase system in either star or deltaconnection.
Rotor slots also contain a symmetric threephase
winding or a squirrelcagewinding, to be short
circuited.
Most simplified induction machine consists of 6
stator slots per pole pair – one per line and one
per return conductor each. Usual windings are
designed with a number of pole pairs greater
than one p > 1, which are distributed on more
than one slot q > 1.
Fig. 159: induction machine, power supply
If induction machines are supplied by threephase networks of frequency f
1
, balanced currents
occur, to create a rotating field inside the air gap, revolving with synchronous rotational speed
n
1
. This rotating field induces currents of frequency f
2
inside the conductors of the rotor
windings. This again creates another rotating field, revolving with differential speed n
2
relatively towards the rotor speed n and relatively towards the stator field with
2 1
n n n + · ,
which fulfils the frequency condition. Due to Lenz’s Law, rotor currents counteract their
origin, which is based on relative motion between stator and rotor. As a consequence rotor
currents and stator rotating field, which revolves with synchronous speed, create torques
driving the rotor in direction of the stator rotating field and trying to adapt their speed to that
of the stator rotating field. Since the induction effect would disappear in case of not having
any relative motion between rotor and stator field, the rotor is actually not able to reach stator
field rotational speed. Rotors show a certain amount of slip s against the stator rotating field –
their method of running is called asynchronous. Therefore this kind of machine is called
induction machine (asynchronous machine). The higher the torque, demanded by the rotor,
the greater the amount of slip.
Synchronous speed:
p
f
n
1
1
· (7.1)
rotor speed: n (7.2)
slip:
1
2
1
1
f
f
n
n n
s ·
−
· (7.3)
Induction machine
124
shortcircuited ring bearing
cage rotor
stator winding
enclosure
Fig. 160: induction machine, general design
Fig. 161: induction machine, unassembled parts
Induction machine
125
Fig. 162a: induction motor, power: 30 kW
Fig. 162b: same machine, rotor only
Fig. 163ad: highvoltage induction motor, power: 300 kW (Siemens)  case with shaft (upper
left), stator (upper right), slipring rotor (lower left), squirrelcage rotor (lower right)
Induction machine
126
Induction machines are either equipped with
• slipring rotors, or with
• squirrelcage rotors.:
end windings
starting resistor
sliprings
+ brushes
threephase winding
U
V
W
shortcircuit ring
rotor bars
slipring rotor squirrelcage rotor
Fig. 164: induction machine, rotor type overview
• induction machines with slipring rotor consist of threephase windings with a number of
phases 3
2
· m , similar to their stator. End windings are outside the cylindrical cage
connected to slip rings. Rotor windings are shortcircuited either directly or via brushes
using a starting resistor or can be supplied by external voltage, which are means to adjust
rotational speed.
• Squirrelcage rotors are composed of separate rotor bars to form a cylindrical cage. Their
end windings are shortcircuited using shortcircuitrings at their end faces. The number of
phases is
2 2
N m · . This type of construction does not admit any access to the rotor
windings while operating, which results in a missing opportunity to directly influence the
operational behaviour. Large machines feature copper rotor bars and shortcircuitrings
whereas diecast aluminium cages are used for small power machines.
The following considerations apply for both slipring rotor machines as well as squirrelcage
rotor machines.
7.2 Basic equations, equivalent circuit diagrams
Stator and rotor of considered induction machines are to be fitted with balanced threephase
windings. This assumption permits a singlephase consideration.
Each of the windings of stator and rotor feature a resistance, R
1
for the stator and R
2
for the
rotor, as well as a self inductance L
1
(stator) and L
2
(rotor).
Stator and rotor winding are magnetically coupled by their common mutual inductance M.
Induction machine
127
Since currents in stator windings are of frequency f
1
, whereas currents in rotor windings are of
frequency f
2
, certain conditions apply for operation at rotational speed n:
• stator induces into the rotor with frequency f
2
,
• rotor induces into the stator with frequency f
1
,
which leads to the equivalent circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 165:
I
1
U
1
I
2
U
2
f
1
f
2
R
2
R
1
ω
2
L
2
ω
1
L
1
ω
1
M
ω
2
M
Fig. 165: induction machine, ecd, galvanic separated
According voltage equations:
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
I M j I L j I R U ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · ω ω (7.4)
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
I M j I L j I R U ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · ω ω (7.5)
Rotor quantities are now transferred into stator quantities, i.e. voltage
*
2
U and current
*
2
I of
frequency f
1
are to be used for steady oriented stator windings, evoking the same effect as
voltage U
2
and current I
2
in revolving rotor windings. Power invariant transformation,
introducing a transformation ratio ü is utilized to aim the described transfer.
2
*
2
U ü U ⋅ · ,
ü
I
I
2
*
2
· (7.6)
Voltage equations (7.47.5) expand to:
( )
,
`
.

+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ·
1
2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
I
ü
I
M ü j I M ü L j I R U ω ω (7.7)
( )
,
`
.

+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅
ü
I
I M ü j
ü
I
M ü ü L j
ü
I
R ü U ü
2
1 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
ω ω (7.8)
with a reasonable choice of ü as:
( )
1
2 2
1 1 1
1 σ
ξ
ξ
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
· ·
w
w
M
L
ü (7.9)
Induction machine
128
With that, disappearance of the leakage inductance on the primary side is achieved, the trans
formation ratio ü can be measured as the ratio of noload voltages in standstill operation.
In analogy to transformers we find (see chapter 3):
( ) ( )
'
2
2
1 2
2
2 2
1 1
2
1 2
2 *
2
1 1 R R
w
w
R ü R ⋅ + · ⋅
,
`
.

⋅
⋅
⋅ + · ⋅ · σ
ξ
ξ
σ (7.10)
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 2 1
2 2
1 1
1 2 2
2
2 2
1 1
2
1 2
2 *
2
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1
L L L L
M
w
w
L
w
w
M ü L ü L
h
⋅
−
· ⋅
,
`
.

−
−
· − ⋅ + ⋅ +
· ⋅
,
`
.

⋅
⋅
⋅ + − ⋅ + ⋅
,
`
.

⋅
⋅
⋅ + · ⋅ − ⋅ ·
σ
σ
σ
σ σ
ξ
ξ
σ σ
ξ
ξ
σ
(7.11)
with the total leakage factor:
( ) ( )
2 1
1 1
1
1
σ σ
σ
+ ⋅ +
− · (7.12)
Then follows for the voltage equations:
0 1 1 1 1 1
I L j I R U ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · ω (7.13)
0 1 2
* *
2
* * *
2 2 2 2 2
I L j I L j I R U ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · ω ω (7.14)
*
2 1 0
I I I + · (7.15)
The appearance of different frequencies in stator and rotor is displeasing. This issue can be
formally eliminated, if the rotor voltage is multiplied by
s
1
2
1
·
ω
ω
. Reactances are to be
transferred onto the stator side:
1 1 1
L X ⋅ · ω ,
*
1
*
2 2
L X ⋅ · ω (7.16)
which finally leads to:
0 1 1 1 1
I X j I R U ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · (7.17)
0 1
* * *
* *
2 2 2
2 2
I X j I X j I
s
R
s
U
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · (7.18)
*
2 1 0
I I I + ·
Induction machine
129
I
1
U
1
I
2
*
1
X
1
I
0
X
2
*
R
2
*
s
R
s
U
2
*
Fig. 166: induction machine, general ecd
All occurring variables of the ecd shown in Fig. 166 are considered at frequency f
1
.
Operational behaviour of induction machines can be completely described using the ecd
shown in Fig. 166. It is purposively used for operation with constant stator flux linkage,
which means system supply with constant voltage and frequency.
The chosen transformation ratio ü can be measured on the primary side at noload an standstill
on secondary side – neglecting stator winding copper losses. Then follows with:
0
, 1
, 0
1
2
·
·
·
R
s
I
for noload voltages:
( )
20 1
2 2
1 1
20 20 1
1 U
w
w
U ü U U ⋅ + ⋅
⋅
⋅
· ⋅ · ·
∗
σ
ξ
ξ
(7.19)
( )
1
2 2
1 1
20
1
1 σ
ξ
ξ
+ ⋅
⋅
⋅
· ·
w
w
U
U
u& & (7.20)
Operating with constant rotor flux linkage, which means fieldoriented control, an ecd is to be
utilized with tranformation ratio of:
( )
2 2 2
1 1
1
1
σ ξ
ξ
+
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
w
w
ü (7.21)
which makes the rotor leakage inductance disappear (without derivation):
( )
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 I X j I X j I R U ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · σ σ (7.22)
( )
0 1
1
2
2 2
I X j I
s
R
s
U
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ ·
+
+ +
σ (7.23)
+
+ ·
2 1 0
I I I
Induction machine
130
R
1
σ
X
1
R
2
+
I
0
I
2
+
U
2
+
s
(1
σ
)X
1
I
1
U
1
Fig. 167: induction machine, ecd for constant rotor flux linkage
Transformation ratio ü can be measured on secondary side at noload and standstill on
primary side.
With the nonmeasurable transformation ratio:
2 2
1 1
ξ
ξ
⋅
⋅
·
w
w
ü (7.24)
which complies with the effective number of windings, a Tform ecd derives for induction
machines. This type of ecd is similar to those of transformers (as discussed in chapter 3), but
of minor importance when considering operational behaviour (also without derivation):
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
I X j I X j I R U
h
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ·
σ
(7.25)
0 1
'
2
'
2
'
' '
2
2 2
I X j I X j I
s
R
s
U
h
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ·
σ
(7.26)
'
2 1 0
I I I + ·
R
1
X
1σ
X'
2σ
R'
2
s
I'
2
U'
2
s
I
0
X
1h
I
1
U
1
Fig. 168: induction machine, Tecd
Please note:
• all types of ecd are physically identical and lead to same results
• a suitable choice of the transformation ratio is a question of expedience
Stator winding resistance R
1
is usually neglected for machines at line frequency f
1
= 50 Hz:
0
1
· R (7.27)
Induction machine
131
Rotor windings of slipring rotors are usually shortcircuited by sliprings and brushes, same
as squirrelcage rotors. As long as current displacement (skin effect, proximity effect) can be
neglected for squirrelcage rotors, the operational behaviour of both types are alike:
0
*
2
· U (7.28)
With equation 7.28, voltage equations for induction machines ensue to:
0 1 1
I X j U ⋅ ⋅ · (7.29)
* * *
*
1
2 2 2
2
I X j I
s
R
U ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ − · (7.30)
*
2 1 0
I I I + ·
which leads to a simple ecd, to consist of only 3 elements, shown in Fig. 169. This ecd is
taken as a basis for the investigation of the operational behaviour of induction machines in the
following.
I
1
U
1
I
2
*
f
1
f
1
X
1
I
0
X
2
*
R
2
*
s
Fig. 169: induction machine, simplified ecd
The according phasor diagram can be drawn by using the voltage equations above.
+Re
R*
2
s
I*
2
U
1
= j X
1
I
0
I
1
Im I
0
I*
2
ϕ
1
.
j X*
2
I*
2
=
=
Fig. 170: induction machine, phasor diagram
Induction machine
132
7.3 Operational behaviour
7.3.1 Power balance
A power balance is established for the definition of power:
absorbed active power is defined as:
1 1 1 1
cos 3 ϕ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · I U P . (7.31)
Since no losses occur in stator windings ( 0
1
· R assumed), the entire absorbed active power is
transmitted over the air gap to appear as airgap power for the rotor:
2 *
2
*
2
1
3 I
s
R
P P
D
⋅ ⋅ · · . (7.32)
In described equivalent circuit diagrams, the air gap power is represented by the active power
to be converted in the
s
R
*
2
resistor. No copper losses occur for the rotor resistance R
2
itself:
D el
P s I
s
R
s I R I R P ⋅ ·
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ·
2 *
2
*
2 *
2
* 2
2 2
2
2
3 3 3 . (7.33)
With that fact, the mechanical power of induction machines to be exerted on the shaft ensues
to the difference of air gap power and rotor copper losses:
( )
D el D mech
P s P P P ⋅ − · − · 1 . (7.34)
7.3.2 Torque
Based on the simplified ecd follows for the current in a short circuited rotor:
*
2
*
2
1
*
2
X j
s
R
U
I
⋅ +
−
· ,
2 *
2
2
*
2
2
1 2 *
2
X
s
R
U
I
+
,
`
.

· , (7.35)
which makes it possible to describe torque M as a function of slip s:
( )
( )
2 *
2
2
*
2
2
1
*
2
1
1 1
3
2
1
2 1 2
1
2
X
s
R
U
s
R
p
f
n
P
s n
P s
n
P
M
D D mech
+
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
·
− ⋅ ⋅
⋅ −
·
⋅ ⋅
·
π
π π π
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
2
1
1
3
R
X s
X s
R
X
U
p
⋅
+
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
ω
(7.36)
Induction machine
133
Torque reaches its peak value in case of the denominator is minimum. The denominator is to
be differentiated after s and to be set =
0:
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
2
0
1
X
R
s
R
X
X
R
s
t · ⇒ · + ⋅ − . (7.37)
The amount of slip to occur at maximum torque is called breakdown slip:
2 , 0 1 , 0
*
2
*
2
L ≈ ·
X
R
s
kipp
(7.38)
with the according breakdown torque, being the maximum torque value:
*
2
2
1
1
2
3
X
U p
M
kipp
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
ω
(7.39)
The Kloss Equation (7.40) derives from a reference of the actual torque on to the maximum
value and a replacement of
*
2
*
2
X
R
by s
kipp
(note: index kipp means breakdown):
kipp
kipp
kipp
s
s
s
s
M
M
+
·
2
(7.40)
2 1 1 s
n
2n
1
n
1
n
N
0 n
1
1
2
1
2
s
Kipp
s
Kipp
M
Kipp
M
M
Kipp
M
N
s
N
0
generator brake motor
s
t
a
n
d
s
t
i
l
l
b
r
e
a
k
d
o
w
n
n
o
m
i
n
a
l
n
o

l
o
a
d
Fig. 171: induction machine, torque/speed diagram
Induction machine
134
Characteristics ( ) s f M · or ( ) n f M · can be drawn as in Fig. 171 and be also discussed
with equation 7.40. Typical slip ranges are:
kipp
kipp
kipp
kipp
s
s
s
s
M
M
s s ⋅ · · << 2
2
: straight line, (7.41)
s
s
s
s
M
M
s s
kipp
kipp
kipp
kipp
⋅ · · >> 2
2
: hyperbola, (7.42)
1 : · ·
kipp
kipp
M
M
s s point. (7.43)
Induction machines can be operated in 3 different modes:
• motor (rotor revolves slower than rotating field):
1 0 , 0 , 0 < < > > s n M , (7.44)
• generator (rotor revolves faster than rotating field):
0 , , 0
1
< > < s n n M , (7.45)
• brake (rotor revolves against rotating field):
1 , 0 , 0 > < > s n M . (7.46)
7.3.3 Efficiency
The efficiency of induction machines at nominal operation, with neglection of stator copper
losses (R
1
= 0), computes to:
( )
N
N D
N D n
N D
N mech
auf
ab
N
s
P
P s
P
P
P
P
− ·
⋅ −
· · · 1
1
η (7.47)
The nominal slip s
n
is supposed to be kept as small as possible, in order to achieve proper
nominal efficiency. Usual amounts for nominal slips are:
01 , 0 05 , 0 L ≈
N
s (7.48)
which leads to effiencies
99 . 0 ... 95 . 0 ·
N
η (7.49)
When taking stator copper losses and hysteresis losses into account, real applications actually
show lower efficiency amounts between approx. 0,8 and 0,95.
Induction machine
135
7.3.4 Stability
An important condition is to be requested for both motor and generator operation: in which
range does the machine show stable operational behaviour? That leads to:
0 · <
dn
dM
dn
dM
Last Motor
, (7.50)
meaning load torque must be of greater value than motor torque at increasing speed.
Assuming
const M
Last
· i.e. 0 ·
dn
dM
Last
(7.51)
and taking into account, that in cause of
( )
0
1 n s n ⋅ − · (7.52)
follows:
ds n dn ⋅ − ·
0
, (7.53)
a stability condition of induction machines ensues to:
0 >
ds
dM
Motor
bzw. 0 <
dn
dM
Motor
, (7.54)
which is given for
kipp kipp
s s s < < − (7.55)
These considerations leads to the assignment breakdown torque, because if the load exceeds
the breakdown torque, the rotor falls into standstill (motion breaks down), whereas it runs
away at oversized driving torque (running away may lead to destruction ⇒ breakdown).
Therefore a certain overload factor is required for induction machines:
5 , 1 >
N
kipp
M
M
(7.56)
Induction machine
136
7.4 Circle diagram (Heyland diagram)
7.4.1 Locus diagram
Circle diagram of induction machines means locus diagram of their stator current.
Preconditions:
• U
1
wird in reelle Achse gelegt,
• der Läufer ist kurzgeschlossen,
• 0
1
· R .
I
1
U
1
I
2
*
X
1
I
0
X
2
*
R
2
*
s
Fig. 172: induction machine, ecd, short circuited (secondary)
From voltage equations derives:
const
X j
U
I ·
⋅
·
1
1
0
, (7.57)
*
2
*
2
1
*
2
X j
s
R
U
I
⋅ +
· . (7.58)
Then follows for the stator current:
*
2
*
2
1
0
*
2 0 1
X j
s
R
U
I I I I
⋅ +
+ · + · . (7.59)
Minimum current applies for ( )
1
0 n n s · · : ideallized noload case
1
1
0 1
X j
U
I I
⋅
· · (located on –jaxis) (7.60)
Maximum current appears for ( ) ∞ · ∞ · n s : idealized shortcircuit:
0
*
2
·
s
R
,
Induction machine
137
the ideal shortcircuit reactance derives from a parallel connection of X
1
and X
2
*
:
1
1 1
1 1
*
2 1
*
2 1
1
1
X
X X
X X
X X
X X
X
K
⋅ ·
−
⋅ +
−
⋅ ⋅
·
+
⋅
· σ
σ
σ
σ
σ
. (7.61)
That leads to an appraisalof the shortcircuit current as:
0
1
1
1
I I
X j
U
I >> ·
⋅ ⋅
·
∞
σ
(located on –jaxis) (7.62)
The locus diagram of I
1
forms a circle (not subject to derivation), whose centerpoint is also
located on the –jaxis, diameter ensues to (
0
I I −
∞
)
Fig. 173: induction machine, locus diagram
7.4.2 Parametrization
The tangent function is to be applied for the rotor current angle for parameter assignment:
{ ¦
{ ¦
s
s
s
s
R
X
I
I
kipp
~
Re
Im
tan
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
· ⋅ · · ϕ , (7.63)
which is a linear function of s and can therefore be utilized for construction purpose of the
slipline.
A tangent to the circle is to be drawn at I
0
, intersected by a line in parallel the –jaxis.
This line is called slipline, which terminates at the intersection with the extension of the
current phasor I
2
. This line is divided linearly because of is proportional to the slip.
Besides the noload point, a second point on the circle graph must be known, in order to
define a parametrization.
slipline
Im
+Re
Im
+Re
I
0
I
1 I
2
*
ϕ
1
s=0 s
ϕ
2
*
I
∞
M
U
1
Induction machine
138
If the ohmic stator winding resistance needs to be taken into account, to apply for low power
machines and power converter supply at low frequencies, an active partition is added to the
circle of the locus diagram, which differs for location of center point and parameter
assignment – not supposed to be discussed further.
7.4.3 Power in circle diagram
The opportunity to easily determine the current value for any given operational point is not
the only advantage of the circle diagram of induction machines. Apart from that, it is possible
to directly read off torque value M and air gap power P
D
, mechanical power P
mech
and
elektrical power P
el
as distances to appear in the circle diagram.
If R
1
is equal to zero ( ) 0
1
· R , the entire absorbed active power is equal to the air gap power
P
D
, to be transferred across the air gap.
Im
+Re
I
0
I
1
ϕ
1
s=0 s
I
∞
M
U
1
s=1 s
Kipp
P
el
P
D
P
mech
M
max
A
B
C
generator s < 0
brake s > 1
motor 0 < s < 1
shortcircuit/startingpoint
s
tra
ig
h
tlin
e
o
f m
e
c
h
a
n
ic
a
l p
o
w
e
r
Fig. 174: induction machine, circle diagram, torques and powers
Geometric interdependences for air gap power and torque derive from Fig. 174:
AB c I U I U P P
p w D
⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ·
1 1 1 1 1 1
3 cos 3 ϕ , (7.64)
AB c
n
P
M
M
D
⋅ ·
⋅ ⋅
·
1
2 π
, (7.65)
as well as (intercept theorem):
( ) AB s BC AB s AC
s AC
AB
⋅ − · ⋅ · ⇒ · 1 ,
1
. (7.66)
Induction machine
139
The leg AB is subdivided due to the ratio
( ) s
s
− 1
, so that:
AC c P s P
P D el
⋅ · ⋅ · , (7.67)
( ) BC c P s P
P D mech
⋅ · ⋅ − · 1 . (7.68)
The straightline to run through points 0 · s and 1 · s on the circle is called straightline of
mechanical power (see Fig. 174).
7.4.4 Operating range, signalized operating points
The three operating ranges of induction machines are to be found in the according circle
diagram as:
• motor: for: 0< s < 1,
• braking: for: 1 < s < ∞,
• generator: for: s < 0.
Five signalized operating points need to be mentioned:
• noload:
1
, 0 n n s · · (7.69)
Noload current
1
1
0
X
U
I · (7.70)
is placed on the –Imaxis and is supposed to be kept small with regard to the absorbed
reactive power of induction machines. Since the total reactance X
1
is inverse
proportional to the air gap width, this width is also supposed to be kept small.
Mechanical limits may be reached when considering shaft deflection and bearing
clearance:
1000
2 . 0
D
mm+ ≥ δ . (7.71)
Practical applications show a ratio as of:
5 . 0 ... 25 . 0
1
0
·
N
I
I
. (7.72)
Induction machine
140
• breakdown:
*
2
*
2
X
R
s
kipp
· . (7.73)
At this point, maximum torque is exerted on the shaft of induction machines. This point
describes the peak value of the circle, real and imaginary part of I
2
*
are equal, so that
1 tan
*
2
· ϕ .
• shortcircuit or startingpoint: s = 1, n = 0 (7.74)
When starting, shortcircuit currents I
1k
occurs, which is multiple the nominal current
I
1N
and therefore needs to be limited, due to approximately:
N K
I I
1 1
8 ... 5 ⋅ · . (7.75)
• ideal shortcircuit: s = ∞, n = ∞
Maximum current value to theoretically appear – also located on the –Imaxis.
σ σ
0
1
1
I
X
U
I ·
⋅
·
∞
. (7.76)
Practical values are aimed as:
8 ... 5
1 . 0 ... 03 . 0
1
·
·
∞
N
I
I
σ
.
• optimum operational point:
The nominnal point is to be chosen in the way, to maximize
1
cosϕ . This case is given,
if the nominal currents ensues to a tangent to the circle. A better value of
1
cosϕ can
not be achieved. The optimum point is not always kept precisely in practical
applications.
1
1
1
0
Fig. 175: induction mach., optimum point
If the nominal point is set equal to the
optimum point follows:
( )
( )
σ
σ
ϕ
+
−
·
+ ⋅
− ⋅
·
+
·
∞
∞
∅
∅
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
cos
0
0
0
1
I I
I I
I
I
I
opt
,
(7.77)
with practical values:
9 . 0 ... 8 . 0 cos
1
≈ ϕ . (7.78)
Induction machine
141
7.4.5 Influence of machine parameters
Influences of machine parameters on the circle diagram are subject to discussion in the
following.
Noload current is given as:
1
1
0
X
U
I · . (7.79)
The ideal shortcircuit current approximately amounts:
σ σ
0
1
1
I
X
U
I ·
⋅
·
∞
. (7.80)
Parameter assignment is based on:
s
R
X
⋅ ·
*
2
*
2 *
2
tanϕ . (7.81)
Conceivable alternatives may be:
• X
1
decreased, caused by a wider air gap
⇒ I
0
increases
• X
K
decreased, caused by skin/
proximityeffect ⇒
∞
I increases
• R
2
*
decreased, caused by skin/
proximityeffect ⇒ P
K
approaches the
breakdown point at P
Kipp
Fig. 176: parameter variation, effects
Induction machine
142
7.5 Speed adjustment
Most important opportunities for speed adjustment of induction machines can be taken from
the basic equation (7.81):
( ) s
p
f
n − ⋅ · 1
1
(7.82)
7.5.1 Increment of slip
An increment of slip can be achieved by looping starting resistors into the rotor circuit of slip
ring machines.
I
1
U
1
I
2
*
X
1
I
0
X
2
*
R
2
*
+R
V
*
s
Fig. 177: induction mach., starting resistor
*
2

1
1
0
R
const
X j
U
I ·
⋅
· (7.83)
*
2

0
R
const
I
I · ·
∞
σ
(7.84)
*
2

2
3
*
2
2
1
R
kipp
const
X
U p
M ·
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
ω
(7.85)
The circle of the locus diagram remains the same in case of an increased rotor resistor,
realized by adding R
V
to R
2
– only the slipparametrization differs.
o without
*
v
R :
1
*
2
*
2 *
2
tan s
R
X
⋅ · ϕ (7.86)
o with
*
v
R :
2
* *
2
*
2 *
2
tan s
R R
X
v
⋅
+
· ϕ (7.87)
In order to achieve the same point on the circle diagram, both
*
2
tanϕ values need to be the
same:
2
* *
2
1
*
2
s
R R
s
R
V
+
· (7.88)
and therefore:
,
`
.

+ ⋅ ·
*
2
1 2
1
R
R
s s
V
(7.89)
The same circle point and therefore the same amount of torque is achieved for a slip value s
2
when adding
*
V
R to the rotor circuit as for slip value s
1
. This enables starting with breakdown
torque (=maximum torque).
Induction machine
143
Fig. 177 a/b: induction machine, circle diagram without/with starting resistor
0 s
Kipp
s 1
M
Kipp
Example:
kipp
s s ·
1
, 1
2
· s (7.90)
,
`
.

− ⋅ · →
+
· 1
1
1
*
2
*
* *
2
*
2
kipp
v
v
kipp
s
R R
R R
s
R
(7.91)
Fig. 178:
Disadvantage of this method: additional losses caused by the additional resistor R
V
, the
efficiency s − · 1 η decreases.
Noload speed remains the same as of operation without starting resistor.
I
∞
s
1
= s
Kipp
0
M
Kipp
M
A
without R
V
*
s
2
= 1
Im
I
0
U
1
+Re +Re
U
1
I
0
0
with R
V
* I
∞
Im
s = 1
M
A
= M
Kipp
Induction machine
144
7.5.2 Variating the number of pole pairs
Speed adjustment can also be achieved for squirrelcage machines by changing the poles,
because this type is not bound to a certain number of poles. This is realized utilizing either
two separate threephase windings of different number of poles to be implemented into the
stator, with only one of them being used at a time or a changepole winding, called Dahlander
winding. The latter enables speed variation due to a ratio of 2:1 by reconnecting two winding
groups from series to parallel connection. Speed variation can only be performed in rough
steps.
7.5.3 Variation of supply frequency
L
C
f
line
= 50Hz
~
= ~
=
U = 0 .... U
max
f = 0 .... f
max
M
3~
Fig. 179: power system set, power supply, AC/DC – DC/AC converters, threephase machine
Power converters are required fort his method of speed adjustment. Power is taken from the
supplying system, then rectified and transferred to the inverter block via its DClink. The
inverter takes over speed control of the induction machine, supplying with varable frequency
and voltage.
The characteristic circle diagram needs to be discussed for variable frequencies:
On the one hand, the circle is partially defined by:
,
`
.

·
1
1
1
1
0
~
f
U
X
U
I (7.92)
and on the other hand by
,
`
.

·
∞
1
1 0
~
f
U I
I
σ
. (7.93)
If the supplying voltage is variated proportionally to the line frequency, the according circle
size remains the same and therefore also its breakdown torque
2
1
1
*
2
2
1
1
~
2
3
,
`
.

⋅
⋅
⋅
·
f
U
X
U p
M
kipp
ω
, (7.94)
Induction machine
145
but the parametrization differs due to:
2 1
*
2
*
2 *
2
~ tan f f s s
R
X
· ⋅ ⋅ · ϕ . (7.95)
Any rotor frequency is assigned to a circle point. The shortcircuit operational points
approaches the noload point with decreasing frequency.
Im
+Re
I
0
I
∞
U
1
f
2
= 10Hz
f
2
= 25Hz
f
2
= 50Hz
0 s = 1(50Hz) s = 1(10Hz) s = 1(25Hz)
Fig. 180:circle diagram for 0 ,
1
1
1
· · R const
f
U
1
0
s = 0(10Hz)
M
Kipp
s
n
M
A
(10Hz)
M
A
(25Hz)
M
A
(50Hz)
s = 0(25Hz) s = 0(50Hz)
n
0
/ 5 n
0
/ 2 n
0
Fig. 181: torquespeedcharacteristic for 0 ,
1
1
1
· · R const
f
U
The mode of operation keeping const
f
U
·
1
1
is called operation with constant stator flux
linkage. For instance constant noload stator flux linkage ensues to:
const
f
U
L
U
L I L ·
⋅
⋅ · ⋅ · Ψ
1
1
10 1
1
1 10 1 10
~
ω
(7.96)
Induction machine
146
7.5.4 Additional voltage in rotor circuit
Double supplied induction machines are based on feeding slipringrotors with slipfrequent
currents.
3 ~
M
P
D
s · P
D
f
1
f
2
=s · f
1
s · P
D
f
1
Fig. 182: ecd for additional voltage in rotor circuit
Slip power
D
P s ⋅ is taken from (or fed to) the sliprings of the machine and supplied to (or
taken from) the line using an inverter. Therefore slip is increased or decreased, an almost
lossless speed adjustment is possible  „undersynchronous or oversynchronous inverter
cascades“.
The power inverter necessarily only needs to be designed for slip power.
Induction machine
147
7.6 Induction generator
The bottom part of the circle diagram covers generator mode of induction machines at three
phase supply. Oversynchronous speed ( ) 0 < s is to be achieved by accordant driving in order
to work as generator. The reversal of the energy flow direction is regarded in the ecd with
appliance of 0
*
2
<
s
R
and therefore a reversal from sink towards source.
Im
+Re
I
0
I
1
I
∞
U
1
s=1 s
Kipp
s
N
s
Gen
s < 0
generator
L
1
C
solitary operation
A
G
3~
Fig. 183: induction generator, operational range, ecd
The stator current reactive component direction remains the same at changeover from motor
to generator mode. Thus induction machines are not able to autonomously excite required
magnetizing current, but need to be supplied by external sources. Since synchronous
generators are able to provide lagging reactive power, mains operation appears troublefree. If
induction machines are supposed to operate in solitary operation without mains connection
(e.g. auxiliary power supplies, alternator in automotive applications, etc.), capacitor banks
need to be connected in parallel for coverage of required reactive power.
Besides described application samples, maintenancefree induction machines in solitary
operation are utilized for runofriver power stations as well as for windenergy generators.
Similar to DC machines, self excitation is possible for inductions machines in solitary
operation as well. Saturation dependent machine reactance and external capacitors form a
resonating circuit, which is excited to oscillate by current peak or remanence magnetism for
actuated rotors.
A stable operating point ensues for
0
U U
C
· at the intersection of noload characteristic and
capacitor characteristic. The amount of noload voltage can be adjusted by the choice of the
utilized capacitor value.
The noload characteristic ( )
µ
I f U ·
0
applies for constant speed without load ⇒ 0
wirk
· I ,
whereas the capacitor characteristic
C
I
U
C
ω
µ
· complies with the reactive voltage drop along
the capacitor, to be connected in parallel.
Induction machine
148
I
µ
U
U
1
n = const
∆
I
B
U
0
f (Iµ) =
U
c
=
ωc
I
0
I
µ
0
I
1
1
U
1
U
0
I
1
cos
ϕ
= 0,8
cos
ϕ
= 1
stability limit
Fig. 184: induction generator, intersection of noload and capacitor characteristics
If the machine is loaded with active current I
1
, the required reactive current amount increased
about
B
I
1
∆ . Since the capacitor is not able to provide more reactive current in real, voltage
drops until U
1
. Therefore the machine load can be increased until the stability limit is reached,
which means, an additional reactive current demand can not be covered.
The according load characteristics ( )
1 1
I f U · take after those of entirely excited DC shunt
generators.
Induction machine
149
7.7 Squirrelcage rotors
7.7.1 Particularities, bar current – ring current
Induction machines with squirrelcage rotors are most utilized type of electrical machine. Its
special design is simpler, more robust and apart from that also cheaper than slipring rotors.
Squirrel cage rotors can be used, if the power supply is able to get along with breakaway
starting currents of 4 ... 7 I
N
and admissible heating is not going to be exceeded.
In its simplest form squirrel cage rotors consist of bars, placed in slots, to count the same
number as the number N
2
of rotor slots. At the rotor front end, cage bars are interconnected
with shortcircuit rings. The arrangement is generally called cage rotor and because their
alikeness usually known as squirrel cage rotor.
Either blank copper bars are sandwiched into uninsulated slots of the rotor laminations stack,
to be shortcircuited by conducting rings at the front ends as described or alternatively die
cast aluminium cages are implemented, usually for lowpower machines.
Cage windings can be understood as polyphase winding of N
2
phases, with any of the bars to
consist of single bars. This assumption appears perspiciuous as soon as single bars are added
up to shortcircuited ringwindings, whose one side reaches trough the armature (Fig. 185a).
This leads to a symmetrical polyphase winding with N
2
shortcircuited phase windings. The
total sum of induced currents by sinusoidal rotating fields is supposed to be equal to zero at
any moment of time. Thus return conductors through the interior of the armature can be
spared if all bars at both ends of the rotor are connected in one electrical node each (Fig.
185b). The only item of squirrelcage rotors to differ from the described winding principle is a
substitution of node points by ring conductors, which can be displayed by a resistor to be
connected as N
2
angle (Fig. 185c).
Fig. 185: development of squirrelcage rotors
The number of turns w
2
of cage windings with m
2
phases = N
2
bars ensues to:
( ) 1 , 1
2
1
2
2
2
2
· · · · a z
a m
z N
w
N
N
(7.97)
Induction machine
150
with the winding factor for the fundamental wave:
1
2
· ξ . (7.98)
Squirrelcage rotors do not feature certain number of poles, but as an effect of the induction
evoked by the stator, it takes over the number of stator poles.
This leads to the fundamental wave of the rotor mmf:
Stab Stab
D
I
p
N
I
p
N
I
p
w m
2 2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
4
2
2
4
2 π π
ξ
π
θ ·
⋅
· · , (7.99)
with
Stab
I I ·
2
being current per rotor bar.
The amount of ring current is now supposed to be subject to investigations:
1
I
_
β
β
β
I
I _
_
2
3
4
I _
Fig. 186: bar currents
Bar currents are displaced ofan electric
angle β against each other:
2
2
N
p
p
π
α β · · . (7.100)
First Kirchhoff’s Law applies for the dependence of bar and ring currents:
12 1 01
I I I + · (7.101)
23 2 12
I I I + · (7.102)
34 3 23
I I I + · (7.103)
45 4 34
I I I + · (7.104)
which can be displayed by a phasor diagram due to Fig. 187.
β
β
β
β
β
I
2
2
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
3
34
23
12
01
Fig. 186: phasor diagram of bar and ring currents
Induction machine
151
Phase displacement of bar currents is equal to phase displacement of ring currents, so that
generally follows:
2
sin 2
2
sin
2
N
p
I
I
I
Stab
Stab
Ring
π β
· · (7.105)
This leads to the evaluation
Stab Ring
I I >>  shortcircuit rings need to be necessarily design to
stand high ring currents with damage. Squirrelcage machines with low number of poles in
particular require large ring cross section compared to bar diameters.
Note: On the one hand, squirrel cage rotors adapt to various number of stator poles, but they
can not be utilized for different a number of poles on the other hand – founded by reasons of
dimensioning (see above).
7.7.2 Current displacement (skin effect, proximity effect)
The basic effect of current displacement and the opportunity to utilize it for an improvement
of the startup behaviour of squirrelcage motors is subject of discussion in the following.
For a better understanding only a single slot of typical squirrelcage motors, shown in Fig.
187, is part of investigation. Assumptions as the conductor to completely fill out the slot and
current density to be constant over crosssection area in case of DC current supply and no
current displacement, are made for simplification reasons. Appliance of Ampere’s Law on the
conductor shows linear rise of flux density inside the slot, neglect of the magnetic voltage
drop in iron parts assumed.
∫
· s H
r
r
d θ , ∞ →
Fe
µ
( ) ( )
( )
N N N N
b
x B
b x H x b S x
0
µ
θ · ⋅ · · (7.106)
( )
N N N N
N
N
N N
h
x
B
h
x
b
I
h
h
x
b
b S
x B
max 0 0
· · ·
·
µ µ (7.107)
B
h
L
=h
N
b
N
=
b
L
S
N max
B S
h
L
x
x
h
L
x
Fig. 187: conductor bar run of current density and flux density
Induction machine
152
DC current: ( )
L L
N
b h
I
S x S
·
· · ; ( )
N
h
x
B x B
max
· ;
N
b
I
B
·
·
0
max
µ
In case of AC current supply, flowing bar current is displaced towards the air gap the more its
frequency rises. The effect is called current displacement, it is caused by the slot leakage
field. Model: if a solid conductor bar is assumed as stacked partial conductors, placed one
upon another, lower layers are linked with higher leakage flux than upper layers, which means
lower partial coils feature higher leakage inductance than upper partial coils. In case of
flowing AC current, backe.m.f. into separate zones is induced by the slot leakage field.
(
t
i
L
d
d
⋅
σ
). The amount of backe.m.f. increases from top to bottom of the conductor (layers),
which counteract their creating origin (Lenz`s Law). As a consequence of this, eddy currents
of uneven distribution develop, whose integration over the conductor cross section area is
equal to zero, but create singlesided current displacement towards the slot opening.
h
N
b
N
small L
σ
large L
σ
N
N
b
h
L ~
σ
Fig. 188: leakage inductance values
B S
N max
B S
h
L L
h
x
x
h
L
=h
N
b
N
=
b
L
x
Fig. 189ac: conductor in slot, dimensions (a), current density (b), flux density (c)
AC current: ( )
∫
· I x x S b
N
d ;
N
b
I
B
2
0
max
µ
· ;
·
· I I
^
2
Layer thickness on which current flow is reduced to amounts:
0 0
1 2
κµ π ωµ
ρ
δ
f
· · . (7.108)
Symbol δ is used for penetration depths, e.g. results for copper with
m
mm
2
57
1 Ω
· ρ and line
frequency 50 Hz: δ = 1cm.
In order to illustrate the effect of current displacement, the following pictures show field
distribution of an induction machine at different frequencies, calculated with Finite Element
Method (FEM).
Induction machine
153
Fig. 190: induction machine, field distribution at f
s
= 0.1 Hz, 0.5 Hz, 5 Hz, 10 Hz, 20 Hz, 50
Hz (top left through bottom right)
Induction machine
154
Current displacement is the cause for increased AC resistance of conductors in contrast to
their DC restance. This results in increased copper losses to occur in rotor conductors:
( ) ( )
∫
· ·
V
V
s R I V x S P
2
2 2
d ρ (7.109)
( ) ( )
2 2
R s K s R
R
· (7.110)
( ) ( ) 5 3 1 ; 1 0 K ≈ ·
R R
K K (7.111)
(for calculation of K
R
please see additional literature)
Current displacement reduces flux density in rotor conductors, solely the slot opening shows
same maximum values as in the DC case. This effect leads to a reduction of the leakage
inductances:
( ) ( ) s L I V x B W
N
V
m σ
µ
2
2 2
0
2
1
d
2
1
· ·
∫
(7.112)
( ) ( )
N I N
L s K s L
σ σ 2 2
· (7.113)
( ) ( ) 4 , 0 25 , 0 1 ; 1 0 K · ·
I I
K K (7.114)
(for calculation of K
I
please see additional literature)
Usually current displacement is an unwanted effect for electrical machines in general, because
of the described additional losses in rotor bars – with increased heating and deteriorated
efficiency as a consequence. In order to avoid this, conductor cross sections of large machines
are partitioned and additionally transposed.
Current displacement is merely used for induction machines for improvement of startup
behaviour. Different forms of rotor bars appear for optimizing purposes.
• deepbar rotor,
subdivided into:
Fig. 192: deepbar slot Lslot spline slot
Material: aluminium diecast, copper bars
Induction machine
155
Frequency of rotor currents is equal to line frequency at the moment of actuation. Current
displacement appears in rotor bars. That enlarges
2
R′ and lessens
σ 2
X′ . The amplification of
2
R′ moves the shortcircuit operational point towards the breakdown point, a reduction of
σ 2
X′ enlarges the circle diameter.
 Im
I
I I
I
B A
=
0B 0A
P
KB
P
KA
K
A
K
B
K
P
0
+ Re
P
K
Fig. 193: variance of the circle form at parameter change
• s = 1:
1
X ,
σ 2
X′ small,
2
R′ large
• 0 → s :
1
X ,
σ 2
X′ large,
2
R′ small
The influence of current displacement decreases with increasing speed of the motor, until it
disappears near the nominal point. The course of the locus diagram K can be developed from
startup diagram K
A
and operation diagram K
B
. Strictly speaking, any operational point
requires an own according circuit diagram.
• twinslotcage rotor
Doubleslot rotors as well as doublecage rotors form the category of twinslotcage rotors:
K
A
stray web
K
B
Fig. 194: doubleslot doublecage
Material: starting cage: brass, bronze; operation cage: copper
Revealing design is made possible by using two different cages.
The starting cage features a large active resistance and low leakage reactance, whereas the
operation cage oppositely shows low active resistance and large leakage resistance. At start
up the rotor current predominantly flows inside the starting cage, caused by the high leakage
reactance of the operation cage. The startup torque is raises caused by the high active
resistance of the starting cage. In nominal operation with low rotor frequency, the rotor
current splits with reciprocal ratio of the active resistances and therefore principally flows in
the operation cage. Low nominal slip accompanied by reasonable efficiency ensues due to the
small active resistance.
Induction machine
156
The according ecd shows both cages to be connected in parallel:
U
1
I
1
X
1
X
2
*
R
A
s
X
σ
St
R
B
s
Fig. 195: twinslot cage machine, ecd
• Leakage of operation cage is elevated
about the partition of the leakage
segment X
σS
.
• Stator and slot leakage are contained
in reactance X.
• R
1
neglected, R
A
large, R
B
small
The following diagram shows locus diagrams of starting cage and operation cage:
+Re
Im
I
0
s
N
K
B
K s = 1
K
A
I
φB
I
φA
Fig. 196: locus diagrams of different cage types
A comparison of current and torque course over rotational speed for different rotor types is
illustrated in Fig. 197:
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 %
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0
t
o
r
q
u
e
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
rotational speed
current (all rotor types)
torque (several types
of armature)
double slot
(tapered) deep bar
round bar
phase armature
nominal current
nominal torque
breakdown torque
%
%
Fig. 197: torque/speed characteristics for different rotor types
Induction machine
157
7.8 Singlephase induction machines
7.8.1 Method of operation
R T S
I
U
Are threephase induction machines connected to a balanced
threephase system, their stator windings create a circular rotating
field.
In case of one phase being disconnected from the mains, the
remaining two phases form a resulting AC winding, creating an
AC field. This AC field can be split up into two counterrotating
circular fields.
Fig. 198: singlephase induction machine, ecd
The first field, to rotate in direction of the rotor shows a slip due to:
1
1
n
n n
s
−
· , (7.115)
whereas the slip of the counter rotor motion rotating field ensues to:
s
n
n n
s − ·
−
− −
· 2
1
1
(7.116)
• Concurrent stator field and the concurrent rotor field as well as the counterrotating
stator field and the counterrotating rotor field form constant torque each.
• Concurrent stator field and the counterrotating rotor field as well as the
counterrotating stator field and the concurrent rotor field create pulsating torque with
average value equal to zero.
The effect of both rotating fields with opposing motion directions on the rotor can be
understood as a machine set to consist of two equal threephase machines exerting opposite
rotational speed directions on one shaft.
M
M
in
M
counter
M
res.
n
n = +n
0
n = n
0
n = 0
Fig. 199: machine set: torque/speed diagram
Both torque partitions equalize
each other in standstill. Single
phase induction machines fail to
exert torque on the shaft, so that
they are unable to start on their
own!
Different reactions occur in
operation, caused by different slip
values. The counterrotating field is
vigorously damped at 2 → s ,
whereas the concurrent field is
barely influenced at 0 → s .
Induction machine
158
This leads to elliptical rotating field. If singlephase induction machines are pushed to speed
with external means (handstart), the resulting torque value is unequal to zero, the rotor
accelerates independently and can be loaded.
7.8.2 Equivalent circuit diagram (ecd)
The equivalent circuit diagram of singlephase operated induction machines and be derived
with appliance of the method of symmetrical components:
due to circuit diagram follows:
I
u
=  I
v
= I; I
w
= 0
With transformation into symmetrical components:
( )
( )
,
`
.

−
−
·
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
,
`
.

0
3
1
3
1
1 1 1
1
1
3
1
2
2
2
0
I
a
I
a
I
I
I
a a
a a
I
I
I
w
v
u
g
m
. (7.117)
The relation between U and I is regarded for induction machines including the slipdependent
motor impedance Z(s).
Then ensues for the positivesequence system:
( )
( )
I
a
s Z I Z U
m m m
3
1−
· · , (7.118)
whereas for the negativesequence system follows:
( )
( )
I
a
s Z I Z U
g g g
3
1
2
2
−
− · · . (7.119)
No zerosequence system applies.
Inverse transformation:
0
U U U U
g m u
+ + · (7.120)
0
2
U U a U a U
g m v
+ + · (7.121)
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
II I
g m v u
U U I s Z s Z
a I
a
s Z a I
a
s Z
a U a U U U U
+ · − + ·
−
−
− + −
−
·
− + − · − ·
2
1
3
1
2 1
3
1
1 1 3
2
2
2
(7.122)
Induction machine
159
Figure 200 illustrates the ecd for singlephase operation. The ohmic resistance of the stator
winding needs to be taken into account for machines of low power. Reactances of the three
phase windings remain the same for singlephase operation.
R
1
X
2
*
R
2
*
s
positivesequence
X
1
X
1
R
1
X
2
* R
2
*
2s
negativesequence
U
II
U
I
U
I
mains
singlephase
Fig. 200: induction machine in singlephase operation, ecd
Then follows for the current amount in singlephase operation:
( ) ( ) s Z s Z
U
I
− +
·
2
3
(7.123)
Impedance values of positive and negative sequence system can be taken from the circuit
diagram in balanced operation for arbitrary operational points s.
U
+ Re
0 s 1 2s 2
I(s)
I(2s)
 Im
Fig. 201: balanced operation, circuit diagram
( )
( ) s I
U
s Z · (7.124)
( )
( ) s I
U
s Z
−
· −
2
2 (7.125)
Induction machine
160
Phase current in singlephase operation can be approximated in the proximity of low slip
values by:
( ) ( ) ( )
Ph Ph
I
s Z
U
s Z s Z
U
I
3 1
3
3
2
3
· ≈
− +
· , (7.126)
that means: if one phase is disconnected in normal operation at threephase system, the motor
continues running, the current absorbtion increases between noload an nominal operation
about factord 3 . This may lead to thermal overload.
Phase current for singlephase operation in standstill amounts:
( )
Ph Ph
I
Z
U
I
3 1
2
3
1 2
3
· · (7.127)
The according shortcircuit current is slightly below that in threephase operation.
7.8.3 Singlephase induction machine with auxiliary phase winding
If singlephase induction motors are supposed to exert startup torques, the appliance of an at
least elliptical rotating field is mandatory.
This requires an auxiliary phase winding (h), which is displaced from the main winding (H)
by a spatial angle ε and fed by currents being displaced by electrical phase angle ϕ.
H
H H
i
p
w
ξ
ε
α
h
h h
i
p
w
ξ
Fig. 202: auxiliary winding, design
I
U
H
I
H
h
Z
~
I
h
Fig. 203: machine with aux. winding, ecd
Induction machine
161
Optimized solution would be:
p 2
π
ε · and
2
π
ϕ · as well as
H H h h
w w ξ ξ ⋅ · ⋅ ,
that means spatial displacement of the coils and temporal displacement of the currents of 90°
and also the same number of windings for main and auxiliary phase. A circular rotating field
accrues based on these conditions. Due to cost reasons, in practical auxiliary phases are
designed for lower efforts and with a smaller temporal displacement of the currents. This
effects in an elliptical rotating field.
Current displacement of main phase current I
H
and auxiliary phase current I
h
is achieve by
utilization of an impedance in the auxiliary phase circuit.
Different opportunities exist:
1. capacitor: optimum solution; high initial torque
• startup capacitor, switchoff by centrifugal switch
• running capacitor for improvement of η and cosϕ
2. inductance
• expensive and heavy weighted, low initial torque
3. resistance
• cheap, low initial torque
• switchoff after startup, because occurence of additional losses
main phase
auxiliary phase
Technical realization:
Fig. 204 illustrates a twopole motor with
distinctive poles and twophase stator
winding, with each phase to consist of two
coils each. Its mass production is cheap
doing it that way.
Fig. 204: singlephase iduction machine
Appliance: lowpower drive systems for industry, trade, agriculture and household
applications.
Induction machine
162
7.8.4 Splitpole machine
Splitpole machines are basically induction machines with squirrel cage rotors to consist of
two totally different stator windings. The main phase windings are arranged on one or more
distinctive poles with concentrated coils, to be operated at singlephase systems. The auxiliary
winding, to be realized as shortcircuit winding, encloses only parts of the pole and is fed by
induction (transformer principle) by the main windings. Spatial displacement of the auxiliary
winding is achieved by constructive means whereas temporal displacement is achieved by
induction feeding. That suffices to create an elliptical rotating field.
Isthmus
squirrelcage rotor
cage ring
Fig. 205: splitpole motor, design
yoke
main winding
Isthmus
shortcircuit
winding
Fig. 206: ditto, asym. partial crosssection
In practical there is both symmetrical and asymmetrical cross section, to be displayed in Fig.
205 and 206.
Splitpole machines feature unreasonable efficiencies, because of their losses to occur in the
copper shortcircuit ring and their counterrotating rotating fields as well as low initial torque.
Despite low production costs and simple design, splitpole motors are only utilized for low
power applications (below 100W) for discussed reasons.
Appliance: low cost drive applications in household and consumer goods.
163
8 Synchronous machine
8.1 Method of operation
Synchronous machines (SYM) are most important electric generator and is therefore mainly
used in generator mode.
Same as induction machines, synchronous machines belong to the category of rotating field
machines, solely their rotor windings are fed with DC current. Voltage equation and
equivalent circuit diagram can be derived from those of induction machines.
U
1,
f
1
I
F
Fig. 207: synchronous machine, connection
The stator arrangement consists of a
threephase winding, to be connected to
mains of constant voltage U
1
and
frequency f
1
.
Initially the rotor may also consist of a
threephase winding of the same number
of polepairs, to be connected to slip
rings.
DC current is fed between both sliprings,
called exciter current. Therefore the rotor
current frequency f
2
is equal zero.
Synchronous machines are solely able to create timeconstant torque (unequal zero) if the
frequency condition applies:
1 2
f s f ⋅ · (8.1)
with 0
2
· f and
Netz
f f ·
1
follows:
0 · s and
p
f
n n
1
1
· · . (8.2)
For stationary operation, the rotor exclusively revolves at synchronous speed n
1
, where the
assignment as „synchronous machine” derives from. Pulsating torques emerge at any other
speeds
1
n n ≠ , with mean values equal zero.
Synchronous machine
164
Fig. 208: Turbogenerator, 1200 MVA (ABB)
Fig. 209: hydroelectric generator, 280 MVA (ABB)
Synchronous machine
165
Fig. 210: synchronous generator for vehicle network applications, 5 kVA
Fig. 211: sync. generator with stationary field exciter machine, revolving rectifiers, 30 kVA
Synchronous machine
166
8.2 Mechanical construction
Stators of synchronous machines show the same design as induction machines in principle.
Those stators basically consist of insulated lamination stacks, fitted with slots and threephase
windings being placed into.
Rotor windings are supplied by DC current. Since f
2
is equal zero (f
2
=
0), the rotor can be
implemented as solid unit. Due to different rotor types, two machine types are distinguished:
Fig. 212: rotor designs of both machine types: round rotor (left), salientpole rotor (right)
Twopole turboalternators with round
rotor are used as generator to be driven by
gas or steamturbines and designed for
power ranges up to 1800 MVA per unit. In
order to accommodate with high
centrifugal stress, the (stretched) rotor is
modelled as solid steel cylinder, which is
slotted only at 2/3 of the total
circumference. End turns of the concentric
exciter windings are held on their position
with nonmagnetic caps. Stator and rotor in
machines designed for high power
applications are directly cooled with water
or hydrogen. Current supply is realized
slipringless as stationary field exciter
machine with revolving rectifiers. Damper
windings are implemented as conductive
slotcotters and polecaps.
Salientpole rotor synchronous machines
with distinctive single poles are either
utilized for generators at low speed such as
water turbine applications or as lowspeed
motor in the field of material handling and
conveying. A power range up to 800 MVA
per unit is achieved with this type of
rotors; a number of polepairs up to p=30
is usual. The latter leads to wide armature
diameters and short iron lengths. Exciter
windings are arranged on solid poles
similar to typical DC machine
arrangements. Damper windings appear as
polegrids.
round rotor machine
p = 1 n = 3000 min
1
at f
1
= 50 Hz
p = 3 n = 1000 min
1
at f
1
= 50 Hz
damper
winding
salientpole rotor machine
Synchronous machine
167
8.3 Equivalent circuit diagram, phasor diagram
Based on the equivalent circuit diagram of induction machines with slipring rotors an
direction assignment due to EZS is chosen for the stator, since synchronous machines are
mainly used as generator. Simply the direction of the voltage phasor U
1
is reversed. Using
voltage s U
*
2
on the secondary side, supply with DC current is regarded.
I
1
U
1
I
2
*
X
1
I
0
X
2
*
R
2
*
s
U
2
*
s
EZS VZS
Fig. 213: ecd based on induction machine
The following voltage equations derive from Fig. 212::
( ) 0
*
2 1 1 1
· + ⋅ ⋅ + I I X j U (8.3)
( )
*
2 1 1
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
I I X j X j
s
R
I
s
U
+ ⋅ +
,
`
.

⋅ + ⋅ · (8.4)
Since a division by s
=
0 must not be performed, the rotor voltage equation needs to be
multiplied by s and reformed:
*
2 1 1 1 1
I X j I X j U ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ⋅ + (8.5)
( )
*
2 1 1
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
*
2
I I X j s I X j s R I U + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ · (8.6)
Synchronous generated internal voltage is due to EZS defined as:
*
2 1
I X j U
p
⋅ ⋅ − · (8.7)
regarding s
=
0 leads to:
p
U I X j U · ⋅ ⋅ +
1 1 1
(8.8)
*
2
*
2
*
2
R I U ⋅ · (8.9)
Synchronous machine
168
*
2
I complies with the exciter current I
F
, being converted to a stator side measure. An arbitrary
current I
2
of line frequency flowing in stator windings would cause exactly the same air gap
field as a DC current I
F
in revolving rotor windings. The rotor voltage equation is trivial and
therefore not subject of further discussions, so that the stator voltage equation needs to be
regarded. Feedback of the revolving rotor (also known as magnet wheel) on the stator is
contained in the synchronous generated internal voltage U
p
.
Synchronous generated internal voltage U
P
can be directly measured as induced voltage at the
machine terminals with excitation I
F
in noload with I
1
= 0 at synchronous speed n = n
1
. The
typical noload characteristic U
P
= f(I
F
) shows nonlinear behavior, caused by saturation
effects, which are not taken into account at this point.
Since only one voltage equation is used in the following, formerly used indices may be
dropped. Copper losses in stator windings can be neglected for synchronous machines, which
leads to R
1
= 0. The general equivalent circuit diagram for synchronous machines as shown in
Fig. 214 enables the description of its operational behavior completely.
I
U
X
EZS
U
P ~
U
P
= U + jXI
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
Fig. 214: synchronous machine, simplified ecd, phasor diagram
In order to represent particular operation conditions or ranges, the according phasor diagram
can be determined based on the voltage equation. Figure 214 illustrates such a phasor diagram
for generator operation with active power and inductive reactive power output, using a
notation defining:
• ϕ as phase angle between current and voltage.
• ϑ as rotor displacement angle, describing the phase relation of the synchronous generated
internal voltage U
P
towards the terminal voltage U. It corresponds with the position of the
magnet wheel in relation to the resulting airgap field. The rotor displacement angle is ϑ
positive in generator mode and negative for motor operation. Hence follows ϑ = 0 for no
load or mere reactive load.
• ϕ ϑ ψ + · as load angle. Exciter magnetomotive force is
o ψ
π
+
2
ahead of armature magnetomotive force in generator mode,
o ψ
π
−
2
behind of armature magnetomotive force in motor operation.
Synchronous machine
169
8.4 Noload, sustained short circuit
~
X
U
p
= U
NStr
U = U
NStr
I = 0
Fig. 215: SYM, ecd for noload
~
X
U
p
= U
NStr
I = I
K0
Fig. 216: SYM, sustained short circuit
Nominal voltage U
N
(shown as U
NStr
in
Fig. 215) can be measured at the terminals
in noload operation (I=0) at synchronous
speed n
1
if noload exciter current I
F0
applies.
NStr P
U U · for
0 F F
I I · and
1
n n ·
with:
3
N
NStr
U
U · (8.10)
Are synchronous machines shortcircuited
at noload exciter current I
F0
and
synchronous speed n
1
, a sustained short
circuit current I
K0
flows after dynamic
initial response.
X
U
I I
NStr
K
· ·
0
for
0 F F
I I · and
1
n n · (8.11)
An important means to describe synchronous machines is the noloadshortcircuitratio K
C
:
x XI
U
I
I
K
N
NStr
N
K
C
1
0
· · · (8.12)
K
C
is defined as the reciprocal of the reactance X, being refered onto the nominal impedance.
The value of K
C
can either be measured at sustained shortcircuit with noload excitation or at
nominal voltage supply U
N
and noload speed n
1
, unexcited rotor assumed. Sustained short
circuit current I
K0
occurs for both cases.
Latter case is illustrated in Fig. 217:
~
X
U
p
= 0
I = I
K0
U
NStr
Fig. 217: SYM, unexcited rotor
Nstr
U U · ,
1
n n · , 0 ·
F
I
0 K
NStr
I
X
U
I · · (8.13)
N
K
C
I
I
K
0
· (8.14)
Sustained shortcircuit current I
K0
in synchronous machines corresponds with the noload
current I
0
in induction machines.
Synchronous machine
170
Whereas induction machines fetch required reactive power for according magnetization from
the mains, the airgap of synchronous machines can be chosen wider, since magnetization is
achieved by DC excitation of the rotor. This leads to reduced armature reaction of the
reactance X and the overload capability – the ratio of breakdown torque and nominal torque –
increases.
¹
'
¹
· · ·
generators pole  salient for 5 , 1 8 . 0
generators for turbo 7 , 0 4 , 0
1
0
L
K
x
K
I
I
C
N
K
(8.15)
machines induction for 5 , 0 2 , 0
1
0
K · ·
x I
I
N
(8.16)
8.5 Solitary operation
8.5.1 Load characteristics
Synchronous machines in solitary operatation are used for e.g. wind farms or hydroelectric
power plants. This case is defined as the mode of operation of separately driven synchronous
machines in single operation loaded with impedances working
Terminal voltage depends on amount and phase angle of the load current, constant excitation
assumed.
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
ϕ
X I cos
ϕ
Fig. 218: SYM, phasor diagram
U
U
NStr
cos
ϕ ·
0, kap.
cos
ϕ
= 1
cos
ϕ ·
0, ind.
1
1
I
K
C
I
N
Fig. 219: SYM, load characteristics
Phasor diagram (Fig. 218) provides:
( ) ( )
2 2 2
cos sin
p
U XI XI U · + + ϕ ϕ (8.17)
In noload excitation I
F
= I
F0
at synchronous
speed n = n
1
applies U
p
= U
NStr
.
( )
2 2 2
sin 2
NSTr
U XI UXI U · + + ϕ (8.18)
1 sin 2
2 2
·
,
`
.

+ +
,
`
.

NStr NStr NStr NStr
U
XI
U
XI
U
U
U
U
ϕ
(8.19)
1 sin 2
2 2
·
,
`
.

+ +
,
`
.

N C N C NStr NStr
I K
I
I K
I
U
U
U
U
ϕ
(8.20)
These dependencies are called load
characteristics.
( ) I f U · für I
F
= I
F0
und n = n
1
(8.21)
Similar to transformer behavior, terminal
voltage decreases with increasing inductive
ohmic load, whereas it increases at capacitive
load.
Synchronous machine
171
8.5.2 Regulation characteristics
In order to provide constant terminal voltage, the exciter current needs to be adjusted
according to amount and phase angle of the load current.
Based on the phasor diagram, with
NStr
U U · ,
1
n n · ensues
( )
2 2 2
sin 2 XI XI U U U
NStr NStr P
+ + · ϕ (8.22)
so that follows:
( )
2
2 2
0
sin 2 1
sin 2
,
`
.

+ + ·
+ +
· ·
N C N C
NStr
NStr NStr
F
F
NStr
P
I K
I
I K
I
U
XI XI U U
I
I
U
U
ϕ
ϕ
(8.23)
I
F
I
F0
2
1
1
I
K
C
I
N
cos
ϕ
= 0, ind.
cos
ϕ
= 0, kap.
cos
ϕ
= 1
Fig. 220: SYM, regulation characteristics
These are called „regulation characteristics“
( ) I f I
F
· (8.24)
for
NStr
U U · and
1
n n ·
It is to be seen, that excitation needs to be
increased for inductiveohmic load, since
voltage would drop. Excitation needs to be
decreased for capacitive load, caused by
occuring voltage gain.
This dependency of exciter current on load current and load angle also applies for constant
voltage network supply, since
NStr
U U · .
Synchronous machine
172
8.6 Rigid network operation
8.6.1 Parallel connection to network
Rigid networks mean constantvoltage constantfrequency systems. Synchronous machines
can require synchronization conditions to be fulfilled to be connected to networks of constant
voltage and constant frequency.
V V V
V
V
R
S
T
A
n
0
∆
U
I
F
U
F
U
N
U
M/G
∆
U
U
R
U
S
U
T
U
U
U
V
U
W
Fig. 221: SYM, rigid network operation Fig. 222: synchronization conditions
1. Synchronous machine needs to be driven at synchronous speed:
1
n n ·
2. Exciter current I
F
of the synchronous machine needs to be set in the way that generator
voltage is equal to the mains voltage:
N M
U U · .
3. Phase sequence of terminal voltages of generator and network need to match: RST  UVW
4. Phase angle of both voltage systems generator and network need to be identical, which
means a disappearance of voltage difference at terminals being connected: 0 · ∆U .
If synchronization conditions are not fulfilled, connection of the unsynchronized synchronous
machine to the mains results in torque pulsations and current peaks.
Synchronous machine
173
8.6.2 Torque
Effective torque exerted on the shaft derives from transmitted airgap power divided by
synchronous speed. Neglecting stator copper losses, the absorbed active power is equal to the
airgap power.
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
ϕ
X I cos
ϕ
Fig. 223: SYM, phasor diagram
p
I U P
M
D
1
1
cos 3
ω
ϕ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
·
Ω
· (8.25)
as given in the phasor diagram:
ϑ ϕ sin cos ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅
p
U I X (8.26)
ϑ ϕ sin cos
X
U
I
p
· ⋅ (8.27)
Then follows for the applicable torque on the shaft:
ϑ ϑ
ω
sin sin
3
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
kipp
p
M
X
U U
p
M (8.28)
π
ϑ
π/2
M
Kipp
M
N
motor generator
M
Kipp
ϑ
N

π

π/2
stable
stable
Fig. 224: SYM, range of operation
The torque equation (8.28) solely applies for stationary operation with I
F
=
const and n
=
n
1.
If the load increases slowly, torque and angular displacement increases also, until breakdown
torque is reached at
2
π
ϑ t · and the machine falls out of step – means standstill in motor
operation and running away in generator mode. High pulsating torques and current peaks
occur as a consequence of this. In this case machines need to be disconnected from the mains
immediately.
Synchronous machine
174
Overload capability, the ratio of breakdown torque and nominal torque, only depends on no
loadshortcircuitratio K
C
and power factor.
Die Überlastfähigkeit, das Verhältnis Kippmoment zu Nennmoment, hängt nur vom Leerlauf
Kurzschlußverhältnis und dem Leistungsfaktor ab. Nominal operation features:
N
C
NStr
P
N N NStr
P NStr
N
kipp
K
U
U
I U
p
X
U U p
M
M
ϕ
ϕ
ω
ω
cos
cos
3
3
1
1
· · , (8.29)
with synchronous generated voltage dependency:
2
1 sin 2
1
C C
N
NStr
P
K K U
U
+ + ·
ϕ
(8.30)
Then follows for the overload capability of synchronous machines:
1 sin 2
cos
1
2
+ + ·
N C C
N N
Kipp
K K
M
M
ϕ
ϕ
. (8.31)
The higher K
C
or the lower X, the higher ensues the overload capability.
A ratio of at least 6 , 1 >
N
Kipp
M
M
is reasonable for stabile operation. A measure for stability in
stationary operation is the synchronizing torque:
0 cos
d
d
≥ · · ϑ
ϑ
Kipp syn
M
M
M (8.32)
ϑ
M
M
Syn
π
2
π π
2
π
Fig. 225: SYM, synchronizing torque
The higher
ϑ d
dM
, the higher appears the backleading torque M
syn
after load impulse. The
lower ϑ, the more stabile the point of operation.
Synchronous machine
175
8.6.3 Operating ranges
Synchronous machines in rigid network operation can be driven in any of the 4 quadrants.
The according mode of operation is characterized by the corrsponding phase angle of the
stator current, if terminal voltage is assumed to be placed on the real axis.
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
ϕ
X I cos
ϕ
X I sin
ϕ
+
ϑ
,
ϕ
Fig. 226: SYM, phasor diagram
Phasor diagram (Fig. 226) offers a stator diagram,
to be split into components:
• active current: ϑ ϕ sin cos ⋅ · ⋅
X
U
I
p
(8.33)
• reactive current:
X
U U
I
p
− ⋅
· ⋅
ϑ
ϕ
cos
sin (8.34)
Four ranges ensue for EZS description, whose characteristical phasor diagrams are shown
below:
~
( ) 0 0 cos > > ⋅ ϑ ϕ I
active power output (generator)
( ) 0 0 cos < < ⋅ ϑ ϕ I
active power input (motor)
( ) U U I
p
> ⋅ > ⋅ ϑ ϕ cos 0 sin
reactive power output (over excited),
machine acts like capacitor
( ) U U I
p
< ⋅ < ⋅ ϑ ϕ cos 0 sin
Reactive power input (under excited),
machine works like reactance coil
Fig. 227 ad: operating ranges and according phasor diagrams
Synchronous machine
176
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
U
P
U
I
jXI
ϕ
ϑ
~
EZS
Fig. 228: operating ranges and accordant machine behavior
• Active power proportion is defined by either the driving torque of e.g. turbines in
generator mode or by resistance torque of load in motor operation.
• Reactive power is independent from load but solely depending on excitation; as a
consequence reactive power output derives from over excitation whereas reactive
power input arises from under excitation.
• border case: synchronous compensator mode
Synchronous machines are sometimes utilized for mere reactive power generators in
synchronous compensator mode for closeby satisfaction of inductive reactive power demands
of transformers and induction machines in order to relieve this from supplying networks.
Fig. 229: SYM, phasor diagram of synchronous compensator mode
U
P
U
P
U
P
U U
U
jXI
jXI
noload
I = 0
reactive power
output (inductive)
I I
reactive power
input (inductive)
Synchronous machine
177
8.6.4 Current diagram, operating limits
Based on the general voltage equation of synchronous machines:
I jX U U
P
+ · (8.35)
ensues with
ϑ j
P P
e U U · and
NStr
U U · for current I:
X
U
je
X
U
j
jX
U e U
I
P j NStr NStr
j
P ϑ
ϑ
− ·
−
· (8.36)
X I
U
U
U
je
X I
U
j
I
I
N
NStr
NStr
P j
N
NStr
N
ϑ
− · (8.37)
and with
N
NStr
C
XI
U
K · as well as
0 F
F
NStr
P
I
I
U
U
· follows:
0 F
F
C
j
C
N
I
I
K je jK
I
I
ϑ
− · (8.38)
With knowledge of equation 8.38 the current diagram of synchronous machines can be
established. Noloadshortcircuitratio K
C
is contained as the only effective parameter.
Operating limits within the accordant machine can be driven are also marked.
Fig. 230: SYM, current diagram, operating limits
+Re
Im
C
jK
0 F
F
C
j
I
I
K je
ϑ
−
2
π
ϑ <
NStr
U
ϑ
ϕ
N
stability
limit
active power limit
NStr
N
U
p
M
I
1
3
cos
ω
ϕ
≤
limit of rotor
warmup
FN F
I I ≤
limit of stator
warm up
N
I I
≤
N
I
I
Synchronous machine
178
8.7 Synchronous machine as oscillating system, damper windings
8.7.1 without damper windings
Torque balance applies: driving torque M
A
minus shaft torque M
W
is equal to acceleration
torque M
B
:
B W A
M M M · − (8.39)
Driving torque M
A
of the turbine equals acting torque in stationary operation:
N Kipp A
M M ϑ sin · (8.40)
X
U U p
M
P NStr
Kipp
1
3
ω
· (8.41)
Shaft torque M
W
of synchronous machines computes from:
ϑ sin
Kipp W
M M · (8.42)
Acceleration torque M
B
ensues to:
t
J M
B
d
dΩ
· (8.43)
with J representing masss moment of inertia of all rotating masses, and the machine to be
driven at nominal speed.
t
p
n
d
d
2
1
ϑ
π + · Ω (8.44)
Thus the following differential equation can be established:
2
2
d
d
d
d
sin sin
t p
J
t
J M M
Kipp N Kipp
ϑ
ϑ ϑ ·
Ω
· − (8.45)
The electrical angle ϑ may slightly vary in the proximity of the operating point:
ϑ ϑ ϑ ∆ + ·
N
(8.46)
Then follows:
t t d
d
d
d ϑ ϑ ∆
· and
2
2
2
2
d
d
d
d
t t
ϑ ϑ ∆
· . (8.47)
Synchronous machine
179
The differential equation is linearized by Taylor development with abort after the first step:
K + + · + h
x f
x f h x f
! 1
) ( '
) ( ) ( (8.48)
( )
N N N
ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ cos sin sin sin ∆ + · ∆ + · (8.49)
That dodge and the differential equation as such leads to:
( )
2
2
d
d
cos sin sin
t p
J
M M
N N Kipp N Kipp
ϑ
ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ
∆
· ∆ + − (8.50)
0 cos
2
2
· ∆ +
∆
ϑ ϑ
ϑ
N Kipp
M
dt
d
p
J
(8.51)
Synchronizing torque for the operating point is defined as:
SyncN N Kipp
M M · ϑ cos (8.52)
so that:
0
2
2
· ∆ +
∆
ϑ
ϑ
p
J
M
dt
d
syncN
(8.53)
Solution for the differential equation is provided by a harmonic, undamped oscillation:
t
eN
Ω · ∆ sin ϑ (8.54)
with mechanical natural frequency:
m
c
p
J
M
f
SyncN
eN eN
^
2 · · · Ω π (8.55)
Synchronizing torque complies with spring stiffness, the reduced mass moment of inertia of
the rotating mass. The frequency of the mechanical oscillation approximately amounts in the
range of f
eN
= 1 ... 2 Hz.
Pulsating oscillations may occur, caused by electric or mechanic load changes, to come along
with current fluctuations. Two or more generators may activate each other in network
interconnection. Machines with irregular torque in particular, such as diesel engines or
reciprocating compressors may initiate oscillations with pulsations up to severe values, if
activation is close to natural frequency.
Synchronous machine
180
8.7.2 with damper winding
In order to damp natural oscillations, all synchronous machines are equipped with damper
windings in any case. The effect of damper windings is similar to the effect of the squirrel
cage in induction machines.
Salientpole machines: bars are placed in
slotted poles, to be short circuited with
shortcircuit rings at their ends. If those
shortcircuit rings merely consist of
segments of a circle the arrangemnet is
called pole damping grid estehen die Ringe
nur aus Kreissegmenten, so spricht man
von einem Polgitter. Solid poles also act
damping.
Turbo generators: damper bars are placed
ahead of exciter windings inside rotor slots
to be shortcircuited at their ends. Also slot
wedges can be utilized as damper bars.
Solid rotors amplify the damping effect.
Fig. 231: SYM, damper windings
Fig. 232: SYM, damper windings
The effect of damper windings derives from the KloßEquation:
s
s
s
s M
M
kipp
kipp
kippAsyn
D
+
−
·
2
(8.56)
*
2
2
1
1
2
3
X
U p
M
kippAsyn
ω
· (8.57)
*
2
*
2
X
R
s
kipp
· (8.58)
Damping torque shows a braking effect – therefore signed negative.
Close to synchronous speed the slip ratio applies as:
s
s
s
s
kipp
kipp
<< (8.59)
so that the damping torque component ensues to:
kipp
kippAsyn D
s
s
M M
2
− · . (8.60)
Synchronous machine
181
Slip is to be described as:
t p
t p
t
p
s
N
d
d 1
d
d 1
d
d
1 1
1 1
1
1
ϑ
ϑ
ϑ
∆
Ω
−
·
Ω
−
·
Ω
,
`
.

+ Ω − Ω
·
Ω
Ω − Ω
·
(8.61)
Then follows for the damping torque component M
D
:
t
D
t p s
M
M
kipp
kippAsyn
D
d
d
d
d
2
1
ϑ ϑ ∆
·
∆
Ω
· , (8.62)
inserted in the differential equation results in:
0
d
d
d
d
2
2
· ∆ +
∆
+
∆
ϑ
ϑ ϑ
synN
M
t
D
t p
J
(8.63)
Solution of the differential equations appears as damped oscillation:
t e
e
T
t
D
Ω · ∆
−
sin ϑ (8.64)
with mechanical natural frequency:
2
2
1
D
eN e
T
− Ω · Ω (8.65)
of damping:
*
2
2
1
2
1
1 *
2
*
2
*
2
2
1
1
1
3 2
3
2
2
R
U p
X
R
X
U p
p s
M
D
kipp
kippAsyn
ω
ω
ω
· ·
Ω
· (8.66)
and time constant:
*
2
~
2
R
pD
J
T
D
· (8.67)
In order to show significant effect of damper windings and to rapidly reduce activated
oscillations by load changes, T
D
needs to be chosen as short as possible, whereas D needs to
be as high as possible. Thus follows
*
2
R needs to be low, resulting in increased copper
expense for the damper windings.
Synchronous machine
182
Besides oscillation damping caused by load impulses, damper windings show two additional
important functions:
1. Negativesequence rotating fields with a slip value of (2  s) arise from unbalanced load.
Computation requires the method of symmetrical components (see chapter 2.6). Occuring
harmonics in stator voltage and current cause additional iron and ohmic losses. With
presence of suitable damper windings, the inversefield is compensated by counteracting
magnetomotive force of damper currents.
2. Adequate thermal capacity assumed, synchronous machines are capable to independently
startup using the damper cage similar to induction machines with squirrel cage. Since the
stator rotating field would induce highvoltages in (open) exciter windings during startup,
the exciter windings are temorary shortcircuited. Exciter voltage will not be applied on
the windings until noload speed is reached – at this point, the machine is jerkily pulled
into synchronism. This coarse synchronizing is accompanied by torque pulsations and
current pulses and is therefore solely utilized for lowpower applications.
Synchronous machine
183
8.8 Permanentfield synchronous machines
If electrical excitation for synchronous machines is replaced by permanentfield excitation,
exciter voltage source, exciter winding and exciter current supply by collector ring and
brushes are unnecessary, but exciting field can not be controlled any longer. These machines
are used for low power applications in two different types:
8.8.1 Permanent excited synchronous motor with starting cage
Fig. 233: Permanent excited synchronous motor (PESM), “line start motor”
Fig. 234: PESM, ecd
Different types of rotors are shown in the picture. Rotor
consists of permanent magnet excitation as well as of a
starting cage. Stator has a usual threephase winding. In
principle line start motor is a combination of induction and
synchronous machine.
The motor is supplied directly by system voltage.
Acceleration corresponds to induction motor. Near
synchronous speed motor is pulling into synchronism. After
that the motor works as a synchronous machine at power
mains.
• advantages: selfstarting, improved ( ) ϕ cos , high efficiency
• disadvantages: better utilization, because of the combination of two types of machines
• applications: drives with long term operation (pumps, ventilators, compressors)
N S
S N
S
N
N
S
N
S
S
N
N S
S N
N
S
S
N
N S
S N
flux concentrator pole shoe
permanent magnets
damper cage
permanent magnets
damper cage
Synchronous machine
184
8.8.2 Permanentfield synchronous motor with pole position sensor
Fig. 235 a, b: perm.field synchronous motor with pole position sensor, “servo motor”
Fig. 236: servo motor with converter
Stator consists of usual threephase
winding. Rotor is permanentfield
excited by rareearth or ferrite
magnets. The converter is controlled
by a pole position sensor to be
placed on the shaft.
method of operation:
Threephase winding of the stator is supplied by a sinusoidal or block format threephase
system depending on pole position. This results in a rotating magnetomotive force which
exactly rotates at rotor speed and creates a timeconstant torque together with the permanent
magnet excited rotor. Switching of stator threephase field depends on rotor position in a way
that there is a constant electric angle of 90° between stator rotating magnetomotive force and
rotor field.
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
n
S
N
Ψ
=
ϑ
+
ϕ
φ
F
Θ
1
U
P
U
I
F
'
jXI
RI
q
d
ϑ
ϕ
I
VZS motor
Fig. 237 a, b: servo motor, statorrotor scheme (a), phasor diagram (b)
Synchronous machine
185
Thus results an operating method which does not correspond with usual synchronous
machines but exactly with DC machines. Another feature of this machine is armature ampere
turns being shifted about an electric angle of 90° in relation to exciter field. DC machines are
adjusted mechanical by commutator. Permanentfield synchronous machines are controlled by
power electronics together with a pole position sensor. This machine can not pull out of step
any longer and works like a DC machine. From that results the name “electrical commutated
DC machine”.
Fig. 238: EC motor (3 kW, manufacturer: Bosch)
EC motors are usually used
in robotic drives and
machine tools because of
their good dynamic
performance and easy
controllability. The
brushless technology is free
of wear and maintenance
free.
If the ohmic resistance of stator windings is taken into consideration, the according voltage
equitation of the synchronous machine in load reference arrow system (VZS) ensues to:
I X j I R U U
p
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + · (8.68)
Torque is:
p
I U
P
M
p
D
ω
⋅ ⋅
·
Ω
·
3
(8.69)
with the following definitions:
• direct axis d: rotor axis
'
ˆ
F
I ·
• quadrature axis q: axis of stator mmf I ·ˆ
the system is divisible into components:
I I
q
· I R U U
p q
⋅ + · (8.70)
0 ·
d
I I X U
d
⋅ · (8.71)
Synchronous machine
186
Following scaling is useful:
•
0 p
U , synchronous generated voltage at basic speed and nominal excitation,
• X
0
, reactance at nominal speed
p
f
n
0
0
· .
Thus torque results in:
I U
p
p n
n
I U
n
n
M
p
p
⋅ ⋅
⋅
·
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
·
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
ω
ω
(8.72)
⇒Torque controlling by quadrature current component.
Voltage equation of quadrature axis results in:
I R U
n
n
U
p q
⋅ + ⋅ ·
0
0
(8.73)
0 0 p
q
U
I R U
n
n
⋅ −
· (8.74)
0 · n for
R
U
I
q
· (8.75)
⇒shunt characteristic:
0
n n · for
0 p q
U U · and 0 · I (8.76)
⇒speed adjustment by quadrature voltage component:
N q
U U <
The direct voltage component computes from:
I X
n
n
U
d
⋅ ⋅ ·
0
0
(8.77)
n M
M
K
I
K
n
0
U
q
=
U
N
U
q
<
U
N
Fig. 239: servo motor, characteristic
Operational bevior similar to separately
excited DC machine:
A A q
I I U U · · ˆ , ˆ ,
0 0
ˆ n k U
n p
⋅ ⋅ · φ (8.78)
required in order to match
d F
U I I : ⊥ .
Synchronous machine
187
8.9 Claw pole alternator
Fig. 240: clawpole alternator
R
_
+
Fig. 241: clawpole alternator, ecd
Modern clawpole threephase alternators consist of a threephase stator, a clawpole rotor
with ringform excitation winding, which magnetizes all 6 pole pairs at the same time, as well
as a diode bridge and a voltage controller. Flux is really 3dimensional, in rotor axial and
radial, in stator tangential.
Threephase current that is generated within stator windings is rectified by a diode bridge.
Output voltage is kept constant within the whole speed range of 1:10 by controlling of
excitation current.
Nominal voltage is 14 V for car applications; 28V is normally used for trucks. Drive is made
by Vbelt with a mechanical advantage of 1:2 to 1:3. Alternators reach maximum rotational
speed up to 18000 min
1
. It is mounted directly at the engine and is exposed to high
temperatures, to high vibration acceleration and to corrosive mediums.
Within kW range clawpole alternators are most efficient for cars because of their low
excitation copper needs and their economic production process.
Threephase clawpole alternators are installed within nearly all cars today. The claw pole
alternator principle has totally edged out formerly used DC alternators because it enables
much more power at lower weight. It was established when powerful and cheap silicon diodes
for rectification could be produced.
Within the last years, power consumption in cars has grown enormously as a result of
additional loads for improving comfort and safety and for reducing emissions. Steps to
improve power output without needing more space and weight have to be taken.
189
9 Special machines
In addition to classic electrical machine types, such as DC machine, induction or synchronous
machine, new types of electric machines were created in the last few years. Those try to serve
the contradictory demands of low weight and high efficiency or are suitable for special drives.
Power electronics and the controlling system enable the machine to have completely new and
improved operating characteristics. Because of new geometric arrangements of the torque
building components specific loading and flux density combined with specific methods of
control higher electric force densities can be achieved.
To this category belong the stepping motor, the switched reluctance motor, the modular
permanent –magnet machine and tranverse flux conception.
9.1 Stepping motor
This special type of synchronous machine is mainly used as positioning drives for all kinds of
controls or as a switch group for e.g. printers and typewriters in many different ways. The
digital control of the stator winding leads to a rotation of the rotor shaft about the step angle a
for each current pulse, so that for n control instructions the total angle α ⋅ n is covered at the
shaft. Stepping motors enable positioning without feedback of the rotor position, which can
not be achieved using DC servo drives or threephase servo drives.
=
+ 
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
N
S
1
2
Fig. 242: stepping motor
The basic configuration and the method of
operation of stepping motors is shown in
Fig. 242. A permanentmagnet rotor (N/S)
is arranged between the poles of two
independent stator parts (1 and 2). Each of
the two stator parts consist of a winding
with centre tap that means two halves of
the winding. Any half can be supplied with
current by the transistors T1 to T4. If, for
example, the transistor T1 is switched on,
there is a north pole on the top of stator 1
and a south pole at the bottom. If transistor
T3 is switched on at the same time north
pole is on the right and south pole on the
left side of stator 2. That means the rotor
turns to the position shown in the Fig. 242.
If now transistor T3 is switched off and shortly after T4 is switched on, the magnetic field in
stator 2 reverses. Thus the rotor turns about an angle of 90º in clockwise direction. If then T1
is switched off and T2 on rotor turns round about another 90º. A continuous rotation is
achieved by continuation of transistor switching.
Special machines
190
With described control each transistor switching leads to a rotor rotation of 90º. So the rotor
turns round stepwise. That is why this design is called stepping motor. It is usually used if
rotors are supposed to turn about a certain angle of rotation, instead of continuous rotational
motion. The angle to be covered at each step is called step angle.
Stepping motors as described above, consist of two stator parts which are shifted against each
other about 90º each with one winding and therefore two winding phases. Their rotors have
two magnetic poles – equal to one pole pair. Therefore a number of phases m=2 and number
of pole pairs p=1 results.
But it is also possible to equip motor with three, four or five phases. The higher the number of
phases is chosen the smaller the stepping angle ensues.
Another opportunity to change the number of pole pairs is designing rotors with four, six,
eight or more poles. A reduction of the step angle is achieved, proportional to the increase of
the number of phases  therefore an increase of number of pole pairs.
In general fullstep mode stepping motors with m phases and p pole pairs show step angles of:
m p⋅ ⋅
°
·
2
360
α (9.1)
Stepping motors are produced in different versions. The design being described above is
called permanentfield multistator motor as clawpole version.
Fig. 243: reluctance stepping motor
Reluctance stepping motors consist of
rotors made of magnetic soft material. In
principle the rotor looks like a gear wheel.
If a magnetic field is generated in stator
windings rotor turns into the position in
which magnetic flux has minimum
magnetic resistance (reluctance). It is
typical for such stepping motors that no
holding torque is established if there is no
magnetic field in stator.
Another type of stepping motor is the permanentfield motor in homopolar design. It is also
called hybrid motor. A possible design of such a motor is shown in the Fig. 244. Rotors of
this motor type feature permanentmagnets (N/S) with axial magnetization. Toothed (1 and 2)
crowns made of magnetically soft material are attached to both sides of the magnet. Teeth of
both parts are shifted against each other about half of a pitch and only north poles are
established on one side and only south poles on the other side. Stator poles (3) are also
toothed, with concentrated windings (4) each. The number of stator poles can be chosen in
different ways. E.g. the motor shown in the Fig. 244 consists of six stator poles. The number
of phases is usually chosen between two and five.
α
N
S
N
S
1
2
3
control unit
+
Special machines
191
3
3
4 4
2
N
N S
S
4 4
3
3
4 4
2
1
Fig. 244: reluctance stepping motor, homopolar design
In fullstep mode, that means current in the phase windings is switched one after another, with
z rotor teeth and m stator phase windings step angle is:
z ⋅ ⋅
°
·
π
α
2
360
(9.2)
Generally it is important to choose control electronics and stepping motor as well adjusted to
each other (see Fig. 245). In order to achieve rotational motion of the stepping motor M
control electronics St is supplied from outside with voltage peaks pulses (1, 2, 3). Each pulse
leads to a rotor rotation about the step angle as described above. If the rotor of the motor is
supposed to rotate about a certain given angle an appropriate number of control pulses is
necessary.
St
M
1 2 3
Fig. 245: motor and control electronics system
If stepping motors are operated with a higher step frequency, the frequency needs to be
increased from small values to avoid stepping errors at starting operation. Suitable
frequency/time acceleration ramps are used. To reach short accelerating time high currents
can be fed for a short period of time. Braking is corresponding to that.
Special machines
192
9.2 Switched reluctance machine
Switched reluctance machines (SRM) are to be seen as a special type of synchronous
machine, which is discussed as an alternative for industry, servo and vehicle drives. Their
principle design consists of wound salient poles in the stator and unwound rotors whose
number of pole pairs is lower than those of the stator. Stator ampereturns are switched step
bystep depending on pole position, which requires position encoders. The described method
of operation leads to shunt characteristic, similar to those of DC machines.
The simple, robust, cheap and economic concerning manufacturing rotor without exciter
windings is to be mentioned as one major advantage, as well as simple, unidirectional
inverter design to be used. In cause of the flux vacillation principle of SR machines, power
forsize ratios compared to induction machines can only be reached at high air gap flux
density values. This requires small air gap widths and apart from that leads to
disadvantageous noise generation.
Fig. 246: switched reluctance machine (functional diagram)
Fig. 247: switched reluctance machine (SRM)
Special machines
193
9.3 Modular permanentmagnet motor
The modular permanentmagnet motor concept is a special type of permanentmagnet,
converterfed synchronous machine with pole position sensor. To make use of the advantage
of the high inducing diameter for torque exertion the motor is built as revolvingarmature
machine. Conventional threephase current machines have stator windings that are embedded
in slots and the number of poles is equal to the one of the rotor. In contrast to that the
permanentmagnet motor possesses salient stator poles, also called modules, whose number of
poles is different from the one of the rotor. Similar to stepping motor or to switched
reluctance machine the torque exertion is based on switching convenient stator coils
depending on rotor position.
Utilization factor of the permanentmagnet motor is comparable with other types of machines
as seen after simple consideration. To reach higher electric force densities current density and
specific loading were multiplied compared to conventional machines. This was achieved by
very complex intensive cooling processes, like e.g. direct oil cooling of the stator winding and
Frigen cooling of the converter.
Fig. 248: modular permanentmagnet motor
Special machines
194
9.4 Transverse flux machine
Transverse flux machines are basically permanentsynchronous machines with pole position
sensor, with stator coils in direction of circumference, which results in uncoupled rotor flux.
As a result there are very small pole pitches and a very high rotor specific loading can be
achieved. In addition to that flux density of rareearth magnets can be boosted if the rotor has
a collector construction. Compared to other types of machines highest utilization factors are
achieved by those steps. Advantage of high electric force density stands in sharp contrast to
the disadvantage of a more expensive production technology.
If transverse flux machines are designed as a threephase machines, conventional threephase
converters can be used.
Fig. 249: transvese flux machine, 3phase design
Fig. 250: method of operation, flux
Special machines
195
9.5 Linear motors
Since linear motors do not have any gear unit it is more simple converting motion in electrical
drives. Combined with magnet floating technology an absolutely contactless and so a wear
resistant passenger traffic or nonabrasive transport of goods is possible. Using this
technology usually should enable high speed. So Transrapid uses a combination of
synchronous linear drive and electromagnetic floating. Linear direct drives combined with
magnet floating technology are also useful for nonabrasive and exact transport of persons and
goods in fields as transportation technology, construction technology and machine tool
design. Suitable combinations of driving, carrying and leading open new perspectives for
drive technology.
9.5.1 Technology of linear motors
In the following function, design, characteristic features, advantages and disadvantages are
demonstrated shortly. In principle solutions based on all electrical types of machines are
possible unrolling stator and rotor into the plane.
Fig. 251: linear motors, design overview (source: KRAUSSMAFFEI)
Special machines
196
Linear motor then corresponds to an unrolled induction motor with short circuit rotor or to
permanentmagnet synchronous motor. DC machines with brushes or switched reluctance
machines are used more rarely.
Depending on fields of usage linear motors are constructed as solenoid, singlecomb or
doublecomb versions in short stator or long stator implementation.
It is an advantage of long stator implementations that no power has to be transmitted to
passive, moved secondary part, while short stator implementations need the drive energy to be
transmitted to the moved active part. For that reason an inductive power transmission has to
be used to design a contactless system.
In contrast to rotating machines in singlecomb versions the normal force between stator and
rotor must be compensated by suitable leading systems or doublecomb versions must be used
instead. This normal force usually is one order of magnitude above feed force.
In threephase windings of synchronous or induction machines a moving field is generated
instead of threephase field. This moving field moves at synchronous speed.
1 1
2 f v
p
⋅ ⋅ ·τ (9.3)
As in threephase machines force is generated by voltage induction in the squirrelcage rotor
of the induction machine or by interaction with permanentmagnet field of the synchronous
machine.
Fig. 252: linear drive, system overview (source: KRAUSSMAFFEI)
Special machines
197
Threephase machine supply is made fieldoriented by frequency converters to achieve high
dynamic behavior. For that induction machines need flux model and speed sensor, but
synchronous machines just need a position sensor. For positioning jobs high dynamic servo
drives with cascade control consisting of position control with lowerlevel speed and current
control loop are used. This control structure is usual in rotating machines. Depending on the
place the position measurement is installed a distinction is made between direct and indirect
position control.
Since many movements in production and transportation systems are translatory, linear drives
are useful in these fields. In such motors linear movements are generated directly, so that gear
units such as spindle/bolt, gear rack/pinion, belt/chain systems are unnecessary. As a result
from that rubbing, elasticity and play are dropped, which is positive for servo drives with high
positioning precision and dynamic. In opposition to that there are disadvantages such as lower
feed forces, no selfcatch and higher costs.
Fig. 253: advantages of linear drives (source: KRAUSSMAFFEI)
Special machines
198
9.5.2 Industrial application opportunities
Two different opportunities to implement linear drives are shown at the following pictures.
Fig. 254: induction linear motor (NSKRHP)
Fig. 255: synchronous linear motor (SKF)
Most promising application fields of linear drives for industrial applications:
• machine tools: machining center, skimming, grinding, milling, cutting, blanking and high
speed machines.
• automation: handling systems, wafer handling, packing machines, pickandplace
machines, packaging machines, automatic tester, printing technology
• general mechanical engineering: laser machining, bonder for semiconductor industry,
printed board machining, measurement machines, paper, plastic, wood, glass machining.
Special machines
199
9.5.3 High speed applications
In the magnet highspeed train Transrapid wheels and rail are replaced by a contactless
working electromagnetic float and drive system. The floating system is based on attractive
forces of the electromagnet in the vehicle and on the ferromagnetic reaction rails in the
railway. Bearing magnets pull the vehicle from below to the railway, guide magnets keep it on
its way. An electronic control system makes sure, that the vehicle always floats in the same
distance to the railway. Transrapid motor is a longstator linear motor. Stators with moving
field windings are installed on both sides along the railway. Supplied threephase current
generates an electromagnetic moving field within windings. The bearing magnets, and so also
the vehicle are pulled by this field. Longstator linear motor is divided into several sections.
The section, in which the vehicle is located, is switched on. Sections, that make high demands
on thrust, motor power is increased as necessary. Drive integrated in the railway and
cancelling of mechanical components make magnet highspeed vehicles technical easier and
safer. Transrapid consists of two light weight constructed elements. Capacity of the vehicles
can be adjusted to certain requirements. Operating speed is between 300 and 500 km/h. A
linear alternator supplies floating vehicle with required power. Advantages of magnet high
speed train are effective in all speed areas. After driving only 5 km Transrapid reaches a speed
of 300 km/h in contrast to modern trains needing at least a distance of 30 km. Comfort is not
interfered with jolts and vibrations. Since vehicle surrounds the railway Transrapid is
absolutely safe from derailment. Magnet highspeed train makes less noise than conventional
railway systems because there is no rolling noise. Also energy consumption is reduced
compared with modern trains. This highspeed system is tested in continues operation at a
testing plant in Emsland in Germany and some commercial routes in Germany are planned. A
highspeed train route is currently under construction in Shanghai, China, further projects are
either in progress or under review.
Fig. 256: high speed vehicle Transrapid 08, testing site Emsland, Germany (source: Thyssen)
Special machines
200
Fig. 257: basics of magnetic levitation (1)
Fig. 258: basics of magnetic levitation (2)
Fig. 259: basics of magnetic levitation (3)
Fig. 260: track system
201
10 Appendix
10.1 Notations
Physical dependencies appear as quantity equation. A physical quantity results from
multiplication of numerical value and unit..
quantity = numerical value × unit
Example: force of a solenoid
( )
N
m H
m T
A
B
F
6
7
2 2
0
2
10 4
10 4 , 0 2
1 1
2
⋅ ·
⋅
· ·
−
π µ
(10.1)
Units are to be included into calculations. Fitted quantity equations result from reasonable
expansions with suitable units and partial calculation:
for the mentioned example:
2
2
5 , 0
10
cm
A
T
B
N
F
,
`
.

· (10.2)
Physical quantities are presented by lower case letters. Basically a distinction of upper and
lower case letters means an increasing number of possible symbols to be used, whereas
important differences between upper and lower case quantity is to be found for current and
voltage.
• u, i → instantaneous values
• U, I → steady values (stationary)
1. DC calculations: DC values
2. AC calculations: rms values
Capital letters are usually used for magnetic quantities. Apart from that crest values are also
assigned with capital letters in AC considerations. Phasor are assigned to underlined Latin
letters (complex calculations).
Examples: U, I.
Vectors are indicated by an arrow being placed above Capital Latin letters.
Examples: B E
r r
,
Greek letters:
Αα Ββ Γγ ∆δ Εε Ζζ Ηη θϑ Ιι Κκ Λλ Μµ Νν Ξξ Οο Ρρ Σσ Ττ Υυ φϕ Χχ Ψψ Ωω
Appendix
202
10.2 Formular symbols
A current coverage; area (in general)
a number of parallel conductors
B flux density (colloc. induction)
b width
C capacity
c general constant, specific heat
D diameter, dielectric flux density
d diameter; thickness
E electric field strength
e Euler’s number
F force; form factor
f frequency
G electric conductance, weight
g fundamental factor, acceleration of gravity
H magnetic field strength
h height; depth
I current; I
w
active current; I
B
reactive current
i instantaneous current value
J mass moment of inertia
j unit of imaginary numbers
K cooling medium flow, general constant
k number of commutator bars; general constant
L selfinductance; mutual inductance
l length
M mutual inductance; torque
m number of phases, mass
N general number of slots
n rotational speed
O surface, cooling surface
P active power
p number of pole pairs; pressure
Q reactive power; cross section; electric charge
q number of slots per pole and phase; cross section
R efficiency
r radius
S apparent power
s slip; coil width; distance
T time constant; length of period; absolute temperature; starting time
t moment (temporal); general time variable
U voltage (steady value); circumference
u voltage (instantaneous value); coil sides per slot and layer
V losses (general); volume; magnetic potential
v speed; specific losses
W energy
w number of windings; flow velocity
X reactance
x variable
Y peak value (crest value)
y variable; winding step
Appendix
203
Z impedance
z general number of conductors
α pole pitch factor; heat transfer coefficient
β brushes coverage factor
γ constant of equivalent synchronous generated mmf
δ air gap; layer thickness
ε dielectric constant
ζ Pichelmayerfactor
η efficiency; dynamic viscosity
θ electric current linkage
ϑ load angle; temperature; overtemperature
κ electric conductivity
λ power factor, thermal conductivity; wave length; ordinal number; reduced magnetic
conductivity
Λ magnetic conductivity
µ permeability; ordinal number
υ ordinal number; kinematic viscosity
ξ winding factor
ρ specific resistance
σ leakage factor; tensile stress
τ general partition; tangential force
Φ magnetic flux
ϕ phase displacement between voltage and current
ψ flux linkage
ω angular frequency
Appendix
204
10.3 Units
The following table contains most important physical variables and their symbols and units to
be used. An overview of possible unit conversions is given in the right column additionally.
physical variable Symbol SIunit abbrev. unit conversion
length L Meter m
mass M Kilogramm kg 1 t (ton) = 10
3
kg
time T Second s 1 min = 60 s
1 h (hour) = 3600 s
current intensity I Ampere A
thermodynamic
temperature
T Kelvin K temperature difference ∆ϑ in
Kelvin
celsiustemperature
ϑ Degree
Centigrade
°C ϑ = T – T
0
light intensity I Candela cd
area A  m
2
volume V  m
3
1 l (Liter) = 10
3
m
3
force F Newton N 1 kp (Kilopond) = 9.81 N
1 N = 1 kg·m/s
2
pressure P Pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m
2
1 at (techn. atm.) = 1 kp / cm
2
= 0.981 bar, 1 bar = 10
5
Pa
1 kp / m
2
= 1 mm WS
torque M  Nm 1 kpm = 9,81 Nm =
9,81 kg·m
2
/ s
2
mass moment of
inertia
J  kgm
2
1 kgm
2
= 0.102 kpms
2
= 1 Ws
3
impetus moment GD
2
GD
2
= 4 J / kgm
2
Appendix
205
physical variable Symbol SIunit abbrev. unit conversion
frequency F Hertz Hz 1 Hz = 1 s
1
angular frequency
ω
 Hz ω = 2πf
rotational speed N s
1
1 s
1
= 60 min
1
speed (transl.) V  m / s 1 m / s = 3,6 km / h
power P Watt W 1 PS = 75 kpm / s = 736 W
energy W Joule J 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws
1 kcal = 427 kpm = 4186,8 Ws
1 Ws = 0,102 kpm
el. voltage U Volt V
el. field strength E  V / m
el. resistance R Ohm
Ω
el. conductance G Siemens S
el. charge Q Coulomb C 1 C = 1 As
capacity C Farad F 1 F = 1 As / V
elektr. constant ε
0
 F / m ε = ε
0
ε
r
ε
r
= relative diel.constant
inductance L Henry H 1 H = 1 Vs / A = 1 Ωs
magn. flux
φ
Weber Wb 1 Wb = 1 Vs
1 M (Maxwell) =
10
8
Vs = 1 Gcm
magn. flux density B Tesla T 1 T = 1 Vs / m
2
= 1 Wb / m
2
1 T = 10
4
G (Gauß)
1 G = 10
8
Vs / m
2
Appendix
206
physical variable Symbol SIunit abbrev. unit conversion
magn. field
strength
H  A / m 1 Oe (Oersted) =
10 / 4π A / cm
1 A / m = 10
2
A / cm
magn.motive force
θ
 A
magn. potential V  A
magn. constant µ
0
  µ
0
= 4π10
7
H / m
µ
0
= 1 G / Oe
permeability
µ
  µ = µ
0
µ
r
µ
r
= relative permeability
angle
α
Radiant rad 1 rad = 1 m / 1 m
α = l
curve
/ r
Appendix
207
10.4 Literature reference list
Books and scripts listed as follows may exceed the teaching range significantly. Nevertheless
they are recommended best for a detailed and deeper understanding of the content of this
lecture.
B. Adkins
The general Theory of electrical Machines, Chapman and Hall, London
Ch.V. Jones
The unified Theory of electrical Machines, Butterworth, London
L.E. Unnewehr, S.A. Nasar
Electromechanics and electrical Machines, John Wiley & Sons
ElectroCraft Corporation
DC Motors, Speed Controls, Servo Systems, Pergamon Press
Ch. Concordia
Synchronous Machines, John Wiley, New York
Bahram Amin
Induction Motors – Analysis and Torque Control
Peter Vas
Vector Control of AC Machines, Oxford Science Publications
T.J.E. Miller
Switched Reluctance Motors and their control, Magna PysicsPublishing
Preface
This script corresponds to the lecture “Electrical Machines I” in winter term 2002/2003 at Aachen University. The lecture describes the status quo of used technologies as well as tendencies in future development of electrical machines. Basic types of electrical machines, such as transformer, DC machine, induction machine, synchronous machine and lowpower motors operated at single phase AC systems are likewise discussed as innovative machine concepts, e.g. switched reluctance machine (SRM), transverse flux machine and linear drive. Basic principles taking effect in all types of electrical machines to be explained, are combined in the rotating field theory. Apart from theoretical reflections, examples for applications in the field of electrical drives and power generation are presented in this script. Continuative topics concerning dynamics, power converter supply and control will be discussed in the subsequent lecture “Electrical Machines II”. It is intended to put focus on an allembracing understanding of physical dependencies. This script features a simple illustration without disregarding accuracy. It provides a solid basic knowledge of electrical machines, useful for further studies and practice. Previous knowledge of principles of electrical engineering are required for the understanding. Please note: this script represents a translation of the lecture notes composed in German. Most subscriptions to appear in equations are not subject to translation for conformity purposes.
Aachen, in November 2002
Gerhard Henneberger
Revision: Busch, Schulte, March 2003
iii
........................6 GROWTH CONDITIONS ..................................................................... 12 2............................. measured value given................................. 35 3..................................................................4..............................................................................................3 Lorentz Force Law...................................... 45 3............3 OPERATIONAL BEHAVIOR ..................................................................2 Second MaxwellEquation (Faraday’s Law) ....................4............... 20 3 TRANSFORMER ......................................................................................3..................2 Unbalanced load.....5 METHODS OF CONNECTION (THREEPHASE SYSTEMS)........................................................................................................ 30 3......................................................................... 27 3... 58 4.. 82 5 ................. RMS VALUE.................................. 58 4...................................... 46 3........2 BASIC EQUATIONS ...................................................3 AVERAGE VALUE............1 FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS ..............4..........4 Compound machine ......................................................................................................................................2 Shortcircuit ........................ 73 5............................4 LOAD............................... 11 2..................................................................................................................1 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ............................................ 59 5 DC MACHINE....................................................... 67 5..............................3.................1 Motor and generator characteristics ..............3........................................................................ 34 3............. 52 4 FUNDAMENTALS OF ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES ...............................................4.........2......... 70 5...... 10 2..................................3..2 EQUATION OF MOTION ................................................................................................1 Main equations..AND MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS......3.....................................2 Load characteristics..................................................................4....7 DC machine supply with variable armature voltage for speed adjustment ................................. 58 4............................................................................................3 Series machine.................1 DESIGN AND MODE OF ACTION ................................................ 72 5............................................................ 41 3...... 14 2...............................................................2 Complete phasor diagramm ..................................................... 19 2...................................3 Proportioning of R1 and R‘2 ..5 EFFICIENCY ........................2 REFERENCEARROW SYSTEMS ....................................................................1 Design .....................................................................................................................Content 1 2 SURVEY ...................... Vector group ..................................................................................................................................................5 Universal machine (ACDC machine) ......................................2........... 10 2....................................3 MECHANICAL POWER OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES.....1 Noload condition ......................3 Load with nominal stress.......................................................... 41 3.............7. 36 3.........................3 ü=U10/U20..........................................................................................4 MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION ... 55 4............................4 APPLIED COMPLEX CALCULATION ON AC CURRENTS ................................... 31 3............................................................................................................................... 16 2.................................3............................................................................................................................................................ interconnections.................................. 67 5............. EFFICIENCY ...........................................3...........) .....1.........................3......................6 Generator mode..............................................................................................................................4 PERMANENT MAGNETS .................................................1 Design...............2 Calculation of the magnetizing inductance ................................................................... 43 3... 34 3..................................................................... 53 4................................................................................................................................................................................ 80 5.................................. 61 5...............................3 Stationary stability............................................ 61 5............................................................2 DEFINITION OF THE TRANSFORMATION RATIO (Ü) ........................ 8 BASICS ...................... 10 2............... 38 3....................................... 44 3...........................1.........................4................................................................................................................... ecd...............6 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS..................................... shunt machine...8 AUTOTRANSFORMER ................... design data known....................... STABILITY .......................................................................................................................7........ 39 3........................................................ 65 5.............................................................. 23 3..2 Separately excitation........................ 24 3.......... 56 4.3...............................................................4 Parallel connection................. 54 4....3.........................................................................3 OPERATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ..............................4 Calculation of the leakage inductances........................................................................................... 39 3......................................................................................................... 69 5..............................................3..............................1 OPERATING LIMITS .....2................................................................ 77 5..................1 ü=w1/w2. 27 3.................................... 49 3.4....................................................................... permanentfield...... 17 2..1.................. 46 3..............................7 THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER .............................................1 First Maxwell Equation (Ampere’s Law........................................
.......................................................... 157 7.............................................. 105 6............................................................6........................................6........................................................................................................ 137 7.................................1 Locus diagram.................................. 134 7..........5 METHOD OF OPERATION .... 147 7................................................................................................................................................................ 119 6.........................................1 Method of operation.............3 Power in circle diagram.............................................. 95 6......7..............................6 INDUCTION GENERATOR .................................................................................... 151 7.................................................... 136 7................................................................................. 98 6......................4 Operating range.................. 111 6............... 163 8.6..............................3.... 132 7............ 86 5.......................... EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS .....................2 Current displacement (skin effect.......................................................9 FREQUENCY CONDITION.......1 Particularities........................................................................................................1 8........ 142 7.............................................................................7 VOLTAGE INDUCTION CAUSED BY INFLUENCE OF ROTATING FIELD ......................................................................................................................................2 Equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) .........5.............................. 113 6.............................1 Flux linkage...........................................................................................................6 WINDING FACTOR ...................................... POWER BALANCE .....1 Field distortion ...................................................................7....... 88 5............................. 95 6.............................................................................................................4 CIRCLE DIAGRAM (HEYLAND DIAGRAM) ...............................................................................7...................4.............8 SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MACHINES ............................................3 Efficiency................................................ 169 SOLITARY OPERATION . SUSTAINED SHORT CIRCUIT ........................................................... 112 6...........................................................7....... 96 6.............................................................................3 Compensating winding.....2 ALTERNATING FIELD ...............5.........5.........................................................................5 COMMUTATION ..... 88 5..............6........ 132 7............................ 141 7..................................................................... 136 7.................................................................. 149 7..3 Commutating poles ........3 ROTATING FIELD ...... 138 7........................................... 90 5......................................................................................................................2 Pitch factor................................3.....................2 Variating the number of pole pairs ...........................2 Reactance voltage of commutation ........ 170 6 . 94 6 ROTATING FIELD THEORY ...................................................................................6 ARMATURE REACTION ..................................................... 142 7........................................4 Splitpole machine ........................ 109 6.................... 157 7................... 112 6.................................. 115 6.................................... 126 7....................................................................................................... 103 6...............................................................................1 GENERAL OVERVIEW ..........4 THREEPHASE WINDING ................................................................................ METHOD OF OPERATION ............................... 144 7............. 139 7............................... 158 7................................................................3 Singlephase induction machine with auxiliary phase winding ......................................................................... PHASOR DIAGRAM.........................................................................................................................................................................................4 Additional voltage in rotor circuit ................3.......................................................................... 135 7.................................................8......................... 92 5......... 163 MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION ........................ 100 6..................5 Influence of machine parameters................................................................1 Increment of slip .......................... 162 8 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE.......................................................2 8..........................................3 OPERATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ..... 132 7........2 Parametrization..................................................................................... 106 6.....4..........8.............................................................2 BASIC EQUATIONS.........................................................5 SPEED ADJUSTMENT .....3 8........................................................ bar current – ring current ...1 Power balance ......................5.................................................................2 Induced voltage....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 146 7...5 EXAMPLE ..................8....................................................................... 144 7.......................................8 TORQUE OF TWO ROTATING MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCES ....................Survey 5............................................................................ 167 NOLOAD............................7 SQUIRRELCAGE ROTORS ................................2 Segment voltage........................................................................................................................2 Torque...........6......................................................... proximity effect)...................3 Variation of supply frequency.................................................4.....................................1 Current path .......... signalized operating points ................ 123 7............................ 123 7...................... 86 5..........................10 REACTANCES AND RESISTANCE OF THREEPHASE WINDINGS ......1 Distribution factor ................................................1 DESIGN............................................................ 121 7 INDUCTION MACHINE ........................................5....................... 160 7........................................................................................ 166 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRAM...... slip .................................................4 Stability ..................................................... 149 7........8.................................................3..................3 Resulting winding factor ....................4...................................................................6............................... 90 5...........................5.5........................................4 8...............4..
....................................8..................................... 195 9. 192 9...........3 10................................7...........................................................................1 STEPPING MOTOR .........................................................................7 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE AS OSCILLATING SYSTEM........................2 with damper winding...............8....4 TRANSVERSE FLUX MACHINE .............................................9 CLAW POLE ALTERNATOR ................................... 193 9.................... 173 8.........................6 RIGID NETWORK OPERATION... DAMPER WINDINGS .. 207 7 ..........6..............................5..................................................1 Parallel connection to network............................................................... 178 8.. 194 9............. 183 8.............................................. 183 8....................... 198 9................5 LINEAR MOTORS .......................................................1 Permanent excited synchronous motor with starting cage ........3 MODULAR PERMANENTMAGNET MOTOR ........................................................................................................................................................ 171 8.......... 172 8..... 178 8.......... 184 8.............................................................................................................................................................8................................................... 172 8...............................................................................................................................5..................6....2 Torque.......................................................4 APPENDIX...............2 Regulation characteristics.............................................3 Operating ranges...............................5................................................ 189 9....... 199 10 10.................................... 201 NOTATIONS ...............2 SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINE ..............................2 Industrial application opportunities............................................................................................8 PERMANENTFIELD SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES.................................... 204 LITERATURE REFERENCE LIST ............................................................................1 10..........................................................................................................................5.............................................2 Permanentfield synchronous motor with pole position sensor .................................................. operating limits........................................................... 195 9.........................................................1 Load characteristics...........6........1 without damper windings .. 175 8.....................5..................7.....6.........1 Technology of linear motors..............................4 Current diagram............................................... 189 9.................................................................. 177 8....................3 High speed applications........................................................................................................................................ 180 8................................................................................................................................. 201 FORMULAR SYMBOLS ................................................................................. 202 UNITS ...... 170 8............................................................................................................................................................... 187 9 SPECIAL MACHINES.....................................2 10.............................
Ships. dimensioning and construction of electrical machines. Electrical machines appear as alternators in power plants and in solitary operation. Special machine models are used in magneticlevitation technology and induction heating. 8 . In this case mechanical energy is transferred into electrical energy. 1: The electrical machine in the field of power engineering The electrical machine is utilized in centralized as well as in distributed energy transducer systems. Essential factors like functionality. The coverage of new application areas for electrical machines in the field of power generation and drive systems is aimed. costs. Every kind of electrical machine is also able to work in generator operation. Focus on research at the IEM is put on electrical machines. availability and influence on the environment need to be taken into account. They are also used as drive motors in industrial. naval. also as transformers and transducers in electrical installations. buildings and household appliances. Centralized Power Supply HGÜ Household Appliances EDP Trade Agriculture Medicine Tu L U AM Industry Conveyor Engineering Machine Tools. Requirements of the entire system determine the design conditions of the electrical machine. Duty of the electrical machine is a save. The power range leads from µW to GW. Besides calculation. Robots Chemical Engineering Buildings Distributed Power Supply Railway Applications VM WK AM Ba Automobiles. the investigation of their static and transient performance characteristics and their interaction with converters and controllers pertain to the scope of our duties.1 Survey The electrical machine is the essential element in the field of power generation and electrical drives. Aircrafts DieselLocomotives Solitary Operations Emergency Generating Sets Fig. The electrical machine is the particular part of a drive. The according operational status is called motor operation. converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. machine tools. automotive. Railway. trade. aviation and aeronautic systems are equipped with electrical machines as well. economical and ecological generation of electrical energy as well as its lowloss transformation for distribution purposes and its accordant utilization in electrical drive applications. design. agricultural and medical applications as well as in EDPsystems.
because its energy density is about decimal powers higher than the energy density of the electric field.886 ⋅10 2 ε ⋅E cm = 4.4 ⋅10 −4 Ws we = = 2 2 cm 3 −13 2 (1. Also motorgeneratorsets (rotary converters) in railway applications as well as transformers in the field of energy distribution are used for converting purposes. being capable to change frequency and voltage level in a certain range. BLDC). converter synchronous machine. Innovative concepts such as an electronically commutating DC machine (also known as brushless DC machine. the DC machine is fed by DC current. This transduction is mainly based on the effect of electromagnetic fields. Sometimes the present form of energy does not match the requirement. This is shown in the following example: Vs 10 2 B Ws cm wm = = = 0. In case of a singlephase AC current availability. 9 . Power Electronics and their control are means to establish so far surpassed and improved operating characteristics.1) 10kV 0. universal motors (ACDC motors) and single phase induction machines are applied.256 ⋅10 −8 Vs cm Acm 2 (1. Most common types are DC machines as well as rotating field machines such as induction or synchronous machines.2) Electrical machines appear as different types of construction. Basically three kinds of electrical energy supply are to be distinguished: DC. power converter supplied induction machine. Due to its name. called threephase AC. switched reluctance machine (SRM) and stepping motor are to be mentioned as typical examples. singlephase AC and threephase AC.4 3 2 µ 0 1.Survey Electromechanical energy transduction is reversible. power converters are utilized in drive systems. Rotating field machines are to be supplied by a threephase alternating current. In order to turn the present energy into the appropriate form.
1) The line integral of the magnetic force along a closed loop is equal to the enveloped current linkage. the magnetic circuit is subdivided into quasihomogeneous parts (statoryoke + stator teeth. as shown on the left. For explicit information please see pertinent literature. Faraday’s Law and Lorentz Force Law. All w turns per winding carry single currents I. being of the same value each.2) Fig. 2: circulation sense Direction convention: Current linkage and direction of the line integral are arranged to each other. need to be discussed. bent fingers = direction of the line integral (Fleming’s RightHandRule). a magnetic material attribute: B = µ ⋅H µ = µ r ⋅ µ0 (2.1 Fundamental equations Despite the number of machine type varieties. These are as follows the First MaxwellEquation (also known as Ampere’s Law).1 First Maxwell Equation (Ampere’s Law. I ds ∑H i i ⋅ si = w ⋅ I (2. 2.2 Basics First of all some fundamental aspects which are required for the understanding of the lectures „Electrical Machines I&II“ and the respective scripts. 2. A relation between magnetic force H and magnetic flux density B is given by the permeability µ .) First Maxwell Equation is defined in its integral and differential form as follows: r r r r H ⋅ ds = ∫∫ G ⋅ dF = θ ∫ c F r ( rotH = G ) r (2. Hint: right hand directions: thump = current(linkage). In electrical machines. please see references for this. rotoryoke + rotor teeth. the method of operation of any type of electrical machines can be described by just three physical basic equations.1.4) 10 .3) Magnetic constant (permeability of the vacuum): µ 0 = 4 ⋅ π ⋅ 10 −7 V⋅s A⋅m (2. air gap).
Basics Relative permeability:
µr = 1 µ r = 1L10000
in vacuum in iron (ferromagnetic material)
tion Satura
(2.5) (2.6)
B
µ
1
r
magnetization characteristic
B = f (H)
nonlinear coherence
(2.7)
linear range µ > 1000
r
µr = f ( H )
(2.8)
Fig. 3: BH characteristic
H
The magnetic field is zerodivergenced (no sinks or sources).
r divB = 0
Its effect is described as the area integral of the flux density:
r r φ = ∫∫ B ⋅ dA
A
(2.9)
(2.10)
The magnetic flux φ represents the effect of the total field. In case of a homogeneous field v r distribution and an orientation as per A  B , equation 2.10 simplifies to:
φ = A⋅ B
(2.11)
2.1.2 Second MaxwellEquation (Faraday’s Law)
Second Maxwell Equation is given in its integral and differential form as follows:
r r dφ E ⋅ ds = − ∫ dt c
r r dB rotE = − dt
(2.12)
r The line integral of the electric force E along a closed loop (which matches voltage) is equal to the variation of the magnetic flux linkage with time.
In electrical machines w turns per winding are passed through by the magnetic flux φ. dφ ψ = w ⋅φ = L ⋅ i , ui = − w ⋅ dt 11
(2.13)
Basics
φ
w
Direction conventions: • Magnetic flux and current are arranged to each other according to Fleming’s RightHandRule (see also 2.1.1). An induced current flows in a direction to create a magnetic field which will counteract the change in magnetic flux (Lenz’s Law).
i Fig. 4: flux linkage, voltage
ui
•
The flux linkage of a coil is a function of x and i: ψ(x,i). Depending on the way the change of the flux linkage being required for the induction process is caused, the according voltage is called transformer voltage or rotational voltage (transformer e.m.f. or rotational e.m.f.). ui = − ∂ψ di ∂ψ d ψ ( x, i ) = − ⋅ − ∂i dt { dt ∂x
L
⋅
di dx = −L ⋅ − B ⋅l ⋅ v dt dt {
v
(2.14)
Convention of the rotational voltage:
B(v)
r r r r r ui = v × B ⋅ l = E ⋅ l
(
)
(2.15)
v(u) E = v x B(w)
Fig. 5: directions of 2.15 assumed for the case with direction of the fieldvector (v) being arranged orthographic towards the direction of the speedvector (u) of the conductor (uvw direction convention).
2.1.3 Lorentz Force Law
2.1.3.1 Lorentz Force A force on a currentcarrying conductor in presence of a magnet field is given by:
B(v)
r r F = I ⋅ l ×B
l(u) F(w)
(
)
(2.16)
Fig. 6: directions of 2.16 In case of fieldvector and direction of the conductor including a right angle (90°), due to the uvw direction convention, equation 2.16 simplifies to:
F = I ⋅l ⋅ B
(2.17) 12
Basics Magnetic Force A magnetic force appears at the surface between iron and air.
Tractive force of an electromagnet:
A
δ
F=
B
B2 A 2µ 0
(2.18)
Fig. 7: magnetic force
2.1.3.2 Force caused by variation of magnetic energy For the determination of forces and torques exerted on machine parts, a calculation embracing the variation of the magnetic energy is practical, linear systems assumed.
Ψ dW m = id Ψ
F=
∂Wm ∂x
(2.19)
i = const
dW' m = Ψ di i
with x = α ⋅ r
M = F ⋅r = ∂Wm ∂α
(2.20)
Fig. 8: magnetic energy in linear systems The calculation of exerted force in nonlinear systems requires the determination comprising the variation of the magnetic coenergy.
Ψ
dW m = id Ψ
dW' m = Ψ di i
Fig. 9: magnetic energy in nonlinear systems
F=
∂W `m ∂x
(2.21)
13
Basics
2.2 ReferenceArrow systems
An unambiguous description of conditions in electrical networks requires voltages, currents and powers to be assigned to their accordant positive and negative directions  the choice of the direction is arbitrary, but nonrecurring and definite. A negative signed result means a variable, assumed as of opposite referencearrow direction. A choice of two possible referencearrow systems for voltage, current and power are provided: Load referencearrow system (VZS) Generator referencearrow system (EZS)
i u P V VZS u
i P E EZS
Fig. 10a: VZS Voltage and currentarrow of same orientation at load, power is absorbed. VZS voltage drop
Fig. 10b: EZS Voltage and currentarrow of opposite orientation at source, power is delivered. EZS voltage generation
u
i R
u = i⋅R
u
i R
u = −i ⋅ R
u
i
L
u = L⋅ di dt
u
i
L
u = −L ⋅ di dt
u
i
C
u=
u
i
C
u=−
1 i ⋅ dt C∫ Fig. 11a13a: VZS directions at R, L, C components
1 i ⋅ dt C∫ Fig. 11b13b: EZS directions at R, L, C components
14
I +  I U U P P EZS Fig.22) U E I H S U E I H S Fig. 14b: power (density) in EZS A definition of the positive directions of current and voltage according the energy flow is proved practical.Basics The PoyntingVector defines the power density in electromagnetic fields: r r r S = E×H (2. This is illustrated by the example of a simple DC machine (see below). 14a: power (density) in VZS Fig. 15: sample of energy flow (DC machine) VZS 15 .
such as e. e. Peak values are usually used for magnetic variables. Further definitions to be used in the following: • instantaneous value u = u ( t ) T timevariant variable at instant t • average value: 1 U = ⋅ ∫ u ( t ) ⋅ dt T 0 variable. efficiency On the one hand the knowledge of the instantaneous value is important for the evaluation of according variables. Magnetic und mechanic variables. are always represented in capital letters.Basics 2. averaged over a certain period • rms value: U= 1 T ⋅ ∫ u 2 ( t ) ⋅ dt 0 T squareroot of averaged square value • complex quantity: U = U ⋅ e j⋅ϕ complex representation of sinusoidal variables • peak value: ˆ U maximum value of a periodical function ( = 2 ⋅U for sinusoidal functions) • efficiency: η= Pab Pauf ratio of delivered and absorbed power 16 . Common literature knows different appearances of variables and values. average value or rms value (rms=root mean square).g. In this script assignments for voltage and current are chosen as follows: • • capital letters for constant variables lower case letters for variables variating with time.3 Average value. when determining peak value.g. On the other hand a reflection over a longer range of time (e. rms value. whereas electric variables appear as rms value.g. magnetic field and force. an entire cycle) is of importance.
29) complex rms value phasor The phase angle ϕ points from the current phasor to the voltage phasor.24) i = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos( ω ⋅ t − ϕ ) = Re { 2 ⋅ I ⋅ e j⋅ω ⋅t ⋅ e − j⋅ϕ = Re { 2 ⋅ I ⋅ e j⋅ω⋅t .27) P = U ⋅ I ⋅ cosϕ Q = U ⋅ I ⋅ sin ϕ Complex impedance (phasor.26) (2.28) In contrast to the common mathematical definition. tan ϕ = X R (2. I = I ⋅ e − j⋅ϕ } Complex power results from the multiplication of the complex voltage rms value and the conjugate complex rms value of the accordant current: apparent power: active power: reactive power: S = U ⋅ I * = P + j ⋅Q (I ∗ = I ⋅ e + j⋅ϕ ) (2.Im Fig. U = U ⋅ e j⋅0 } (2. u = 2 ⋅ U ⋅ cos( ω ⋅ t ) = Re { 2 ⋅ U ⋅ e j⋅ω ⋅t = Re } { } 2 ⋅ U ⋅ e j⋅ω⋅t . phase angle) are determined by: Z = R + j ⋅ X = Z ⋅ e j⋅ϕ . Thus the direction of the current phasor follows as shown in Fig. The voltage phasor is defined as to be in parallel to the real axis.25) (2.4 Applied complex calculation on AC currents In the field of power engineering time variant sinusoidal AC voltages and currents usually appear as complex rms value phasors. ϕ .23) (2.Basics 2. 15: + Re I= U I U U − j⋅ϕ = ⋅e Z Z (2. 15: complexe coordinate system 17 . amount. Z = R2 + X 2 . the real axis of a complex coordinate system is upward orientated and the imaginary axis points to the right in power engineering presentations.
Im ~ Fig.Im . 16a: components in VZS Fig.Basics VZS EZS + Re U + Re U ~ . 16b: components in EZS I= active power input U R active power input I =− U R I= U U = − j⋅ j ⋅ω ⋅ L ω ⋅L I =− U U = j⋅ j ⋅ω ⋅ L ω ⋅L absorption of lagging reactive power absorption of lagging reactive power = delivery of leading reactive power I = j ⋅ ω ⋅ C ⋅U absorption of leading reactive power I = − j ⋅ω ⋅ C ⋅U absorption of leading reactive power= delivery of lagging reactive power ~ active power output ~ active power output 18 .
D ) (Fig. IS ∑ IS = 0 linked quantities (subscript „v“) U v = 3 ⋅U S Iv = IS Iv = 3 ⋅ IS Uv = US US. 2.5 Methods of connection (threephase systems) Applications in power engineering often use threephase systems: m = 3 Typical arrangements of balanced threephase systems without neutral conductor: star connection (y.32) Fig. 18: star/delta connection Eqt.30 and 2. usually the subsript „v“ does not appear in the power equation! Transformation star connection ↔ delta connection: ZY U ZY = S = IS Uv Iv 3 (2.Basics 2.30) Z∆ Z∆ = US Uv = Iv IS (2. d. 17a) 1 Iv Us Is 1 Us 2π 3 3 Uv 2 3 Iv delta connection (∆. 17b) 1 Uv Us Is 1 Us 2π 3 2 3 Uv Uv 2 3 2 phase quantities (subscript „s“) US.31) 3 Z ∆ = 3 ⋅ ZY (2. IS ∑U S = 0 power is always defined as Uv I S = 3⋅U S ⋅ I S = 3⋅ ⋅ Iv S = 3 ⋅U S ⋅ I S = 3 ⋅ v ⋅U v 3 3 S = 3 ⋅ U v ⋅ I v = 3 ⋅U ⋅ I Since rating plate data is always given as linked quantities. Y) (Fig.31 lead to (equal values of U and I assumed): 19 .
3 3 Fig. The superposition of the single results is equal to the total result (addition ⇒ linearity!).Basics 2. a2 are supposed to express a time displacement of ωt = +Re Iu + Im Iv Fig. the method of symmetrical components is suitable for a systematic processing. split up.(m) I mu = I m I mv = a I m I mw = a I m 2 Fig. An occurring unbalanced threephase system is split up into three symmetrical systems (positive/negative/zero phase sequence system). a =e 2 j 4π 3 =e −j 2π 3 . the network is to be calculated separately for each of these systems.6 Symmetrical components In case of unbalanced load of a balanced threephase system. 19ad: unbalanced system. caused by e. Based on this subdivision. Therefore the complex phasor a is utilized: a=e j 2π 3 .(g) Fig.g. 19d: zerosequence system (0) I gu = I g I gv = a I g I gw = a I g 20 2 I 0u = I 0v = I 0 w = I 0 . . 1 + a + a 2 = 0. 2π 4π resp.: • • supply with unbalanced voltages singlephase load between two phases or between one phase and neutral conductor. 19b: positive. 19 shows an unbalanced threephase system to be split up into three symmetrical systems: a resp. 19c: negative. symmetrical systems I positive phasesequence system I mw mu I m negative phasesequence system I gv I gu I g I zero phasesequence system gw I I I 0u 0v 0w 0 Iw I I mv Fig.
19bd) results in: Iu 1 2 I v = a I a w 1 a a2 1 I m 1 I g 1 I 0 (2. negative and zero sequence voltage components.37) With set 2. the wanted phase voltages (u.40) Usually the supply is provided by a symmetrical threephase system.44) Equivalent to the case of an unbalanced load.36) Hence follows by solving matrix 2.37 voltage equations can be established: Zm ~ Im U Lm Um U Lg Zg ~ Ig Ug U Z0 ~ I L0 0 U 0 Fig. Then follows: U LM = U L (2. w) is represented by three components (m. 20c U 0 = U L0 − Z 0 I 0 (2. 21 .34) (2. v. 20a U m = U Lm − Z m I m (2. w) can be determined by inverse transformation: U u 1 2 U v = a U a w 1 a a 2 1 U m 1 U g 1 U 0 (2. 0): I u = I mu + I gu + I 0u I v = I mv + I gv + I 0 v I w = I mw + I gw + I 0 w Insertion of the definitions (due to Fig.39) Fig.33) (2.35) (2.36: Im Ig = I 0 1 a 1 2 1 a 3 1 1 a a 1 2 Iu Iv Iw (2.43) After calculation of the positive.42) U L0 = 0 (2. the same process is to be applied in case of a given unsymmetrical power supply with demanded phase voltages.Basics Each single current (phases u. 20b U g = U Lg − Z g I g (2. g.38) Fig. v.41) U Lg = 0 (2.
.
22a/b: threephase transformer 100 kVA (Ortea) 23 . 21: threephase transformer 150 MVA (ABB) Fig.3 Transformer Fig.
3) (3.4) (3. 23: transformer. Neither the spatial distribution of the transformer arrangement. Thereby the voltage equations for both sides (1 and 2) appear as: u1 = R1i1 + dψ 1 dt dψ 2 dt (3.2) u2 = − R2i2 − with the accordant flux linkages: ψ 1 = L1i1 − Mi2 ψ 2 = L2i2 − Mi1 Currents i1 und i2 magnetize in opposite direction. Disregarding ohmic resistances . whereas side 2 is assigned to the generator referencearrow system. nor a definition of the number of turns is taken into account initially. general single phase equivalent circuit diagram The ohmic resistances R1 and R2 as well as selfinductances L1 und L2 and the mutual inductance M can be measured between the terminals of the transformer.5) u2 = − L2 (3.1 Equivalent circuit diagram The general twowinding transformer is a linear system. consisting of two electric circuits. Side 1 is defined to be subject to the load referencearrow system (VZS).1) (3. the transformer voltage equations simplify to: u1 = L1 di1 di −M 2 dt dt di2 di +M 1 dt dt (3. R1 i1 1 VZS M R2 i2 2 EZS u 1 L1 L2 u2 Fig.Transformer 3. due to the real physical occurrence.6) 24 .
σ = 1− M2 L I = k = 0 L1L2 L0 I k (3.10) u = − L di2 + M di2 2 2 dt L1 dt (3.7) u2 = − L2 di 2 dt (3. to use a general equivalent circuit diagram (ecd). independent from the choice of supply side. respective inductances for noload and shortcircuit can be determined: noload supply from side 1 i2 = 0 u1 = L1 di1 dt supply from side 2 i1 = 0 (3.9) di2 M di1 = dt L2 dt u1 = L1 = L1 di1 M 2 di1 − dt L2 dt di1 M2 1 − dt L1 L2 di1 dt di1 M di2 = dt L1 dt (3. 24: ecd with galvanic separation di1 di −M 2 dt dt di 2 di +M 1 dt dt u1 = R1i1 + L1 (3. R1 i1 1 VZS M R2 i2 2 EZS u 1 L1 L2 u2 Fig. with eliminated galvanic separation and only resistances and inductances to appear.14) u2 = − R2i2 − L2 (3.11) 2 (3. The variable σ is called Heyland factor.Transformer If the transformer is supplied from only one side.15) 25 .13) u =const It turned out to be convenient.12) d i2 M2 = − L2 1 − dt L1 L2 = −σL2 di2 dt = σL1 Result: The ratio of short circuit and noload inductance is equal to σ.8) short circuit u2 = 0 u1 = 0 (3.
Transformer Therefore an arbitrary variable ü. L* = ü 2 L2 2 (3.22. 24: Tecd as general transformer ecd 26 . 3.17) There is a general transformation as follows: * * u2 = üu2 . The derivation of ü is discussed later.18) The transformation is power invariant so that: * * u 2 i2 = u 2 i2 (3.23) form the basis of the Tecd as the general transformer ecd: R1 i1 u1 L1üM * L2üM * R2 i1i* 2 üM i* 2 * u2 Fig.20) (3. di2 di1 ü − üM di1 + üM di1 u1 = R1i1 + L1 − üM dt dt dt dt di2 di2 di2 i2 2 ü + üM di1 − üM ü + üM ü üu2 = −ü R2 − ü L2 ü dt dt dt dt 2 (3.21 the following equation set can be established: u1 = R1i1 + (L1 − üM ) di di * di1 + üM 1 − 2 dt dt dt * di di * di2 + üM 1 − 2 dt dt dt (3.16) (3. R2 = ü 2 R2 . i2 = i2 ü * .21) 1 * *2 1 2 L2i2 = L2i2 2 2 Based on equations 3.19) 2 * * R2 i2 2 = R2i2 (3.22) * * * u2 = − R2 i2 − (L* − üM ) 2 (3.163.23) These equations (3. acting as actual transformation ratio is introduced.
Transformer 3. The w2 w1 is quite important for construction and calculation of transformers. a definition of variables w2 arises as follows: L1 − w1 M = L1σ w2 leakage inductance on side 1 w1 M = L1h w2 w1 w L2 − 1 M = L'2σ w w2 2 2 w1 L2 = L'2 w 2 2 w1 ' R2 = R2 w 2 w1 ' u2 = u2 w2 i2 ' = i2 w1 w2 magnetizing inductance 2 leakage inductance on side 2 variables converted to side 1 (using ü) These replacements lead to the following voltage equations: u1 = R1i1 + L1σ di di1 + L1h µ dt dt ' di di ' ' ' u2 = − R2i2 − L'2σ 2 + L1h µ dt dt (3.2 Definition of the transformation ratio (ü) Two opportunities for the definition of the transformation ratio ü need to be discussed. design data known It is not possible to determine the ratio of definition of ü = w1 by either rating plate data or by measuring. It w2 permits a distinction between leakage flux and working flux. This facilitates to take saturation w of the used iron in the magnetic circuit into account.25) 27 .24) (3. Using ü = 1 .1 ü=w1/w2.2. 3.
25: Tecd with converted elements iµ is called the magnetizing current. 25.31) (3.28) Leakage flux fractions.27) If magnetic saturation is taken into account.: w1φ1σ = L1σ i1 ' w1φ2' σ = L'2σ i2 (3.Transformer with: ' iµ = i1 − i2 (3. Definition of the leakage factor: σ1 = σ2 = φ1σ L1σ = φ1h L1h φ 2σ ` L`2σ = φ1h L1h (3. L1h is not of constant value. which is linked to both coils (on side 1 and 2): w1φh = L1hiµ (3. as shown on the horizontal branches in Fig.26) and the accordant ecd: R1 i1 u 1 L 1σ L' i 2σ R'2 i' 2 u' 2 µ L1h Fig.29) (with reference to side 1) (3. but dependent on iµ : φ h = f ( iµ ) (magnetization characteristic) (3.30) Leakage flux fractions always show linear dependencies on their exciting currents. exciting the working flux φ h . linked to only one coil each are represented as leakage inductances L1σ und L'2σ .32) 28 .
273.37) =1− 1 (1 + σ 1 )(1 + σ 2 ) Complex rms value phasors are utilized for the description of steady state AC conditions. leakage flux in magnetic circuit Interrelation of inductances and leakage factor: M2 ü2 M 2 L2h =1− = 1− 1 ' σ =1− 2 L1 L2 L1ü L2 L1 L2 =1− 1 L1 L ⋅ L1h L1h ' 2 (3.Transformer Equations 3.32 potentiate a description of the total flux in the magnetization circuit by distinguishing between working flux and leakage flux. excitet by currents through magentizing and leakage inductances: φ1 = φ1h + φ1σ = (1 + σ 1 )φ1h φ 2' = φ1h + φ 2σ `= (1 + σ 2 )φ1h u1 i1 φ (3.34) (3. 27: ecd using complex rms value phasor designations 29 .25 can be depicted as: U 1 = R1 I 1 + jX 1σ I 1 + jX 1h I µ ' ' U 2 = − R2 I 2 − jX 2σ I 2 + jX 1h I µ ' ' ' ' (3.39) (3.38) (3.243.33) (3. Thus voltage equations 3. 26: working flux.35) (3.36) 1σ φ u'2 i'2 1h φ' L1 = L1h + L1σ = (1 + σ 1 )L1h L'2 = L1h + L'2σ = (1 + σ 2 )L1h 2σ Fig.40) I µ = I1 − I 2 This leads to the accordant ecd as follows: R1 I1 U 1 X 1σ X' σ 2 R'2 I' 2 Iµ X 1h U' 2 Fig.
28: ecd of loaded transformer 30 .42) U 10 = R1 I 10 + j ( X 1σ + X 1h )I 10 13 2 =0 An occurring voltage drop at the resistor R1 can be neglected (for R1 << X 1h ): U 20 = jX 1h I 10 ' (3. Only if transformation ratio 1 is known.2.44) U 10 U X + X 1h = 10 = 1σ = 1+σ1 && U `20 uU 20 X 1h Voltage transformation ratio: U10 w1 = (1 + σ 1 ) ≠ w1 ! U 20 w2 w2 (3.Transformer The ratio between both side 1 and side 2 noload voltages is to be calculated as follows: I `2 = 0 d. w2 3. as well as voltage U2.41) (3. current I2 results from: I2 = U2 RB + jX B R1 I1 U 1 (3. I `µ = I 10 (3.383.46) X X' σ 2 1σ R'2 I' 2 Iµ Uh X 1h I' 2 2 R'B X'B U' Fig.2 Complete phasor diagramm With knowledge of the voltage equations 3. With a given load of RB and XB.45) U 10 w is measureable due to VDE (see reference).43) (3.h.45 can be separated into 1 and (1 + σ 1 ) .39 and appearing ecd elements the complete phasor diagram of the loaded transformer can be drawn. U 20 w2 w equation 3.
52) ϕ I 2 1 I' Iµ 2 Fig.50) R' I' 2 2 I1 is equal to the sum of I 2 and I µ : I1 = I 2 + I µ U' 2 ' (3. measured value given a) ü is defined as the voltage ratio in noload condition on side 2 (with R1=0).47) (3. 3.3 ü=U10/U20.53.2. 29: phasor diagram Voltage drops on resistances and leakage inductances are illustrated oversized for a better understanding. the elements of the general transformer ecd: L1 − üM = 0 üM = L1 (3.53) With ü chosen as in 3.48) Voltage drops on R2‘ and X2σ‘ are vectorially added to U2‘: I2 = ' I2 ü jX1σ I 1 U `2 + R2 `I `2 + jX `2σ I `2 = jX 1h I µ = U h (3.Transformer Hence U2‘ and I2’can be determined: U 2 = üU 2 ' (3.54) (3.55) 31 .51) The addition of voltage Uh and the voltage drops on R1 and X1σ results in U1: U h + R1 I 1 + jX 1σ I 1 = U 1 (3. ü= U10 w L + L1σ L = (1 + σ 1 ) 1 = 1h = 1 w U 20 w2 M L1h 2 w1 (3.49) R1 I1 U= jX 2 I' 2 h Iµ arises from the voltage drop on X1h: jX1h I µ U 1 Iµ = U Uh = −j h X 1h jX 1h ' (3. In real transformer arrangements of power engineering application those voltage drops only amount a low percentage of the terminal voltage.
27) concerning operational behaviour. w2 Since L1σ is set to L1σ = 0 . 32 .57) * u2 = (1 + σ 1 ) w1 ' u2 = (1 + σ 1 )u2 w2 = ' i2 1 + σ1 (3. The shunt arm current i0 complies with the real noload current if R1 = 0 applies. the calculation is simplified.60) With neglect of the magnetic saturation this ecd (Fig.Transformer L* − üM = 2 2 L1 LL L − L1 = L1 1 22 − 1 2 2 M M σ 1 = L1 − 1 = L1 1− σ 1−σ (3. 30: reduced ecd of a transformer * i1 − i2 = i1 − ' i2 =i (1 + σ 1 ) 0 (noload current) (3. All elements of the ecd can be determined by measures.56) R = (1 + σ 1 ) * 2 2 w1 ' R2 = (1 + σ 1 )2 R2 w 2 2 (3. 30) based on the definition ü = is equal to the ecd based on ü = U 10 U 20 w1 (Fig.59) form the reduced (simplified) ecd: R1 i1 u1 i 0 L1 1. Therefore the described representation is also often used for rotating electrical machines.σ σ R'2 2 (1+ σ ) 1 (1+ σ ) 1 i'2 L1 u' 2 (1+ σ ) 1 Fig.58) * i2 = (1 + σ 1 ) w1 w2 i2 (3.
61) = M L2 w2 (L1h + L'2σ ) w 1 This choice of ü leads to: M2 M2 L1 − üM = L1 − = L1 1 − L L = σL1 L2 1 2 (3. R1 i1 u1 (1.σ )L 1 σ L1 R'2 (1+ σ ) 2 2 noload current i'2 (1+ σ2) u'2 (1+ σ ) 2 * ' i1 − i2 = i1 − i2 (1 + σ 2 ) = i0 (3. 33 . 31: ecd for alternative definition of ü (due to b.63) ' w R2 R2 R = 1 = w (1 + σ )2 (1 + σ )2 2 2 2 * 2 ' w1 u2 u2 u = = w2 (1 + σ 2 ) 1 + σ 2 * 2 (3. which are not subject to further discussion. expressing ü.64) (3.62) üM = M2 M2 = L1 = L1 (1 − σ ) L2 L1 L2 2 (3.65) * i2 = i2 (1 + σ 2 ) = i2' (1 + σ 2 ) w1 w2 (3.)) There are other opportunities left.66) an ecd which is also used for rotating electrical machines.Transformer b) The definition of ü to be the voltage ratio at noload condition on side 1 with R2 = 0 shows equivalent results: w w1 L1h 1 w2 w2 = = (1 + σ 2 ) (L1h + L'2σ ) L1h 2 ü= U 10 U 20 = w2 w1 (3.67) i0 Fig.
68) I eddy insulated laminations • Those can be reduced by using isolated.Transformer 3. see also 2. B The amount of occurring hysteresis losses is proportional to the enclosed area surrounded in a cycle of the hysteresis loop: VH ~ B 2 f (3.1 Noload condition The operational behavior of a transformer in noload condition is characterized similiarily like an ironcored reactor with ohmic resistance. increasing the specific resistance.1. Those are named as follows: • • • • noload condition shortcircuit condition load with nominal stress parallel connection 3. core φ . 34 . Occurring losses are caused by magnetic reversal in iron parts and also in windings by Joulean heat.5 T and 50 Hz. dφ dt An induced current flows in a direction to create a magnetic field which will counteract the change in magnetic flux (Lenz’s Law. caused by magnetic reversal.3 Operational behavior Four essential working points need to be discussed. laminated iron for the core and by admixture of Silicon to the alloy.2). Iron losses compose of two different physical effects: • Eddycurrent losses caused by alternating flux. 33: hysteresis loop The specific iron losses of electric sheet steel is specified in W/kg at 1. Fig.3. 32: eddy current Hysteresis losses. Fig. Eddycurrent losses emerge as: VW ~ B 2 f 2 (3.69) H Therefore magnetically soft material with narrow hysteresis loop width is used for transformers.
71) Fig. regarding losses Fig. RFe >> R2' ) . tan ϕ K = X 1K R1K (3.Transformer Iron losses can be taken into account by using resistance RFe.74) Also in shortcircuit operation the response of a transformer is equal to an ironcored reactor with ohmic resistance.72) (3. including X1h and RFe can be neglected in short circuit operation (X 1h . It is composed of the magnetizing current Iµ and the current fraction IV responsible for iron losses.70) (3. 34: ecd.73) Z1k = R12K + X 12K .2 Shortcircuit The highresistive shunt arm. Mind Z1K << Z10 in this case! 35 . 36: shortcircuit ecd of an transformer All resistances and leakage reactances are combined to a shortcircuit impedance. the equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) appears as: R1 I 1K U 1K X 1σ X´ 2σ R´2 I´ 2K U2 = 0 I 2 K = I 1K ' ' (3. With that assumption. Joulean losses at noload operation are regarded with R1. 35: phasor diagram regarding losses The noload current I10 is fed into the primary windings. arranged in parallel to the magnetiziation reactance X1h. referred to side 1: ' R1K = R1 + R2 ' X 1K = X 1σ + X 2σ (3. 3. jX 1σ I 10 R1 I 10 U 10 X 1σ I µ I U10 v R1 I 10 jX 1h I µ X1h RFe I 10 I v Iµ Fig.3.
37: shortcircuit ecd Fig.76) (3.78) 2 uK = u R + u 2 X (3.05 – 0. sufficient accuracy is reached with usage of the simplified ecd (shown in Fig. 38: phasor diagram For a reasonable comparison of transformers of different sizes and power ratings. a variable called “relative short circuit voltages” is introduced. These are short circuit voltage values normalized to the nominal voltage.75) R 1K I U 1N X 1k jX 1K I1N U 1K ϕ 1K K R 1K I1N I1N Fig.81) 3. 39).80) Shortcircuit current at nominal voltage is determined by: I 1K I1 N U1 N 1 Z = 1K = I 1N uK (real ≈ 10 – 20) (3.3.1) (3. if the output side is shortcircuited (terminals connected without resistance): U 1K = Z 1K I 1N (3. uX = X 1K I1N U1 N uX uR (3. tan ϕ K = (3.Transformer Shortcircuit measurement with nominal current due to VDE regulations: Shortcircuit voltage U1k is called the voltage to appear at nominal current and nominal frequency on the input side. 36 .77). uK = uR = U 1 K Z1 K I 1 N = U 1N U 1N R1K I1N U1 N (in practice ≈ 0.79).3 Load with nominal stress Due to relations applied in real transformers R : Xσ : Xh : RFe ≈ 1 : 2 : 1000 : 10000.
Kapp’s triangle (3. 40). The input voltage U1 and the terminal voltage U2‘ (being referred to the input side) differ from an incremental vector. The voltage ratio depends on the type of load as follows • ohmic – inductive load: U2‘ < U1 voltage reduction • ohmic – capacitive load: U2‘ > U1 voltage increase Determination of the relative voltage drop: ' U1 cosϑ = U 2 + R1K I 1 cosϕ 2 + X 1K I 1 sin ϕ 2 R1KI1 cos ϕ 2 U'2 ϑ ϕ 2 I = I' 2 1 Fig.Transformer R 1K I1 U 1 X 1K I' U' 2 2 ϕ 2 U1 X1K I 1 X1KI 1 sin ϕ2 R1K I 1 ϕ 2 Fig. dependent on the phase angle of the input current I1. 40: simplified phasor diagramm.83) U 1N − U `2 I = 1 U 1N I1N R1K I 1N X I cosϕ 2 + 1K 1N sin ϕ 2 U U 1N 1N uϕ = I1 (u R cosϕ 2 + u X sin ϕ 2 ) I 1N (3. being hypotenuse of the Kapp’s triangle (see Fig. At constant frequency and constant current stress I1 the lengths of the triangle legs remain constant. Kapp’s triangle turns around the phasor tip of a given input voltage U1.82) with cosϑ ≈ 1 and U1 = U1 N follows: (3.84) 37 . 40). 39: simplified ecd (nominal stress) This leads to a simplified phasor diagram (Fig.
42: conversion to side 2 U I 2 = I 1ü . converted to output side values: R 1K I1 U 1 X 1K Z 2K I' U' 2 I U 20 U 2 2 2 Fig. compensating currents flow (already in noload operation): I 2 A = − I 2B = ∆U Z 2 KA + Z 2 KB 38 (3. 43: impedance Z 2 K = R2 K + jX 2 K = R1 X + R2 + j 12σ + jX 2σ 2 ü ü I 2A Z 2KA ∆U Z 2KB I U 20A I 2B U 20B 2 U 2 Z Fig.3.4 Parallel connection Two variations of parallel connections need to be distinguished: • • network parallel connection: compensating networks are arranged between transformers connected in parallel – noncritical bus bar parallel connection: transformers are directly connected in parallel on the secondary side (output side). Fig. A B In order to achieve a load balance according to the respective nominal powers it is of importance not to cause compensating currents. 44: parallel connection on output side If ∆U = U 20 A − U 20 B ≠ 0 . U 20 = 1 ü Fig.85) .Transformer 3. 41: transformers in parallel Usage of the simplified equivalent circuit diagram.
86) In case of different short circuit phase angles. same vector group (threephase transformers) Condition ∆U = 0 is taken as granted. Fig.4. 45: phase shift of load currents 3.4 Mechanical construction 3. I2B I2 I2 A I 2B I 2 AN I 2 BN I2A = Z 2 KB Z 2 KA I 2 BN I 2 AN U2N U2N = uKB uKA (3. The voltage drop at both shortcircuit impedances must be the same for ∆U = 0 . That requires: • • same transformation ratio (ü) same connection of primary and secondary side. The partition of the load currents is directly opposed to the shortcircuit impedances. That means higher percental load for the transformer with lower uk.b: coretype transformers high magnetic leakage → useless! low magnetic leakage 39 .87) The percental load shares react contrariwise to the relative shortcircuit voltages. in order to avoid compensating currents.1 Design φ 2 φ 2 φ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x φ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x w 2 x w 1 w 2 w 2 w w 2 w 1 w 2 1 2 2 1 2 Fig. both load currents are phase displaced against each other. I 2 A Z 2 KB Z 2 KB j (ϕ KB −ϕ KA ) = = e I 2 B Z 2 KA Z 2 KA (3.Transformer The noload voltages of both transformers must be of the same value concerning amount and phase angle. Load current ratio and shortcircuit impedance ratio are reciprocal. U 20A =U 20B =U 20 ϕ ϕ KB KA This results in a lower geometrical sum of the load currents compared to the arithmetical sum. 46: shelltype transformer low overall height Fig. 47a.
49a: VA joints: air gaps are to be avoided Fig. 48a: cylindrical winding Fig. 49b: kVA Fig. lower leakage core cross sections: adaption to circle Fig. air gaps of a core 40 . 48c: disc winding/ sandwich winding improved magnetic coupling.Transformer windings: lowleakage models φ φ φ US n OS n OS US US 2 US 2 OS Fig. 50: joints. 49c: MVA Fig. 48b: double cylindrical winding Fig.
Transformer 3.89) I2 Fig.g.93) For L1h → ∞ high permeable steel is assumed – e. elektrical quantities: rms values) w1 2 I1 w2 2 I w1 I1 2 − w2 I 2 2 = w1 2 I1 − 2 w1 w2 = w1 2I µ = H Fe lFe = BFe lFe µ0 µ r (3. 3.94) (3.92) ⇒ L1h = w12 µ0 µ r AFe lFe (3. leading to I µ → 0 follows: w1 I1 = w2 I 2 w1qL1S1 = w2 qL 2 S2 Acu1S1 = Acu 2 S2 ' (equivalent to I1 = I 2 ) (3.3 Proportioning of R1 and R‘2 For X 1h → ∞ .4.2 Calculation of the magnetizing inductance φ h Appliance of Ampere’s Law: r r θ = ∫ H ds x x x x x x x x x x (3.96) 41 .91) 1 BFe 1 Wm = V= 2 µ0 µ r 2µ 0 µ r µ 0 µr 1 w1 2 I µ l Fe AFe = L1h l 2 Fe 2 ( 2I µ ) 2 (3.4.95) (3. 51: core. so that I µ → 0 ! BFe = µ0µr w1 2 I µ lFe (3. windings µ r high. grainorientated sheets. coldrolled.90) The calculation of inductances using the magnetic energy is most reliable: Wm = 1 1 2 ∫ HB dV = 2 Li 2V 2 (3.88) x x x x x x x x x x (magnetical quantity: peak values.
Copper losses (ohmic losses) result in: Vcu1 = R1I1 = ρ 2 2 w1lm1 qL1 2 2 I1 = ρS1 Acu1lm1 qL1 qL1 2 '2 2 (3.99) This means equal dimensions of primary and secondary windings.101) The time constant is independent from the number of turns.103) which leads to: T1 = Λ m Λ el (3. Time constant of an ironcored reactor: transformer in noload: µ0 µ r 2 µ µ w1 0 r AFe AFe l L1h lFe A 1 Acu1 Fe T1 = = = = µ0 µ r Fe w1lm1 w1 lm1 R1 l Fe ρ lm1 ρ ρ qL1 w1 Acu1 (3.Transformer with equal current densities: then follows: and therefore: S1 = S 2 Acu1 = Acu 2 lm1 = lm 2 (3.100) ' ' = ρS2 Acu 2lm 2 = R2 I 2 = R2 I 2 = R2 I1 = Vcu 2 ' This leads to: R1 = R2 and Vcu1 = Vcu 2 .104) 42 .97) (3.102) • conductivity of the winding: 1 Acu1 ρ lm1 (3.98) (3. Effective influence is only given by: • core permeance: Λ m = µ0 µ r Λ el = AFe lFe (3.
4 Calculation of the leakage inductances φ σ Assumption: transformer to be shortcircuited Iµ = 0 . The winding dimensions a1 and a2 are limited by specified current densities. ' I1 = I 2 2 h x Ampere’s Law: w1 w2 a1 b a2 r r B( x) h θ ( x ) = ∫ H ds = H ( x )h = µ0 B( x ) = Bmax = µ0 θ ( x) h µ0 µ w1I1 2 = 0 w2 I 2 2 h h (3.108) = hlm µ0 a 1 a w1 I1 2 1 + b + 2 = LK 2µ0 h 3 2 3 2 ( 2 I1 ) 2 → LK = L1σ + L'2σ = w1 µ0lm a1 a +b+ 2 h 3 3 (3. Alternatives: Double cylindric winding or disc winding (sandwich winding) 43 . Fig.107) 0 B(x)= B B(x)= B x a1 +b +a2 − x a2 max max B(x)= Bmax x a1 A mean length of turns lm is introduced for simplification purposes of calculations.4. x x x x x I 1 I d.109) LK is just arbitrarily separable into L1σ and L'2σ .106) (3.105) Bmax B (3. h. 52: leakage flux of core Calculation of the shortcircuit inductance based on the magnetic energy: 1 hl Wm = ∫ HB dV = m 2V 2 µ0 a 2 a1 + b+ a2 ∫ B (x ) 2 0 a1 + b a1 hlm 2 1 x Bmax ∫ dx + = 2µ0 a 0 1 2 ∫ dx + ∫ a1 + b+ a2 a1 + b 2 a1 + b + a2 − x dx a2 (3. In order to keep leakage inductances low. the distance b between windings needs to be reduced.Transformer 3. without neglecting winding insulation.
112) delivered power: P2 = PN I U IN U N (3.and copper losses: VFe 0 I = I N VCuN 2 V. efficiency characteristic 44 .115) P I +V I CuN I N IN N = 2 I I + VFe0 PN − PN PN + 2VCuN IN IN 2 N This operational point is characterized by equal iron.111) 2 copper losses (ohmic losses): VCu (3.η (3.113) For operation in networks of constant voltage. In case of a durable full load.Transformer 3.5 Efficiency efficiency: η= P2 P2 = P P2 + VCu + VFe 1 2 (3. 53: losses.114) Maximum efficiency appears if: dη I d I N =0 (3.116) η V Cu Is the transformer intended to be stressed with partial load.110) iron losses: U VFe = VFe 0 U N I = VCuN I N (3. IN 2 1 I a choice as per < < 1 is proven 2 IN reasonable. VFe0 I / IN Fig. it is useful to choose the efficiency maximum peak as per I 1 0< < . efficiency is defined as: PN η= I IN + VFe 0 2 I I PN + VCuN I IN N (3.
because losses per surface unit increase with size: VCu + VFe ~L O (3.121) Equations for Joulean heat and core losses show size dependencies as follows: VCu = ρS 2lm Acu ~ L3 V Fe = v Fe l Fe AFe ~ L3 (3.117) and the nominal current amounts: I1 N = S1 Acu1 w1 (3.Transformer 3.120) Nominal apparent power.118) the nominal apparent power follows as: S N = U 1N I 1N = ωN S1 BFe Acu1 AFe 2 (3. the nominal apparent power is proportional to the 4th power of linear dimensions: S N ~ L4 (3. referred to unit volume.122) (3.119) With constant flux density and current density.125) 45 .6 Growth conditions Interdependencies between electrical quantities and size can be shown for transformers and also for rotating machines. increases with incremental size: SN ~L L3 (3.124) Efficiency improves with increasing size: η = 1− VCu + VFe 1 ~ 1− SN L (3.123) Cooling becomes more complicated with increasing size. If the nominal voltage is approximately set as: U1 N = ωN ω w1φh = N w1 BFe AFe 2 2 (3.
U u V v W w This arrangement is mainly used in the USA – in Europe only for high power applications (>200 MVA) because of transportation problems. 54: threephase assembly φ iu φ u v iv uv w φ uu u i=0 iw uw The technical implementation is very simple.7. A complete cycle of the measuring loop around the three iron cores results in ui = 0 and: φu (t ) + φv (t ) + φ w (t ) = 0 (3.126) uX = X 1K I 1 N = U 1N l m a1 a S A + b + 2 1 Cu 3 w1 h3 ~L ωN w1 BFe AFe 2 (3. This transformer connects two threephase systems of different voltages (according to the voltage ratio). are to be spatially arranged. connected to threephase systems on primary and secondary side.128) Fig. Fig.127) means: increasing size leads to decreasing uR and increasing uX.7 Threephase transformer 3. Three singlephase transformers.Transformer Relative short circuit voltages show the dependencies: uR = R1K I1N I1N VCu1 1 = ~ U 1 N I1 N SN L ω N µ 0 w1 2 (3. Vector group A threephase transformer consists of the interconnection of three singlephase transformers in Y– or ∆ – connection. 55: spatial arrangement 46 .1 Design. The combination in one single threephase unit instead of three singlephase units is usual elsewhere. 3.
Significant disadvantage is the additional copper expense on the 2 secondary side increased about a factor compared to Y– or ∆ – connection. The additional opportunity of a so called zigzag connection can be used on the secondary side. according to requirements.Transformer • threeleg transformer φ x x x x x U φ x x x x x x x x x x V φ x x x x x x x x x x W x x x x x The magnetic return paths of the three cores can be dropped. In a parallel connection of two threephase transformers the transformation ratio as well as the phase angle multiplier of the according vector group need to be adapted. The separation of the windings into two parts and their application on two different cores characterize this type of connection. which results in the usual type of threephase transformers. 57: fiveleg transformer Primary and secondary winding can be connected in Y– or ∆ – connection. 56: threeleg transformer OS U V W US • fiveleg transformer x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x φ Fiveleg transformers are used for high power applications (low overall height). This wiring is particularly suitable for singlephase loads. 47 . One primary and one secondary winding of a phase is arranged on any leg. The method of symmetrical components (see 2.6) is suited for calculations in case of unbalanced load conditions. 3 A conversion from linetoline quantities to phase quantities and the usage of singlephase ecd and phasor diagram is reasonable for the calculation of the operational behaviour of balanced loaded threephase transformers. Fig. 3 x x x φ x U φ x φ V φ x W 3 Fig.
Transformer Examples for vector groups (based on VDE regulations): phase angle multiplier vector group phasor diagram ecd ratio primary side secondary side primary side secondary side U u U V W u v w 0 Yy0 W U 0 0 0 V w1 w2 0 w v v w U V W 6 Yy6 W U 6·30° 0 0 V u v w w1 w2 u u w U V W 5 Yd5 W 0 v V 0 5·30° 0 3w1 w2 u v w u u w v 5·30° U U V W +  w2 2 Yz5 W 0 0 u u v v w w2 2 2 w1 3w2 0 V u Fig. defining the total phase shift. of which the low voltage (secondary side) lags behind the higher voltage (same orientation of reference arrow assumed). y D. Mnemonic: clock o higher voltage: 12 o’clock o lower voltage: number of multiplier (on the clock) 48 . 58: table showing phasor diagrams and ecd according to vector group and multiplier with: • • • • • upper case letter lower case letter Y. d z à à à à à vector group on primary side vector group on secondary side star connection delta connection (? ) zigzag connection The multiplier gives the number of multiples of 30°.
Iv = Iw = 0 U V W u transformer v w 0 ZB IB Fig. segmentation of the currents into positive. inverse transformation U u = U m +U g +U 0 = U L − IB (2 Z K + Z 0 ) 3 2 (3.Transformer 3.132) IB 3 3. negative.130) (3. set up of the voltage equations: • • note: Z m = Z g = Z K → generally valid for transformers and: Z 0 → dependent on the vector group.131) (3.134) (3.129) 2.7.and zero sequence system: Im Ig = I 0 1 a 1 2 1 a 3 1 1 a a 1 2 Iu Iv = Iw IB 1 IB 3 IB (3.135) ( ) 49 . U Lm = U L . regard: noload voltages are balanced U m = U Lm − Z m I m = U L − Z K U g = U Lg − Z g I g = − Z K U 0 = U L0 − Z 0 I 0 = − Z 0 IB 3 IB 3 U Lg = U L 0 = 0 (3.2 Unbalanced load A threephase transformer of any vector group may be singlephase loaded on the neutral conductor: Iu = IB. 59 unbalanced load of threephase transformer Appliance of the method of symmetrical components: 1.133) U v = a U m + aU g + U 0 = a U L − 2 a +a ZK +Z0 123 = −1 I 2 2 U w = aU m + a U g + U 0 = aU L − B 1+ a Z K + Z 0 a 23 3 =−1 2 IB 3 ( ) (3.
60) is distorted. A correspondence of Z 0 = Z K is aimed for a troublefree single phase load. otherwise phase voltage Uu collapses in a worst case condition – leading to increased phase voltages Uv und Uw by factor 3 .137) (3. This voltage drop needs to be limited. 60: phasor diagram Since the voltage drop along X0 is equal and inphase. 50 . the threephase phasor diagram (Fig. caused by a star point displacement.Transformer With neglecting the voltage drop along ZK and assumption of a pure inductive load.138) jX0 UL Uu 0 IB jX 0 IB 3 Uw Uv jX 0 IB 3 Fig.136) U v = a U L − jX 0 U w = aU L − jX 0 (3. the phase voltages are determined by: U u = U L − jX 0 2 IB 3 IB 3 IB 3 IB 3 (3.
62 ac: selection of vector group combinations matching requirements (due to 3. zero sequence impedance a) Yy.Transformer It is to be discussed. This effect leads to improper temperature rise...2) 51 . The ? connected higher voltagewinding (primary side) is equal to a short circuit of the inphase fluxes: Z0 ≈ Z K Fig. Measurement of the zero sequence impedance: I0 transformer U0 Z0 = 3U 0 I0 (3. 62 a I 0 → load with zero sequence system possible 3 I0 U0 Fig. Currents in a winding of any limb equalize each other. without exciting working flux: Z0 ≈ Z K I 0 → load with zero sequence system possible I 3 I0 U0 0 3 u v Fig.139) Fig.7. 62b c) Yz... The flux distributions establish a closed loop via leakage path.. 62c Fig.. which of the vector groups match the requirements and how the zero sequence impedance can be determined. High resistance of the leakage paths leads to: Z K < Z0 < Zh x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x → star loading capacity: 10% IN (maximum) b) Dy. ambient air or frame. I 0 excites inphase fluxes in all of the three limbs. 61: transformer.
Advantage: significant material savings I1 U1 w1 w2 U2 Disadvantage: primary and secondary side feature galvanic coupling voltage ratio: ( I µ > 0. the throughput rating PD of autotransformers is only partially transmitted by induction (unit rating PT). consisting of a single. R2 = 0 ) Fig.142) In contrast to separate winding transformers.141) (3. the shortcircuit current rises high! 52 . Applications: power supply of traction motors.Transformer 3. In border case condition characterized by ü close to 1. the unit rating PT becomes very low.143) = Z1K (1 − ü ) For ü close to 1. Example: Z1KST = shortcircuit on secondary side Z 1K ∆Z K ∆Z K (w − w )2 = Z 1K = Z1 K 2 2 1 Z 1K + ∆Z K Z2K w2 2 (3.8 Autotransformer I2 ∆U ∆w A special type of power transformer. continuous winding that is tapped on one side to provide either a stepup or stepdown function (inductive voltage divider). system interconnection 220 / 380 kV Another disadvantage of the economizing circuit of autotransformers is given by the increased shortcircuit current (compared to separate winding transformers) in fault scenarios. L1σ > 0 ) ü= U1 w1 w1 = = U 2 w2 w1 + ∆w (3. the residuary fraction is transmitted by DC coupling (galvanic). 63: autotransformer unit rating = design rating: PT = ∆UI 2 = (U 2 − U1 )I 2 U = U 2 I 2 1 − 1 U 2 = PD (1 − ü ) PD = U 1I1 = U 2 I 2 (3.140) throughput rating = transmittable power: ( R1 = 0.
rotating armature Rotating field machines: o induction machines (asynchronous behaviour) o synchronous machines synchronuous speed of air gap field. Electrical power is either supplied to – or dissipated from the stator. 64. Losses appear in stator and rotor. with voltages to be induced. motor P el stator air gap rotor n motor P mech P mech generator v generator P el The general design of rotating electrical machines in shown in Fig. The latter differ from balanced threephase rotating field systems or singlephase alternating systems. 64: scheme of energy conversion Technical demands on energy converters: 1. Stator and rotor are usually fitted with windings.and generator mode. The electrical energy conversion occurs in the air gap.4 Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines Rotating electrical machines are electromechanical energy converters: motor – generator The described energy conversion. Forces either appear as Lorentz force in conductors or as interfacial forces on (iron) core surfaces. Time independent and constant power is to be found in DC and threephase systems. expressed as forces on the mechanical side. quick adjustment of torque and speed (motor) and according voltage and current (generator) in transient operation Electrical machines are usually supplied by either DC or AC systems. Fig. Transmitted power of singlephase systems pulsates at doubled system frequency. Basically three types of electrical machines need to be distinguished: • • DC machines: air gap field with steady orientation towards stator. whereas it appears as induced voltages on the electrical side. Basically electrical machines can be operated in both motor. rotor follows synchronous or asynchronous 53 . time independent constant torque (motor) and according constant power output (generator) in steady state operation 2. caused by spatiotemporal flux alteration. whereas mechanical power is either dissipated from – or supplied to the rotor.
until nominal power PN is optained. 54 . therefore the operation range is also called field weakening range. The described condition of decreased driving torque is achieved by weakening of the magnetic field. Working points with nominal quantities such as nominal torque MN and nominal power PN can be operated enduring. Bearings operated at excessive speed reach their thermal acceptance level. 65).Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines 4. Nominal quantities and maximum quantities need to be differentiated. caused by excessive currents. In the event of a load condition exceeding the specified range. This range is characterized by the opportunity that at least the nominal torque can be performed at any speed. The complete range of achievable load cases is contained in this diagram (Fig.1) Fig. Nominal speed nN is reached in this working point: nN = PN 2π ⋅ M N (4. 65: M/n operation diagram Nominal power PN must not be exceeded in enduring operation. M overload MN base speed field weakening range Mmax M~n1 P max P N field weakening range nN N n nmax Two general operating areas appear for electrical machines. In order to still run higher speeds. There is the base speed range at first. provoked by centrifugal force (radial).is called range of constant power (according to equation 4. mechanical strength and life cycle.2) This area – being the second out of the two described . Excessive speed may destroy the rotor by centrifuging. whereas maximum quantities such as maximum torque Mmax and maximum power Pmax can only be driven momentarily.2). Limiting parameters are temperature. the machine becomes subject to a thermal overload. driving torque must be decreased at increasing speed.1 Operating limits Operating limits as borders cases in a specific M/n operation diagram (torque/speed diagram) exist for any electrical machine. even at 0 rpm. At constant torque MN the mechanical power increases linear with increasing speed. followed by a reduction of the life cycle. M = PN 2π ⋅ n (4.
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
4.2 Equation of motion
Electrical drives are utilized for conversion of electrical energy in mechanical motion processes and also the other way around. The torque balance of a drive system describes the fundamental relation for the determination of a motion sequence. It necessarily needs to be fulfilled at any time. M A − MW − M B = 0 MA MW
dΩ dt
(4.3) driving torque of a motor load torque or resistance torque of the load engine with friction torque and loss torque contained acceleration torque of all rotating masses mass moment of inertia mechanical angular speed (4.4) (4.5) (4.6)
MB = J ⋅
J = ∫ r 2 ⋅ dm
Ω = 2 ⋅π ⋅ n
In stationary operation, characterized by n=const, the acceleration torque is MB=0.
Ω
r
The conversion from rotary motion into translatory motion (and the other way around as well) is performed with regard to the conservation of kinectic energy:
1 1 ⋅ m ⋅ v2 = ⋅ J ⋅ Ω2 2 2
v m
(4.7)
2
Fig. 66: rot./trans. conversion
v Ω⋅r 2 J = m⋅ = m⋅ = m⋅r Ω Ω
2
(4.8)
55
The following table shows rotary and translatory physical quantities: translation name and symbol distance s speed v equations
s = r ⋅ϕ
rotation unit m name and symbol angle ϕ angular speed Ω m equations
ϕ= Ωm = s r dϕ dt v r
Unit rad
v=
ds dt
m/s
1/s
v = r ⋅ Ωm
dv dt
Ωm =
acceleration a
a=
m/s2
angular acceleration α tangential acceleration at
α=
dΩ m dt
1/s2 m/s2 kg m2 Nm W J
at = r ⋅ α
mass m force F power P energy W
F = m⋅ dv dt
kg N W J
mass moment of inertia J torque M power P energy W
J = ∫ r 2 dm
M =J⋅ dΩ m dt
P = F ⋅v
P = M ⋅ Ωm
W = 1 ⋅ J ⋅ Ω2 m 2
W =
1 m ⋅ v2 2
Fig. 67: rotary and translatory quantities, according symbols, equations and units
4.3 Mechanical power of electrical machines
An electrical machine can either be used as motor or as generator. In motor mode electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy, in generator mode mechanical energy is transformed into electrical energy. The power rating plate data is always given as the output power. Mechanical power working on the shaft is meant for the motor operation, electrical power being effective at the terminals is meant for the generator. Mechanical power P is determined by
P = Ω ⋅ M = 2 ⋅π ⋅ n ⋅ M
(4.9)
56
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
Mechanical speed n and torque M are signed quantities (+/) – per definition is: • output power signed positive
That means positive algebraic sign (+) for mechanical power in motor operation.
M generator P<0
backward braking
motor P>0
forward driving
n motor P>0
backward driving
generator P<0
forward braking
Fig. 68: operation modes, directions of electrical machines An electrical drive can be driven in all of the four quadrants of the M/n diagram (see Fig. 65 and 68). An automotive vehicle is supposed to be taken as an example: if speed n and torque M are signed identically, the according machine is in motor operation. We get forward driving with positive signed speed (1st quadrant) and backward driving with negative signed speed (3rd quadrant). In case of different algebraic signs for speed and torque, the machine works in generator mode, battery and supply systems are fed with electrical energy. This takes effect in braked forward driving (4th quadrant) as well as in braked backward driving (2nd quadrant).
57
Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines
4.4 Load and motor characteristics, stability
Motor operation and generator mode of operation need to be discussed separately.
4.4.1 Motor and generator characteristics
motor characteristics:
M
A
M A = f (n )
generator characteristics: U G = f (I )
UG U0 UN R N
N
M
N
R n
N
n
0
n
.
IN
I
Fig. 69a: shunt characteristic
n ≈ const M , n0
Fig. 69b: shunt characteristic
U ≈ const I , U 0
series characteristic 1 M ~ n
series characteristic
U ~ φ(I )
4.4.2 Load characteristics
M w = f (n )
M
W
U B = f (I )
~n2
UG ~I UN const
I
~n M
N
const n ~ n n
N 1
n
IN
I
Fig. 70a: motor load characteristic friction, gravitation M w = const : elektric brake Mw ~ n : fans, pumps M w ~ n2 : 1 Mw ~ : winches n
Fig. 70b: generator load characteristic U B = U N = const : U B = RI : stiff system load resistance
58
3 Stationary stability stable motor operation ∂M w ∂M A > ∂n ∂n MW stable generator operation (4. 71b: generator stability characteristic The voltage at the load needs to increase stronger with increasing current than the generator voltage. 71a: motor stability characteristic The load torque needs to increase stronger with increasing speed than the motor torque.11) B UG stable unstable MW stable M A n I Fig. Fig.Fundamentals of rotating electrical machines 4. 59 .10) U U unstable B ∂U B ∂U G > ∂I ∂I U (4.4.
.
The current reversal.1 Design and mode of action The stator of a DC machine usually consists of a massive steel yoke. perpendicular orientated to the exciter field. 72: DC machine. the armature current is supplied or picked up by stationary brushes. commutation more difficult. pole (solid) brush X exciter windings F I yoke (solid) x n I F X armature (lamin. Advantages: lower core cross sections. the magnetic circuit is closed via the stator iron core. performed by the commutator. Since number of pole pairs and speed is not related for DC machines. The magnetic field excited by the excitation current permeates the rotor (also called armature for DC machines). commutator Fig. This current reversal is performed by the so called commutator of collector.n armature winding z conductor Is the conductor (Fig. The commutator revolves with the armature. The armature winding is placed in the armature slots. is done in the way to create a spatiotemporal magnetomotive force (mmf).) f = p . Machines with p poles show ptimes repeating electrical structure along the circumference. Those stator poles carry DC exciter windings. 73: DC machine. caused by higher armature current frequency. 72) fed with DC current of constant value. shorter end turns. short magnetic distances Disadvantages: more leakage. The commutator is composed of a slip ring that is cut in segments. more iron losses. poles 61 . because armature bars carry currents of frequency f = p ⋅ n . frequencies higher than 50 Hz may appear. with each segment insulated from the other as well as from the shaft. x x x x x x + x x x x + x  x x p=3 Fig. The armature needs to be laminated. Does the armature pass these regions caused by its mass moment of inertia. With unreversed current direction a braking force is exerted on the rotor. Effective field and according force are equal to zero beneath the poles. a magnetic field of opposite direction is reached next. general design This consideration leads to the result. the armature current needs to be reversed until the armature conductor reaches the field of opposite poles. The armature core is composed of slotted iron laminations that are stacked to form a cylindrical core. a force F is exerted on the conductor as long as it remains underneath the stator pole.5 DC Machine 5. The method of DC machine armature current supply to create uniform torque in motor operation is subject to the following consideration. fitted with poles. φ /6 x + x x x x Large DC machine models are designed with more than 2 poles.
74: DC motor 8440 kW (ABB) Fig.DC Machine Fig. 76: DC generator 1 kW (Bosch) 62 . 75a/b: section through DC motor 30 kW (side/left) Fig.
78: DC disctype rotor1 kW (ABB) Fig.DC Machine Fig. 79: universal motor (ACDC) 300W (Miele) 63 . 77: permanentfield transmission gear 1.5 kW (Bosch) Fig.
all p pole pairs are connected in series. Around the armature circumference. Only one coil is arranged between two commutator bars. The number of parallel pathes of armature windings amounts 2a = 2 in this case. connected with the beginning of the accordant coil of the next pole pair. 80b: wave winding 64 . Usual for the design of large DC machines is an arrangement of any coil being composed of more than one turn (ws > 1) and a slot filling with more than one coil each (u > 1). connected to the according commutator bar. Using only 2 brushes. 80b: lap winding Fig. Wave windings consist of coil ends at the commutator. N S N S N Fig. The number of parallel pathes of armature windings amounts 2a = 2p. so that a complete circulation around the armature with p coils leads to the next commutator bar. all p pole pairs are connected in parallel. a number of z bars altogether are uniformly distributed in slots. consisting of line conductor in the top layer and return conductor in the bottom layer.DC Machine The armature winding of a DC machine is modelled as double layer winding. In cause of the existence of 2p brushes. Two different wiring methods are used for separate windings: • • lap winding (in series) wave winding (in parallel) Lap windings are characterized by a connection of a coil end at the commutator directly with the beginning of the next coil of the same pole pair.
14) The number of armature conductors is z.DC Machine 5. basic design Fig.g.2 Basic equations As the general design of a DC machine is illustrated in Fig.12) Equivalent to an armature turn of one pole pitch. 83: armature current 65 . Fig.13) ∆t = 1 1 ⋅ n 2⋅ p (5. With 2a pairs of parallel paths of armature windings. ∆φ = 2 ⋅ φ the according period of time lasts: (5. the flux linkage of the armature winding reverses from +φ to φ. 82: air gap field vs. 82 shows the air gap field caused by exciter windings versus a complete circumference of the armature. circumference angle Faraday’s Law (VZS) is utilized for the calculation of the induced voltage: ui = dψ dφ ∆φ = w⋅ = w⋅ dt dt ∆t (5.: IA /2 Fig.15) e. the effective number of armature windings is determined by: w= z 1 ⋅ 2 2⋅a 2⋅a = 2 IA IA /2 IA (5. 81. 81: DC machine. B( α ) main pole (solid) X B L exciter winding x x F x n x yoke (solid) α ·π i x IA F X IA 0 π 2π p·α armature winding B L Fig.
125.18) Torque can be derived from the magnetic energy with same assumptions (see equations.DC Machine This leads to an equation for the induced voltage of DC machines .23) The armature resistance of a DC machine can be determined by using Joulean heat losses: VCu z ⋅ (l + τ p ) I 2 = A ⋅ρ ⋅ = I A ⋅ RA 2a qL 2 (5.19) M= (5. () generator (5.21) Pmech = U i ⋅ I A = k ⋅ n ⋅ φ ⋅ I A = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ n ⋅ M M = k ⋅φ ⋅ I A 2 ⋅π (5.25) 66 .24) RA = z ⋅ ρ (l + τ p ) ⋅ qL 4 ⋅ a2 (5.second basic equation : U = U i ± I A ⋅ RA (+) motor.22) (5. pole pitch etc.first basic equation: Ui = w ⋅ ∆φ z 1 p = ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⋅φ ⋅ n ⋅ 2 ⋅ p = z ⋅ ⋅ n ⋅φ 2 2⋅a a ∆t k = z⋅ p a (5.generator): 2 U ⋅ I A = U i ⋅ I A ± I A ⋅ RA 13 1 3 1 3 2 2 2 Pauf Pmech VCu (5. to be regarded in a complete mesh loop . as for the induced voltage – third basic equation: M = dWm I ⋅ dΨ I ⋅ w ⋅ ∆φ z 1 2φ z ⋅ p 1 = = =I⋅ ⋅ = ⋅φ ⋅ I 2 2a π dα dα ∆α a 2π p k ⋅φ ⋅ I 2π (5.16) Ui = k ⋅φ ⋅ n (5. 5.20) The power balance equation confirms described dependencies (+ motor.16 above) concerning parallel paths of armature windings.17) The armature winding shows an ohmic resistance RA. .
30) If Fig.27) (5.DC Machine 5. The DC machine is therefore driven with currentless armature (IA = 0) at constant speed (n = const.29) The dependency k ⋅φ = f ( I F ) can be measured as noload characteristic. general ecd The operational behaviour of a DC machine is completely described with appliance of the three basic equations (5. the induced voltage is measured with variating exciter current. interconnections The following general ecd is used for DC machines: RA IA IA φ M G n Ui Sense of rotation: motor operation (VZS): armature current arrow rotates in direction of exciter field generator operation(EZS): armature current arrow against the direction of the exciter field U Fig.1 Main equations.26 – 5.28): Ui = k ⋅φ ⋅ n U = U i ± I A ⋅ RA (5. ecd. k·φ unsaturated saturated IA = 0 n=const k ⋅φ = Ui n (5.28) M = k ⋅φ ⋅ IA 2 ⋅π Neglect of saturation in the magnetic circuit of the DC machine assumed.26) (5.). a linear dependence between air gap flux and exciter current is supposed: k ⋅φ = M ⋅ I F (M: magnetizing inductance) (5.3.3 Operational behaviour 5. 84: DC machine. 85: noload characteristic 67 .
86ae: DC machine interconnection variations compound 68 .DC Machine The characteristical speed/torquebehaviour likewise ensues from the basic equations (equations.28): speed: n= torque: Ui U I ⋅R = − A A k ⋅φ k ⋅ φ k ⋅φ (5.32) The operational behaviour of DC machines is dependent on the exciter winding interconnection type arrangement versus the armature.31) M = k ⋅φ ⋅ IA 2 ⋅π (5. The following types of interconnection are discussed in the following: I = IA U IF I K A I U I IA F A I = IA U A UF C D B R FV B B separately excited shunt permanent field I =I A I E A F I U D I C F F IA E A U F RP B B series Fig. 5.265.
36) Speed can be adjusted by either: • variation of the armature voltage (1): U < UN : n = • U I ⋅R ⋅ n0 − n0 ⋅ A A UN UN (5.3.37) field weakening (2): φ < φ N : n = n0 ⋅ • φN φ I ⋅R − n0 ⋅ N ⋅ A φ φ UN (5.35) The shortcircuit current needs to be limited by a series resistor.34) speed: n= UN I ⋅R I ⋅R − A A = n0 − n0 ⋅ A A k ⋅φ N k ⋅ φ N UN (5.33) UN k ⋅φN (5.38) utilization of starting resistor (3): ∗ R A = R AV + R A : n = n0 − I A ( RA + R AV ) ⋅ n0 UN (5. their operational behaviour does not differ at all. shunt machine As long as separately excited.39) 69 . IK = UN 〉〉 I N RA (5. No opportunity for an exciter flux variation is provided for permanentfield machines. Only the amount of exciter voltage is different for shunt machines. permanentfield and shunt machine are supplied by constant voltage UN. permanentfield.2 Separately excitation. There is: U f = const → I f = const → φ N = const torque: M ~ IA noload: shunt characteristic I = 0 . M = 0 ⇒ n0 = (5.DC Machine 5.
With regard to armature reaction. 5.and exciter windings. n.DC Machine The sense of rotation can be reversed by changing the polarity of either the armature. whereas the speed adjustment utilizing a starting resistor is lossy. M M n 0 2) 1) generator Fig. the field weakening range needs to be limited to f < 3.or the exciter voltage.42) n= UN R − M ⋅ IA M mind the noload case with: I A = 0 n( I A =0 ) → ∞ !!! conclusion: a series machine runs away in case of unloading! 70 .to generator mode permits utilization as variable speed drive in conveyor motor and manipulator applications. The total resistance to be measured at the terminals is: R = RA + RF Exciter windings are supplied by the armature current: (5.3.40) I = IF = I A with neglect of saturation follows: (5.41) k ⋅φ = M ⋅ I A 2 M ~ IA (M = magnetizing inductance) torque proportionality ensues as: speed is determined as (by insertion): series characteristic (5.3 Series machine A series machine is characterized by a series connection of armature. 87: shunt characteristic motor 3) I A A continuous transition from motor. Speed adjustment using variation of the armature voltage is nondissipative.
and electric vehicle applications as well as for starters in automotive applications. M M (5.44) R A + RF UN f n= f⋅ −f⋅ M ⋅ IA M • utilization of starting resistor (3): R ∗ = RV + R A + RF n. Major advantage is a high torque value already at low speeds.46) UN R∗ n= − M ⋅ IA M 2) 1) motor 3) I Fig. sufficing traction efforts particularly at startup. 88: series machine characteristic A continuous transition from motor.45) (5. Speed can be adjusted by either: • variation of the armature voltage (1): U < UN : n = • U UN R ⋅ − UN M ⋅ I A M (5. 71 .to generator mode is not possible for a series machine! Series machines must not be unloaded! DC series machines are utilized for traction drives in light rail.DC Machine Short circuit current IK = UN R A polarity change of the armature voltage does not lead to a reversal of the rotation sense of a DC series machine.43) field weakening (2): I F < I A mit RP: f = IA R = 1+ F IF RP (5.
72 .4 Compound machine By separation of exciter windings in shunt. They have not been translated for conformity purposes. motor operation GMF1: separately excited DC machine GNM. 89 and 90 show comparisons of the different characteristics of all discussed DC machine types for both motor. motor operation DC compound machines are used as motor in flywheel drives as well as generator in solitary operation. shunt characteristic is achieved in the proximity of noload operation.3. generator mode ___________________________________________________________________________ 1) abbreviations. Machines which are designed due to this method are called compound machines. series characteristic is achieved under load. 89: DC machine types. GMF n GNM: DC shunt machine GRM: DC series machine GDM: DC compound machine GDM GRM M Fig. based on their German origin are not intuitive in English. Note their features: • • • definite noload speed continuous transition from motor mode to generator mode ppossible under load: decreasing speed according to the dimensioning of the series windings.and generator mode.DC Machine 5. generator mode U GMF GDM GNM I Fig.and series windings. 90: DC machine types. Fig.
DC Machine 5. their stator is composed of stacked iron laminations. 92: torque waveform vs. I~ U~ Approach for flux determination: ϕ ( t ) = φ ⋅ sin (ω ⋅ t ) (5.3. 91: universal machine.265. 92). highest possible direct component assumes: M(t) M mid t Fig. in this case to appear in their timevariant form. A universal machine can be supplied either by DC or by AC current – therefore the alternative denomination as ACDC machine.28 are still applicable for AC supply at frequency f. The described DC machine basic equations 5.49) (5.50) Ui = k ⋅φ ⋅ n 2 the torque equation appears as M ( t) = k k φ⋅I ⋅ ( cos ρ − cos(2 ⋅ ω ⋅ t − ρ )) ⋅ϕ ( t ) ⋅ i( t ) = ⋅ 2 ⋅π 2 ⋅π 2 k φ⋅I ⋅ ⋅ cos ρ 2 ⋅π 2 (5.47) A phase shift applies for the armature current approach: i ( t ) = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ sin ( ω ⋅ t − ρ ) Fig. time cos ρ → 1 and ρ → 0 meaning: flux and armature current need to be inphase! 73 .52) The time variant torque pulsates with twice the nominal frequency f between zero and the doubled average value (as shown in Fig.48) (5.51) M mittel = (5. general ecd The induced voltage results in: u i (t ) = k ⋅ ϕ (t ) ⋅ n (5.5 Universal machine (ACDC machine) Universal machines are DC series machines as a matter of principle.
phasor diagram for n = 0 ⇒ U i = 0 Fig. ecd 2 (ϕ . 93b: series machine. 94a: shunt machine. whereas they are inphase for the series wound machine. i ) ≈ π Fig.54) U = U i + R ⋅ I + jX ⋅ I 74 (5.53) L = L A + LF must be taken into account for universal machines with AC supply. 94b: series machine.55) . 93a. As to be seen on equivalent circuit diagrams (Fig. R ϕ u L Fig. 93a: shunt machine. 94a. Occuring pulsating torque is damped by the inert mass of the rotor. Therefore the voltage equation due to a mesh loop is determined by (5.b) and phasor diagrams (Fig. i ) ≈ 0 U IL ~ ϕ IR ~ i U UL I UR I~i ~ϕ Fig. phasor diagram for n = 0 ⇒ U i = 0 Additionally to the ohmic voltage drop at the resistor sum R = R A + RF . The working torque is equal to the direct torque component. the inductive voltage drop at the inductance sum (5. ecd R i n u L ϕ ui i n ui (ϕ . a phase shift of almost π/2 between armature current and flux occurs for the shunt machine.DC Machine This condition is fulfilled for the series motor.b).
L A I U R F . R A . as well as φ is inphase with I. speed characteristic (AC. The according speed characteristic is the same as of DC series wound machines n = ~ M Fig. ecd Fig.9 The motor utilization in AC operation is decreased by 1 / 2 compared to DC operation – same thermal and magnetic stress assumed. 96: universal machine.56) Ui is inphase with φ .L F jXI R·I Ui Ui UN ϕ I Fig. DC) 75 . because Ui = k ⋅φ ⋅n 2 (5. 95b: phasor diagram Universal motors absorbes lagging reactive power (inductive): cosϕ N ≈ 0. 95a: universal machine.DC Machine Induced voltage Ui and armature current I are inphase.
and tool applications at 50 Hz supply: • • • power < 1 kW speed < 40.000 min1 speed variation by voltage variation Types of construction exciter windings poles yoke armature windings Fig. design variations Large machines are mainly used for traction drives in railway applications. 97: universal machine.DC Machine Appliance Single phase series wound motors are used as universal motors in household. The linefrequency needs to be reduced down to 162/3 Hz in cause of the induced voltage (U ind ~ f ) . 76 .
1 Shunt generator Process of selfexcitation: U RA IF U R FV RF UR IA n Ui Ui IF (R A+R F +R FV ) IF Fig. The machine is to be operated with constant speed at noload. the exciter current I F acts demagnetizing.3. Voltage can be adjusted using series resistor RFV . ecd n=const. noload char. 5. Load characteristic: In comparison to a separately excited machine. (5.58 the terminal voltage is even more loaddependent. A remanent voltage U R is induced by remanence.57) In case of false polarity. 5. which is present in any magnetic circuit.58) 77 . which do not appear for separately excited and permanentfield machines with constant energy flux. 98b: shunt generator.3. I=0 Fig.and series wound machines need to be taken care of in generator mode.DC Machine 5. Using a series resistor the exciter windings are to be connected in parallel to the armature.6. a selfexcitation process does not occur.6 Generator mode Some specific features of shunt. The engendered exciter current reinforces the residual magnetic field – the induced voltage is increased perpetually. („dynamoelectric principle“): U i = I F (RA + RFV + RF ) (5. the load characteristic U = f (I ) of a selfexcited generator is nonlinear U = U N − I A RA and with eqt. This induced voltage evokes an exciter current I F then. 98a: shunt generator. A stable operating point is reached if the induced voltage is as high as the voltage drop to occur at the exciter circuit resistors.
load case (EZS) U i = I A R A + I F RF (5.60) (5. 101: load characteristic The generator current is limited to Imax.59) (5.63) With cognition of the noload characteristic and the resistance line. 78 .61) IA = I + IF U = I F RF then follows: U i = I R A + I F (R A + R F ) (5. 99: self excited generator. the load characteristic can be created graphically. U U0 ~I IF (R A +R F ) Ui U U0 stable unstable separate excitation shunt ~U IF0 IF IRK Imax I Fig. to be evoked by the remanent voltage.DC Machine As ensued for the load case: RA I RB U RF φ IF Ui IA n Fig.62) and I= 1 (U i − I F (RA + RF )) RA (5. The terminal voltage collapses at higher loads with the consequence of only shortcircuit current flowing. 100: noload/resistor characteristic Fig.
79 .6.2 Series generator Are DC series machines operated in generator mode. but dependent on RB. ∂I A ∂I A The series generator as such is unpopular. because of Terminal voltage is not adjustable.DC Machine 5. A distinction is to be made whether the series machine is working on a system of constant voltage or on a load resistor. Stable operation at constant voltage system is not possible. because of ∂U B ∂U i > . the selfexciting process takes place simultaneously to shunt machines. 103: load characteristic A stable operation with load resistor RB is given. RA UN IA RB RF φ Ui n U UN I F(R A +R F +R B ) Ui Fig. it is only used as dynamic brake in traction drive applications. 102: DC series generator (EZS) IA = I F Fig. ∂I A ∂I A ∂U N ∂U i < .3.
104: WardLeonardSet The longterm used and popular WardLeonardSet is almost completely replaced by power converter supplied DC drive systems.G Fig.7 DC machine supply with variable armature voltage for speed adjustment A WardLeonardConverter is a machineset. The following circuit arrangements are mainly used.3. consisting of an induction machine (motor) and a DC machine (generator).DC Machine 5. 105: backtoback converter arrangement 80 . M 3~ G M AM Fig. M. • backtoback connection of two controlled threephase bridges with thyristors for highvoltage applications and fourquadrantoperation („reversible converter“). A WardLeonardConverter can be operated in any of the four quadrants. which feeds another DC machine (to be controlled) with variable armature voltage. Voltage adjustment is achieved by phase control.
Voltage adjustment is also performed by timing devices. if either a braking resistor or an antiparallel converter bridge is provided. Voltage adjustment is performed by timing devices. n M M Fig. 106: DC drive (servo). Therefore usually utilized permanentfield DC motors can be operated in any of the four quadrants.DC Machine • uncontrolled converter bridge with voltage DC link as a composition of transistors in Harrangement for low power applications („servo amplifier “). DC machine with chopper 81 . fourquadrant converter • Simple DC choppers with transistors or thyristors are often used in battery supplied systems. 107: electric vehicle drive. Without reversion. Th U IM IG φ n M J driving braking B Fig. only onequadrant operation is possible.
82 . synchronous.65) • cheaper production Permanentmagnets are mainly used in DC. the following advantages appear for DC machines as well as for synchronous machines in principle: • higher efficiency 6=08 7 ∑V = 1 − I ⋅ RA + I F2 ⋅ RF + VFe η = 1− Pauf UN ⋅ IN 2 A (5. Besides some exemptions. 108b: permanent field D 1 (5.64) • less volume and weight xx x x N S D 2 D D 1 2 electric Fig. A widespread implementation of permanentmagnets in electrical machines as well as an expansion up to higher power ranges are to be expected for the future. • improved dynamic behaviour TA = LA TAElektr. D2elektr.DC Machine 5.4 Permanent magnets If permanent magnets are used instead of electrical field excitation. = D1perm. > D2Perm. office and data systems technology as well as for industrial servo drives. = << TAElektr.and step motors for automotive auxiliary applications. 108a: electric excitation D1elektr. R A 1 + hM δ permanent Fig. household and consumer goods. Power limitations are either given by material parameters or by costs of the permanentmagnets. the power range of permanentmagnet equipped motors leads from a few W to some 10 kW.
Field strength distribution along the air gap is depicted in Fig. 110: hysteresis loop. B max B0 B min S N n bp τ p N S 0 x Fig. irreversible flux losses appear as a consequence. Current directions are assumed for motor operation and counterclockwise rotation. 112 for noload and load case. cross section Fig. 111. hysteresis loop cutout. 110). permanentmagnets are supposed to be operated in between the linear range of the characteristic (Fig. quadrant demagnetization curve: remanent flux density: coercive field strength: reversible permeability: border case field strength: BM = BR + µ 0 ⋅ µ R ⋅ H M H = 0 : B = BR B = 0 : H = HC µR ≈ 1 HG In order to avoid enduring demagnetization. A cross section of a fourpole permanentfield DC machine is shown in Fig. 112: field strength distribution 83 . 111: DC machine. The operating point exceeds the linear range at opposing field strengths higher than HG (break point). 109: hysteresis loop Fig.DC Machine Permanentmagnet materials are desribed by their hysteresis loop in the II. quadrant. II. 2nd quadrant II B I II B BR BR HC H B M0 III IV H M HC H G H M0 ∆ HM ∆ HM Fig.
70) The air gap line (L) results from D and Q: BM = µ 0 AL ⋅ ⋅ (− H M ⋅ 2hM ± α i ⋅ A ⋅τ p ) 2δ AM − BR µ0 µ R = h A 1+ M ⋅ L δ ⋅ µ R AM (5. This is the intersection of the demagnetizing curve of the magnet and the load line of the magnetic circuit.73) ∆H M (5.67) BL ⋅ AL = BM ⋅ AM with current coverage: (5.68) IA A = 2a π ⋅D z⋅ and pole pitch factor: αi = bp τp (5.DC Machine The operating point of magnetic circuits can be determined with appliance of: 1) Ampere’s Law at pole edges for µFe→∞ (D): BL ⋅ 2δ + H M ⋅ 2hM = ±α i ⋅ A ⋅τ p µ0 2) Demagnetizing curve (E): BM = BR + µ 0 ⋅ µ R ⋅ H M 3) zerodivergence of the magnetic flux for σM = 0 (Q): (5.69) (5.72. 5.71) The operating point ensues from intersection of L and E : BM 0 = BR δ AM 1+ µR ⋅ ⋅ hM AL ± α i ⋅ A ⋅τ p = A 2 ⋅ µ R ⋅ M ⋅ δ + hM AL HM0 (5.66) (5.74) Static load or noload respectively lead to the operating point of the magnet defined by HM0 and BM0. 84 .
HC low and for highquality smallbatch production: • • SmCo: NdFeB: expensive. that the operating point does not exceed HG even under maximum load condition in order to avoid irreversible partial demagnetization. quadrant new. high energy density. high energy density.8 NdFeB (B .4 flux density B 0. the higher is the amount of air gap flux density and the lower the demagnetizing field strength gets. linear characteristic down to III. 113: Selection of magnet materials Most suitable magnet materials for costefficient applications are: • • Ferrites: AlNiCo: cheap. The magnetic circuit needs to be designed in the way.2 0 0. Demagnetizing is getting critical at the leaving edge of the magnet. A selection of magnet materials is given in Fig. 85 . eventually more economic than SmCo. BR high. The higher a magnet is designed.H) max kJ/m 3 1600 kA/m 1200 300 200 100 800 SmCo 400 Ferrit field strength H Fig. 113: AlNiCo T 1. low energy density costefficient.DC Machine The operating point gets moved about ∆H to the right (field strengthening) or to the left (field weakening) caused by armature reaction.
1 Current path Commutators permanently reverse the current direction in revolving armature windings using brushes mounted in neutral zones. A commutation of the coil currents is necessary in order to achieve timeconstant exciter field with perpendicular orientation towards the armature magnetomotive force (mmf).5. The direction therefore changes from + to – and the other way around.78) (5.76) (5.DC Machine 5.79) f A = pn IA 2wA I A current coverage: A = 2a = πD πD An idealized illustration of the current in a single armature coil is given in Fig. IA 2a IA 2a i=? i =? IA 2a IA 2a vK IA a IA a vK IA a vK t ≤0 0 < t < TK t ≥ TK Fig.77) (5. 114ac: commutation coil current: brush width: commutator circumferential speed: commutating period: armature frequency: IA 2a (5.75) bB v K = πDK n TK = bB vK (5.5 Commutation 5. 115: z IA 2a iSp commutation t − IA 2a 1 TK pn Fig. 115: current in single coil (idealized) 86 . Armature windings are riddled with AC current of f A = pn .
With that assumption and RB >> RSp .805.DC Machine Before the commutation process. whereas after the 2a IA . With usage of electrographite the influence of the coil resistance is negligible. 87 .84) iSp = (5.81) B1 IA a i1 = iSp + (5.85) Fig. 117: commutation. an armature coil carries a current + process the current amount is − IA . 116: commutation.80) vK Λ B2 Λ IA = i1 + i2 a IA 2a (5. current flow A linear current run is to be ascertained („resistance commutation“) and furthermore to be aimed with regard to the reactance voltage of commutation.82 the current flow in shortcircuited coils can be calculated: I a I 2a iSp i2 i1 = I t 1 − T a K (5.83) 0 I − 2a iSp 0 i1 TK t i2 = I t a TK I 2t 1 − T 2a K (5. At first LSp = 0 is to be assumed (this restriction will be abolished later). (simplified) With 5. The current form in the shortcircuited armature coil is 2a formed according to a function determined by contact resistance (brushes) and coil inductance during the commutating period.82) x bB b Bx Fig. simplified illustrations of the arrangement and equations apply as: iSp i2 Λ B 2 x = = i1 Λ B1 bB − x IA 2a IA 2a i2 t = TK − t i1 (5.
which leads to a lagging commutation. Due to Lenz’s Law. I 2a 0 − I 2a TK t Fig. 119: DC machine. 88 . 119 shows the reactance voltage trying to maintain the current direction in the commutating coil and the compole voltage counteracting. resulting in increased wear of brushes and commutator. Their windings are connected in series with the armature windings. This effect causes sparks at the leaving brush edges. reactance voltage 5. So called commutating poles are arranged in the commutating zone (= pole gap.86) us is called “reactance voltage of commutation”. in order to achieve linear commutation.5.DC Machine 5. This results in selfinduced voltage. the reality actually shows a commutating coil with finite inductance. 118: commutation. commutating poles Fig. caused by slot. excited by current change in the shortcircuited coil: IA IA diSp = LSp a = LSp a πDK n ~ I An us = − LSp dt bB TK (5.2 Reactance voltage of commutation Getting back to the assumption of negligible coil inductance. The commutating pole mmf needs to: 1) eliminate the backampereturns mmf in the pole gap 2) excite a commutating field in order to compensate the reactance voltage of computation.and coilend leakage. the reactance voltage of commutation is orientated in the way to counteract its original cause . in which the commutation takes place).the change of current. caused by current change) by inducing a rotatory voltage is aimed.5. wW 2p IA n φ θ A BW BW Fig. A proportionality exists between this voltage and the armature current and rotational speed .3 Commutating poles A compensation of the reactance voltage in commutating coils (evoked by selfinduction.
89 . so that an implementation makes sense only for large DC machines. The installation of commutating poles raises the price of DC machines significantly. In case of proper design.89) Therewith the compensation of us by dint of the uwcondition (equation 5.DC Machine Appliance of Ampere’s Law on the commutation circuit leads to: (Exception: commutating windings implemented) θW − θ A (1 − αi ) = µ0 2δ W BW 2δ W µ0 (5.89) is fulfilled for any rotational speed and any current. The compole voltage calculates from: uw = BW 2lwS v A ~ nI A (5.87) BW = wW p I A − (1 − αi )τ P A ~ I A (5. commutating poles act as if LSp = 0 . as long as the commutating pole circuit is unsaturated.88) Commutating field strength and flux density are proportional to the armature current IA.
Fig. armature reaction is to be regarded additionally.6. adding up to a resulting field. armature reaction exciter mmf: 0 <α < π (1 − α i ).91) (5.DC Machine 5. Armature currents automatically evolve mmf with perpendicular orientation towards the pole axis – armature quadratureaxis mmf –. 120: DC machine. π (1 + α i ) < α < π 2 2 π (1 − α i ) < α < π (1 + α i ) 2 2 θ F (α ) = 0 θ F (α ) = wF ⋅ I F = θ F (5.1 Field distortion Magnetic fields in DC machines are to be considered as being excited only by the exciter windings.90) with neglect of saturation effects and the magnetic voltage drop along the iron core ( µ r → ∞ ). there is no constant field distribution underneath the poles. This does only apply in noload. Considering load cases.92) armature mmf:: 0 <α <π 2α θ A = A ⋅ τ P ⋅ 1 − π (5. Ampere’s Law applies to: θ x n F ϑ θ θ R A θ F (α ) + θ A (α ) = B (α ) 2δ (α ) µ0 (5. arranged on the main poles so far.6 Armature reaction 5.94) 90 . so that the orientation of the field axis changes. A twopole DC machine is considered for the determination of the resulting field under load. Under load. where the magnetic flux density underneath the poles is to be seen as almost constant. which superposes the exciter mmf.93) resulting field: B(α ) = µ0 (θ F (α ) + θ A (α )) 2δ (α ) (5.
Maximum field distortion appears at the pole edges: 2π α B max B min BL BR θF π θA α Pk = BPk π (1 ± α i ) 2 µ µ = 0 θ F ± 0 αiτ P A = BL ± ∆B 2δ 2δ (5. occurring field distortion under load also results in increased segment voltage.95) (5. field distortion In order to assure the commutation process within the neutral zone under load. Field distortion comes up: the magnetic field strength increases on the leading edge whereas is decreases at the leaving edge. FEcalculated field distribution at nominal load 91 . 122: universal machine.96) Fig. n θ R θ ϑ F α Bk θ A Fig. 121: armature reaction. Besides displacement of the neutral zone. brushes can be moved about an according angle ϑ: • • motor operation: opposing the direction of rotation generator operation: in direction of rotation This method is advantageously for the life cycle of the used brushes.DC Machine The axis of the resulting field and therefore the neutral zone moves to oppose the sense of rotation in motor operation with dependence on the armature current.
Therefore the real segment voltage ensues for the noload case: UL = U L .mittel BPk ∆B = U L 1 + BL BL αi (5. divided by the number of segments per polepitch: U L . but only α i ⋅ 2p voltage underneath the poles.6. the segment voltage is not evenly spread over k coils participate at the accumulation of corresponding commutator segments.99) that means: segment voltage may increase significantly regionally. Flux density at pole edges is B(α ) = BPk under load and therefore the segment voltage of these coils: U L .98) Coils voltage underneath the poles is UL.mittel αi (5. 123: DC machine. whereas coil voltage in the pole gap is 0.max = U L. Otherwise spark overs between segments may occur. segments Caused by field distortion under load. that may finally lead to a flash over around the entire commutator.2 Segment voltage Segment voltage is to be mentioned as an important item to be treated in DC machine operation.DC Machine 5. to occur between two adjoining segments.mittel = = armature voltage segments per pole − pitch U k 2p (5.97) Fig. Segment voltage turned out to find a maximum limit at 40V that may not be exceeded. 92 . The segment voltage average value computes from the armature voltage.
124a: ratio of: U L.5 UL Fig.max = 1.max ∆B = 1+ UL BL B BL BR B B BL α BR BL α BR α f=1 f=2 f=4 Fig.DC Machine The ratio UL. U L.max =3 UL The resulting field may turn negative underneath the leaving edge in motor operation! 93 .max/UL gets awkward in field weakening operation.max =2 UL Fig. 124c: ratio of U L. 124b: ratio of: U L. because the main field gets weaker as the armature reaction remains constant.
θ BL wK = α i Aτ p θΚ π θ A 2π α IA αw = i A p = αi 2 w A I A πD πD 2 p IA (5.100) Fig.101) Fig. to carry currents of a direction opposing the armature current. Highquality DC machines feature both commutating and compensating windings.. Design of compensating windings: B. θ K = wK I A = θ A = α i Aτ p ! φ wK x θ θ wA K A (5. so that an implementation makes sense only for large DC machines. as it is supposed to be.3 Compensating winding DC machines can be fitted with compensation windings in order to compensate armature reaction and its negative consequences.DC Machine 5. 126: equalizing mmf fractions The installation of compensating windings has a significant influence on the price of DC machines. Bars are placed inside the slots. The number of conductor bars is design in the way to just equalize the armature mmf underneath the poles. Armature mmf quadrature fraction is equalized by the effect of the compensating windings in regions around the main poles.6. Axis directions of resulting field and exciter field are alike. whereas commutating windings are supposed to compensate in pole gap regions. Commutation is performed within the neutral zone. 125: compensating windings Field distribution underneath the poles is equal to that of noload. Main poles are slotted. 94 .
This is composed of insulated iron laminations. whereas the rotor of induction machines feature a shortcircuitwinding. which is pulled asynchronous by the rotating stator field. Synchronous machines consist of permanent field or electrical excited rotors to follow the stator rotating field synchronous (therefore the name). 95 . u n1 z y u n1 z n < n1 y n1 v w x Fig.6 Rotating field theory 6. due to Lenz’s Law. 128: induction machine Both synchronous machine and induction machine use the same stator arrangement as a matter of principle. Both machine types only differ in their rotor design. to create a rotation field revolving with n1 = f1 p .1 General overview Basically two different types of rotating electrical machines need to be discussed in case of threephase rotating system supply. provided with a threephase winding. until both types are discussed in detail later. A combined discussion of voltage and torque generation for both types of threephase machines in a separate chapter about “rotating field theory” is found reasonable. 127: synchronous machine v w x Fig.
t ) = − (6. Therefore revolution along the dashdotted line includes an mmf due to + w ⋅ i or − w ⋅ i . The according slotmmf is either + w ⋅ i or − w ⋅ i . w i rotor Fig. 130 In case of i being alternating current to be stated as i = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos( ω1 ⋅ t ) .2 Alternating field stator µ Fe ∞ wi α δ An unwinded rotor enclosed in an arrangement of a stator equipped with 2 opposing slots carrying w windings each is shown in Fig. 129.2) α π < α < 2 ⋅ π : θ ( α ) = − w⋅ i w·i Fig.1) (6. neglecting field strength and radial distribution of air gap flux density: r r B(α ) θ (α ) = ∫ H ⋅ ds = H (α ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ δ = ⋅ 2 ⋅δ µ0 spatiotemporal dependent flux density results as follows: (6.5) 96 . Ampere’s Law being applied over one polepitch.3) 0<α <π bw ( α . Direction assignment is based on Fleming’s righthandrule. t ) = µ0 µ ⋅θ ( α ) = 0 ⋅ w ⋅ 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos( ω1 ⋅ t ) 2 ⋅δ 2 ⋅δ µ0 2 ⋅δ ⋅ w ⋅ 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos( ω1 ⋅ t ) (6. winded stator θ (α ) +w·i 0<α <π : π 2π θ (α ) = w ⋅ i (6. 129: unwinded rotor. 130: mmf according to Fig.Rotating field theory 6.4) π < α < 2 ⋅π bw ( α .
w p i u1 + w p 2I α τp π p − w p x2 x1 i 0 0 π 2 π π 3π 2 3π 2π α β= p α 2π 4π − w p 2I u2 Fig.Rotating field theory θ(α) ωt = 0 ω t = π/3 π 2π α bw (α. whereas the field strength amount changes periodically with current frequency. harmonic wave g'=3: 5. This kind of field is called alternating field. This results in an infinite count of single waves of odd ordinal numbers and antiproportional decreasing amplitude with ordinary numbers. bW ( α . the number of windings is distributed on p polepairs. pure time dependent behaviour 97 . two polepairs The fundamental wave of the squarewave function (Fig. 131 etc. These are called standing wave. The generating current is of pure sinusoidal form. harmonic wave The existence of harmonics is to be attributed to the spatial distributions of the windings. the process repeats ptimes per circumference. Fig. not containing harmonics.τ) 0 Spatial field distribution and zero crossings remain the same.) can be determined by Fourier analysis. zero crossings remain the same. 132: stator. Fig. 134: fundamental wave. 3rd and 5th harmonics Important hint: • • wave: oscillation: it necessarily needs to be distinguished between spatiotemporal behaviour.6) ω t=0 w 2I p g'=1: fundamental wave g'=2: 3.τ) b 1 (α. 133: mmf for two polepair stator Fig. The amplitudes of fundamental waves and harmonics show proportional dependency to the current. t ) = ∞ 4 µ0 w sin [(2 g '−1) ⋅ αp ] ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos( ω1 ⋅ t ) ⋅ ∑ π 2 ⋅δ p 2 g ' −1 g '=1 (6. 131: alternating field distribution With more than one polepair.
11) . the mechanical angle speed of a progressive wave can be calculated: dα ω1 = = Ω1 dt p with positive α: revolving clockwise (with positive sequence).7) B1w = w 4 µ0 ⋅ ⋅ 2⋅ ⋅I π 2 ⋅δ p (6. 135: sinusoidal wave (as standing wave) 6. which is exclusively significant for voltage generation and torque exertion: b1w ( α .10) for any fix point of a curve.8) b1w ω 1 B 1w 0 π 2π α sinusoidal alternating field = ˆ standing wave ω 1 Fig. 136: progressive wave A mathematical formulation is depicted as: b1D ( α .Rotating field theory Main focus is put on the fundamental wave.3 Rotating field b1D ω 1 B 1D π ω 1 2π α 0 Rotating fields appear as spatial distributed fields of constant form and amount. revolving with angular speed ω1: progressive wave Fig. t ) = B1D ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p − ω 1 ⋅ t ) With: (6.9) α ⋅ p − ω1 ⋅ t = const (6. t ) = with: 4 µ0 w ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⋅ I ⋅ sin(α ⋅ p ) ⋅ cos( ω1 ⋅ t ) = B1w ⋅ sin(α ⋅ p) ⋅ cos( ω1 ⋅ t ) π 2 ⋅δ p (6. 98 (6.
14) b1w ( α .15) The angular speed of the single waves amounts: dα ω1 = = Ω 2 g ' −1 dt p ⋅ (2 g '−1) dα − ω1 = = −Ω 2 g ' −1 dt p ⋅ (2 g '−1) with single wave peak value: W B2 g ' −1 = W B1 2 g ' −1 clockwise rotation (positive sequence) (6.18) 99 . 137b: split alternating field This enables a dispartment of rectangular fields (evoked by slot pairs) into clockwise/counterclockwiserotating fields – fields with positive/negative sequence rotational sense: b W ( α .Rotating field theory A rotating field with: b1D ( α . t ) = B1D ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p + ω1 ⋅ t ) revolves with a mechanical angular speed of: (6. their angular speeds are oppositely signed: Bw (6.12) dα ω = − 1 = −Ω1 dt p with negative α: counterclockwise (with negative sequence). t ) = B1w ⋅ sin (α ⋅ p ) ⋅ cos( ω 1 ⋅ t ) = 1 ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p − ω 1 ⋅ t ) + sin ( α ⋅ p + ω 1 ⋅ t ) 2 1442443 1442443 negative sequence positive sequence ω1 −ω1 ω 1 ω − ω 1 1 ω 1 ω t =0 1 ω t = 1 π / 3 Fig. Their peak value is of half the value as of the according alternating field. t ) = B1W ⋅ cos( ω 1 ⋅ t ) ⋅ ∑ W 1 sin [(2 g '−1) ⋅ αp ] = 2 g '−1 g '=1 ∞ ∞ sin [(2 g '−1) ⋅ αp − ω ⋅ t ] ∞ sin [(2 g '−1) ⋅ αp + ω ⋅ t ] B 1 1 +∑ = ⋅ ∑ 2 g '=1 2 g '−1 2 g '−1 1444 24444 g '=1 1444 24444 4 3 4 3 positive sequence negativesequence (6.16) counterclockwise rotation (negative sequence) (6.13) A sinusoidal alternating field can be split up into two sinusoidal rotating fields. 137a: alternating field shape Fig. (6.17) (6.
star point π ⋅D 2⋅ p The number of slots per pole and phase is N ! q= = integer 2⋅ p⋅m There are three phases connected due to UX. VY. 138. stator • m=3 phases with spatial displacement of 2 ⋅π an angle α = against each other.4 Threephase winding air gap u stator Most simple arrangement of a threephase stator consist of: • core stack composed of laminations with o approximately 0.20) (6. which are supplied by three AC currents. 139: threephase winding. 3⋅ p Leads of windings are assigned as U. o mutual insulation for a reduction of eddy currents.5 mm thickness. Z (shown in Fig. WZ. 138: threephase winding. 139 for star connection). W. 140: phase currents.Im iU = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos( ω1 ⋅ t ) (6. In case of p>1. phasor diagram 100 . Y. the configuration repeats ptimes along the circumference. whereas line ends are indicated with X.Rotating field theory 6. z y α = 2π 3p v w rotor x Fig. α: mechanical angle β = p ⋅ α : electrical angle The pole pitch is given as τ p = u z v x w y R S + Re Iu T Fig.19) (6. V. also displaced by a phase shift 2 ⋅π angle : 3 β = 2/3 π . • The number of pole pairs is p=1 in Fig.21) Iw Iv 2 ⋅π iV = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos ω1 ⋅ t − 3 4 ⋅π iW = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ cos ω1 ⋅ t − 3 Fig.
whereas positive sequence fields add up to a sinusoidal rotating field. Only fundamental waves are taken into account.23) ∑= 0 The total field results from a superposition of the 3 phases at any time. t ) = 3 w ⋅ B1 ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p − ω1 ⋅ t ) = B1D ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p − ω 1 ⋅ t ) 2 3 4 µ w B1D ≡ B = ⋅ ⋅ 0 ⋅ ⋅ 2 ⋅ I 2 π 2 ⋅δ p (6. Negative sequence rotating fields eliminate each other.and negative sequence rotating field. so that the following speeds occur at 50 Hz: p p 1 2 3 4 5 6 n1 1 min 3000 1500 1000 750 600 500 Fig.24) The rotational speed (= synchronous rotational speed) can be determined by taking a look at the zero crossing condition (α ⋅ p − ω1 ⋅ t = 0 ) : α ⋅ p = ω1 ⋅ t ⇒ dα ω1 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f1 f = = = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ n1 ⇒ n1 = 1 dt p p p (6. bU = B ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p ) ⋅ cos( ω 1 ⋅ t ) 2 ⋅π 2 ⋅π w 4 µ0 w bV = B1w ⋅ sin α ⋅ p − ⋅ ⋅ 2⋅I ⋅ cos ω1 ⋅ t − B1 = ⋅ 3 3 π 2⋅δ p 4 ⋅ π 4 ⋅π bW = B1w ⋅ sin α ⋅ p − ⋅ cos ω 1 ⋅ t − 3 3 w 1 (6. 141: speeds due to number of pole pairs (example: 50 Hz) 10 300 20 150 30 100 101 .Rotating field theory An alternating field is created by any of the phases.25) The air gap field of multipole rotating field machines revolves with synchronous rotational f speed n1 = 1 .22) bU = B1w ⋅ [sin ( α ⋅ p − ω1 ⋅ t ) + sin ( α ⋅ p + ω1 ⋅ t )] 2 Bw 4 ⋅π bV = 1 ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p − ω1 ⋅ t ) + sin α ⋅ p + ω 1 ⋅ t − 3 2 bW = B1w 2 8 ⋅π ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p − ω1 ⋅ t ) + sin α ⋅ p + ω1 ⋅ t − 3 (6. b1D ( α . Its amplitudes are 3/2 times higher than those of single alternating field amplitudes. to be segmented in both positive.
26 defines an infinite sum of positive. 7.. 13.and negativesequence single rotating fields with ordinal number 6g+1. negative sequence The mechanical angular speed of the single waves amounts: Ω 6 g +1 = ω1 p ⋅ (6 g + 1) (6. 19.. V... the total field ensues to: b D ( α . equation 6.Rotating field theory Visualization: t1 ω Iu Iw Iv t2 ω 1 2 2 ⋅I 2 ⋅I 1 u y 1 2 2 ⋅I − 2 2 ⋅I u 2 ⋅I y 1 2 2 ⋅I z − z 1 2 ⋅I 1 2 w − 2⋅I w − 2 ⋅I 1 2 2 ⋅I v x − 2 ⋅I v x − 2 1 2 2⋅I ω t1 = 0 b 1D bw 1/2 1/2 1 ω t2 = π /3 bv bu 1 bw bv 1/2 b 1D π /3 bu 1/2 Fig. Field components with ordinary numbers divisible by three disappear for the case of superposition: • • positive g: 1. 11. t ) = B1D ⋅ sin [(6 g + 1) ⋅ αp − ω1 ⋅ t ] 6g +1 g '= −∞ ∑ ∞ (6. positive sequence negative g: 5.27) as well as the amplitude of single waves: B6Dg +1 = B1D 6g + 1 (6. 17. 142: field shares of phases U. W while rotation from ω1 ⋅ t = 0 through ω1 ⋅ t = p/3 If slot mmf harmonics of the three phases are regarded. 102 .26) Again..28) Rotational speed as well as the amplitudes of the harmonics decrease with increasing ordinal number..
30) (6.Rotating field theory 6. The p (6 g + 1) π π shape of the air gap field changes periodically at times ωt = 0. t ) 2δ (6. At slot edges.29) θ u = θ N cos(ωt ) (6.31) w x v 2π θ v = θ N cos ωt − 3 4π θ w = θ N cos ωt − 3 (6. rotational angle Determination of slot mmf for different moments (temporal) • • • quantity of slot mmf is applied over the circumference angle. at p ω . with slots assumed as being narrow. . being constant between the slots. The air gap field results from the total mmf: B(α . the total mmf changes about twice the amount of the slot mmf.5 Example u y α z with θ N = 2 I we get w p (6. . t ) = µ0 ⋅ θ (α . total mmf is shaped like a staircase step function. harmonics run to both right and left.32) Fig. 143: threephase stator. The change of shape is based on the different rotational speeds of fundamental wave and harmonics and hence different results of their addition. line integrals provide enveloped mmf. Amplitudes of fundamental waves and harmonics remain constant.K between both 6 3 extrema. 103 . dependent on the circumference angle.33) The fundamental wave runs to the right at speed speed ω .
144: mmf. sequence 104 .Rotating field theory θ N π −θ 2π N ωt = 0 α θu = θ N θN 2 θ θw = − N 2 θv = − 2θ θ u N z v x ω w y u p 2π N −ω 5p −θ π N α −2θ N 2 3 θN π 2π α ωt = θu = π 6 − 3θ N 2 3 θN 2 u 3 θN z v −ω x 5p ω w y u 2π 3 θN 2 θv = 0 θw = − 3 θN 2 p − π/6 3θ 2 N − 3θ N −π/30 θ N π α π 2π −θ N N α 2θ θ u z v x w ω y u p N −ω 5 p π 3 θ θu = N 2 θ θv = N 2 θ w = −θ N ωt = π 2π α −θ −2θ N π/3 N −π/15 Fig.
Actually there is no machine with q = 1 .6 Winding factor If w windings per phase are not placed in two opposing slots.35) resulting number of windings wres ≤ w This is taken into account. introducing the winding factor ξ : (6.34) chording 5 s 6 < < 6 τ 7 (6. the effective number of windings appears smaller than it is in real: number of slots per pole and phase q= N ≥1 2⋅ p⋅m (6.Rotating field theory 6. which cause parasitic torques and losses. but are moreover spread over more than one slot (zone winding) and return conductors are returned under an electric angle smaller than < 180°. 105 . Only zoning and chording enable disregarding harmonics.36) ξ ≤ 1: wres = w ⋅ ξ (6. 145: threephase winding.. influencing proper function of a machine.37) u US y z w x v OS Fig. chording This means is utilized for a supression of harmonics.
being displaced by βN (electrically).Rotating field theory 6. This leads to an electrical displacement of w v β N = p ⋅α N = Fig.38) against each other. 147: displaced windings Circle radius: 1 w ⋅ 2 p⋅q r= β sin N 2 (6. The total angle per phase adds up to q βN. z u y w w w pq pq pq αNαN αN = 2π π = N p⋅m⋅q (6.41) 106 . form a circle.1 Distribution factor All w/p windings per pole and phase are distributed over q slots. N Fig. N w pq . w res qβ β N w pq . 146: stator.39) β N w pq β The resulting number of windings wres per phase is computed by geometric addition of all q partial windings w/pq. Any of the w/pq conductors per slot show a spatial displacement of.40) chord line: q⋅ βN wres = 2 ⋅ r ⋅ sin 2 (6.6. distribution factor x π m⋅q (6. The vertices of all q phasors per phase.
(6. = π ⋅ (6 g + 1) q ⋅ sin 6⋅ q The purpose of utilizing zone winding is to aim • • slot mmf fundamental waves adding up harmonics compensating each other.45) Regarding harmonics.( 6 g +1) π ⋅ (6 g + 1) sin 6 .44) which leads to π 6 . (6.42) The ratio q ⋅ βN sin wres 2 = w β q ⋅ sin N p 2 (6.46) Purpose: 107 .43) is called distribution factor. ξZ = π q ⋅ sin 6⋅q sin considering the fundamental wave. with (6g+1) being the harmonic ordinal number. Then follows for the harmonic distribution factor: ξ Z . the electrical angle βN needs to be multiplied (6g+1)times the basic value. Rotating field windings feature: βN = π 3⋅ q (6. as they suppose to do.Rotating field theory Therefore follows for the resulting number of windings: q ⋅ βN sin w 2 = p β q ⋅ sin N 2 wres (6.
148b: df for g=1 π sin 7 6 = −0.960 ξZ1 = π 3 sin 18 Fig.218 ξ Z −5 = π 3 sin (− 5) 18 See table below for a list of the distribution factor for the fundamental wave: q ξZ1 1 1 2 0.966 3 0.177 ξZ 7 = π 3 sin 7 18 Fig.958 . 148c:df for g=1 π sin (− 5) 6 = 0.955 108 ... 148a: df for g=0 π sin 6 = 0. ∞ 0.960 4 0.Rotating field theory Example for q = 3 Figure series 148ac illustrates how different distribution factors (abbrev.: df) accomplish for different g: g=0 6g + 1 = 1 π ^ βN1 = = 20° 3⋅ 3 g =1 6g + 1 = 7 β N 7 = 140° g = −1 6 g + 1 = −5 β N −5 = −100° Fig.
150: angle displacement 109 . Line conductors are placed into the bottom layer. wres = s π s w π − p ⋅α S w ⋅ sin = ⋅ sin ⋅ 2 τ 2 p p p (6. In practice the windings are distributed over two layers. return.).47) π− p α . but only by an angle s < τp. That arrangement complies with a superposition of two winding systems of halved number of windings. 149: threephase winding. being displaced by an angle αS (mech.and line conductor are not displaced by an entire pole pitch τp (equal to 180° electrical).2 Pitch factor If windings are not implemented as diametral winding.49) is called pitch factor (or chording factor). being < 180° (el.). s p τp w v x Fig. Both fractional winding systems add up to the resulting number of windings.Rotating field theory 6. whereas return conductors are integrated into the top layer. Fig.6. Mentioned stepping s/ τp can only be utilized for entire slot pitches τN = 2π/N. chording This leads to an electrical displacement of βS = pαS. u y αS z π. w 2p p αs w res αS = π 1 − s p τp (6.48) 2 w 2p The ratio ξS = π s wres = sin ⋅ 2 τp w p (6. but as chorded winding.
259 110 .g.: s 4 = τp 5 s 6 = τp 7 ξS5 = 0 ξS 7 = 0 It is proven useful to choose a median value (e. leading to a τp mutual elimination of the 5th and 7th harmonics of primary and secondary side.259 o ξ S 7 = 0.Rotating field theory Considering harmonic waves. Then follows: o ξ S 1 = 0.(6 g +1) = sin (6 g + 1) ⋅ 2 τp The effect of using chorded windings is based on a clever choice of the ratio (6. 5/6) in order to damp 5th and 7th harmonics at the same time.50) s .g. the electric angle βS needs to be multiplied by times the ordinal number. e. which leads to the harmonic’s pitch factor: π s ξ S . so that they disappear for an outside view.966 o ξ S 5 = 0.
( 6 g +1) ⋅ ξ S .54) B1D = 3 4 µ0 w ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ξ ⋅ 2 ⋅ I 2 π 2 ⋅δ p (6.53) Assumption for the fundamental wave: b1D ( α .55) 111 .Rotating field theory 6. a mathematic formulation for a rotating field generally appears as: b D (α . t ) = B1D ⋅ sin ( α ⋅ p − ω 1 ⋅ t ) with (6.3 Resulting winding factor The resulting winding factor for threephase windings results from the multiplication of zone winding factor and chording factor. t ) = ∞ ξ 3 4 µ0 w ( 6 g +1) ⋅ sin [(6 g + 1) ⋅ αp − ω1 ⋅ t ] ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2⋅I ⋅ ∑ 2 π 2 ⋅δ p 6g + 1 g '= −∞ (6.51) ξ ( 6 g +1) = ξ Z .6.( 6 g +1) π ⋅ (6 g + 1) sin 6 ⋅ sin (6 g + 1) π ⋅ s = 2 τp π ⋅ (6 g + 1) q ⋅ sin 6⋅ q (6.52) With regard to the winding factor. • fundamental wave: π 6 ⋅ sin s ⋅ π ξ = ξ Z ⋅ξ S = π τ 2 q ⋅ sin 6⋅ q sin • harmonic waves: (6.
induced voltages in stator and rotor can be discussed. 6.61) flux linkage of the rotor coil: ψ 2 = w2 ⋅ φ1 ⋅ cos(αp − ω1t ) (6. 151: threephase winding ψ 2 (α .56) (6. Flux linkage of the rotor coil results from spatial integration of the air gap flux density over one pole pitch. Using the definition of slip and a transfer onto threephase windings. t ) ⋅ l ⋅ dx τp 0 B1D = 3 4 µ 0 w1 ξ1 2 I1 2 π 2δ p (6.Rotating field theory 6.57) First of all.7 Voltage induction caused by influence of rotating field Voltage in threephase windings revolving at variable speed. Induced voltage ensues by derivation of the flux linkage with respect to time. t ) = w2 ∫ α +π p α b1D (α .1 Flux linkage The air gap field is created in the threephase winding of the stator. ψ 2 (α .7. The following considerations are made only regarding the fundamental wave.59) Fig. t ) = w2 ∫ b1D (α . only one single rotor coil with number of windings w2 and arbitrary position α (angle of twist) is taken into account. t ) = w2φ 2 (α .60) φ1 = l⋅D D ⋅ B1 p (6. induced by a rotating field is subject to computation in the following: Spatial integration of the air gap field results in the flux linkage of a coil. t ) = B1D ⋅ sin (αp − ω1t ) (6.58) D dx = ⋅ dα 2 (6.62) 112 . characterized by the number of windings w1 and current I1: b1D (α . t ) ⋅ l ⋅ D D α +π ⋅ dα = w2 ⋅ l ⋅ ∫ p B1D sin (αp − ω1t )dα 2 2 α l⋅D D = w2 ⋅ B1 ⋅ cos(αp − ω1t ) p fundamental wave of air gap flux: (6.
t ) . iv(t). Described variation of flux linkage can be caused by both variation of currents iu(t). The rotational speed of the stator field fundamental wave is called synchronous speed.68) As per 6.67.2 Induced voltage.65) rotational speed of the air gap field: Ω1 = ω1 = 2πn1 p (6. iw(t) with time.66) definition of the slip: s= Ω1 − Ω n1 − n = Ω1 n1 (6.67) Slip is the referenced differential speed between stator rotating field and rotor.69) 113 . slip s=0 applies at synchronous speed. t ) =− 2 − dt ∂α dt ∂t (6.63) dα u i 2 = w2φ1 sin (αp − ω1t ) ⋅ p − ω1 dt mechanical angular speed of the rotor: dα = Ω = 2πn dt (6. ω1 2πf1 Ω 1 p p f1 = = n1 = = 2π 2π 2π p (6. slip Induced voltage in a rotor coil of arbitrary angle of twist α(t). whereas s=1 applies for standstill.Rotating field theory 6. t ) = w2φ1 sin (αp − ω1t ) ⋅ = − s ⋅ ω1 ⋅ w2φ1 sin (αp − ω1t ) pΩ − ω1 ω1 ω1 (6. ui 2 (α . t ) = − dψ 2 (α . t ) ∂ψ (α . t ) dα ∂ψ 2 (α . Rotational speed of the stator rotating field is taken as reference value. which is flowed through by the air gap flux density b1D (α .7. inside the exciting threephase winding and also by rotary motion α(t) of the coil along the air gap circumference. Therefore follows for the induced voltage of the rotor winding: u i 2 (α . computes from variation of the flux linkage with time.64) (6.
phase displacement of voltages to be induced into the rotor is only dependent from the spatial position of the coil.71) rotor Fig.similar to the 2π stator arrangement – with phases being displaced by a mechanical angle α R = (k − 1) 3p (k=1. no voltage is induced into the rotor at synchronous speed (s=0). equation 6. when rotating ( s ≠ 1 ). represented by the (elec. voltage of different frequency is induced by the fundamental wave of the stator windings. frequency of induced voltage is equal to slip frequency. t ) = − s ⋅ ω1 ⋅ w2φ1 sin (α R p + Ωt ⋅ p − ω1t ) ω − pΩ ω1t = − s ⋅ ω1 ⋅ w2φ1 sin α R p − 1 ω1 = − s ⋅ ω1 ⋅ w2φ1 sin (α R p − s ⋅ ω1t ) (6.2. a number of slots per pole and phase greater than 1 (q>1) and the resulting number of windings w2ξ2.72) 2π (k − 1) ui1K (t ) = ω1w1ξ1φ1 sin ω1t − 3 (6. 152: rotor position. Is a rotor also equipped with a threephase winding.0 stator Ωt α α Spatial position of the rotor coil can also be depicted as: α (t ) = α R + Ωt (6.72 applies for induced voltages in stator windings using w1ξ1 : (6. at rotor standstill (s=1).3). then follows for the induced voltage of single rotor phases: 2π (k − 1) ui 2 k (t ) = s ⋅ ω1 ⋅ w2ξ 2φ1 sin s ⋅ ω1t − 3 For s=1. rotation angle • • • • • • • Some aspects regarding induced voltage dependencies are listed below: the amplitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the line frequency of the stator and to the according slip.70) R Therefore follows for the induced voltage in the rotor coil: u i 2 (α . instead of a single coil .) angle α R p . frequency of the induced voltage is equal to line frequency.73) 114 .
79) θ 2D = Fig.t ) 0 (6.77) (6. t ) = θ1D sin (αp1 − ω1t ) (6. ω Rotating mmf θ1D .74) U i 2 = sω1 ⋅ w2ξ 2 ⋅ (6. With appliance of Ampere’s law. ω ε θ 0D θ1D (α . is revolving with 1 : p1 +Re U1 ϕ1 θ 1D π−ε α. the resulting air gap field calculates from superimposing of both rotating magnetomotive forces of stator and rotor: b D (α . 153: space vector representation for θ time vector representation for U. 3 4 w2ξ 2 2I 2 2 π p2 (6.I.76) 6.80) Initially no assumptions are made for the number of pole pairs. only the fundamental waves of the effects caused by the air gap field are taken into account.8 Torque of two rotating magnetomotive forces As fulfilled previous considerations.and rotor. (6.75) U i1 w1ξ1 1 = ⋅ U i 2 w2ξ 2 s Voltages behave like effective number of windings and relative speed. t (14α . revolving with 2 p2 and being displaced by a lagging angle ε: θ 2D (α .Rotating field theory The rms values of induced voltages in stator and rotor windings ensue to: U i1 = ω1 ⋅ w1ξ1 ⋅ φ1 2 φ1 2 (6.81) 115 . t ) = θ 2D sin (αp2 − ω 2t − εp2 ) (6. t ) = µ0 D θ1 ( t ) + (α .42θ 2D44)) 4 4 3 2δ θ (α . angular frequency and phase angle of rotating magnetomotive forces of stator.78) θ1D = 3 4 w1ξ1 2 I1 2 π p1 I0 θ 2D Im An according rotating mmf is evoked in ω the rotor windings θ 2D . caused in stator windings.
With regard to the validity of: 2π ∫ sin x cos x dx = 0 0 (6.86) θ 2D [− p2 cos(αp2 − ω 2t − εp2 )] dα Equation 6. t ) = 2 B (α .86 can be modified and simplified by appliance of trigonometric relations. θ1D (α .87) equation 6. t ) is a function of ε. t ) ∂θ D (α .86 simplifies to: M = − p2lDµ0 D D θ1 θ 2 ∫ sin (αp1 − ω1t ) cos(αp2 − ω 2t − εp2 )dα 4 ⋅ 2δ 0 2π (6. t ) µ B (α . t ) + θ 2D (α .83) dV = lδdx = lδ Fig. t ) = 2 0 (θ1D (α .): ∂ 2 ∂B(α .84) Derivation with regard to chain rule (math.Rotating field theory The magnetic energy in the air gap ensues to: B 2 (α .82) (6.85) Only θ 2D (α . Replacing variables: lδD µ0 M = 2 4 µ0 2δ 2 2π ∫ [θ 0 D 1 sin (αp1 − ω1t ) + θ 2D sin (αp2 − ω 2t − εp2 ) ] (6. air gap surface Torque computes from the derivation of the magnetic energy with the relative mechanical displacement ε of both rotating fields against each other: ∂Wm ∂ M = = ∂ε ∂ε 2π B 2 (α . t ) D ∫ 2µ 0 lδ 2 dα 0 (6.88) 116 . t ) dV 2µ0 D dα 2 Wm = ∫ V (6. t )) 2 ∂ε ∂ε ∂ε 2δ 2 (6. t ) is independent from ε. 154: dimension.
in order to create torque at all. Only if angular frequencies of the exciting currents agree.90) in general: 2π x1 0 für n ≠ 0 n=0 x2 ∫ sin (nx + ϕ )dx = 2π sin ϕ für 0 (6. With this assumption follows: − plDµ 0 θ 1 Dθ 2 D M = 2π sin − (ω1 − ω 2 ) t + εp 4 ⋅ 2δ 2 [ ] (6.93) As to be seen in equation 6.92) A timevariant sinusoidal torque with average value equal to zero appears which is called oscillation torque. which means ω1=ω2=ω and therefore speed of rotation of stator and rotor rotating field agree (at equal number of pole pairs).89) follows: − p2lDµ0 θ1Dθ 2D M = 4 ⋅ 2δ 2 2π ∫ (sin [( p 0 1 + p2 )α − (ω1 + ω 2 )t − εp2 ] + sin [( p1 − p2 )α − (ω1 − ω 2 )t + εp2 ])dα (6.94) . • • M = maximum for ε = M = 0 for ε = 0 π 2p Magnetomotive force θ 0D reflects the geometrical sum of stator and rotor mmf. x1 is always equal to zero and x2 is only unequal to zero. if p1= p2=p.91) Since p1 and p2 are integer numbers. r r r 2δ D θ 0D = θ1D + θ 2D = B1 µ0 117 (6.Rotating field theory with: sin x cos y = 1 (sin (x + y ) + sin (x − y )) 2 (6.93 the torque of two magnetomotive forces is porportional to their amplitudes and the sinevalue of the enclosed angle. Therefore the number of pole pair of stator and rotor must agree. a timeconstant torque derives for ε ≠ 0 : M = plDµ0 πθ1Dθ 2D sin (− εp ) 4 ⋅ 2δ (6. which complies with the resulting air gap field.
118 .96) Inserted into the torque equation finally results in: M = plDπ D D plDπ 3 4 w1ξ1 2 I1 B1D cosϕ1 θ 1 B1 cosϕ1 = 4 4 2π p φ 3U I cosϕ1 PD 3p = = ω1 w1ξ1 1 I1 cosϕ1 = 1 1 Ω1 Ω1 ω1 2 (6. The voltage phasor U1 is orientated in the direction of the +Reaxis (real) whereas I0 is orientated in direction of the –Imaxis (imaginary).97) Displacement between U1 und I1 is represented by ϕ1.Rotating field theory The appliance of the sine clause leads to: θ 2D θ 0D = π sin (π − ε ) sin − ϕ1 2 then follows: (6.95) − θ 2D sin ε = θ 0D cosϕ 1 = 2δ B1 cosϕ 1 µ0 (6. for complex coordinate presentation.
Fig. currents with slip frequency f 2 = p ⋅ n2 are induced into the rotor. the behaviour is called “asynchronous”. according to the stator field. caused by rotor currents features a rotational speed n2 + n = n1 . p If n may be rotor speed.98) slip frequency: f 2 = s ⋅ f1 rotor speed: (6. the machine shows synchronous behaviour. revolving relatively to the rotor speed at speed n2 = f 2 p . a rotating field is evoked in the air gap. e. That means they are steadfastly to each other. 0 α n n1 n2 Stator field and rotor field show the same rotational speed. revolving with synchronous speed n1 = f1 . f 2 = 0 . supplied by a balanced threephase system of frequency f1.99) n = n1 ⋅ ( 1 − s ) 119 (6. That case is characterized by rotor frequencies to adjust according to their rotational speeds. which is the basic assumption for the creation of timeconstant torque. g. In this case.9 Frequency condition.Rotating field theory 6. If the described frequency condition is fulfilled for every possible speeed. If rotor slots are also fitted with symmetrical threephase windings (number of pole pairs p.100) . rotor frequency is defined fix. same number of pole pairs assumed. 155: speed overview slip: s= n1 − n n2 f = = 2 n1 n1 f1 (6. This necessity is called frequency condition. Those currents likewise create a rotating field. then follows for the relative speed between stator rotating field and rotor speed n2 = n1 − n . power balance If stator windings of rotating field machines are fitted with a number of pole pairs p. The rotating field. Is the frequency condition only fulfilled at one speed n1.
the accepted active power. less occurring copper losses in windings is equal to the air gap power: P1 VCu1 Pel PD P mech Fig.102) The difference of air gap power less mechanical power on the shaft is converted to heat losses inside the rotor windings: Pel = PD − Pmech = PD − (1 − s ) ⋅ PD = s ⋅ PD (6. 156: power balance PD = P1 − V Cu1 (6.Rotating field theory If rotating field machines are directly supplied by threephase lines.104) 120 .101) Air gap power is converted inside the air gap: PD = 3 ⋅ U i1 ⋅ I 1 ⋅ cosϕ 1 = M ⋅ 2π ⋅ n1 exerted power on shaft: Pmech = M ⋅ 2π ⋅ n = M ⋅ 2π ⋅ (1 − s ) ⋅ n1 = (1 − s ) ⋅ PD (6.103) (6.
Rotating field theory 6.110) X1 = U1 I0 (6.10 Reactances and resistance of threephase windings The magnetizing reactance of a threephase winding computes from the induced voltage in noload case: X 1h = with Ui I1 (6.108) X 1h 3 w ξ 2 lD = ω µ0 1 1 2 p π δ 2 (6.105) U i = ω1w1ξ1 φ1 2 (6. R1=0: (6. I2=0. The total reactance of a threephase winding results in: X 1 = X 1h + X 1σ to be measured in noload operation. being independently calculable: • • • end winding leakage slot leakage harmonic leakage } Σ = X1σ Same conditions apply for the rotor leakage reactance.106) φ1 = B1 = follows lD B1 p µ 0 3 4 w1ξ1 2 I1 2δ 2 π p (6. f 1=f1N.111) 121 . Detailed discussion is to be found in literature as given.109) The leakage reactance of threephase windings results from a superposition of three effects.107) (6.
112) and the number of windings per phase: w= N zN 2m a (6. q . g.: A: F: 105°C 155°C (enamelled wire) (foil insulation) 122 . geometric dimensions with an approximate length of windings of lm ≈ 2(lE + τ p ) (6.004 K (6. 157: windings.113) Then follows for the resistance per phase at working temperature: R=ρ wl m [1 + α (T − 20K )] aql (6.Rotating field theory The phase resistance of threephase windings can be determined by basically considering geometric dimensions and specific material parameters: lE τp z .114) with copper temperature coefficient: α= 0.a N L Fig.115) The maximum overtemperature in nominal operation depends on the insulation class (VDE): e.
1) (7. Rotor slots also contain a symmetric threephase winding or a squirrelcagewinding. which revolves with synchronous speed. A symmetric threephase winding is placed in the stator slots. which are distributed on more than one slot q > 1. Since the induction effect would disappear in case of not having any relative motion between rotor and stator field.7 Induction machine 7. Synchronous speed: rotor speed: slip: n1 = n f1 p (7. create torques driving the rotor in direction of the stator rotating field and trying to adapt their speed to that of the stator rotating field. revolving with synchronous rotational speed n1. design Iu Iv Iw U V W U X Y Z M 3~ If induction machines are supplied by threephase networks of frequency f1. Stator and rotor are composed of slotted iron laminations that are stacked to form a core. to be shortcircuited. the greater the amount of slip. Due to Lenz’s Law. demanded by the rotor. Most simplified induction machine consists of 6 stator slots per pole pair – one per line and one per return conductor each. This rotating field induces currents of frequency f2 inside the conductors of the rotor windings.or deltaconnection. which fulfils the frequency condition. Rotors show a certain amount of slip s against the stator rotating field – their method of running is called asynchronous.1 Design. which is connected to a threephase system in either star. 159: induction machine. As a consequence rotor currents and stator rotating field. method of operation u z y rotor stator with windings v w x air gap Induction machines state the most import type of threephase machines. balanced currents occur. revolving with differential speed n2 relatively towards the rotor speed n and relatively towards the stator field with n1 = n + n2 . Usual windings are designed with a number of pole pairs greater than one p > 1. This again creates another rotating field. power supply Fig. Fig. which is based on relative motion between stator and rotor. The higher the torque.3) n − n f2 s= 1 = n1 f1 123 . the rotor is actually not able to reach stator field rotational speed. Therefore this kind of machine is called induction machine (asynchronous machine). to be mainly used as motor. 158: induction machine.2) (7. rotor currents counteract their origin. to create a rotating field inside the air gap.
unassembled parts 124 . 160: induction machine. 161: induction machine.Induction machine shortcircuited ring bearing cage rotor stator winding enclosure Fig. general design Fig.
162b: same machine. power: 30 kW Fig. squirrelcage rotor (lower right) 125 . 162a: induction motor. stator (upper right). 163ad: highvoltage induction motor. rotor only Fig.Induction machine Fig.case with shaft (upper left). power: 300 kW (Siemens) . slipring rotor (lower left).
End windings are outside the cylindrical cage connected to slip rings. as well as a self inductance L1 (stator) and L2 (rotor). Large machines feature copper rotor bars and shortcircuitrings whereas diecast aluminium cages are used for small power machines. Their end windings are shortcircuited using shortcircuitrings at their end faces. 7.and rotor winding are magnetically coupled by their common mutual inductance M. 164: induction machine. R1 for the stator and R2 for the rotor. This type of construction does not admit any access to the rotor windings while operating. Rotor windings are shortcircuited either directly or via brushes using a starting resistor or can be supplied by external voltage. 126 . This assumption permits a singlephase consideration. similar to their stator. or with • squirrelcage rotors.2 Basic equations. • Squirrelcage rotors are composed of separate rotor bars to form a cylindrical cage. The number of phases is m2 = N 2 . Each of the windings of stator and rotor feature a resistance. which results in a missing opportunity to directly influence the operational behaviour.Induction machine Induction machines are either equipped with • slipring rotors. equivalent circuit diagrams Stator and rotor of considered induction machines are to be fitted with balanced threephase windings. rotor type overview squirrelcage rotor • induction machines with slipring rotor consist of threephase windings with a number of phases m2 = 3 .: end windings shortcircuit ring sliprings + brushes U V W threephase winding rotor bars starting resistor slipring rotor Fig. which are means to adjust rotational speed. Stator. The following considerations apply for both slipring rotor machines as well as squirrelcage rotor machines.
165: induction machine.8) with a reasonable choice of ü as: ü= L1 w1 ⋅ ξ1 = ⋅ (1 + σ 1 ) M w2 ⋅ ξ 2 127 (7.9) .5) expand to: I U 1 = R1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ ω1 ⋅ ( L1 − ü ⋅ M ) ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ ω1 ⋅ ü ⋅ M ⋅ 2 + I 1 ü ü ⋅U 2 = ü 2 ⋅ R2 ⋅ I2 I I + j ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ ( L2 ⋅ ü 2 − ü ⋅ M )⋅ 2 + j ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ ü ⋅ M ⋅ I 1 + 2 ü ü ü (7. 165: R1 I1 U1 f1 ωL 1 1 ω M 2 R2 I2 ωL 2 2 f2 U2 ω M 1 Fig. i. U 2 = ü ⋅U 2 .7) (7. voltage U 2 and current I 2 of frequency f1 are to be used for steady oriented stator windings. which leads to the equivalent circuit diagram as shown in Fig. evoking the same effect as voltage U2 and current I2 in revolving rotor windings.6) Voltage equations (7. certain conditions apply for operation at rotational speed n: • stator induces into the rotor with frequency f2. introducing a transformation ratio ü is utilized to aim the described transfer.4) (7.47.e. Power invariant transformation.5) * * Rotor quantities are now transferred into stator quantities.Induction machine Since currents in stator windings are of frequency f1. ecd. * I2 = * I2 ü (7. whereas currents in rotor windings are of frequency f2. galvanic separated According voltage equations: U 1 = R1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ ω 1 ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ ω 1 ⋅ M ⋅ I 2 U 2 = R2 ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ L2 ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ M ⋅ I 1 (7. • rotor induces into the stator with frequency f1.
In analogy to transformers we find (see chapter 3): R = ü ⋅ R2 = (1 + σ 1 ) * 2 2 2 w ⋅ξ 2 ' ⋅ 1 1 ⋅ R2 = (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ R2 w ⋅ξ 2 2 2 2 2 (7. the transformation ratio ü can be measured as the ratio of noload voltages in standstill operation.14) (7. if the rotor voltage is multiplied by 1 = . X 2* = ω1 ⋅ L*2 (7.Induction machine With that.12) Then follows for the voltage equations: U 1 = R1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ ω 1 ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 0 (7.15) The appearance of different frequencies in stator and rotor is displeasing.10) w ⋅ξ w ⋅ξ L = ü ⋅ L2 − ü ⋅ M = (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ 1 1 ⋅ (1 + σ 2 ) ⋅ L2 h − (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ 1 1 ⋅ M = w ⋅ξ w ⋅ξ 2 2 2 2 (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ (1 + σ 2 ) ⋅ L1 − L1 = 1 − 1 ⋅ L1 = σ ⋅ L1 1−σ 1− σ * 2 2 (7. This issue can be ω 1 formally eliminated.18) I 0 = I1 + I 2 128 .16) which finally leads to: U 1 = R1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I 0 U2 s * (7. disappearance of the leakage inductance on the primary side is achieved.17) * = R* 2 s ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ X * ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ X1 ⋅ I 0 2 * * (7. Reactances are to be ω2 s transferred onto the stator side: X 1 = ω 1 ⋅ L1 .13) * U 2 = R * ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ L*2 ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ ω 2 ⋅ L1 ⋅ I 0 2 I 0 = I1 + I 2 * * * (7.11) with the total leakage factor: σ = 1− 1 (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅ (1 + σ 2 ) (7.
22) (7. s = 1.20) && u= U1 w ⋅ξ = 1 1 ⋅ (1 + σ 1 ) U 20 w2 ⋅ ξ 2 Operating with constant rotor flux linkage. Operational behaviour of induction machines can be completely described using the ecd shown in Fig. R1 = 0 for noload voltages: ∗ U 1 = U 20 = ü ⋅U 20 = w1 ⋅ ξ1 ⋅ (1 + σ 1 ) ⋅U 20 w2 ⋅ ξ 2 (7. The chosen transformation ratio ü can be measured on the primary side at noload an standstill on secondary side – neglecting stator winding copper losses. general ecd All occurring variables of the ecd shown in Fig. 166. Then follows with: I 2 = 0.19) (7. which means system supply with constant voltage and frequency. an ecd is to be utilized with tranformation ratio of: ü= 1 w1 ⋅ ξ1 ⋅ w2 ⋅ ξ 2 (1 + σ 2 ) (7.23) = R 2+ s ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ (1 − σ ) ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I 0 + + I 0 = I1 + I 2 129 . 166: induction machine. 166 are considered at frequency f1. It is purposively used for operation with constant stator flux linkage. which means fieldoriented control.Induction machine R1 I1 U1 X1 X 2* I0 R 2* s I2 * U* 2 s Fig.21) which makes the rotor leakage inductance disappear (without derivation): U 1 = R1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅σ ⋅ X 1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ (1 − σ ) X 1 ⋅ I 0 U2 s + (7.
Induction machine R1 I1 U1 σX1 R+ 2 I0 I+ 2 (1. Tecd Please note: • • all types of ecd are physically identical and lead to same results a suitable choice of the transformation ratio is a question of expedience Stator winding resistance R1 is usually neglected for machines at line frequency f1 = 50 Hz: R1 = 0 130 (7.26) U2 s ' = R 2' s ' ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ X 2σ ⋅ I 2 + j ⋅ X 1h ⋅ I 0 ' ' ' I 0 = I1 + I 2 R1 I1 X 1σ I0 X 1h X' 2σ R' 2 s I'2 U1 U'2 s Fig.25) (7.24) which complies with the effective number of windings. a Tform ecd derives for induction machines.27) . 168: induction machine. but of minor importance when considering operational behaviour (also without derivation): U 1 = R1 ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ X 1σ ⋅ I 1 + j ⋅ X 1h ⋅ I 0 (7. 167: induction machine. With the nonmeasurable transformation ratio: ü= w1 ⋅ ξ1 w2 ⋅ ξ 2 (7.σ )X 1 U+ 2 s Fig. ecd for constant rotor flux linkage Transformation ratio ü can be measured on secondary side at noload and standstill on primary side. This type of ecd is similar to those of transformers (as discussed in chapter 3).
voltage equations for induction machines ensue to: U1 = j ⋅ X1 ⋅ I 0 U1 = − R* 2 s ⋅I2 − j⋅X*⋅I2 2 * (7.28. phasor diagram 131 . 169. 1 I1 = I* 2 j X* 2 I* 2 I0 Im Fig. to consist of only 3 elements.28) With equation 7. shown in Fig.Induction machine Rotor windings of slipring rotors are usually shortcircuited by sliprings and brushes. proximity effect) can be neglected for squirrelcage rotors. 170: induction machine. the operational behaviour of both types are alike: * U2 = 0 (7. 169: induction machine. same as squirrelcage rotors. X2* I1 U1 f1 X1 I0 I2 * R 2* s f1 Fig.30) I 0 = I1 + I 2 which leads to a simple ecd. simplified ecd The according phasor diagram can be drawn by using the voltage equations above.29) * * (7. This ecd is taken as a basis for the investigation of the operational behaviour of induction machines in the following. As long as current displacement (skin effect. +Re R* 2 s I* 2 = U 1 = j X 1 I0 ϕ .
33) With that fact.3. the mechanical power of induction machines to be exerted on the shaft ensues to the difference of air gap power and rotor copper losses: Pmech = PD − Pel = ( 1 − s ) ⋅ PD .2 Torque Based on the simplified ecd follows for the current in a short circuited rotor: I = * 2 −U 1 * R2 * + j⋅ X2 s .31) Since no losses occur in stator windings ( R1 = 0 assumed). I *2 2 = U12 * R2 * + X 22 s 2 .3. No copper losses occur for the rotor resistance R2 itself: s Pel = 3 ⋅ R2 ⋅ I = 3 ⋅ R2 ⋅ I * 2 2 *2 2 R* *2 = s ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ I 2 = s ⋅ PD . the air gap power is represented by the active power * to be converted in the R2 resistor.36) .32) In described equivalent circuit diagrams. s (7. (7. (7. (7.34) 7.3 Operational behaviour 7. the entire absorbed active power is transmitted over the air gap to appear as airgap power for the rotor: PD = P1 = 3 ⋅ * R2 *2 ⋅I2 . s (7.Induction machine 7.35) which makes it possible to describe torque M as a function of slip s: M = ( 1 − s ) ⋅ PD = PD = 1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ R2* ⋅ Pmech U12 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ n 2 ⋅ π ⋅ n1 ( 1 − s ) 2 ⋅ π ⋅ n1 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f1 s R* 2 * 2 + X 22 p s 2 U1 * 3⋅ p X2 = ⋅ * R2 s⋅ X* ω1 + *2 * s⋅ X2 R2 132 (7.1 Power balance A power balance is established for the definition of power: absorbed active power is defined as: P1 = 3 ⋅U1 ⋅ I1 ⋅ cosϕ1 .
* X2 (7.Induction machine Torque reaches its peak value in case of the denominator is minimum. torque/speed diagram 133 .1L 0. being the maximum torque value: M kipp 3 ⋅ p U 12 = ⋅ * ω1 2 ⋅ X 2 (7.37) The amount of slip to occur at maximum torque is called breakdown slip: skipp * R2 = * ≈ 0.2 X2 (7.38) with the according breakdown torque.40) derives from a reference of the actual torque on to the maximum * value and a replacement of R2 * by skipp (note: index kipp means breakdown): X2 M 2 = skipp s M kipp + s skipp M M Kipp (7. The denominator is to be differentiated after s and to be set = 0: − * * 1 R2 X 2 ⋅ * + * =0 s 2 X 2 R2 ⇒ s=± * R2 . 171: induction machine.40) 2 MN 2 n 1 1 M Kipp 1 0 s Kipp s N 0 s Kipp nN n1 1 2n 1 s n 1 breakdown standstill nominal noload 2 brake motor generator Fig.39) The Kloss Equation (7.
3 Efficiency The efficiency of induction machines at nominal operation. with neglection of stator copper losses (R1 = 0).49) When taking stator copper losses and hysteresis losses into account. 171 and be also discussed with equation 7. Usual amounts for nominal slips are: s N ≈ 0...44) M < 0 .42) s = skipp : M =1 M kipp point.47) The nominal slip sn is supposed to be kept as small as possible.46) 7.48) which leads to effiencies η N = 0.95.0 < s < 1 . s < 0 . (7.99 (7.01 (7.Induction machine Characteristics M = f ( s ) or M = f ( n ) can be drawn as in Fig.41) s >> skipp : s M 2 = = 2 ⋅ kipp s M kipp s skipp hyperbola. (7.43) Induction machines can be operated in 3 different modes: • motor (rotor revolves slower than rotating field): M > 0. n > n1 . • generator (rotor revolves faster than rotating field): (7. Typical slip ranges are: s << skipp : M 2 = M kipp skipp = 2⋅ s s skipp straight line.3. 134 . 0. (7.05L0. real applications actually show lower efficiency amounts between approx. • brake (rotor revolves against rotating field): (7.0.40.8 and 0. n > 0. in order to achieve proper nominal efficiency.95. (7. n < 0. s > 1. computes to: ηN = Pab Pmech N ( 1 − s n ) ⋅ PD N = = = 1 − sN Pauf PD N PD N (7.45) M > 0 .
because if the load exceeds the breakdown torque. the rotor falls into standstill (motion breaks down). that in cause of n = ( 1 − s ) ⋅ n0 follows: dn = − n0 ⋅ ds .3.5 (7. dn (7.53) bzw.54) which is given for − skipp < s < skipp (7. Assuming M Last = const i.51) and taking into account. Therefore a certain overload factor is required for induction machines: M kipp MN > 1. dM Motor < 0.4 Stability An important condition is to be requested for both motor and generator operation: in which range does the machine show stable operational behaviour? That leads to: dM Motor dM Last < = 0. dM Last =0 dn (7.56) 135 .50) meaning load torque must be of greater value than motor torque at increasing speed. dn dn (7. a stability condition of induction machines ensues to: dM Motor >0 ds (7.55) These considerations leads to the assignment breakdown torque.Induction machine 7.52) (7.e. whereas it runs away at oversized driving torque (running away may lead to destruction ⇒ breakdown).
172: induction machine. (7. R1 = 0 . short circuited (secondary) From voltage equations derives: I0 = I2 = * U1 = const .59) Minimum current applies for s = 0 ( n = n1 ) : ideallized noload case I1 = I 0 = U1 j ⋅ X1 (located on –jaxis) (7.58) Then follows for the stator current: I1 = I 0 + I 2 = I 0 + * U1 R * + j⋅ X2 s * 2 . j ⋅ X1 U1 R * + j⋅ X2 s * 2 (7. ecd.Induction machine 7.57) . der Läufer ist kurzgeschlossen. (7.4 Circle diagram (Heyland diagram) 7.1 Locus diagram Circle diagram of induction machines means locus diagram of their stator current. Preconditions: • • • U1 wird in reelle Achse gelegt. X2* I1 U1 X1 I0 I2 * R 2* s Fig. s 136 .4.60) Maximum current appears for s = ∞ (n = ∞ ) : idealized shortcircuit: * R2 = 0.
137 . a second point on the circle graph must be known. intersected by a line in parallel the –jaxis.Induction machine the ideal shortcircuit reactance derives from a parallel connection of X1 and X2*: σ X1 ⋅ X1 ⋅ * X1 ⋅ X 2 1−σ = σ ⋅ X . This line is called slipline. in order to define a parametrization. locus diagram 7. XK = = 1 * X1 + X 2 X + X ⋅ σ 1 1 1−σ That leads to an appraisalof the shortcircuit current as: (7. (7. which terminates at the intersection with the extension of the current phasor I2.62) The locus diagram of I1 forms a circle (not subject to derivation). diameter ensues to ( I ∞ − I 0 ) +Re s=0 s Im 1 slipline U +Re I ϕ 1 1 ϕ 2 * I 2 * I 0 M I∞ Im Fig.4. A tangent to the circle is to be drawn at I0. Besides the noload point.61) I1 = U1 = I ∞ >> I 0 (located on –jaxis) j ⋅σ ⋅ X 1 (7. whose centerpoint is also located on the –jaxis.2 Parametrization The tangent function is to be applied for the rotor current angle for parameter assignment: tan ϕ * 2 { }= X = Re{I } R Im I 2 * * 2 * 2 * 2 ⋅s = s skipp ~ s.63) which is a linear function of s and can therefore be utilized for construction purpose of the slipline. This line is divided linearly because of is proportional to the slip. 173: induction machine.
Apart from that.64) (7. it is possible to directly read off torque value M and air gap power PD. 2 ⋅ π ⋅ n1 (7. 174: induction machine. circle diagram.Induction machine If the ohmic stator winding resistance needs to be taken into account.4. to apply for low power machines and power converter supply at low frequencies. BC = ( 1 − s ) ⋅ AB . an active partition is added to the circle of the locus diagram. 1 M = PD = cM ⋅ AB .66) . +Re s=0 s s Kipp s=1 U1 B motor 0 < s < 1 er pow ical chan me e of htlin straig I1 ϕ 1 P mech PD C A M max shortcircuit/startingpoint brake s > 1 P el I0 M I∞ Im generator s < 0 Fig. to be transferred across the air gap. 174: PD = P = 3 ⋅ U1 ⋅ I1 ⋅ cosϕ1 = 3 ⋅U1 ⋅ I1w = c p ⋅ AB . If R1 is equal to zero (R1 = 0) .3 Power in circle diagram The opportunity to easily determine the current value for any given operational point is not the only advantage of the circle diagram of induction machines. 138 (7. 7. mechanical power Pmech and elektrical power Pel as distances to appear in the circle diagram. the entire absorbed active power is equal to the air gap power PD. torques and powers Geometric interdependences for air gap power and torque derive from Fig. which differs for location of center point and parameter assignment – not supposed to be discussed further.65) as well as (intercept theorem): AB 1 = AC s ⇒ AC = s ⋅ AB .
Since the total reactance X1 is inverse proportional to the air gap width. I1N (7. for: 1 < s < ∞. 174)..5 .4. 7.4 Operating range.0.68) The straightline to run through points s = 0 and s = 1 on the circle is called straightline of mechanical power (see Fig.70) is placed on the –Imaxis and is supposed to be kept small with regard to the absorbed reactive power of induction machines. n = n1 Noload current (7. for: s < 0.69) I0 = U1 X1 (7.25. 1 − s) . Pmech = ( 1 − s ) ⋅ PD = cP ⋅ BC .2mm + D . signalized operating points The three operating ranges of induction machines are to be found in the according circle diagram as: • • • motor: braking: generator: for: 0< s < 1.Induction machine The leg AB is subdivided due to the ratio s ( Pel = s ⋅ PD = c P ⋅ AC . so that: (7. Five signalized operating points need to be mentioned: • noload: s = 0. this width is also supposed to be kept small.. 1000 (7.71) Practical applications show a ratio as of: I0 = 0.67) (7. Mechanical limits may be reached when considering shaft deflection and bearing clearance: δ ≥ 0.72) 139 .
or startingpoint: s = 1. = = = I∅ 1 ⋅ (I ∞ + I 0 ) 1 + σ + I0 2 2 (7. * X2 • breakdown: s kipp = (7. to maximize cosϕ 1 . I∞ = 5. optimum point (7. • ideal shortcircuit: s = ∞. Fig...9 ..0.and imaginary part of I2 * are equal. shortcircuit currents I1k occurs.8 ⋅ I 1N .03.Induction machine * R2 . (7.76) Practical values are aimed as: σ = 0.. This case is given. This point describes the peak value of the circle. • shortcircuit.78) 140 . maximum torque is exerted on the shaft of induction machines. n = ∞ Maximum current value to theoretically appear – also located on the –Imaxis. which is multiple the nominal current I1N and therefore needs to be limited.8 I1N • optimum operational point: The nominnal point is to be chosen in the way. 175: induction mach. A better value of cosϕ 1 can not be achieved.74) When starting. so that * tan ϕ 2 = 1 .1 . if the nominal currents ensues to a tangent to the circle. n = 0 (7.. If the nominal point is set equal to the optimum point follows: 1 ⋅ (I ∞ − I 0 ) 1−σ 2 .75) I∞ = U1 I = 0.8.0.. σ ⋅ X1 σ (7.. real.73) At this point..77) I∅ 2 1 1 cosϕ 1opt 1 0 with practical values: cosϕ 1 ≈ 0.. due to approximately: I1K = 5. The optimum point is not always kept precisely in practical applications.
* R2 (7. σ ⋅ X1 σ (7.Induction machine 7.5 Influence of machine parameters Influences of machine parameters on the circle diagram are subject to discussion in the following. 176: parameter variation.4. caused by skin/ proximityeffect ⇒ I ∞ increases • R2 * decreased. X1 (7.81) Conceivable alternatives may be: • X1 decreased.79) The ideal shortcircuit current approximately amounts: I∞ = I U1 = 0 . Noload current is given as: I0 = U1 . effects 141 . caused by a wider air gap ⇒ I0 increases • XK decreased.80) Parameter assignment is based on: * tanϕ 2 = * X2 ⋅s . caused by skin/ proximityeffect ⇒ PK approaches the breakdown point at PKipp Fig.
83) (7. 177: induction mach.89) The same circle point and therefore the same amount of torque is achieved for a slip value s2 * when adding RV to the rotor circuit as for slip value s1..5.84) (7.5 Speed adjustment Most important opportunities for speed adjustment of induction machines can be taken from the basic equation (7.88) and therefore: R s 2 = s1 ⋅ 1 + V R* 2 (7.85) The circle of the locus diagram remains the same in case of an increased rotor resistor.Induction machine 7.1 Increment of slip An increment of slip can be achieved by looping starting resistors into the rotor circuit of slipring machines. both tanϕ 2 values need to be the same: * * * R2 R2 + RV = s1 s2 (7.81): n= f1 ⋅ (1 − s) p (7. 142 . o without R : * v tan ϕ = * 2 * X2 * R2 ⋅ s1 (7.82) 7.87) * In order to achieve the same point on the circle diagram. realized by adding RV to R2 – only the slipparametrization differs. This enables starting with breakdown torque (=maximum torque). X 2* I1 U1 X1 I0 I2 * R 2 * +R V * s Fig.86) o with Rv* : * tan ϕ 2 = * X2 R +R * 2 * v ⋅ s2 (7. starting resistor j ⋅ X1 I I ∞ = 0 = const R* 2 σ 3 ⋅ p U12 M kipp = ⋅ = const R* 2 * ω 2⋅ X2 2 I0 = U1 = const R* (7.
Noload speed remains the same as of operation without starting resistor. s2 = 1 * R2 * R2 + Rv* (7.91) 1 Fig. circle diagram without/with starting resistor M Kipp Example: s1 = skipp . 143 .Induction machine +Re U1 0 s 1 = s Kipp M Kipp MA s2 = 1 +Re U1 0 s=1 M A = M Kipp I∞ Im I0 with R * V I∞ Im I0 without R * V Fig. 178: s Kipp 0 s skipp = 1 Disadvantage of this method: additional losses caused by the additional resistor RV. the efficiency η = 1 − s decreases. 177 a/b: induction machine.90) 1 * → Rv* = R2 ⋅ − 1 s kipp (7.
179: power system set.2 Variating the number of pole pairs Speed adjustment can also be achieved for squirrelcage machines by changing the poles. σ f1 (7..5.. The latter enables speed variation due to a ratio of 2:1 by reconnecting two winding groups from series to parallel connection.94) . the according circle size remains the same and therefore also its breakdown torque U = ⋅ ~ 1 . threephase machine Power converters are required fort his method of speed adjustment. then rectified and transferred to the inverter block via its DClink..3 Variation of supply frequency f line = 50Hz L U = 0 .. * ω1 2 ⋅ X 2 f1 3⋅ p U12 144 2 M kipp (7.92) and on the other hand by I∞ = I 0 U1 ~ .93) If the supplying voltage is variated proportionally to the line frequency.5. AC/DC – DC/AC converters. called Dahlander winding. because this type is not bound to a certain number of poles. Power is taken from the supplying system. f max M 3~ Fig. The inverter takes over speed control of the induction machine. This is realized utilizing either two separate threephase windings of different number of poles to be implemented into the stator. supplying with varable frequency and voltage. U max ~ = C = ~ f = 0 .. The characteristic circle diagram needs to be discussed for variable frequencies: On the one hand.Induction machine 7. power supply. 7. the circle is partially defined by: I0 = U1 U ~ 1 X 1 f1 (7. Speed variation can only be performed in rough steps. with only one of them being used at a time or a changepole winding..
Induction machine but the parametrization differs due to: * tan ϕ 2 = * X2 R * 2 ⋅ s ~ s ⋅ f1 = f 2 . R1 = 0 f1 U1 = const is called operation with constant stator flux f1 linkage. The shortcircuit operational points approaches the noload point with decreasing frequency. 180:circle diagram for U1 = const . For instance constant noload stator flux linkage ensues to: The mode of operation keeping Ψ10 = L1 ⋅ I10 = L1 ⋅ U1 U ~ 1 = const ω1 ⋅ L10 f1 145 (7. +Re f 2 = 10Hz U1 f2 = 25Hz 0 s = 1(10Hz) s = 1(25Hz) s = 1(50Hz) f 2 = 50Hz I0 I∞ Im Fig. (7. 181: torquespeedcharacteristic for U1 = const .95) Any rotor frequency is assigned to a circle point.96) . R1 = 0 f1 M Kipp M A (10Hz) M A (25Hz) M A (50Hz) 0 1 n0 / 5 s = 0(10Hz) n0 / 2 s = 0(25Hz) n s n0 s = 0(50Hz) Fig.
The power inverter necessarily only needs to be designed for slip power. PD f1 s·PD f1 M 3~ f 2 =s · f 1 s·PD Fig.5.4 Additional voltage in rotor circuit Double supplied induction machines are based on feeding slipringrotors with slipfrequent currents. an almost lossless speed adjustment is possible . 182: ecd for additional voltage in rotor circuit Slip power s ⋅ PD is taken from (or fed to) the sliprings of the machine and supplied to (or taken from) the line using an inverter. 146 . Therefore slip is increased or decreased.„undersynchronous or oversynchronous inverter cascades“.Induction machine 7.
but need to be supplied by external sources. which is excited to oscillate by current peak or remanence magnetism for actuated rotors. If induction machines are supposed to operate in solitary operation without mains connection (e. operational range. to be connected in parallel. Similar to DC machines.). Thus induction machines are not able to autonomously excite required magnetizing current. etc. ecd The stator current reactive component direction remains the same at changeover from motor to generator mode.Induction machine 7. A stable operating point ensues for U C = U 0 at the intersection of noload characteristic and capacitor characteristic. mains operation appears troublefree. 183: induction generator. self excitation is possible for inductions machines in solitary operation as well. Saturation dependent machine reactance and external capacitors form a resonating circuit. s +Re U1 sGen sN s Kipp s=1 I0 I∞ I1 generator Im L1 A G 3~ C solitary operation s<0 Fig. Oversynchronous speed (s < 0 ) is to be achieved by accordant driving in order to work as generator.g. 147 . The noload characteristic U 0 = f (I µ ) applies for constant speed without load ⇒ I wirk = 0 . The amount of noload voltage can be adjusted by the choice of the utilized capacitor value. The reversal of the energy flow direction is regarded in the ecd with R* appliance of 2 < 0 and therefore a reversal from sink towards source. Besides described application samples. Since synchronous generators are able to provide lagging reactive power. capacitor banks need to be connected in parallel for coverage of required reactive power. auxiliary power supplies. I whereas the capacitor characteristic U C = µ complies with the reactive voltage drop along ωC the capacitor. maintenancefree induction machines in solitary operation are utilized for runofriver power stations as well as for windenergy generators. alternator in automotive applications.6 Induction generator The bottom part of the circle diagram covers generator mode of induction machines at threephase supply.
Therefore the machine load can be increased until the stability limit is reached. Since the capacitor is not able to provide more reactive current in real. intersection of noload and capacitor characteristics If the machine is loaded with active current I1.8 U 0 = f (I µ ) U n = const ∆I 1B I1 I 0 Iµ I1 Fig. 148 . the required reactive current amount increased about ∆I1B . which means. 184: induction generator.Induction machine Uc= U0 U1 stability limit Iµ ωc U1 0 cos ϕ = 1 cos ϕ = 0. voltage drops until U1. an additional reactive current demand can not be covered. The according load characteristics U1 = f ( I1 ) take after those of entirely excited DC shunt generators.
Induction machine 7. This assumption appears perspiciuous as soon as single bars are added up to shortcircuited ringwindings. Squirrel cage rotors can be used. to count the same number as the number N2 of rotor slots. 185b). cage bars are interconnected with shortcircuit rings. Its special design is simpler. The total sum of induced currents by sinusoidal rotating fields is supposed to be equal to zero at any moment of time. usually for lowpower machines. 7 IN and admissible heating is not going to be exceeded.. if the power supply is able to get along with breakaway starting currents of 4 . placed in slots. The arrangement is generally called cage rotor and because their alikeness usually known as squirrel cage rotor. Thus return conductors through the interior of the armature can be spared if all bars at both ends of the rotor are connected in one electrical node each (Fig. which can be displayed by a resistor to be connected as N2angle (Fig. to be shortcircuited by conducting rings at the front ends as described or alternatively diecast aluminium cages are implemented. a = 1) (7.97) 149 . bar current – ring current Induction machines with squirrelcage rotors are most utilized type of electrical machine. more robust and apart from that also cheaper than slipring rotors.7. with any of the bars to consist of single bars.7 Squirrelcage rotors 7. At the rotor front end. In its simplest form squirrel cage rotors consist of bars. Fig. 185c). The only item of squirrelcage rotors to differ from the described winding principle is a substitution of node points by ring conductors. whose one side reaches trough the armature (Fig. 185a). This leads to a symmetrical polyphase winding with N2 shortcircuited phase windings. 185: development of squirrelcage rotors The number of turns w2 of cage windings with m2 phases = N2 bars ensues to: w2 = N 2 zN 1 = 2m2a 2 (z N = 1..1 Particularities. Cage windings can be understood as polyphase winding of N2 phases. Either blank copper bars are sandwiched into uninsulated slots of the rotor laminations stack.
186: bar currents I _4 β β β Bar currents are displaced ofan electric angle β against each other: β = pα = p 2π .100) First Kirchhoff’s Law applies for the dependence of bar. but as an effect of the induction evoked by the stator.98) Squirrelcage rotors do not feature certain number of poles. (7. 186: phasor diagram of bar and ring currents 150 34 . The amount of ring current is now supposed to be subject to investigations: I _3 _2 I I _1 Fig.and ring currents: I 01 I12 I 23 I 34 = I1 + I12 = I 2 + I 23 = I 3 + I 34 = I 4 + I 45 (7.101) (7.99) with I 2 = I Stab being current per rotor bar.Induction machine with the winding factor for the fundamental wave: ξ2 = 1 . N2 (7. 187. I I β 2 01 1 I β β β 12 I I I 2 β I 23 3 Fig.102) (7.103) (7. 2I2 = 2 I Stab = π p 2 π p (7. This leads to the fundamental wave of the rotor mmf: θ 2D = m2 4 w2ξ 2 2 π p 1 ⋅1 N2 4 2 2 N2 I Stab .104) which can be displayed by a phasor diagram due to Fig. it takes over the number of stator poles.
187. is part of investigation.2 Current displacement (skin effect. proximity effect) The basic effect of current displacement and the opportunity to utilize it for an improvement of the startup behaviour of squirrelcage motors is subject of discussion in the following.106) (7. shown in Fig.Induction machine Phase displacement of bar currents is equal to phase displacement of ring currents. neglect of the magnetic voltage drop in iron parts assumed. Assumptions as the conductor to completely fill out the slot and current density to be constant over crosssection area in case of DC current supply and no current displacement.105) This leads to the evaluation I Ring >> I Stab . are made for simplification reasons. Note: On the one hand. r r θ = ∫ Hds . Appliance of Ampere’s Law on the conductor shows linear rise of flux density inside the slot. squirrel cage rotors adapt to various number of stator poles. 7. but they can not be utilized for different a number of poles on the other hand – founded by reasons of dimensioning (see above).shortcircuit rings need to be necessarily design to stand high ring currents with damage.7. µ Fe → ∞ θ ( x ) = S N bN x = H ( x ) ⋅ bN = B( x ) = µ0 B (x ) bN µ0 (7.107) S N bN hN I x x x = µ0 = = Bmax bN hN bN hN hN x hL hL hN = x x hL b N =b L 151 SN S Bmax B Fig. 187: conductor bar run of current density and flux density . Squirrelcage machines with low number of poles in particular require large ring cross section compared to bar diameters. so that generally follows: I Ring = I Stab 2 = I Stab β πp sin 2 sin 2 N2 (7. For a better understanding only a single slot of typical squirrelcage motors.
placed one upon another. In order to illustrate the effect of current displacement.108) 1 Ωmm 2 Symbol δ is used for penetration depths. it is caused by the slot leakage field. bN 2I = I = ^ Layer thickness on which current flow is reduced to amounts: δ = 2ρ 1 = . e. flowing bar current is displaced towards the air gap the more its frequency rises. hL bL B( x ) = Bmax x .f. into separate zones is induced by the slot leakage field. calculated with Finite Element Method (FEM). increases from top to bottom of the conductor (layers). As a consequence of this.f.m. dimensions (a). small L σ hN large L σ bN Lσ ~ hN bN Fig. 189ac: conductor in slot. dt which counteract their creating origin (Lenz`s Law). di ( Lσ ⋅ ). 188: leakage inductance values x hL x hL hL hN = x b N =b L SN S Bmax B Fig. Model: if a solid conductor bar is assumed as stacked partial conductors. backe. current density (b).m. lower layers are linked with higher leakage flux than upper layers. whose integration over the conductor cross section area is equal to zero. the following pictures show field distribution of an induction machine at different frequencies. ωµ 0 πfκµ 0 (7. The effect is called current displacement. hN Bmax = µ0 I = bN In case of AC current supply. results for copper with ρ = and line 57 m frequency 50 Hz: δ = 1cm. 152 . In case of flowing AC current. eddy currents of uneven distribution develop.g. but create singlesided current displacement towards the slot opening. flux density (c) AC current: bN ∫ S ( x )dx = I . which means lower partial coils feature higher leakage inductance than upper partial coils. The amount of backe.Induction machine DC current: S (x ) = SN = I= . Bmax = µ0 I 2 .
20 Hz.1 Hz.Induction machine Fig.5 Hz. 50 Hz (top left through bottom right) 153 . 0. field distribution at fs = 0. 5 Hz. 190: induction machine. 10 Hz.
solely the slot opening shows same maximum values as in the DC case. K I (1) = 0. copper bars spline slot 154 .113) (7.111) (for calculation of KR please see additional literature) Current displacement reduces flux density in rotor conductors.110) R2 (s ) = K R (s )R2 K R (0) = 1.25K 0.Induction machine Current displacement is the cause for increased AC resistance of conductors in contrast to their DC restance.109) (7.112) (7.4 (for calculation of KI please see additional literature) Usually current displacement is an unwanted effect for electrical machines in general. This results in increased copper losses to occur in rotor conductors: P = ρ ∫ S 2 ( x )dV = I 2 R2 (s ) V V (7. • deepbar rotor. conductor cross sections of large machines are partitioned and additionally transposed. 192: deepbar slot Material: Lslot aluminium diecast.114) L2σN (s ) = K I (s )L2σN K I (0) = 1. subdivided into: Fig. Different forms of rotor bars appear for optimizing purposes. In order to avoid this. Current displacement is merely used for induction machines for improvement of startup behaviour. because of the described additional losses in rotor bars – with increased heating and deteriorated efficiency as a consequence. K R (1) ≈ 3K5 (7. This effect leads to a reduction of the leakage inductances: Wm = 1 2 1 2 ∫ B (x )dV = 2 I L2σN (s ) 2µ0 V (7.
any operational point requires an own according circuit diagram. until it disappears near the nominal point. caused by the high leakage reactance of the operation cage. The startup torque is raises caused by the high active resistance of the starting cage. 155 . R′ large 2 ′ X 1 . operation cage: copper Revealing design is made possible by using two different cages. Low nominal slip accompanied by reasonable efficiency ensues due to the small active resistance. the rotor current splits with reciprocal ratio of the active resistances and therefore principally flows in the operation cage.Im KB P KB I B Fig. The starting cage features a large active resistance and low leakage reactance. The amplification of 2 R′ moves the shortcircuit operational point towards the breakdown point. That enlarges R′ and lessens X 2σ . 194: doubleslot Material: doublecage starting cage: brass. R′ small 2 The influence of current displacement decreases with increasing speed of the motor. The course of the locus diagram K can be developed from startup diagram KA and operation diagram KB. Current ′ displacement appears in rotor bars. • twinslotcage rotor Doubleslot rotors as well as doublecage rotors form the category of twinslotcage rotors: KA stray web KB Fig.Induction machine Frequency of rotor currents is equal to line frequency at the moment of actuation. Strictly speaking. X 2σ small. + Re P K K P 0 I I 0B = 0A P KA K A I A . whereas the operation cage oppositely shows low active resistance and large leakage resistance. a reduction of 2 ′ X 2σ enlarges the circle diameter. X 2σ large. 193: variance of the circle form at parameter change • s = 1: • s → 0: ′ X 1 . In nominal operation with low rotor frequency. bronze. At startup the rotor current predominantly flows inside the starting cage.
195: twinslot cage machine. U1 X1 RA RB • Stator. s s Fig. 197: torque/speed characteristics for different rotor types 156 .and slot leakage are contained in reactance X.Induction machine The according ecd shows both cages to be connected in parallel: • Leakage of operation cage is elevated about the partition of the leakage I1 X 2* X σ St segment XσS. RB small The following diagram shows locus diagrams of starting cage and operation cage: +Re sN KB K s=1 KA I0 Iφ B Iφ A Im Fig. 196: locus diagrams of different cage types A comparison of current and torque course over rotational speed for different rotor types is illustrated in Fig. ecd • R1 neglected. RA large. 197: 240 % 220 600 % 500 160 400 current breakdown torque 200 180 current (all rotor types) 140 120 double slot torque (several types of armature) 300 100 80 (tapered) deep bar nominal torque 200 60 100 torque 40 20 0 0 round bar phase armature nominal current 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 rotational speed 80 90 100 % Fig.
caused by different slip values. n1 (7. the remaining two phases form a resulting AC winding. 199: machine set: torque/speed diagram 157 Different reactions occur in operation. In case of one phase being disconnected from the mains. ecd The first field. Concurrent stator field and the counterrotating rotor field as well as the counterrotating stator field and the concurrent rotor field create pulsating torque with average value equal to zero.115) whereas the slip of the counter rotor motion rotating field ensues to: s= • • − n1 − n =2−s − n1 (7.8. Fig. so that they are unable to start on their own! n = +n 0 M counter n Fig. whereas the concurrent field is barely influenced at s → 0 .Induction machine 7. to rotate in direction of the rotor shows a slip due to: s= n1 − n . This AC field can be split up into two counterrotating circular fields. The effect of both rotating fields with opposing motion directions on the rotor can be understood as a machine set to consist of two equal threephase machines exerting opposite rotational speed directions on one shaft. M M in n = n 0 n=0 M res. their stator windings create a circular rotating field. The counterrotating field is vigorously damped at s → 2 . . creating an AC field. Both torque partitions equalize each other in standstill. Singlephase induction machines fail to exert torque on the shaft.1 Method of operation R U S I T Are threephase induction machines connected to a balanced threephase system.8 Singlephase induction machines 7. 198: singlephase induction machine.116) Concurrent stator field and the concurrent rotor field as well as the counterrotating stator field and the counterrotating rotor field form constant torque each.
Inverse transformation: U u = U m +U g +U 0 (7.119) No zerosequence system applies.118) whereas for the negativesequence system follows: U g = Z g I g = Z (2 − s ) (1 − a ) I . 3 (7. 7.117) The relation between U and I is regarded for induction machines including the slipdependent motor impedance Z(s). the rotor accelerates independently and can be loaded.2 Equivalent circuit diagram (ecd) The equivalent circuit diagram of singlephase operated induction machines and be derived with appliance of the method of symmetrical components: due to circuit diagram follows: Iu = . 2 3 (7. Iw = 0 With transformation into symmetrical components: Im Ig = I 0 1 a 1 2 1 a 3 1 1 (1 − a ) I a2 I u 3 2 1− a a Iv = 3 I. If singlephase induction machines are pushed to speed with external means (handstart).8. Then ensues for the positivesequence system: U m = Z m I m = Z (s ) (1− a ) I .122) 158 .121) 2 U v = a U m + aU g + U 0 3U = U u − U v = U m 1 − a + U g (1 − a ) 3 = [Z (s ) + Z (2 − s )]I = U I + U II 2 (1 − a ) I (1 − a 2 )+ Z (2 − s ) (1 − a 2 ) I (1 − a ) = Z (s ) 3 ( ) (7. 1 Iw 0 ( ) (7.Iv = I. the resulting torque value is unequal to zero.120) (7.Induction machine This leads to elliptical rotating field.
The ohmic resistance of the stator winding needs to be taken into account for machines of low power. ecd R1 X 2* Then follows for the current amount in singlephase operation: I= 3U Z (s ) + Z (2 − s ) (7.Induction machine Figure 200 illustrates the ecd for singlephase operation.125) Z (2 − s ) = .123) Impedance values of positive. 0 s 1 2s 2 + Re U I(s) I(2s) . circuit diagram Z (s ) = U I (s ) U I (2 − s ) 159 (7. R1 I U mains singlephase I X 2* R 2* s X1 positivesequence U U negativesequence II X1 R 2* 2s Fig.124) (7. 200: induction machine in singlephase operation. Reactances of the threephase windings remain the same for singlephase operation. 201: balanced operation.Im Fig.and negative sequence system can be taken from the circuit diagram in balanced operation for arbitrary operational points s.
203: machine with aux. winding.8. 202: auxiliary winding. the appliance of an at least elliptical rotating field is mandatory. 7. which is displaced from the main winding (H) by a spatial angle ε and fed by currents being displaced by electrical phase angle ϕ.126) that means: if one phase is disconnected in normal operation at threephase system.127) The according shortcircuit current is slightly below that in threephase operation. Phase current for singlephase operation in standstill amounts: I1Ph = 3U 3 I 3Ph = 2 Z (1) 2 (7. design 160 ~ Z . the motor continues running. This may lead to thermal overload. This requires an auxiliary phase winding (h). wHξ H i p H α ε wξ p I IH H Ih h h h ih U Fig. Z (s ) + Z (2 − s ) Z (s ) (7. ecd Fig. the current absorbtion increases between noload an nominal operation about factord 3 .Induction machine Phase current in singlephase operation can be approximated in the proximity of low slip values by: I1Ph = 3U 3U ≈ = 3I 3 Ph .3 Singlephase induction machine with auxiliary phase winding If singlephase induction motors are supposed to exert startup torques.
Current displacement of main phase current IH and auxiliary phase current Ih is achieve by utilization of an impedance in the auxiliary phase circuit. 161 . agriculture and household applications. 204 illustrates a twopole motor with distinctive poles and twophase stator winding. Due to cost reasons. trade. resistance • • cheap. low initial torque switchoff after startup. in practical auxiliary phases are designed for lower efforts and with a smaller temporal displacement of the currents.Induction machine Optimized solution would be: ε= π π and ϕ = as well as wh ⋅ ξ h = wH ⋅ ξ H . low initial torque 3. A circular rotating field accrues based on these conditions. Different opportunities exist: 1. 204: singlephase iduction machine Appliance: lowpower drive systems for industry. inductance • expensive and heavy weighted. capacitor: optimum solution. Its mass production is cheap doing it that way. auxiliary phase Fig. This effects in an elliptical rotating field. high initial torque • • startup capacitor. with each phase to consist of two coils each. because occurence of additional losses main phase Technical realization: Fig. 2p 2 that means spatial displacement of the coils and temporal displacement of the currents of 90° and also the same number of windings for main and auxiliary phase. switchoff by centrifugal switch running capacitor for improvement of η and cosϕ 2.
partial crosssection In practical there is both symmetrical and asymmetrical cross section. cage ring Isthmus shortcircuit winding yoke squirrelcage rotor main winding Isthmus Fig. Despite low production costs and simple design. That suffices to create an elliptical rotating field. 162 . The main phase windings are arranged on one or more distinctive poles with concentrated coils. The auxiliary winding. splitpole motors are only utilized for low power applications (below 100W) for discussed reasons. Appliance: low cost drive applications in household and consumer goods.Induction machine 7. to be operated at singlephase systems. 205 and 206. 205: splitpole motor. to be displayed in Fig. 206: ditto. because of their losses to occur in the copper shortcircuit ring and their counterrotating rotating fields as well as low initial torque. encloses only parts of the pole and is fed by induction (transformer principle) by the main windings. design Fig.4 Splitpole machine Splitpole machines are basically induction machines with squirrel cage rotors to consist of two totally different stator windings. asym.8. Spatial displacement of the auxiliary winding is achieved by constructive means whereas temporal displacement is achieved by induction feeding. Splitpole machines feature unreasonable efficiencies. to be realized as shortcircuit winding.
Same as induction machines. Initially the rotor may also consist of a threephase winding of the same number of polepairs. 163 . Voltage equation and equivalent circuit diagram can be derived from those of induction machines. synchronous machines belong to the category of rotating field machines. where the assignment as „synchronous machine” derives from. DC current is fed between both sliprings. the rotor exclusively revolves at synchronous speed n1. p (8.1 Method of operation Synchronous machines (SYM) are most important electric generator and is therefore mainly used in generator mode.f 1 IF Fig. The stator arrangement consists of a threephase winding. solely their rotor windings are fed with DC current. with mean values equal zero. to be connected to mains of constant voltage U1 and frequency f1. called exciter current. Therefore the rotor current frequency f2 is equal zero.2) For stationary operation. to be connected to sliprings.8 Synchronous machine 8. U 1. 207: synchronous machine. connection Synchronous machines are solely able to create timeconstant torque (unequal zero) if the frequency condition applies: f 2 = s ⋅ f1 with f 2 = 0 and f1 = f Netz follows: s=0 (8.1) and n = n1 = f1 . Pulsating torques emerge at any other speeds n ≠ n1 .
1200 MVA (ABB) Fig. 208: Turbogenerator.Synchronous machine Fig. 280 MVA (ABB) 164 . 209: hydroelectric generator.
Synchronous machine
Fig. 210: synchronous generator for vehicle network applications, 5 kVA
Fig. 211: sync. generator with stationary field exciter machine, revolving rectifiers, 30 kVA 165
Synchronous machine
8.2 Mechanical construction
Stators of synchronous machines show the same design as induction machines in principle. Those stators basically consist of insulated lamination stacks, fitted with slots and threephase windings being placed into. Rotor windings are supplied by DC current. Since f2 is equal zero (f2 = 0), the rotor can be implemented as solid unit. Due to different rotor types, two machine types are distinguished:
round rotor machine salientpole rotor machine damperwinding
p=1 at
n = 3000 min f 1 = 50 Hz
1
p=3 at
n = 1000 min f 1= 50 Hz
1
Fig. 212: rotor designs of both machine types: round rotor (left), salientpole rotor (right) Twopole turboalternators with roundrotor are used as generator to be driven by gas or steamturbines and designed for power ranges up to 1800 MVA per unit. In order to accommodate with high centrifugal stress, the (stretched) rotor is modelled as solid steel cylinder, which is slotted only at 2/3 of the total circumference. End turns of the concentric exciter windings are held on their position with nonmagnetic caps. Stator and rotor in machines designed for high power applications are directly cooled with water or hydrogen. Current supply is realized slipringless as stationary field exciter machine with revolving rectifiers. Damper windings are implemented as conductive slotcotters and polecaps. Salientpole rotor synchronous machines with distinctive single poles are either utilized for generators at low speed such as water turbine applications or as lowspeed motor in the field of material handling and conveying. A power range up to 800 MVA per unit is achieved with this type of rotors; a number of polepairs up to p=30 is usual. The latter leads to wide armature diameters and short iron lengths. Exciter windings are arranged on solid poles similar to typical DC machine arrangements. Damper windings appear as polegrids.
166
Synchronous machine
8.3 Equivalent circuit diagram, phasor diagram
Based on the equivalent circuit diagram of induction machines with slipring rotors an direction assignment due to EZS is chosen for the stator, since synchronous machines are mainly used as generator. Simply the direction of the voltage phasor U1 is reversed. Using * voltage U 2 s on the secondary side, supply with DC current is regarded.
X2* I1 U1 EZS X1 VZS I0 I2 *
R 2* s U 2* s
Fig. 213: ecd based on induction machine The following voltage equations derive from Fig. 212::
U
1
+ j⋅ X1 ⋅ I1 + I2 = 0
(
*
)
(8.3)
* * U2 * R2 * * = I 2 ⋅ + j ⋅ X 2 + j ⋅ X1 I1 + I 2 s s
(
)
(8.4)
Since a division by s = 0 must not be performed, the rotor voltage equation needs to be multiplied by s and reformed:
U 1 + j ⋅ X1 ⋅ I 1 = − j ⋅ X1 ⋅ I 2
* * U 2 = I 2 ⋅ R2 + s ⋅ j ⋅ X 2 ⋅ I 2 + s ⋅ j ⋅ X 1 I 1 + I 2 * * * *
(8.5)
(
*
)
(8.6)
Synchronous generated internal voltage is due to EZS defined as:
U p = − j ⋅ X1 ⋅ I 2
regarding s=0 leads to:
*
(8.7)
U 1 + j ⋅ X1 ⋅ I1 = U p
* U 2 = I 2 ⋅ R2 * *
(8.8) (8.9)
167
Synchronous machine
* I 2 complies with the exciter current IF, being converted to a stator side measure. An arbitrary current I2 of line frequency flowing in stator windings would cause exactly the same air gap field as a DC current IF in revolving rotor windings. The rotor voltage equation is trivial and therefore not subject of further discussions, so that the stator voltage equation needs to be regarded. Feedback of the revolving rotor (also known as magnet wheel) on the stator is contained in the synchronous generated internal voltage Up.
Synchronous generated internal voltage UP can be directly measured as induced voltage at the machine terminals with excitation IF in noload with I1 = 0 at synchronous speed n = n1. The typical noload characteristic UP = f(IF) shows nonlinear behavior, caused by saturation effects, which are not taken into account at this point. Since only one voltage equation is used in the following, formerly used indices may be dropped. Copper losses in stator windings can be neglected for synchronous machines, which leads to R1 = 0. The general equivalent circuit diagram for synchronous machines as shown in Fig. 214 enables the description of its operational behavior completely.
X I
jXI
~
UP
EZS
U
UP
ϑ
U ϕ I
U P = U + jX I
Fig. 214: synchronous machine, simplified ecd, phasor diagram In order to represent particular operation conditions or ranges, the according phasor diagram can be determined based on the voltage equation. Figure 214 illustrates such a phasor diagram for generator operation with active power and inductive reactive power output, using a notation defining: • • ϕ as phase angle between current and voltage. ϑ as rotor displacement angle, describing the phase relation of the synchronous generated internal voltage UP towards the terminal voltage U. It corresponds with the position of the magnet wheel in relation to the resulting airgap field. The rotor displacement angle is ϑ positive in generator mode and negative for motor operation. Hence follows ϑ = 0 for noload or mere reactive load.
•
ψ = ϑ + ϕ as load angle. Exciter magnetomotive force is π o + ψ ahead of armature magnetomotive force in generator mode, 2 π o −ψ behind of armature magnetomotive force in motor operation. 2
168
14) Sustained shortcircuit current IK0 in synchronous machines corresponds with the noload current I0 in induction machines. unexcited rotor U NStr = IK0 X I KC = K 0 IN I= (8. a sustained shortcircuit current IK0 flows after dynamic initial response. The value of KC can either be measured at sustained shortcircuit with noload excitation or at nominal voltage supply UN and noload speed n1. I F = 0 U NStr Fig.4 Noload. unexcited rotor assumed. n = n1 . (8. 217: SYM. 169 .Synchronous machine 8. Sustained shortcircuit current IK0 occurs for both cases. sustained short circuit I = IK0 = U NStr for I F = I F 0 and n = n1 X Are synchronous machines shortcircuited at noload exciter current IF0 and synchronous speed n1. being refered onto the nominal impedance. 217: X I = I K0 ~ U =0 p U = U Nstr . 215: SYM. 216: SYM.11) An important means to describe synchronous machines is the noloadshortcircuitratio KC: KC = I K 0 U NStr 1 = = IN XI N x (8. 215) can be measured at the terminals in noload operation (I=0) at synchronous speed n1 if noload exciter current IF0 applies.13) (8. U P = U NStr for I F = I F 0 and n = n1 with: I=0 ~ U =U p NStr U = U NStr Fig. Latter case is illustrated in Fig. sustained short circuit X Nominal voltage UN (shown as UNStr in Fig.10) I = I K0 ~ U =U p NStr Fig. ecd for noload X U NStr = UN 3 (8.12) KC is defined as the reciprocal of the reactance X.
phasor diagram U XI U XI U + 2 U U sin ϕ + U = 1 NStr NStr NStr NStr (8.16) 8.5 Solitary operation 8. since magnetization is achieved by DC excitation of the rotor.pole generators (8.2K 0.g. wind farms or hydroelectric power plants.21) 2 cos ϕ= 0.4 K 0. I K C IN U = f ( I ) für IF = IF0 und n = n1 1 Fig. =1 (8.8L1. 170 . 219: SYM. terminal voltage decreases with increasing inductiveohmic load.5.5 for salient . This case is defined as the mode of operation of separately driven synchronous machines in single operation loaded with impedances working Terminal voltage depends on amount and phase angle of the load current.19) U I U I +2 sin ϕ + U K I U NStr K C I N NStr C N These dependencies characteristics.20) load (8.1 Load characteristics Synchronous machines in solitary operatation are used for e. ind. load characteristics Similar to transformer behavior.Synchronous machine Whereas induction machines fetch required reactive power for according magnetization from the mains. whereas it increases at capacitive load.5 for induction machines IN x (8.17) In noload excitation IF = IF0 at synchronous speed n = n1 applies Up = UNStr. the airgap of synchronous machines can be chosen wider.7 for turbo generators = KC = = IN x 0. I K0 1 0. X I cos ϕ jXI UP ϕ Phasor diagram (Fig. 218) provides: (U + XI sin ϕ )2 + ( XI cosϕ )2 = U 2 p U ϕ (8. 218: SYM. kap. This leads to reduced armature reaction of the reactance X and the overload capability – the ratio of breakdown torque and nominal torque – increases.15) I0 1 = = 0.18) 2 I Fig. 2 U 2 + 2UXI sin ϕ + ( XI ) = U NSTr 2 ϑ (8. are called 2 2 U U NStr 1 cos ϕ= ϕ=1 cos 0. constant excitation assumed.
ind.24) ϕ=1 for U = U NStr and n = n1 It is to be seen. n = n1 ensues 2 2 U P = U NStr + 2U NStr XI sin ϕ + ( XI ) 2 (8.22) so that follows: 2 U NStr + 2U NStr XI sin ϕ + ( XI ) UP IF = = U NStr I F 0 U NStr 2 I = 1 + 2 sin ϕ + KC I N KC I N I 2 (8. caused by occuring voltage gain. cos cos I F = f (I ) (8. Excitation needs to be decreased for capacitive load.23) IF IF0 2 1 cos These are called „regulation characteristics“ ϕ = 0. with U = U NStr . 1 I KC IN Fig.5. 220: SYM.2 Regulation characteristics In order to provide constant terminal voltage.Synchronous machine 8. that excitation needs to be increased for inductiveohmic load. ϕ = 0. 171 . Based on the phasor diagram. the exciter current needs to be adjusted according to amount and phase angle of the load current. since U = U NStr . kap. regulation characteristics This dependency of exciter current on load current and load angle also applies for constant voltage network supply. since voltage would drop.
3. 172 . which means a disappearance of voltage difference at terminals being connected: ∆U = 0 .Synchronous machine 8. Synchronous machines can require synchronization conditions to be fulfilled to be connected to networks of constant voltage and constant frequency. 221: SYM. rigid network operation Fig.6 Rigid network operation 8. Phase sequence of terminal voltages of generator and network need to match: RST .1 Parallel connection to network Rigid networks mean constantvoltage constantfrequency systems. R S T ∆U UN V UR UW V U M/G UU V V V ∆U UT US UV n0 A IF UF Fig. Synchronous machine needs to be driven at synchronous speed: n = n1 2. 222: synchronization conditions 1. connection of the unsynchronized synchronous machine to the mains results in torque pulsations and current peaks. Exciter current IF of the synchronous machine needs to be set in the way that generator voltage is equal to the mains voltage: U M = U N .6.UVW 4. Phase angle of both voltage systems generator and network need to be identical. If synchronization conditions are not fulfilled.
26) (8.Synchronous machine 8. X I cos ϕ jXI UP ϕ M= PD 3 ⋅ U ⋅ I ⋅ cosϕ = ω1 Ω1 p (8. 224: SYM. If the load increases slowly.28) solely applies for stationary operation with IF = const and n = n1. 223: SYM.6.25) as given in the phasor diagram: ϑ U ϕ X ⋅ I ⋅ cosϕ = U p ⋅ sin ϑ (8. 173 . Neglecting stator copper losses.27) I Fig. the absorbed active power is equal to the airgap power. In this case machines need to be disconnected from the mains immediately. torque and angular displacement increases also. until breakdown π torque is reached at ϑ = ± and the machine falls out of step – means standstill in motor 2 operation and running away in generator mode. High pulsating torques and current peaks occur as a consequence of this.28) motor M Kipp MN stable generator π π/2 stable ϑ N π/2 π ϑ M Kipp Fig.2 Torque Effective torque exerted on the shaft derives from transmitted airgap power divided by synchronous speed. phasor diagram Then follows for the applicable torque on the shaft: M = 3 ⋅ p U ⋅U p ⋅ sin ϑ = M kipp ⋅ sin ϑ ω X I ⋅ cosϕ = Up X sin ϑ (8. range of operation The torque equation (8.
hängt nur vom LeerlaufKurzschlußverhältnis und dem Leistungsfaktor ab.30) Then follows for the overload capability of synchronous machines: M Kipp 1 = MN cosϕ N 2 K C + 2 K C sin ϕ N + 1 .32) M Syn M π π 2 π 2 π ϑ Fig. M Kipp > 1. (8. The dϑ lower ϑ. the higher ensues the overload capability.6 is reasonable for stabile operation.29) with synchronous generated voltage dependency: 2 sin ϕ N 1 UP = 1+ + 2 U NStr KC KC (8. the more stabile the point of operation. synchronizing torque dM The higher . only depends on noloadshortcircuitratio KC and power factor.31) The higher KC or the lower X. 174 .Synchronous machine Overload capability. Die Überlastfähigkeit. das Verhältnis Kippmoment zu Nennmoment. A measure for stability in MN stationary operation is the synchronizing torque: A ratio of at least M syn = dM = M Kipp cosϑ ≥ 0 dϑ (8. U NStr cosϕ N = 3p U NStr I N cosϕ N ω1 = (8. 225: SYM. Nominal operation features: M kipp MN 3 p U NStrU P ω1 X U P KC . the ratio of breakdown torque and nominal torque. the higher appears the backleading torque Msyn after load impulse.
whose characteristical phasor diagrams are shown below: ~ I ⋅ cosϕ > 0 I ⋅ cosϕ < 0 I ⋅ sin ϕ > 0 (ϑ > 0) (ϑ < 0) active power output (generator) active power input (motor) (U (U p ⋅ cosϑ > U ) ⋅ cosϑ < U ) reactive power output (over excited).Synchronous machine 8.34) ϑ. The according mode of operation is characterized by the corrsponding phase angle of the stator current. machine works like reactance coil Fig. ϕ + Fig. 227 ad: operating ranges and according phasor diagrams p I ⋅ sin ϕ < 0 175 . to be split into components: • active current: I ⋅ cosϕ = Up X ⋅ sin ϑ jXI UP ϑ U (8.33) ϕ I • reactive current: I ⋅ sin ϕ = U p ⋅ cosϑ − U X (8.6. 226: SYM. X I cos ϕ ϕ X I sin ϕ Phasor diagram (Fig. machine acts like capacitor Reactive power input (under excited). 226) offers a stator diagram. phasor diagram Four ranges ensue for EZS description.3 Operating ranges Synchronous machines in rigid network operation can be driven in any of the 4 quadrants. if terminal voltage is assumed to be placed on the real axis.
g. 229: SYM. jXI jXI UP U UP U U I noload I=0 reactive power output (inductive) P U I reactive power input (inductive) Fig. 228: operating ranges and accordant machine behavior • • • Active power proportion is defined by either the driving torque of e. Reactive power is independent from load but solely depending on excitation. border case: synchronous compensator mode Synchronous machines are sometimes utilized for mere reactive power generators in synchronous compensator mode for closeby satisfaction of inductive reactive power demands of transformers and induction machines in order to relieve this from supplying networks. phasor diagram of synchronous compensator mode 176 . turbines in generator mode or by resistance torque of load in motor operation.Synchronous machine EZS jXI jXI I UP ϑ ϕ U ~ UP ϑ U ϕ I jXI jXI U ϕ I ϑ UP UP U ϑ ϕ I Fig. as a consequence reactive power output derives from over excitation whereas reactive power input arises from under excitation.
+Re U NStr active power limit I cos ϕ ≤ stabilitylimit ϑ <π 2 ϑ MN − jejϑ K I F C I F0 ϕ N 3p U NStr ω 1 I I limit of rotor warmup N IF ≤ I FN jKC Im limit of stator warm up I ≤ IN Fig. 230: SYM. Noloadshortcircuitratio KC is contained as the only effective parameter.38) I I = jK C − je jϑ K C F IN IF0 With knowledge of equation 8.6.4 Current diagram. operating limits 177 .37) UP I U NStr = F follows: as well as U NStr I F 0 XI N (8. Operating limits within the accordant machine can be driven are also marked. current diagram.35) I= U U U P e jϑ − U NStr = j NStr − je jϑ P X X jX (8.Synchronous machine 8. operating limits Based on the general voltage equation of synchronous machines: U P = U + jX I ensues with U P = U P e jϑ and U = U NStr for current I: (8.36) U U U I = j NStr − je jϑ P NStr U NStr I N X IN X IN and with K C = (8.38 the current diagram of synchronous machines can be established.
and the machine to be driven at nominal speed. dt dt dt dt 2 (8.7 Synchronous machine as oscillating system.47) 178 .45) The electrical angle ϑ may slightly vary in the proximity of the operating point: ϑ = ϑN + ∆ϑ Then follows: dϑ d∆ ϑ d 2ϑ d 2 ∆ϑ = and 2 = .41) M Kipp = 3 p U NStrU P X ω1 Shaft torque MW of synchronous machines computes from: M W = M Kipp sin ϑ (8.43) with J representing masss moment of inertia of all rotating masses.44) Thus the following differential equation can be established: M Kipp sin ϑN − M Kipp sin ϑ = J dΩ J d 2ϑ = dt p dt 2 (8.7.39) (8.42) Acceleration torque MB ensues to: MB = J dΩ dt (8.Synchronous machine 8.1 without damper windings Torque balance applies: driving torque MA minus shaft torque MW is equal to acceleration torque MB: M A − MW = M B Driving torque MA of the turbine equals acting torque in stationary operation: M A = M Kipp sin ϑ N (8.40) (8. dϑ Ω = 2πn1 + dt p (8. damper windings 8.46) (8.
.51) Synchronizing torque for the operating point is defined as: M Kipp cosϑ N = M SyncN (8. to come along with current fluctuations.52) so that: d 2 ∆ϑ M syncN + ∆ϑ = 0 J dt 2 p (8.Synchronous machine The differential equation is linearized by Taylor development with abort after the first step: f ( x + h) = f ( x ) + f ' ( x) h +K 1! (8. undamped oscillation: ∆ϑ = sin Ω eN t with mechanical natural frequency: (8. Pulsating oscillations may occur. The frequency of the mechanical oscillation approximately amounts in the range of feN = 1 ..54) Ω eN = 2πf eN = M SyncN ^ c = J m p (8.50) (8.53) Solution for the differential equation is provided by a harmonic. Machines with irregular torque in particular. if activation is close to natural frequency.48) (8. Two or more generators may activate each other in network interconnection. 179 . the reduced mass moment of inertia of the rotating mass.49) sin ϑ = sin (ϑN + ∆ϑ ) = sin ϑN + ∆ϑ cosϑN That dodge and the differential equation as such leads to: M Kipp sin ϑN − M Kipp (sin ϑN + ∆ϑ cosϑN ) = J d 2 ∆ϑ + M Kipp cosϑN ∆ϑ = 0 p dt 2 J d 2 ∆ϑ p dt 2 (8. caused by electric or mechanic load changes. 2 Hz. such as diesel engines or reciprocating compressors may initiate oscillations with pulsations up to severe values.55) Synchronizing torque complies with spring stiffness.
The effect of damper windings is similar to the effect of the squirrel cage in induction machines. Salientpole machines: bars are placed in slotted poles. If those shortcircuit rings merely consist of segments of a circle the arrangemnet is called pole damping grid estehen die Ringe nur aus Kreissegmenten.2 with damper winding In order to damp natural oscillations. Fig. damper windings The effect of damper windings derives from the KloßEquation: MD M kippAsyn = −2 s s + kipp skipp s 3 p U 12 * ω1 2 X 2 (8. Solid rotors amplify the damping effect. Solid poles also act damping.57) skipp = (8.Synchronous machine 8. 231: SYM.59) (8.7. skipp 180 (8. damper windings Fig. Also slot wedges can be utilized as damper bars.56) M kippAsyn = * R2 * X2 (8. to be short circuited with shortcircuit rings at their ends. so spricht man von einem Polgitter. Turbo generators: damper bars are placed ahead of exciter windings inside rotor slots to be shortcircuited at their ends.60) . Close to synchronous speed the slip ratio applies as: s s << kipp skipp s so that the damping torque component ensues to: 2s M D = − M kippAsyn .58) Damping torque shows a braking effect – therefore signed negative. 232: SYM. all synchronous machines are equipped with damper windings in any case.
67) In order to show significant effect of damper windings and to rapidly reduce activated oscillations by load changes. =D skipp pΩ1 dt dt (8. 181 .65) of damping: 2 = 3 p U12 * ω1 2 X 2 3 p U12 = 2 * * R2 ω1 R2 ω1 * X2 D= 2 M kippAsyn skipp pΩ1 (8.64) with mechanical natural frequency: Ωe = Ω 2 − eN 1 2 TD (8. TD needs to be chosen as short as possible.62) inserted in the differential equation results in: J d 2 ∆ϑ d∆ϑ +D + M synN ∆ϑ = 0 2 p dt dt Solution of the differential equations appears as damped oscillation: ∆ϑ = e −t TD (8. resulting in increased copper expense for the damper windings.Synchronous machine Slip is to be described as: dϑ p Ω1 − Ω1 + dt Ω1 − Ω = − 1 dϑ s= = Ω1 pΩ1 dt Ω1 = − 1 d∆ ϑ pΩ N dt (8.61) Then follows for the damping torque component MD: MD = 2 M kippAsyn d∆ϑ d∆ϑ .63) sin Ω e t (8. Thus follows R2 needs to be low.66) and time constant: TD = 2J * ~ R2 pD (8. whereas D needs to * be as high as possible.
synchronous machines are capable to independently startup using the damper cage similar to induction machines with squirrel cage.6).and ohmic losses. damper windings show two additional important functions: 1. 2. Adequate thermal capacity assumed. Negativesequence rotating fields with a slip value of (2 .s) arise from unbalanced load. 182 . the machine is jerkily pulled into synchronism. the exciter windings are temorary shortcircuited. With presence of suitable damper windings. Occuring harmonics in stator voltage and current cause additional iron. This coarse synchronizing is accompanied by torque pulsations and current pulses and is therefore solely utilized for lowpower applications. the inversefield is compensated by counteracting magnetomotive force of damper currents. Computation requires the method of symmetrical components (see chapter 2. Since the stator rotating field would induce highvoltages in (open) exciter windings during startup. Exciter voltage will not be applied on the windings until noload speed is reached – at this point.Synchronous machine Besides oscillation damping caused by load impulses.
compressors) flux concentrator 183 . 233: Permanent excited synchronous motor (PESM). Fig. but exciting field can not be controlled any longer. 234: PESM. exciter voltage source. The motor is supplied directly by system voltage. These machines are used for low power applications in two different types: 8. After that the motor works as a synchronous machine at power mains. In principle line start motor is a combination of induction and synchronous machine.8 Permanentfield synchronous machines If electrical excitation for synchronous machines is replaced by permanentfield excitation. exciter winding and exciter current supply by collector ring and brushes are unnecessary.1 Permanent excited synchronous motor with starting cage permanent magnets N S N S S N N S N S S N S N permanent magnets N S N S N N S S S N damper cage damper cage pole shoe Fig. Near synchronous speed motor is pulling into synchronism. Rotor consists of permanent magnet excitation as well as of a starting cage. Stator has a usual threephase winding.Synchronous machine 8.8. ecd • • • advantages: disadvantages: applications: selfstarting. ventilators. because of the combination of two types of machines drives with long term operation (pumps. “line start motor” Different types of rotors are shown in the picture. high efficiency better utilization. improved cos(ϕ ) . Acceleration corresponds to induction motor.
field synchronous motor with pole position sensor. “servo motor” Stator consists of usual threephase winding. Switching of stator threephase field depends on rotor position in a way that there is a constant electric angle of 90° between stator rotating magnetomotive force and rotor field. This results in a rotating magnetomotive force which exactly rotates at rotor speed and creates a timeconstant torque together with the permanent magnet excited rotor. The converter is controlled by a pole position sensor to be placed on the shaft.8. 236: servo motor with converter method of operation: Threephase winding of the stator is supplied by a sinusoidal or block format threephase system depending on pole position. statorrotor scheme (a).Synchronous machine 8. Rotor is permanentfield excited by rareearth or ferrite magnets. b: servo motor. Fig.2 Permanentfield synchronous motor with pole position sensor Fig. phasor diagram (b) 184 . 237 a. b: perm. 235 a. V Θ1 Z jXI q RI S X n U N motor VZS U ϕ ϑ φ F UP W Y I IF ' Ψ=ϑ+ϕ d Fig.
71) Id = 0 Ud = X ⋅ I 185 . This machine can not pull out of step any longer and works like a DC machine. DC machines are adjusted mechanical by commutator.Synchronous machine Thus results an operating method which does not correspond with usual synchronous machines but exactly with DC machines. 238: EC motor (3 kW. Fig.69) with the following definitions: • • direct axis d: quadrature axis q: rotor axis = IF ˆ axis of stator mmf ' =I ˆ the system is divisible into components: Iq = I Uq = U p + R ⋅ I (8.70) (8.68) Torque is: M = PD 3 ⋅ U p ⋅ I = ω Ω p (8. The brushless technology is free of wear and maintenancefree. the according voltage equitation of the synchronous machine in load reference arrow system (VZS) ensues to: U =U p + R⋅I + j⋅ X ⋅I (8. Permanentfield synchronous machines are controlled by power electronics together with a pole position sensor. Another feature of this machine is armature ampereturns being shifted about an electric angle of 90° in relation to exciter field. manufacturer: Bosch) If the ohmic resistance of stator windings is taken into consideration. EC motors are usually used in robotic drives and machine tools because of their good dynamic performance and easy controllability. From that results the name “electrical commutated DC machine”.
Synchronous machine Following scaling is useful: • •
U p 0 , synchronous generated voltage at basic speed and nominal excitation,
X0, reactance at nominal speed n0 =
f0 . p
Thus torque results in: 3⋅ M = n ⋅U p0 ⋅ I n0 3⋅ p = ⋅U p 0 ⋅ I n ω0 ω0 ⋅ n0 p
(8.72)
⇒ Torque controlling by quadrature current component. Voltage equation of quadrature axis results in:
Uq =
n ⋅U p0 + R ⋅ I n0
(8.73)
n Uq − R ⋅ I = n0 U p0
n = 0 for I =
(8.74)
Uq R
(8.75)
⇒ shunt characteristic: n = n0 for U q = U p 0 and I = 0 ⇒ speed adjustment by quadrature voltage component: U q < U N The direct voltage component computes from: (8.76)
Ud =
n ⋅ X0 ⋅ I n0
U
q
(8.77)
n
n0
U
=U
N
M MK
Operational bevior similar to separately excited DC machine:
Uq = U A , I = I A , ˆ ˆ U p 0 = k ⋅ φ n ⋅ n0 ˆ
q
<U
N
(8.78)
IK
Fig. 239: servo motor, characteristic 186
required in order to match I ⊥ I F : U d .
Synchronous machine
8.9 Claw pole alternator
+
R
_
Fig. 241: clawpole alternator, ecd
Fig. 240: clawpole alternator Modern clawpole threephase alternators consist of a threephase stator, a clawpole rotor with ringform excitation winding, which magnetizes all 6 pole pairs at the same time, as well as a diode bridge and a voltage controller. Flux is really 3dimensional, in rotor axial and radial, in stator tangential. Threephase current that is generated within stator windings is rectified by a diode bridge. Output voltage is kept constant within the whole speed range of 1:10 by controlling of excitation current. Nominal voltage is 14 V for car applications; 28V is normally used for trucks. Drive is made by Vbelt with a mechanical advantage of 1:2 to 1:3. Alternators reach maximum rotational speed up to 18000 min1. It is mounted directly at the engine and is exposed to high temperatures, to high vibration acceleration and to corrosive mediums. Within kW range clawpole alternators are most efficient for cars because of their low excitation copper needs and their economic production process. Threephase clawpole alternators are installed within nearly all cars today. The claw pole alternator principle has totally edged out formerly used DC alternators because it enables much more power at lower weight. It was established when powerful and cheap silicon diodes for rectification could be produced. Within the last years, power consumption in cars has grown enormously as a result of additional loads for improving comfort and safety and for reducing emissions. Steps to improve power output without needing more space and weight have to be taken.
187
9 Special machines
In addition to classic electrical machine types, such as DC machine, induction or synchronous machine, new types of electric machines were created in the last few years. Those try to serve the contradictory demands of low weight and high efficiency or are suitable for special drives. Power electronics and the controlling system enable the machine to have completely new and improved operating characteristics. Because of new geometric arrangements of the torque building components specific loading and flux density combined with specific methods of control higher electric force densities can be achieved. To this category belong the stepping motor, the switched reluctance motor, the modular permanent –magnet machine and tranverse flux conception.
9.1 Stepping motor
This special type of synchronous machine is mainly used as positioning drives for all kinds of controls or as a switch group for e.g. printers and typewriters in many different ways. The digital control of the stator winding leads to a rotation of the rotor shaft about the step angle a for each current pulse, so that for n control instructions the total angle n ⋅ α is covered at the shaft. Stepping motors enable positioning without feedback of the rotor position, which can not be achieved using DC servo drives or threephase servo drives.
+
=
T1
1
N T2
S
2
T3
T4
The basic configuration and the method of operation of stepping motors is shown in Fig. 242. A permanentmagnet rotor (N/S) is arranged between the poles of two independent stator parts (1 and 2). Each of the two stator parts consist of a winding with centre tap that means two halves of the winding. Any half can be supplied with current by the transistors T1 to T4. If, for example, the transistor T1 is switched on, there is a north pole on the top of stator 1 and a south pole at the bottom. If transistor T3 is switched on at the same time north pole is on the right and south pole on the left side of stator 2. That means the rotor turns to the position shown in the Fig. 242.
Fig. 242: stepping motor If now transistor T3 is switched off and shortly after T4 is switched on, the magnetic field in stator 2 reverses. Thus the rotor turns about an angle of 90º in clockwise direction. If then T1 is switched off and T2 on rotor turns round about another 90º. A continuous rotation is achieved by continuation of transistor switching.
189
If a magnetic field is generated in stator windings rotor turns into the position in which magnetic flux has minimum magnetic resistance (reluctance). The number of phases is usually chosen between two and five. Stepping motors as described above. Teeth of both parts are shifted against each other about half of a pitch and only north poles are established on one side and only south poles on the other side. instead of continuous rotational motion. E. S 1 + 2 3 N N control unit α S Fig. consist of two stator parts which are shifted against each other about 90º each with one winding and therefore two winding phases. A reduction of the step angle is achieved. Rotors of this motor type feature permanentmagnets (N/S) with axial magnetization. So the rotor turns round stepwise. Stator poles (3) are also toothed. 190 . But it is also possible to equip motor with three. Therefore a number of phases m=2 and number of pole pairs p=1 results. Another opportunity to change the number of pole pairs is designing rotors with four. In principle the rotor looks like a gear wheel. eight or more poles. It is typical for such stepping motors that no holding torque is established if there is no magnetic field in stator. 243: reluctance stepping motor Another type of stepping motor is the permanentfield motor in homopolar design.g. The angle to be covered at each step is called step angle. It is usually used if rotors are supposed to turn about a certain angle of rotation. The higher the number of phases is chosen the smaller the stepping angle ensues. proportional to the increase of the number of phases . In general fullstep mode stepping motors with m phases and p pole pairs show step angles of: α= 360° 2⋅ p⋅m (9.1) Stepping motors are produced in different versions. with concentrated windings (4) each. Their rotors have two magnetic poles – equal to one pole pair. six. 244 consists of six stator poles. Toothed (1 and 2) crowns made of magnetically soft material are attached to both sides of the magnet. 244. four or five phases. That is why this design is called stepping motor.therefore an increase of number of pole pairs. A possible design of such a motor is shown in the Fig. the motor shown in the Fig.Special machines With described control each transistor switching leads to a rotor rotation of 90º. The number of stator poles can be chosen in different ways. Reluctance stepping motors consist of rotors made of magnetic soft material. The design being described above is called permanentfield multistator motor as clawpole version. It is also called hybrid motor.
homopolar design In fullstep mode. To reach short accelerating time high currents can be fed for a short period of time. Suitable frequency/time acceleration ramps are used. 3). 245: motor and control electronics system If stepping motors are operated with a higher step frequency.Special machines 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 N S 1 N S 2 3 4 3 4 Fig. Braking is corresponding to that. that means current in the phase windings is switched one after another. Each pulse leads to a rotor rotation about the step angle as described above. the frequency needs to be increased from small values to avoid stepping errors at starting operation. 123 St M Fig. with z rotor teeth and m stator phase windings step angle is: α= 360° 2 ⋅π ⋅ z (9.2) Generally it is important to choose control electronics and stepping motor as well adjusted to each other (see Fig. In order to achieve rotational motion of the stepping motor M control electronics St is supplied from outside with voltage peaks pulses (1. 2. 191 . 244: reluctance stepping motor. If the rotor of the motor is supposed to rotate about a certain given angle an appropriate number of control pulses is necessary. 245).
246: switched reluctance machine (functional diagram) Fig. as well as simple. This requires small air gap widths and apart from that leads to disadvantageous noise generation. servo and vehicle drives. The simple. Their principle design consists of wound salient poles in the stator and unwound rotors whose number of pole pairs is lower than those of the stator. unidirectional inverter design to be used. powerforsize ratios compared to induction machines can only be reached at high air gap flux density values. similar to those of DC machines. Fig.2 Switched reluctance machine Switched reluctance machines (SRM) are to be seen as a special type of synchronous machine. In cause of the flux vacillation principle of SR machines. Stator ampereturns are switched stepbystep depending on pole position. The described method of operation leads to shunt characteristic. 247: switched reluctance machine (SRM) 192 .Special machines 9. cheap and economic concerning manufacturing rotor without exciter windings is to be mentioned as one major advantage. which is discussed as an alternative for industry. robust. which requires position encoders.
g. like e. In contrast to that the permanentmagnet motor possesses salient stator poles. To make use of the advantage of the high inducing diameter for torque exertion the motor is built as revolvingarmature machine. 248: modular permanentmagnet motor 193 .Special machines 9. direct oil cooling of the stator winding and Frigen cooling of the converter. also called modules. Utilization factor of the permanentmagnet motor is comparable with other types of machines as seen after simple consideration. To reach higher electric force densities current density and specific loading were multiplied compared to conventional machines. converterfed synchronous machine with pole position sensor. whose number of poles is different from the one of the rotor.3 Modular permanentmagnet motor The modular permanentmagnet motor concept is a special type of permanentmagnet. This was achieved by very complex intensive cooling processes. Conventional threephase current machines have stator windings that are embedded in slots and the number of poles is equal to the one of the rotor. Fig. Similar to stepping motor or to switched reluctance machine the torque exertion is based on switching convenient stator coils depending on rotor position.
250: method of operation. In addition to that flux density of rareearth magnets can be boosted if the rotor has a collector construction.4 Transverse flux machine Transverse flux machines are basically permanentsynchronous machines with pole position sensor. As a result there are very small pole pitches and a very high rotor specific loading can be achieved. Compared to other types of machines highest utilization factors are achieved by those steps. conventional threephase converters can be used. 249: transvese flux machine. Advantage of high electric force density stands in sharp contrast to the disadvantage of a more expensive production technology. flux 194 . If transverse flux machines are designed as a threephase machines.Special machines 9. Fig. which results in uncoupled rotor flux. with stator coils in direction of circumference. 3phase design Fig.
Suitable combinations of driving. So Transrapid uses a combination of synchronous linear drive and electromagnetic floating. 9. advantages and disadvantages are demonstrated shortly.1 Technology of linear motors In the following function. Using this technology usually should enable high speed. construction technology and machine tool design. design. design overview (source: KRAUSSMAFFEI) 195 .5 Linear motors Since linear motors do not have any gear unit it is more simple converting motion in electrical drives. In principle solutions based on all electrical types of machines are possible unrolling stator and rotor into the plane.Special machines 9. carrying and leading open new perspectives for drive technology. Linear direct drives combined with magnet floating technology are also useful for nonabrasive and exact transport of persons and goods in fields as transportation technology.5. 251: linear motors. Fig. characteristic features. Combined with magnet floating technology an absolutely contactless and so a wearresistant passenger traffic or nonabrasive transport of goods is possible.
3) As in threephase machines force is generated by voltage induction in the squirrelcage rotor of the induction machine or by interaction with permanentmagnet field of the synchronous machine. moved secondary part. This moving field moves at synchronous speed. In contrast to rotating machines in singlecomb versions the normal force between stator and rotor must be compensated by suitable leading systems or doublecomb versions must be used instead.Special machines Linear motor then corresponds to an unrolled induction motor with short circuit rotor or to permanentmagnet synchronous motor. For that reason an inductive power transmission has to be used to design a contactless system. v1 = τ p ⋅ 2 ⋅ f 1 (9. 252: linear drive. Fig. singlecomb or doublecomb versions in short stator or long stator implementation. It is an advantage of long stator implementations that no power has to be transmitted to passive. This normal force usually is one order of magnitude above feed force. DC machines with brushes or switched reluctance machines are used more rarely. In threephase windings of synchronous or induction machines a moving field is generated instead of threephase field. Depending on fields of usage linear motors are constructed as solenoid. while short stator implementations need the drive energy to be transmitted to the moved active part. system overview (source: KRAUSSMAFFEI) 196 .
For positioning jobs high dynamic servo drives with cascade control consisting of position control with lowerlevel speed and current control loop are used. 253: advantages of linear drives (source: KRAUSSMAFFEI) 197 . In such motors linear movements are generated directly. no selfcatch and higher costs. This control structure is usual in rotating machines. For that induction machines need flux model and speed sensor. but synchronous machines just need a position sensor.Special machines Threephase machine supply is made fieldoriented by frequency converters to achieve high dynamic behavior. which is positive for servo drives with high positioning precision and dynamic. linear drives are useful in these fields. gear rack/pinion. elasticity and play are dropped. Since many movements in production and transportation systems are translatory. As a result from that rubbing. In opposition to that there are disadvantages such as lower feed forces. Fig. belt/chain systems are unnecessary. Depending on the place the position measurement is installed a distinction is made between direct and indirect position control. so that gear units such as spindle/bolt.
blanking and high speed machines. Fig. 255: synchronous linear motor (SKF) Most promising application fields of linear drives for industrial applications: • • • machine tools: machining center. bonder for semiconductor industry. skimming. grinding. wafer handling.5. plastic.Special machines 9. packaging machines. wood. automatic tester. printing technology general mechanical engineering: laser machining. cutting. glass machining. packing machines. printed board machining. 198 .2 Industrial application opportunities Two different opportunities to implement linear drives are shown at the following pictures. pickandplace machines. 254: induction linear motor (NSKRHP) Fig. automation: handling systems. paper. measurement machines. milling.
5. Capacity of the vehicles can be adjusted to certain requirements. China. guide magnets keep it on its way. and so also the vehicle are pulled by this field. Also energy consumption is reduced compared with modern trains. Since vehicle surrounds the railway Transrapid is absolutely safe from derailment. Magnet highspeed train makes less noise than conventional railway systems because there is no rolling noise.3 High speed applications In the magnet highspeed train Transrapid wheels and rail are replaced by a contactless working electromagnetic float and drive system. testing site Emsland. Bearing magnets pull the vehicle from below to the railway. in which the vehicle is located. After driving only 5 km Transrapid reaches a speed of 300 km/h in contrast to modern trains needing at least a distance of 30 km. Supplied threephase current generates an electromagnetic moving field within windings. This highspeed system is tested in continues operation at a testing plant in Emsland in Germany and some commercial routes in Germany are planned. Fig. motor power is increased as necessary. Sections. Operating speed is between 300 and 500 km/h. The floating system is based on attractive forces of the electromagnet in the vehicle and on the ferromagnetic reaction rails in the railway. is switched on. The section. Drive integrated in the railway and cancelling of mechanical components make magnet highspeed vehicles technical easier and safer. Longstator linear motor is divided into several sections. Transrapid motor is a longstator linear motor.Special machines 9. A highspeed train route is currently under construction in Shanghai. 256: high speed vehicle Transrapid 08. Stators with moving field windings are installed on both sides along the railway. An electronic control system makes sure. further projects are either in progress or under review. that make high demands on thrust. Germany (source: Thyssen) 199 . Comfort is not interfered with jolts and vibrations. Advantages of magnet highspeed train are effective in all speed areas. that the vehicle always floats in the same distance to the railway. Transrapid consists of two light weight constructed elements. A linear alternator supplies floating vehicle with required power. The bearing magnets.
257: basics of magnetic levitation (1) Fig. 258: basics of magnetic levitation (2) Fig. 259: basics of magnetic levitation (3) Fig.Special machines Fig. 260: track system 200 .
10 Appendix 10. whereas important differences between upper and lower case quantity is to be found for current and voltage. Fitted quantity equations result from reasonable expansions with suitable units and partial calculation: for the mentioned example: F B A = 10 2 N 0. • • u.5T cm 2 (10. DC calculations: DC values 2. A physical quantity results from multiplication of numerical value and unit.4π 10 H m (10. Vectors are indicated by an arrow being placed above Capital Latin letters. AC calculations: rms values Capital letters are usually used for magnetic quantities. I. Basically a distinction of upper and lower case letters means an increasing number of possible symbols to be used. Phasor are assigned to underlined Latin letters (complex calculations). i U. r r Examples: E.1) Units are to be included into calculations. B Greek letters: Αα Ββ Γγ ∆δ Εε Ζζ Ηη θϑ Ιι Κκ Λλ Μµ Νν Ξξ Οο Ρρ Σσ Ττ Υυ φϕ Χχ Ψψ Ωω 201 . Examples: U. I → → instantaneous values steady values (stationary) 1. Apart from that crest values are also assigned with capital letters in AC considerations.2) Physical quantities are presented by lower case letters.1 Notations Physical dependencies appear as quantity equation.. quantity = numerical value × unit Example: F= force of a solenoid 2 (1T ) 1m2 B2 A= = 4 ⋅ 106 N −7 2µ0 2 ⋅ 0.
dielectric flux density diameter. absolute temperature. cross section. weight fundamental factor. starting time moment (temporal). specific losses energy number of windings. length of period. general constant number of commutator bars. general constant selfinductance. general time variable voltage (steady value). electric charge number of slots per pole and phase. depth current. pressure reactive power. Iw active current. mass general number of slots rotational speed surface. cooling surface active power number of pole pairs. mutual inductance length mutual inductance.Appendix 10. induction) width capacity general constant. flow velocity reactance variable peak value (crest value) variable. circumference voltage (instantaneous value). acceleration of gravity magnetic field strength height. cross section efficiency radius apparent power slip. torque number of phases. specific heat diameter. volume. winding step 202 . area (in general) number of parallel conductors flux density (colloc. magnetic potential speed. thickness electric field strength Euler’s number force. coil sides per slot and layer losses (general). coil width. form factor frequency electric conductance.2 Formular symbols A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m N n O P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y current coverage. distance time constant. IB reactive current instantaneous current value mass moment of inertia unit of imaginary numbers cooling medium flow.
thermal conductivity. ordinal number ordinal number. wave length. heat transfer coefficient brushes coverage factor constant of equivalent synchronous generated mmf air gap. reduced magnetic conductivity magnetic conductivity permeability. temperature. tensile stress general partition. layer thickness dielectric constant Pichelmayerfactor efficiency. overtemperature electric conductivity power factor. ordinal number. dynamic viscosity electric current linkage load angle. kinematic viscosity winding factor specific resistance leakage factor. tangential force magnetic flux phase displacement between voltage and current flux linkage angular frequency 203 .Appendix Z z α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ϑ κ λ Λ µ υ ξ ρ σ τ Φ ϕ ψ ω impedance general number of conductors pole pitch factor.
physical variable length mass time Symbol L M T SIunit Meter Kilogramm Second abbrev.Appendix 10.981 bar. 1 bar = 105 Pa 1 kp / m2 = 1 mm WS torque mass moment of inertia M J Nm kgm2 1 kpm = 9.) = 1 kp / cm2 = 0.3 Units The following table contains most important physical variables and their symbols and units to be used. An overview of possible unit conversions is given in the right column additionally.81 N 1 N = 1 kg·m/s2 pressure P Pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 1 at (techn.102 kpms2 = 1 Ws3 impetus moment GD2 GD2 = 4 J / kgm2 temperature difference ∆ϑ in Kelvin ϑ = T – T0 Degree Centigrade Candela Newton 204 . atm.81 Nm = 9.81 kg·m2 / s2 1 kgm2 = 0. unit conversion m kg s 1 t (ton) = 103 kg 1 min = 60 s 1 h (hour) = 3600 s current intensity thermodynamic temperature celsiustemperature light intensity area volume force I T ϑ I A V F Ampere Kelvin A K °C cd m2 m3 N 1 l (Liter) = 103 m3 1 kp (Kilopond) = 9.
conductance el.8 Ws 1 Ws = 0. field strength el. constant U E R G Q C ε0 Volt Ohm Siemens Coulomb Farad V V/m Ω S C F F/m 1 C = 1 As 1 F = 1 As / V ε = ε0 εr εr = relative diel. voltage el.6 km / h 1 PS = 75 kpm / s = 736 W 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws 1 kcal = 427 kpm = 4186. flux L φ Henry Weber H Wb 1 H = 1 Vs / A = 1 Ωs 1 Wb = 1 Vs 1 M (Maxwell) = 108 Vs = 1 Gcm magn. resistance el.102 kpm el.) power energy Symbol F ω N V P W Watt Joule SIunit Hertz abbrev. unit conversion Hz Hz s1 m/s W J 1 Hz = 1 s1 ω = 2πf 1 s1 = 60 min1 1 m / s = 3.Appendix physical variable frequency angular frequency rotational speed speed (transl.constant inductance magn. charge capacity elektr. flux density B Tesla T 1 T = 1 Vs / m2 = 1 Wb / m2 1 T = 104 G (Gauß) 1 G = 108 Vs / m2 205 .
motive force magn.Appendix physical variable magn. potential magn. field strength Symbol H SIunit abbrev. constant θ V µ0 A A µ0 = 4π107 H / m µ0 = 1 G / Oe permeability µ µ = µ0µr µr = relative permeability angle α Radiant rad 1 rad = 1 m / 1 m α = lcurve / r 206 . unit conversion A/m 1 Oe (Oersted) = 10 / 4π A / cm 1 A / m = 102 A / cm magn.
London Ch. S. Speed Controls. Jones The unified Theory of electrical Machines. John Wiley.J. Pergamon Press Ch. Unnewehr.V. Nasar Electromechanics and electrical Machines. Chapman and Hall. Nevertheless they are recommended best for a detailed and deeper understanding of the content of this lecture.E. Concordia Synchronous Machines. London L. Butterworth. Magna PysicsPublishing 207 . Miller Switched Reluctance Motors and their control. Servo Systems. New York Bahram Amin Induction Motors – Analysis and Torque Control Peter Vas Vector Control of AC Machines. Oxford Science Publications T. B. Adkins The general Theory of electrical Machines.4 Literature reference list Books and scripts listed as follows may exceed the teaching range significantly.E.A. John Wiley & Sons ElectroCraft Corporation DC Motors.Appendix 10.
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