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Revised on 1/31/11 Example1. Simply supported (rigid but weightless) beam is loaded as shown below. Draw the shear force diagram and bending moment diagram for the beam.

1. Free Body Diagram: Here simple supports are replaced with two vertically upward unknown forces, Ra & Rb.

2. Apply equilibrium conditions and find unknown forces: ΣΜΒ=0: −4000∗16−1000∗8∗12+Ra*8−6000∗4 = 0, or, Ra = (4000∗16+1000∗8∗12+6000∗4)/8 = 23,000 # ΣFy=0: Rb = 4000+1000∗8+6000−23000 = −5000# Check: ΣΜx=0:1000∗8∗4−23000∗8+6000∗12−(−5000∗16) =0

4000*2-1000*2*1.000 ft-lb For the right section: ΣFy=0: −V+ 23. Load diagram of the beam 4.000 ft-lb . clockwise moment positive For the left section: ΣFy=0: V – 4000 -1000*2 =0.000 – 1000*6 – 6000 – 5000. This equilibrium is obviously due to the internal shear forces and bending moments that are developed along the length of the beam. if we cut a section of the beam along the length. INTERNAL LOADS (BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCES) IN THE BEAM DUE TO TRANSVERSE LOADS ACTING ON IT Because in the load diagram above the beam is in static equilibrium. or M = 10. the cut sections should also be in equilibrium.3. The internal shear force V and the internal moment M must be there to maintain equilibrium of the cut sections. Convention for FBD: Upward force positive. x=2 ft. or V = 6000 # ΣΜ2=0: –M + 1000*6*3 – 23.000*6 + 6000*10 + 5000*14. or M = 10. For example let us cut the beam at an arbitrary section. or V= 6000 # ΣΜ2=0: M .

We can see that the calculated shear force and bending moment developed in the beam at a section has the same value. Positive shear force Negative shear force Sign convention for bending moment: Clockwise moment to the left is positive. (ii) Similarly. internal bending moment at any point along the length of the beam is the vector sum of moments of all external forces either to the left or to the right of the point. Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams Some times. This may be necessary to find. You can use the above two rules to find the internal shear force (SF) and bending moment (BM) at any point along a beam. or downward force to the right is positive. Shear force diagram and bending moment diagram are drawn to show the internal SF and BM along the entire length of the beam.sign) and negative moment will cause tension (shown by +++ sign) in the upper layer of the beam. The reverse is negative. The reverse is negative. irrespective of which side of the beam we use to calculate them. where along the length of the beam. Thus we can conclude that: (i) Internal shear force at any point along the length of the beam is vector sum of all external forces either to the left or to the right of the point. Compression in upper layer ---------------+++++++++++ Tension in upper layer +++++++++++ ---------------- Positive bending moment Negative bending moment . 5. about that point. Also you may think that positive moment will cause compression of the upper layer of the beam (shown by --. or counter clockwise moment to the right is positive. Sign Convention for shear force: Upward force to the left is positive. the shear force or the bending moment is maximizing or minimizing.

the SF remains constant along the length of the beam as long as no new external force is added along the length of the beam. For the beam 8<x<12: SF= 5000+6000=11. So starting from the right end x<16.000 lb. SF = 5000 lb.: SF = -12000 lb and x=0+: SF = -4000 lb Load Diagram SF: Sum of forces to the left x=0-: SF0.= 0 0<x<8: SF = -4000-1000x SF0=-4000 SF8=-4000-1000*8= -12000 8<x<12: SF8= -12000+23000 = 11.SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM Since the internal shear force (SF) is the sum of external force to one side of the section. up to length x>12.000 12<x<16: SF12=11. For the beam 0<x<8: SF = 5000+6000-23000+(8-x)*1000= -12000+(8-x)*1000 Thus at x=8.000-6000 = 5000 X=16: SF16 = 5000-5000 =0 .

000 8<x<12: BM= -4000x-8000(x-4)+23.1000*8*4= -64.000*4 = -20.000(x-8) BM12=-4000*12-8000*8+23.BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM BM: Sum of moment of forces to the left of a section x=0-: BM = 0 0<x<8: BM = -4000x-1000x*x/2 BM0=0 BM8= -4000*8 .000*8-6000*4 =0 Bending Moment diagram .000 12<x<16: BM= -4000x-8000(x4)+23.000(x-8)-6000(x-12) X=16: BM16 = -4000*128000*12+23.

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