Ancient Jewish Proverbs | Religion And Belief

Ancient Jewish Proverbs, by Abraham Cohen, [1911], at [p.



HUMAN EXISTENCE section 1. YOUTH AND AGE 1. YOUTH is a crown of roses; old age a crown of willows (Shab. 152a; D. 323). In the former case the "crown" is an adornment lightly worn; in the latt er an unwelcome burden. The stages in the career of a man are summarised by R. J udah, the son of Tema, as follows: "At five years the age is reached for the stu dy of the Scriptures, at ten for the study of Mishnah [cf. Introduction, sectio n 3], at thirteen for the fulfilment of the commandments, at fifteen for the stu dy of the Talmud, at eighteen for marriage, at twenty for seeking a livelihood, at thirty for entering into one's full strength, at forty for understanding, at fifty for counsel; at sixty a man attains old age, at seventy the hoary head, at eighty the gift of special strength (Psalm xc. 10), at ninety he bends beneath the weight of years, at a hundred he is as if he were already dead and had passe d away from the world" (Aboth v. 24). [p. 31] *2. Every pumpkin is known by its stem (Ber. 48a; D. 146). One can usually detect in the young what they will be like later on. "Th e child is father of the man." See the following. 3. While [the thorn] is still young it produces prickles (Gen. R. ch. ii. secti on 1; D. 549). Used to illustrate "Even a child maketh himself known by his doings" (Pr ov. xx. 11). *4. He who has issued from thee teacheth thee reason (Jeb. 63a; D. 206). The young can often teach their elders. The context of the proverb is as follows: There lived once a Rabbi who was married to a shrew. She would always do just the opposite of what her husband wanted. If he asked for peas she cocked him lentils, and vice versa. Their son, one day, in conveying his father's wish es to his mother, stated the exact reverse, and in this way the old man obtained his desires. The father rebuked his son for his lack of filial respect, but for all that learnt from him how to manage his wife. 5. In old men there is no taste, in young no insight (Shab. 89b; D. 413). The old lack the imagination and enthusiasm of the young, but the young lack the shrewdness and prudence of the old. *6. When we were young [we were esteemed] [p. 32]

as men; now that we are old as school-children (B. K. 92b; D. 331). Many a person displays ability in his youth and is entrusted with duties above his age. When he grows old he is regarded as unfit for important work as children. Cf. "A man at sixteen will prove a child at sixty." 7. Two are better than Three; woe to the One which goes but never returns (Shab. 152a; D. 303). The resemblance to the riddle of the Sphinx is very striking. The questi on was: What is it that walks on four legs in the morning, on two at midday, and on three in the evening? The answer is: Man, who crawls on all fours as an infa nt, walks on two legs in his prime, but with the aid of a stick in his old age. The "One" that goes but never returns is Youth. 8. For something I have not lost am I searching (Shab. 152a). The old man walks with bent figure, as though looking for something he h ad dropped. *9. Many old camels carry the hides of young ones (Sanh. 52a; D. 534). A similar Hebrew saying is: "Many colts die and their skins are turned i nto covers for their mothers" (Lev. R. ch. xx. section 10; D. 262). Many old me n survive the young. Cf. "Old camels carry young camels' skins to the market." [p. 33] *10. An old man in the house is a snare in the house; an old woman in the house is a treasure in the house (Erach. 19a; D. 537, p. 217). An old man is more peevish and helpless than an old woman. Cf. "An old m an is a bed full of bones." True as this proverb may be in fact, the Rabbinic li terature has many passages which show how much importance was attached to the Bi blical law "Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man" (Lev. xix. 32). Thus the young are exhorted to reverence the aged who are broken in mind through physical weakness, even as the fragments of the broke n tables of the law were considered worthy of being preserved in the Ark (Ber. 8 b). *11. Shake the salt off and throw the meat to the dog (Nid. 31a; D. 571). When the soul leaves the body what remains is worthless. The soul is the preservative of the body in the same way as all salt is a preservative for meat . section 2. POVERTY AND WEALTH *12. Poverty follows the poor (B. K. 92a; Hul. 105b; D. 181). The numerous disadvantages which result from his lack of means constantl y remind the poor man of his poverty. [p. 34] *13. The pauper hungers without noticing it (Meg 7b; D. 406). On the principle "Familiarity breeds contempt."

*14. When the barley is consumed from the pitcher, strife knocks and enters the house (B. M. 59a; D. 335). Cf. the English proverb "When poverty comes in at the door love flies ou t through the window." *15. The dog in his hunger swallows dung (B. K. 92b; D. 394). In the time of extreme necessity everything can be of use. Cf. "The full soul loatheth an honeycomb: but to the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet" (Prov. xxvii. 7). *16. Sixty pains afflict the teeth of him who hears the sound of his neighbour [ eating] but himself hath nothing to eat (B. K. 92b; D. 649). ("Sixty" is used in Rabbinic writings to denote a round number.) *17. When a man is in straitened circumstances, he recalls the comfort of his fa ther's house (Lam. R. to i. 7; D. 332). Palestinian proverb. See the following. *18. When the bride is hungry, she recalls the seven days of her marriage feast (Lam. R. to i. 7; D. 338). The Babylonian parallel to the preceding. [p. 35] [paragraph continues] The marriage festivities usually lasted a whole we ek. (I have adopted Buber's reading tikhapan; the editions have tispon, which yi elds no sense.) *19. What is beneath thine head is thine (Gen. R. ch. lxix. section 4; D. 472). You can only be sure of that which is actually in your possession. *20. While the fat one becomes lean, the lean one expires (Lam. R. to iii. 20; D . 553). By the time the oppressor of the poor, who battens on them, is brought t o justice, his victims are dead through starvation. *21. Two kabs of dates--one kab of stones and more (Jom. 79b; D. p. 15). There is no such thing as unalloyed pleasure. Half of the sweet date at least consists of the stone, which is of no use and has to be thrown away. Cf. " No corn without chaff." The kab is a dry measure. *22. Poverty befits the Jew as a red leather trapping a white horse (Hag. 9b; D. 312). Even privations can serve a useful purpose, in hardening a person agains t troubles. The Jew is a proof of this. *23. A year of scarcity will change a weaver [for the better] if he be not proud (Ab. Zar. 26a; D. 200). Others translate "If a weaver is not humble, his life is shortened by a year,"

[p. 36] which is by no means to be preferred to the rendering of Jastrow I have adopted. The meaning is, Adversity has its uses if we are willing to grasp them. One is reminded of Shakespeare's lines: Sweet are the uses of adversity Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous, Wears yet a precious jewel in his head. As You Like It, Act II. Sc. i. All work connected with weaving was despised as being unmanly, and there fore men engaged in this occupation were always of the lowest strata of society. It was forbidden to listen to their songs (Sotah. 48a). 24. Even the wool-scraper is a prince in his own house (Meg. 12b; D. 599). Cf. "Every dog is a lion at home"; "A man's house is his castle." 25. On the dunghills of Matha Mehasya, and not in a palace at Pumbeditha (Kerith . 6a; Hor. 12a; D. 116). Two names of Babylonian cities famous for their Rabbinic academies. At o ne time Matha Mehasya was more renowned than its rival, and this proverb may ref er to its superiority. Others explain it as a reference to the fact that this ci ty escaped the misfortunes which befel the Jews in Babylon [p. 37] during the fifth century AD., and the proverb therefore means, Better is poverty combined with security than riches combined with danger and anxiety. 26. Better is it to eat putrid fish [in peace] than the luxurious dish of the im prisoned (Kerith 6a; Hor. 12a; D. 299). (The wording is doubtful, but this seems to be the most probable meaning .) Cf. the preceding, and "Better is a dry morsel and quietness therewith than a house full of feasting with strife" (Prov. xvii. 1), and "A bean in liberty is better than comfort in prison." 27. At the door of shops brothers and friends are numerous; at the door of miser y there are no brothers and no friends (Shab. 32a; D. 1). To a similar effect is "The poor is hated even of his own neighbour: but the rich hath many friends" (Prov. xiv. 20). Cf. "The rich never want kindred"; "No one claims kindred with the poor"; "Poverty parteth fellowship." *28. Thy friend is dead! believe it; thy friend has become rich! believe it not (Git. 30b; D. 281). Misfortunes are more frequent than good fortune, therefore bad tidings d eserve more credence. There is a play on the words for "believe" ('ashar) and "b ecome rich" [p. 38] ('ith'ashshar) which cannot be reproduced in translation. *29. From one who has inherited, not from one for whom men plunder, [accept gift

s]. (Cant. R. to vii. 7; D. 503). The "one for whom men plunder" is a king or governor. Ill-gotten wealth brings no happiness, whatever its source may be. Cf. "Better a penny with right than a thousand without." *30. He who eats the fat tail ['alyetha] will have to hide himself in the garret ['ilitha]; who eats cress [kakule] may rest quietly by the dunghills [kikle] of the town (Pes. 114a; D. 203). Palestinian proverb. The "fat tail" was a rare and expensive luxury, and one who indulges in it may have to conceal himself from his creditors. On the o ther hand, the man who lives parsimoniously and within his means can expose hims elf in the most conspicuous parts of the town. (Note the play of words.) *31. He whose stomach is full increaseth deeds of evil (Ber. 32a; D. 499). Wealth breeds insolence. Cf. the Hebrew saying "A lion growls not in a d en full of straw but in a den full of meat" (ibid., D. 54); and "They were fille d and their heart was exalted" (Hosea xiii. 6), "But Jeshurun waxed fat and kick ed" (Deut. xxxii. 15). [p. 39] *32. The stomach carries the feet (Gen. R. ch, lxx. section 8; D. 409). Cheerful prospects stimulate a man's energies. Similarly it is said "The heart carries the feet" (Jalkut to Gen. section 123; D. 311). *33. Room can always be found for a delicacy (Erub. 82b; Meg 7b; D. 613). 34. A man's Zuzim do his brokerage for him (B. M. 63b; D. 271). If you have ready cash, you can dispense with the aid of middlemen. The general application is: The wealthy man can attain his ends more easily than the poor man. The Zuz is a small silver coin, a fourth of a Shekel in value--i.e. a bout 7d. 35. One cannot compare him who sees an empty basket and is hungry to him who see s a full basket and is sated (Gen. R. ch. lxv. section 13; D. 414). Although neither eats anything, yet the sensations of the two will be di fferent. 36. None is poorer than the dog and none richer than the pig (Shab. 155b; D. 439 ). The latter eats anything and is easily contented. 37. Let one use a precious goblet for one day and on the morrow let it be broken (Ber 28a; D. 462). To be wealthy a short time is better than never. [p. 40] 38. If thy sieve be stopped up, knock on it (Gen. R. ch. lxxxi. section 2; D. 4 82). In prosperity one tends to become forgetful of promises and duties, and

section 1.. Cf. (Some rende r the last word "carpenters. The mother is judged by the character of her daughter. ch. This proverb is often quoted a s meaning that women are industrious (so. D. 136). [A descendant] of princes and rulers. 615). Similar to the preceding proverb. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. D. Cf. 14b . as the acts of the mother so are the acts of the daughter (Kethub. 63a. 506). A woman does not miss an opportunity of working for her desired ends. D. Eve n in the midst of idle chatter she has her mind fixed on what she is aiming [p. no. D. [p. 1 Sam . The famous Rabb i Akiba had married his wife Rachel [play on the word for "ewe"=Rahela] when he was a poor shepherd. There is no depth of depravity to which a woman cannot sink. The proverb is applied in the Talmud to a specific case. at sacred-texts. 136 below. 42. e. on the principle "Children are what you make them. she became a prostitute for bargemen (Sanh. saying. thus putting into his mind the germ of the idea that she would n ot be averse to marrying him. by Abraham Cohen. asked him to remember her whe n he prospered. Ewe follows ewe. D. 41] CHAPTER II FAMILY LIFE section 1. 82b. 44). No cow is [considered] a gorer until her calf is a kicker (Gen. 440). . D. requires strenuous means to bring them to one's mind. Later on their daughter followed the mother's example by ma rrying Ben Azzai when he was unknown and poor. R. xvi. 159) . should she be free. xxv. K." *43.g. lxxx.") *44. *40. 14b. Quoted as a comment on the conversation between David and Abigail. WOMAN: HER CHARACTERISTICS *39. The goose bends its head while walking. Abigail. 42] *41. e. 106a. but the context is clearly against this interpretation.. Delitzsch. during her conversation with David. [1911]. What does Schwilnai want among the reeds and bulrushes? (Sanh. A WOMAN spins even while she talks (Meg. Jewish Artisan Life).g. As is the mother so is her daughter" (Ezek. "Behold every one that useth proverbs shall use this proverb against thee. but its eyes wander about (Meg. 639). 92b).

I do not want a husband from a rank higher than my own. D. an d men were exhorted to marry at an early age. 418). runs at the sound of wedding music (Mo ed K. The ancient Jews held marriage in very high esteem. one runs the risk of being looked down u pon by one's wife and her relatives. 45] . 49a). "By slothfulness th e roof sinketh in. hesitate in taking a wife (Jeb. and is usually explained as ref erring to a woman who had become proverbial for her [p. section 2). Jastrow renders: "It is better to dwell in grief than in widowhood. R. 63a). On the basis of the Biblic al statement "It is not good that man should be alone" (Gen. on the other hand.The name occurs only in this connection. Descend a step in taking a wife. [p. considering it in fact a religious obligation. whatever their age. The figure is of a girl carrying a basket on her head. 46. x." 51. 238)." 50. It is better to dwell mated than in widowhood (Jeb. 302). ascend a step in choosing a friend (Jeb. cf. Cf. Haste in buying land. a woman prefers an unhappy married life to single bliss. From the passage quoted in the com ment on Proverb No. 1. "The unmarried man lives without prosperity. Lewin. without happiness or blessing" (Jeb. 62b. 177). ch. xvii. is to be deri ved from the association with one's superiors. MARRIAGE AND THE HOUSEHOLD 48. As she slumbers the basket falls (Sanh. Cf. and through idleness of the hands the house leaketh" (Eccles. Advantage. Pride is unbecoming in women (Meg. "Marry above your match and you get a good master. (The textual reading is uncertain. I do not want a shoe larger than my foot (Kid. D. 9b. 14b. the Rabbis said. Cf. without a helpmate." i. "Marry in haste. 43] gross immorality. "Modesty is the beauty of women. repent at leisure. 7a. Gen. 18). 526). 63 a. D. like a girl of six. p. The explanation is that the bridegroom used to live in the house of his b ride's father during the first years of his marriage. [p. 118b and often. By marrying into a higher rank. Matrimonial matters never lose their interest for women.) *45 A woman of sixty. ii. 18). whereas the age for his earning a livelihood is two years later. section 2. D. 61. 44] 49. it will be seen that the age at which a man should marry is fixed at eighteen.e . D." *47. Laziness on the part of a woman is disastrous to the welfare of the home . The proverb is applied to a woman whose movements give cause for suspicion.

. "Whose wife dies in his lifetime. "The world is too narrow for them who hate ea similar to Ibn Gabirol's "The space of a needle's eye suffic whilst the universe itself can scarcely contain two enemies" ed. 75a. Arabic saying. "Seven. Keth. 31 .). D. If thy wife is short. a bed measuring sixty cubits is not sufficient for us (Sa nh. D. A woman will not hesitate to marry a man engaged in the meanest of occup ations. For seven years there was a quarrel between the male and female gnat. do not stand on your dignity. Psalm lxxix. her seat is placed among the noble women (Jeb. *55. Matt. Cf. D. Mahuza is the name of a famous town in Babylonia. Trivial matters are often sufficient to cause serious matrimonial troubl es. Every woman feels elevated in social status by marriage. With her rival and not with a rod (Jeb. 24) saith. 63b. 75a. 11). and thou didst alight upon him and sting him." like "sixty. The respect which was felt for the wife may be seen from such sayings as "A man who se first wife dies is as though the Temple had been destroyed in his days" (Sanh . in order to avoid the stigma of being unmarried. D. [his wife] will call him to the thresho ld and sit with him (Jeb. Keth. 62b). Thou didst once see a man from Mahuza bathing and then wrap himse lf in towels. When our love was strong we slept on the breadth of a sword. but didst not inform me (Hul. xviii. Never do anything without first consulting her. D. but now that o ur love is not strong. "He who loves his wife as himse lf and honours her more than himself. 22a). [p. Prov. for thus you enrich yourselves" (ibid. 149). *56. no. 53. 54. 118b. 118b. cf. however lowly his po sition may be. *58.of him Scripture (Job v." which is es for two friends. so also in the Bible. There is an ch other. 118b. If her husband be [as insignificant as] an ant. 222). A woman is proud to be seen possessed of a husband. 351). vi.52. [p. 137). (Choice of Pearls. *57. 59a. bend down and whisper to her (B.). "Thou shalt know that thy tent is in peace" (Jeb. 7a. but ask her advice. "A woman is only envious of her companion's thigh" . 226). 227). 281). Asher. If the husband is a grower of vegetables. 22. 47] One can control a wife more readily by working on her feeling of jealous y than by using violence. 58b. 12. 46] the world becomes dark for him" (ibid. Though the husband be a flax-beater. for s aid he to her. M. she asks for no lentils for the po t (Jeb. Even if you deem yoursel f her superior in intellect. To be left unma rried was regarded at that time as the greatest calamity that could befall a wom an. p.. I t is also said: "Honour your wives. D. D." is used for a round number. 75a. Keth.

(Meg. blessed be He. The relationship between parent and child is beautifully summarised in the Talmudical saying: "There are three partners in the production of the human [p. 59 above and no. The child merely repeats what it has heard at home. b Sot. I want a stick for the hand and a hoe for burial (Jeb. The talk of the child in the street is that of his father or his mother (Su c. He among the full-grown pumpkins and his wife among the young ones (Meg. the greater the sound of jollification. 49a. The happiness within a house penetrates [p. 49] being. D. b. Cf. 48] into the outside world. D. 4 0). The Paschal lamb is as large as an olive and the chanting breaks the roofs (j. 56b. Pes. The Talmud quotes Job xxxi. D. 273). cf. Applied to sons whose duty it is to support their parents in old age and provide for their honourable burial. Keth. the Holy One. and the children's love for their chil dren (Sot. 10a. the luck of the world has come" (Gen. Ds. *60. D. Cf. "The child says nothing but what it heard by the fire. vii. when the Pas chal lamb is shared out. ch. *62." *63. Violence in a house is like a worn on vegetables (Sot. Pes. 3b. R. It ruins the beauty and stability of the home-life. 101 below. "The luck of the house has come.) section 3. each person receives only as much as the size of an oli ve. they occupy the primary p osition in his thoughts. to ii. 65b. 575). D. 55). Be careful what you say before children. PARENTAGE AND RELATIONSHIP *65. Cf. the husband is not innocent. Immorality in the house is like a worm on vegetables (Sot. lxxi. 12 a. section 9). 59. 14. D. as a Biblical parallel. Cf. no. But the greater the company. 654). 41). 64a. 9 f. 66. The Passover is celebrated within the house and the chanting is carried out side (Cant. "If the wife sins . 13a. D." 61. 12. 629). viz. 616). When . R. *64. the father and the mother. There are so many at table participating in the feast that. A father's love is for his children. One considers his children before his parents. (This p roverb and the preceding are in all probability variants of the same saying. 3b. 88b). Unfaithfulness on the part of the husband leads to his wife's unchastity .

1. What does the beetle (or. then. 1. 51] saying is descriptive of parents who neglect their children so that they become a public charge. can be looked for from a child of evil paren ts who in youth follows their example? pay honour to their parents. (The meaning of the first word translated "branch" is doubtful. D. The first word is explained by Jastrow to mean "a bird of solitary habit s. i. From the thorn-bush comes the rose (Cant. Much is not to be expected from a child of evil parents even when it sho ws some good qualities. even if he is so poor as to require to go and beg for the money (j. Based on the still older proverb mention ed in the Bible: "From the wicked issueth forth wickedness" (1 Sam. M. D. God says. R. . D. 1. 192). Wicked sons of wicked fathers. ch. He b. 71. 8 4b. "Thou art a lion the son of a fox" (B . ch. 544). "Many a good cow hath a bad calf. The serpent breeds and casts [her young] upon the inhabitants of the town (K eth. M. xxiv. R. *72. R. "He is a lion the son of a lion" (B. Pea h i. xxxii. The Biblical parallel is quoted: "In plac e of wheat there cometh forth thistles. 483). R. Rear not a gentle cub from a vicious dog. 131). this translation is the one demanded by the Rabbinical context. xix. 14). 84b." The bad son of a good father is also described as "Vinegar. ch. *68. 50] *69. Good father with bad children. 131). ch. Parents who have no equals [for goodness] rear children unlike themselves ( Cant. Da. 284) . "And behold ye have arisen in the place of your fathers. section 6. 49b. A son can be compelled to support his father in his old age. and lea ding him about (ibid. and differs from the R. 30b). 14). 31b). section 6 to i. D. D. in the place of barley noisome weeds" (J ob xxxi. Bad father with worse children. section 6 to i. I ascribe it to them. sons of foxes (Hag. 1).) [p. 83b. ch." The [p. M. 52). D. Foxes. 13. *67. i. as though I we re in their midst and they honoured Me" (Kid. i. the son of wine" (B. a compa ny of wicked men" (Num. *70. D. 40. D. R. 661). 480). Cf. scorpion) beget? Insects worse than itself (Cant. section 6 to i. Good children of a bad father. i. D. Cf.). A branch bringing forth a fig (Cant. 504). clothing him. What. much less a vicious cub from a vi cious dog (Lev. and cf.V. section 6 to i. Good son of a good father. Cf. 1. 14a. It is the duty of every man to honour his parent by supplying him with food and drink.

18). The official referred to is possibly the tax-gatherer. 37). execute the judgment of truth and peace in your gates " (Aboth i. D. 287).com [p. One must beware even of relations. 71b. 53] 80. as it is said (Zech. 24). falsehood does not stand (Shab. 69b. 64b. 95). viii. iii. yet it is continually in the mo uth of the untaught" (Ecclus. 606). Elsewhere it is said. 7a. Palestinian saying. "Truth is the seal of God" (Shab. 104). and by peace. TRUTH stands. He was classed legally with highway robbers and murderers (Ned. 49a. "Who hea rs something unpleasant and preserves silence wards off what would prove still m ore objectionable" (ibid. 86 a. no. D. S anh. a hundred evils pass him by (Sanh. xx. Kil. [1911]. 7). [p. i. You can endure a quarrelsome son-in-law but not a quarrelsome daughter-i n-law. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. When two quarrel. *77. 18a. Do not get vexed at every trifle and at once resent it. D. 104a. "By endurance one avoids still greater troubl e" (no. no. D. 99). D. 52] CHAPTER III HUMAN VIRTUES 78. do not pass him by when thou seest him in the market place (Jom. 305). Cursed be the breast that suckled such a man! (j. at sacred-texts. by judgment. go out (Erub. who was detested for his merciless extortions. Worthy of quotation is: "There are four kinds of tem . Ibn Gabirol says : "Who cannot bear one word will hear many" (Choice of Pearls. 55a. "Speak ye every man the truth with his neighbour. If thy sister's son is a government official. "By three things is the [moral] world preserved: by truth. go in. "A lie is a foul blot in a man. 4). D . he who keeps silence first is more praiseworthy (Kid. Rear me! Rear me! the son of thy daughter am I (Sot. If the dog bark at thee. if the bitch bark at thee. *76. *79. D. 592).*74. by Abraham Cohen. Happy is he who hears and ignores. Jom. The notoriety of a person casts a shadow upon the fair name of his paren ts. *75. 522). 16). One looks to a grandparent as much as to a parent for support when the l atter is not forthcoming. 349).

285). but the reading is doubtful. the trees began to tremble. 665). when he hol deth his peace. D. but will not overtake the man who has breakfasted ea rly (B. is counted wise. D." *81.)." 84.pers: he whom it is easy to provoke and easy to pacify--his loss disappears in h is gain. "All my days I have grown up amongst the wise. The iron thereupon said to them. Cf. K. i. It is also recommended: "Rise early and [p. "Early start makes early stages. no. 55] eat." On "sixty" see no. 498). *87. 39b. .hesed]. Boldness avails even with Heaven (Sanh. "Even a fool. 28). Cf." The handle which enables one to use the axe for felling trees is ob tained from the trees themselves. xvii. [p. found also with most other peoples: "Speech is silvern. D. 107b. by spending money in the relief of distress. our saying "Heaven helps them who help themselves. th e English proverb "Be not the first to quarrel. "My words may occasion regr et. "Nothing venture. 11. 541). 648). 18a. D. Cf. nothing have. 82. 16." *85. D. A word for a Sela. silence for two (Meg." Dukes appo sitely quotes the following from the Midrash [see Introd. 337). 99a. Silence is a healing for all [ailments] (Meg. and not one of you sha ll be hurt. when he shutteth his lips. *86. he whom it is hard to provoke and easy to pacify is a saint. in winter on account of the cold " (ibid. Another possible render ing is: "The axe goes into the wood from which [it originally came]." 83. R. D. "Silence is good for the wise. to vi. Palestinian proverb. 66b. Cf. 105a. There was a Hebrew proverb current in Jerusalem: "The salt of money is d iminution" (Keth. B. D. There is a mediaeval Jewish saying. M.e. he whom it is hard to provoke and hard to pacify--his gain disappears i n his loss. 4d. and in English. The door which is not opened for charitable purposes will be opened to the physician (Cant. 286). 14). section 3]: "When iro n was created. to the last word of which [. and I have found nought of better service than silence" (Aboth i.hasser] there is a v ariant "benevolence" [. in the summer because of the heat. 491). D." A Sela was worth one s acred or two common Shekels = about 2s. 18a. Boldness is royal power without a crown (Sanh. but my silence will avoid it" (Ibn Gabirol. Wher efore do ye tremble? Let none of your wood enter into me. D. he whom it is easy to provoke and hard to pacify is a wicked man" (Aboth v. how much more so for the foolish" (Pe s. The sense is clear. 324)." "The early bird catches the wor m. 17). 92b. 493). silence golden. Sixty runners may run. "No on e ever repented of holding his tongue. 54] he is esteemed as prudent" (Prov. nor the last to make it up. From the woods themselves it goes into the axe (Sanh. 105a.

"Let thy house be open wide. A later Jewish moralist. its name is still dunghill (Jalkut to Jer. "Even the beg gar is not free from the duty of giving alms" (Git. the fo rmer to rich and poor alike. 386). To the same effect is the English p roverb. "When a beggar stands at thy door. . A nobleman remains noble even in the days of distress. 92. 49b. The weasel and the cat held a feast on the fat of the unfortunate (Sanh. 183). and suddenly one of them was attacked by a wolf." When men combine forces they can overcome their com mon enemy. 105a. The Stater is a silver coin equal in value to four Zuz (see no. 95a. 5). *90. declares: "The wise man is honoured even if his family is despised. If I do not help him now. 1). 3) is applied also to moral duties. 108). 10 5a." *89. D." Hospitality and benevolen ce are the supreme virtues of Orientals. the latter can be given to the poor alone. 24). 49b). 7b). "Many straws may bind an elephant. and the common ma n common even in the days of prosperity. section 9). T he principle "Be not like servants who minister to their master upon the conditi on of receiving a reward" (Aboth i. ii. should the dunghill be r aised. 61a). 56] [paragraph continues] (Git. "Giving to the poor increaseth a man's store. Should the castle totter. "Union is strength. the former also to t he dead" (Suc. 57] were once quarrelling. section 264. The good man remains good and is recognisable as such. 337). Although the Rabbis continually emphas ise that the money spent to help the needy will be repaid by increased prosperit y. Whoever makes the round of his property every day finds a Stater (Hul. the former per sonally as well as with money. even when he is i n bad company. Thus the y draw a sharp line of demarcation between benevolence and mere almsgiving. its name is still castle. D. quoted by Dukes. With two dogs they killed the lion (Sanh. D. "Union is strength. 44a. D. 88. the latter only to the living. A myrtle standing among reeds still retains the name of myrtle (Sanh. ch. they do not fail to urge that true charity should be done for its own sake. The duty of suppo rting and comforting the poor applies to gentiles as well as to fellow-Israelite s [p. and the Rabbinical sayings on the subje ct are extremely numerous. xxxiv. Diligence always meets with reward. Then said the other to himself. So they both assailed the wolf and slew him." 91.we earn the Divine protection and blessing. 408). j. the wolf will kill him and then turn his attention to me. and let the poor be the members of thy household" (Aboth i." Cf. Ber. "Greater is the alms-gi ver than the bringer of sacrifices" (Suc. The proverb is quoted to point the moral of the following fable: Two dogs [p. the H oly One stands at his right hand" (Lev. D. The latter can only be performed with money. and distinguish them in the following manner: "In three respects is benevolence grea ter than almsgiving. R.

D. 467). i. what hath he acquired? ( Ned. 10b. 24). Better is the smith than the son of the smith (Sanh. ch. the useful and the useless." Ancient Jewish Proverbs. 15b. He ate the date and threw away the stone (Hag. He whom a serpent hath bitten is terrified at a rope (Cant." 97. 96. Ibn Gabirol says: "A body w ithout knowledge is like a house without a foundation" (Choice of Pearls. at sacred-texts. Cf. *99. 60] CHAPTER IV . 41a. The cloak is precious to its wearer (Shab. "The wise of the earth resemble the lum inaries of Heaven" (no. "Every man praises his own wares." "A burnt child dreads the fire. In whom it is. [1911]. *94. 35). what lacketh he? In whom it is not. R. There is a similar proverb in He brew: "Lackest thou wisdom. *95. section 6. Who has eaten of the pot knows the taste of the broth (Jalkut to Deut. 2. to i. 33). D. D. what hast thou acquired? Hast acquired wisdom. 224). D. Experience is the best teacher. if for nobody else. no.*93. Jom. 10a. 59] possessor. not [p. Better is one grain of hot pepper than a basketful of pumpkins (Meg. Cf. 98. [p. 58] Refers to Wisdom. 221). R. A piece of rope lying on the ground resembles a snake. 96a). Ha g. Similarly the opinions held by a person a re considered worth holding by him. D. by Abraham Cohen. "Once bitten twice shy. sect ion 829. what hath he? He wh o hath acquired it. in whom it is not. 492). 17 ). what lackest thou? " (Lev. It would be no exaggeration to say that among the a ncient and mediaeval Jews there was an aristocracy of learning. The experience acquired during many years is of extreme value. "A man's worth is estimat ed according to his knowledge" (no. 7a. 211). Refers to a man who can distinguish between the true and the false. "Wisdom constitutes the noblest pedigree" (no. D. 300). in him is everything. 88). A Palestinian saying. so a little keen reasoning is worth more than a great deal of useless learning . Palestinian saying. D. Just as a grain of pepper imparts more flavour than a heap of vegetables . An article always has some value for its [p. 85b.

7a). the (too sensi tively) compassionate. p. Same as preceding. 22a). The wrathful man only harms himself." 102. 66b).HUMAN FAULTS 100. 104. D . This is the literal translation of the words. it falls on his face (Eccles. D. 113b). *106. but the good man is permitted to taste of the fruit of his deeds" (Kid. truth uncommon (Shab. if he is wise his wisdom leaves him. [Strife] is like the plank in a bridge. 241). D. 21]. "The wrathful man is subject to all kinds of tortures" (Ned. for corn hanging up it is found" [Hagiga. The Rabbis say. the longer it exists the firmer it becomes (Sanh. 104a. 616). however insignificant. Parallel to the preceding. also the English proverb "A hasty man never wanteth woe. D. 27 2). and his tempe r [ka'as]" (Erub. 78. 89b). as [the aperture] widens so [the stream of water] increases (Sanh. 618). Whoever expectorates upwards. R. 61] is a man recognisable: by his pocket [kis]. it overflows its own sides (Eccles. 225). 641). FALSEHOOD is common. 22b). A Zuz for provisions is not found. " The bad-tempered man is regardless even of the Divine Presence" (ibid. "He who sows discord will reap regret" (Ibn Gabirol. 9. 242). Cf. Strife is like the aperture of a leakage. 5a. 62] unsuitable. for the smallest insect has often caused th e death of the greatest man" (no. Other sayings in Hebrew are: "The wrathful man is left with his wrath on ly. 608). Cf. and therefore Streane's rendering. "Money for corn standing in the f ield is not found. *101. for hanging it is found (Hag. Cf. "Th ere are three classes of people whose life is scarcely life--viz. 102b. 366). "Bewa re of enmity. to vii. 103. 7a. no. 40b f. The context speaks of helping the distressed before it i s too late. "By three things [p. "When a man gives vent to his wrath. and the melancholic" (Pes. to vii. 9. no. but its sense is obscure a nd variously explained. R. 65b). When the kettle boils over. D. and if a proph et his prophetic gift departs" (ibid. D. "The punishment of a liar is that he is not believed even when he tells the truth" (Sanh. his cup [kos]. He who gives vent to his wrath destroys his house (Sanh. D. Dukes paraphrases: "One cannot find anybody to advance money . 105. the irritable. seems [p.

[p. 547). *112. D. 106a. 632). and it will act as usual (Ber. 9a. In Media a camel dances on a Kab (Jeb. 45a.) 109." The general meaning is: It is difficult to wean a person from long -acquired habits. Through wanting too much one often loses what he has. . Cf. 111. D." The simplest and most probable explanation is that of Jastrow: "A Zuz fo r provision is not on hand. "The sow loves bran better than roses. 199). 113. and the ears which it possessed were cut off (Sanh." (On the Kab see no. Similarly "After death the doctor. D. Parallel to English "To go for wool and return shorn. D. D.when a bargain chances his way. Hang the heart of a palm-tree around a sow. 382). People are short-sighted and look only for immediate profit without thin king of possible disadvantages in the future. the scrip does not leave his neck (Meg. So the English proverb: "He giveth twice that giveth in a trice. fails to obtain it. 7b. the saying "Africa ever produces something [p. 63] new. charity oft en waits for extreme distress. ra ther than that its owner should suffer for the time being through the smallness of the crop. 63a). 198)." To the same effect the Rabbis declare: "Greater is he who lends [in ti me] than he who performs an act of charity" (Shab. 65b. 347). All sorts of extravagant and improbable stories are related of distant c ountries. and is also deprived of what he has got" (Sot. D." 110. A Rabbi beautifully declares: "Sinful habits are first as fine as a spider's web. but always a purchaser when he has to sell at a loss. M. Cf. 21. 64] The heart of a palm-tree was considered a rare dainty. Should the peasant become king." *107. who sets longing eyes on what is not his. Cf. Cf." *108. but for saving from hanging it is. will trample it in filth. Let the land become impoverished but not its owner (B. "When a dog is drowning every one offers him a drink. It is as absurd for any one to be shabbily dressed and at the same time bedecked with ornaments as it would be to wear shoes and nothing else. 43b. The Talmud exhorts a man to make his interior harmonise with his exterior (Ber." i. 4a. Keth. 657). 28a). 44). D. but become finally as tough as cart-ropes" (Suc. not appreciating its value. 104b. Bad servants ask for advice after the deed is done (B. the saying of a Rabbi: "He. D. B.e. 52a). The camel went to seek horns. but the pig." Dukes quotes a later Jewish saying: "He who wishes to lie should t ake care that the testimony is afar off. Stripped naked but wearing shoes (Sot. The proverb is based on the policy of impairing the fruit-growing qualities of the soil through overproduction. 8b. The moral application is: An outward show of virtue when the character is obviously vicio us is worse than being a thoroughly corrupt person.

105b). he gains a piece of coal. if he loses. ch. 7). 65] 116. section 18. 66] existence before he has become demented" (Keth.). xviii. D. "A judge who does not decide according to the truth causeth the Divine Presence to depart from Is rael" (Sanh. Num. Old habits cling fast and are not easily broken.Similar to preceding. The ass came and kicked away the lamp (Shah. and from women wickedness" (Ecclus. D. 7a). Cf. *118. section 6. R. 23). section 15. R. 13). The judge of a certain lawsuit was presented with a golden lamp by the o ne litigant and with a Libyan ass (which was very highly prized) by the other. Throw a stick into the air and it will fall on its end (Gen. Cf. . 32a. 502). Ds. they have drowned thee. R. *122. Da. 8b: D. xlii. Ber. viii. and as thou hast beaten shalt thou be beaten (Num. It is also said o f bribery: "A judge who accepts a gift. liii. 162) and "In the pot in which th ey cooked shall they be cooked" (ibid. also: "Hillel once saw a skull floating on the surface of the water. will not terminate his [p. D. 5. ch. Proverbial of a man who sets out on a venture where the prize is triflin g but the risk very great. When the ox falls. Thou hast beaten with a stick. When the ox falls. even if he be otherwise perfectly righte ous. R. and thus the proverb is a warning again st bribery because there is always the danger of being outbid. D. 275)." *119. Te rum. 7). Cf. to i. "When the tree is fallen. 169). 5. its slayers are many (Lam. T he verdict went in favour of the latter. all go with their hatchets. to i. xvii. He said to it. 532). "Because thou drown edst others. 121. 134). 114. 11a. "A judge should always imagine that a sword is placed across h is thighs and Gehenna yawns beneath him " (ibid. 430). i. 116b. Dukes compares. The heart and the eye are the two agents of sin (j. down with him!" 120. 117. If he gains. and at the last they that drowned thee shal l themselves be drowned" (Aboth ii. 7. they sharpen their knives (Shab. 115." and no. Before even the dying person has expired. 51b. D. "Apes are apes though clothed in scarlet. "He that's down. ch. 91 above. "Measure for measure. R. Palestinian proverb. [p. he loses a pearl (j. From peddlers news. Cf. "From garments cometh a moth. Lam. from rags vermin (Ber. D. 1). appendix no. Also found in Hebrew." In Hebrew we find likewise: "In the measure in wh ich a man measures is he measured" (Sot. his executor bestirs himself (B.

D. 68] the lamb is torn asunder" (Tanhuma. iii. 125. "Between the shepherd and the wolf [p. 156)." "He is worthy of stoning. Palestinian proverb. Some of the things said about the slanderer are : "He magnifies his iniquity as far as Heaven. section 11. 6. *129. Doing evil for a good purpose. Eccles. 67] tongue" is meant slander. ch.B. but to remove to another l and involves sufficient worry and trouble to kill a person. D. a phrase used often in the Targum. By "the third [p. 15b. "Three removals are as bad as a fire. 551). Between the midwife and the travailing woman. Cf. Cf. I and he cannot dwell together in the earth" (ibid. One often contribute s as much to the disaster he is trying to avoid as does his opponent who is sche ming to overwhelm him. he thinks to himself "T here is no smoke without fire. the Aramaic Version of the Bible. D. Cf. "Money borrowed is soon sorrowed. a half enters (Gen. and also in Syriac. It is possible to be too cautious. xxxix. Waera. Said of a borrower. From one house to another a shirt. ch. Slander is a vice most fiercely denou nced in the Rabbinic literature. ch. 91a. Cf. 214). 6. R . 461). *124. which always leaves some lasting impress on the mi nd of the hearer." *126. R. lvi. D. He who removes from one house to another in the same town does so at a p ersonal loss even if it be only the worth of a shirt. D. Cf. lx. "Steals the goose and gives the giblets in alms. Should not the whole enter. 4. to iv. D. D. and there is such a thing as indecent haste. The third tongue slays three: the speaker." i. the spoken to. iii." "The Holy One says. and the spoken o f (Erach. section 3. but [he also squanders the wealth] of others (Eccles. the following. the household goods are completely ruined. from one land to another a life (Gen. to iv. "The retail er of slander and also the receiver of it deserve to be cast to the dogs" (Pes. the child of the poor perish es (Gen. ch. D. 154). ch. R." *128.). 333). R. on the principle that the end justifies t he means. He who borrows on interest destroys his own and others' property (Lev. R. It is not enough for him that he squanders his own.e. R. 474). section 1. *127. 422). Even if he professes to disbelieve it. She prostitutes herself for apples and distributes them among the sick (Le v." . 118a). *123. 193). D. Referring to slander. R. section 1.

R. The . D. 619). to iii. in the hour of release--forgetfulness (Gen. D. also no. 179). 336). section 1." and no. He who rents one garden will eat birds. D." 136. Retribution comes eventually with full force. 3a. 24b. When the endives are bitter the wine is sour (Lam. 588). Cf. The shepherd is lame and the sheep in flight. 137. 6. D. There is nothing of which to boast in what you have done." *134. D. 202). 42.*130. even when it seems at firs t to be only mild. to iv. 52a. whereas if there be only one for the evil-doer he falls into it. K. with the result that nei ther does. 69] flock. A slain lion hast thou slain. ch. It is necessary to amplify the proverb thus: "There are seven pits open for the good man. D. 7a. ground flour hast thou ground. 96b. he appoints a blind [sheep] as leader (B. 38 below. B. R. 36). "The receiver is as bad as the thief. D. *131. R. section 2. 175). Each leaves it to the other to see to a matter. D. 32a. iii. who rents gardens. Cf. *135. xxiv. D. A saying current in Galilee. 16). 173. In the hour of distress--a vow. and not as in the editions)." 132. Palestinian proverb (see Buber in loc. On the proverbial use of "Seven" see no. ch. lxxxi. *139. R. 621). Eccles. When the shepherd is angry with his [p. ch. 120). the birds will eat him (Lev. to iii. lxxxvii. D. section 3. The proverb seems to correspond to our "Cut ting one's nose to spite one's face. 57. "Vows made in storms are forgotten in calms. a burnt house hast thou burnt (Cant. Seven pits for the good man and one for the evil-doer (Sanh. R. The braggart may be called upon to give proof of his prowess.. 4. To attempt too much is often to lose all. *133. at the door of the fold there are [harsh] words but in the stalls there is the reckoning (Shab. B. but he escapes them all. cf. Art thou a hero? Behold a she-bear before [p. 70] thee. Sanh. "Too many cooks spoil the broth. R. 5b. rise and overpower her (Gen." The Biblical parallel is quoted: "For a righteous m an falleth seven times and riseth up again: but the wicked are overthrown by cal amity" (Prov. 58). A pot belonging to partners is neither hot nor cold (Erub. 138. Steal after the thief and thou too hast a taste (Ber.

*143. "One must not rely on m iracles" (Pes. Another Rab bi exhorts us. R. D. "Say not thou. An obscure proverb. x. ch. 111b. In his Zur rabbinischen Spruch kunde. ch. 98a. 307). 98a). 64b). no. "What is pride? It is a folly which t hey who possess it cannot throw off" (op. R. i.meaning is well expressed in another Rabbinic maxim: "One transgression draws a nother in its train" (Aboth iv. When priests rob. I am thy cook and thou permittest me not to partake of thy dishes (Lev. Cf. D. 7. [p. 141. The same proverb is to be fo und in Hebrew in Shab. D. D. section 3. we are as ses (Shek. they are bad for them who perform them (Lam. What is the cause that the form er days were better than these?" (Eccles. "My lowliness is my exalta tion and my exaltation is my lowliness" (Lev. who would swear by their gods or sacrifice to them? (Gen. Dukes quotes from the 'Aruch (Talmudical Lexicon) th at there existed a superstition in ancient times that it was unlucky to hang up the basket which was used for storing provisions. 72] Messiah) will not come till the arrogant are consumed from Israel" (Sanh . iv. 42. 57). It is similarly said: "The nail of the former gener ations is better than the stomach of the later generations" (Jom. section 4. ch. 10). 340). 538). xxvi. 46. no. A proud man is unacceptable even to his own household (B. 147. By hanging up your provision-basket and waiting for something to turn up you run the risk of starvation. R. 107). 2). 237). vi. 4). he offers another explanation: viz. 477). 1. cit. Wickedness recoils on to the head of the perpetrator. If actions are wicked. xxviii. Applied to people who are ungrateful to those who have benefited them. 9b. Cf. Other sayings are: "The proud man is possessed of a blemish" (Meg. R. He who hangs up his provision-basket hangs up his sustenance (Pes.. D. 410). 626)." Cf. "The son of David (the [p. D . 146. Elsewhere it is said "A false witness is worthy of being cast to the dog s" (Pes. If our predecessors were angels we are human. D. *140. It was a favourite maxim of the great Hillel. v. Git. All flatter a king (Num. 71] *142. 145. 29a. False witnesses are despicable to their hirers (Sanh. 112b. one who asks too much of Pr ovidence endangers himself. 656). if they were human. . And Ibn Gabirol says. "The good old times. 343). a nd "As the difference between gold and dust so is the difference between our gen eration and that of our fathers" (j. ch. D. 173. D. no. 144. B. D. D. 236). 118a). since the hope of man is but wo rms" (Aboth. R. section 5. 29a. section 5). to iii. "Be exceedingly humble of spirit. vii.

K. D. 13b. The figure is of a man who energetically provides himself with a ladder and rope wherewith to pull down the branches of a tree and pick the fruit. D. D. Play the flute to noblemen [and they find it pleasant. "I have sought (wisdom) and found it not. take a huge wa ll and throw it at him (B. 92b. M. 6b). On the "weaver" see no. *155. "Empty vessels make the most noise. woe to him who knows not to distinguish between the good and the bad! (Sanh. Simil arly there are men who do all in their power to acquire knowledge. 89b. Cf. [1911]. 53a. He ran with ladder and rope but could not learn (Ned. Hast thou called to thy neighbour and he answered thee not. R. D. play it] to weavers and they will not accept it (Jom. 85b.The wrong done by eminent men lowers the cause which they represent. ch. 23. 291). K. 78). One has to use strong measures with a fool. in midsummer. D.e. The ass feels cold even at the solstice of Tammuz (Shab. 73] the flesh of a corpse does not feel the knife" (Shab. 75] . D. but are unsuc cessful. *148. 151. 617). 161). The sorcerer mutters but knows not what he mutters (Sot. another laughs without knowing why. 2). 103a. Cf. clink (B. *150. p. xv. 77). [p. 112)." For "stater" see no. One man weeps without knowing why. by Abraham Cohen. Contrast the Rabbinic saying: "If a man says. "Thou hast dived into the mighty waters [for pearls] and hast broug ht up a potsherd in thy hand" (B. 22a. into whom it is impossible to drive any sens e. 74] Fools criticise where sages admire. Cf. 412). section 7. 91a. [p. To the same effect is: "To the wise man a nod [is sufficient]. and [p. Applied to an exceptionally ignorant man. D. but the fool n eeds a fist" (D. Tammuz being the equivalent of the month of July. The single coin in the flask is more audible than a large number of coin s. 20b. D. A stater in a flask cries Clink. at sacred-texts." do not believe him" (Meg. 581). *152. That man has not eaten bread made from wheat all his days (Gen. 610). *149. 602). "A fool cannot be impressed. *154. in the same way as an extremely poor man never tastes such a dain ty as bread made from wheat. He has never tasted the luxury of knowledge. I. Applicable to people who repeat high-sounding phrases without knowing th eir meaning. D. 153. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. 91. The proverb is applied to a blockhead.

" Man is ignorant of what the next step he has to take will bring him." Dukes rende rs the proverb quite differently: "Hast seen the dawn. Da. but be not dependent upon others" (Shab. 2). All study of the Law without work must in the end be futile and become the cause of sin" (Aboth. builde rs. for it honours the workman" ( Ned. for thou knowest not what a day may bring for th" (Prov. 568). B. iii. [p. Cf. Seven years lasted the famine. Hadst got up early. "Boast not thyself of to-morrow. ch. 6). 76] 157. Cf. for the labour demanded by them both makes sin to be forgotten. 10. xxv. I am a great m an and the work is below my dignity (Pes. however. and say not. also "It is a father's duty to teach his son a trade" (Kid. 188). Other similar sayings are: "Great is work. thou needest not have stayed up late (Lev. 1). 77] excellent thing is the study of the Law combined with some worldly occup ation. B. WHO hath not worked shall not eat (Gen. D. 579). ii. xiv. 49b. Ds. The Rabbis were fond of quoting "When thou eatest the labour of thine hands. The identical words are to be found in 2 Thess. 2).). and it shall be well with thee" (Ps. 118a). xxvii. thou hast not yet seen th e dusk. "Shall I and the ass eat out of the same manger?" he cried. D. with the comment that the m an who eats the fruit of his labour stands higher than the God-fearing man (Ber. 29a). 8a). That work is a blessing is finely taught in the Talmudical legend which re lates how Adam burst into tears when he was told that as a consequence of his di sobedience the earth would henceforth produce thorns and thistles. 118a. 622). and "Make thy Sabbath [-table like that of] a weekday. "Leisure is the reward of labour. cxxviii. but it came not to the artisan's door (Sanh.CHAPTER V OCCUPATIONS section 1. The eminent Rabban Gamliel had as his favourite maxim: "An [p. D. there would be no necessity for you to wo rk in your old age (Jastrow). We he ar of great Rabbis being at the same time shoemakers. WORK 156. When. 158. 110a. for there were no professional scholars in their day. D. 113a. smiths. section 10. The Rabbis certainly practised what they preached. section 5. If you had worked while young. bakers. R. Cf . an d "He who does not teach his son a trade teaches him to steal" (ibid. happy shalt thou b e. ch. he was comforted ( Pes. 29a. 159. he was informed th at by the sweat of his brow he could grow corn and eat bread. R. carpenters. 97). Flay a carcass in the street and earn a living. and "Let not him that girdeth on his armour boast himself as he that putteth it off" (1 Kings xx. 11). etc. A man wi thout a regular occupation was not permitted to act as judge or even give testim .

slaves received nine and the rest of the world o nly one" (Kid. and the corn. sell. The occupations of the student and warrior clash with each other. Receive payment before parting with your goods. Behold the sack. M. R." *166. B. 79] Cf. If a swordsman he is no book-worm. A physician afar off is a blind eye (B. D. Jastrow translates. 20a). I.ony (Sanh. for it will prove more profitable. they were no doubt justified by experience. Z ar. th e eye will be blind" (before he arrives). and its teachings make for peace and good-will. 8). and thou wilt lose (B. [then] open thy sack (Pes. TRADE 163. hence people say. do not sleep on soft cushions and allow him only straw. Vines purchase date-palms. Deal for cash only. D. section 2. *182. Cf. 40b. a Scotch proverb "El l and tell [ = ready money] is good merchandise. arise and measure (j. 437). 90a ). 161. 46). 86b. H. [p. Elsewhere it is said: "Of the ten measures of sleep that came down into the world. "Slaves have no sense of shame" (Sanh. "Buying and selling is but winning and losing. 113a. "It is forbidden to teach a slave the La w" (Keth. 78] Palestinian proverb. 85a. Therefore devote your energies to the former. "If the surgeon is far off. The fruit of the vine is more valuable than that of the palm. x." *164. . "A merchant that gains n ot. M. Sanh. Hast bought. 160. he is of no use. date-palms do not purchase vines (B. [p. loseth. K. D. It is thus recommended. There is no faith in slaves (B. Loosen thy purse-strings. 111). if a book-worm he is no swordsman (Ab. D. Cf. Anothe r reading of the proverb is: "If the sword the Book is not. 1 . thou hast gained. if the Book the swor d is not. Harsh though these dicta sound. 86a). The art of trading consists in skilful purchasing. On the other hand. 28a). The chief aim in trade is to make a profit. do not drink old wine and give him new wine. K. the money. Does a man buy and sell just to be called a merchant? (B. 92a). 17b. 167. Whoeve r acquires a Hebrew slave. 24b). B. 230). "Their testimo ny is not accepted" (Mish. i. 49b).e." 165."The Book is the Bible. 51a). M. acquires a master over himself" (Kid. there cannot be any doubt that servants [there is only one word in Hebrew and Aramaic for "slave" and "servant"] were well looked after and protected by law. D. "Do not eat fine bread and give coarse bread to your servant. 643).

Ten parasangs for one Zuz. and declared "However much you may fan. 15). 90b). Taan 6b. Four [Zuz] for a large skin and four for a small skin (B. *170. A hundred Zuz [invested] in business. gives it as his opinion that t here could be no worse occupation than agriculture. 5a. A Rabbi of the second century AD. 63a. The beam sells for a Zuz in the town and for a Zuz in the forest (B. If on opening the door [in the morning] there is rain. The fact that "husbandry" is specially mentioned is in keeping with B en Sira's general view. whether large or small. "Plough it also long-wise. Morning rain is the sign of a fruitful season. *172. it is better to devote oneself to commerce" (ibid. the application is that the cost of guarding two contiguous fields is the sa me as that for one field. B. which the Most High hath ordained" (Ecclus. Cf.168. 130. 80] Provisions will be cheap. *169. (This seems the most probable of the various translati ons and explanations of the proverb. D. possibly on account of the uncertainty of tenure in [p. 63a). A Kab from the ground and not a Kor from the roof (Pes. the Talmud bitterly denounces the men who inflate the price of food-stuff by withholding it from the market in the ti me of scarcity (B. Cf. 586). 81] the time of persecution. On the other hand. that occupation with the soil led to boorishness. noticed the ears of corn being fanned by th e breeze. D. for the profits will be small. who lived in the third century. and still you will find that to engage in commerce is more profitable" (Jeb. The Kor was a larger dr y measure. 15). Better is a small profit derived from the place where you dwell than a l arger profit from afar off. set down thy sack." On the Kab see no. 59a. 463). a hundre d Zuz [invested] in land. 117). Make use of this fact to get the most possible for your money. shared by the Greeks. D.) 173. In the conte xt. Ben Sira says: "Hate no t laborious work.). 21. Rab. [p. The cost of tanning a skin. B. the wording of proverb no. You are saved worry. vii. *171. "Buy at market but sell at home. p. 9b). D. it is also said. and lie on it (Ber. and salt and vegetables (Jeb. On the other hand. The Jews seem at one time to have had a disinclination to acquire much l and. O ass-driver. "A man who does not p ossess a piece of land is not fit to be called a man" (ibid. neither husbandry. D. and on seeing a field plough ed across its breadth he exclaimed sarcastically. 11 a. Cry of ass-drivers. 163). The cost of transporting the timber does not materially affect the price . is practically the s ame. eleven parasangs for two (Hag. The opinion s on the question of landed property differ very widely. and there is no need to mount t he roof of your house to look out anxiously for the arrival of your agents. so do not carry thy produce to market. K. and another Rabbi . 113a.). and every day meat and wine.

Peah viii. 652). "Let them who love Him be as the sun whe n it goeth forth in its might" (Shab. a hundred lips (moustache-trimmings) for nothin g (Shab. and woe to him who is a tanner" (Kid. at sacred-texts. 82a). but happy is he whose occup ation is that of a perfumer. iv. M. 174. wool-carder. 82b)." says a Rabbi. K. "will ever pass a way from the world. 14). such as the [p. 49a. fuller. A similar exhortation is. v. perfumer. [1911]. 82] heads (hair-cuttings) for a Zuz. and invest a third in land. There are some occupations which are absolutely barren of profit. 8. Kid. 88b). the best of physici ans is destined for Gehenna. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. maker of hand-mills. sailors mostly pious. nor a shepherd. Althou gh. by Abraham Cohen. "A man should always be of the pursued and not of the pursuers" (B. nor a barber. Here th e emphasis is laid on clean and pleasant work.adopts a middle course by advising "Let every man divide his money into three p arts. The world cannot exist without a perfumer and a tanner. and the most honourable of butchers is a partner of Amalek" (Mish. A little which is used is of greater value than double which is lying un used. and a third let him keep by him in reserve" (B. nor a sailor. and cf. 464). BE the cursed and not the curser (Sanh. for their trades are those of thieves. who listen to insults without retorting. a distinction was naturally drawn between the different trades. a third in business. 83] goldsmith. 296). 31). as we have seen. D. nor a camel-driver. but happy is he who sees his parents engaged in a superior t rade. 93a). and woe to him who sees his parents engaged in an ungainly occupation. but another Rabbinic passage rega rds the matter from a different point of view. hairdress er. 84] CHAPTER VI RULES OF CONDUCT *176. camel-drivers mostly honest. Fifty [Zuz] which produce [increase] are better than a hundred which do no t (j. weaver. who act lovingly and are happy under tr ials--of them it is said (Judg. and bath-heater. Also the professions which brought men into freque nt contact with women were discouraged. None engaged in these trades could be elect ed to the office of king or high priest (Kid. cupper. work was considered a blessing. A hundred bleedings for a Zuz. a hundred [p. "No trade. *175. Ass-drivers are mostl y wicked. "They who are oppressed and oppress not. nor a shop-keeper. [p. "Let not a man teach his son to b e an ass-driver. 129b. . D. 42a).

85] Similar to Luke iv. *179. 65a. Sanh.e. who gave it to the would-be proselyte who wished to be ta ught the whole of the Law while he stood on one foot.177. "Nor should he recite his prayers . 604). What is hateful to thyself. This negative form of the Golden Rule (cf. "Take the splinter from thine eyes! [And he answers] Take the beam from thine eyes!" (B. "Custom rules the law. and a Rabbi advises. 76b). xxiii. "A ma n should never exclude himself from the general body" (Ber. section 6. Ben Sir a finds it necessary to write a special exhortation for men to "honour a physici an" (Ecclus. Hast spoiled thy work. Other Rabbinic sayings on this subject are: "Wine leads both man and wom an to adultery" (Num. 223). section 14. "Priests should n ." Cf. which is identical with Matt. D. 23. 15b. "Who has drunk a quarter of a measure of wine may not expound the Law" (Keth. D. 65a). ch. 428). be the first to tell it (B. three make her act like an immoral person. Erach. 70a). Become not intoxicated and thou shalt not sin (Ber. That physicians were unpopular may be seen from the wording of this proverb and from the passage quoted on proverb no. R. 309). 92b. nos. Whatever thou hast to thy discredit. 60b and often. and four cause her to lose all self-respect and sense of shame" (Keth. xlviii. ch. take a needle and sew (Gen. Go out and see how the people act (Ber. 184."The law of the State is law. 1 f. " When in Rome do as Rome does. "Enter wine. It soon became famous and passed into proverbial use. [p. 183. 31). R. It was earlier than Hillel. conform to its laws (Gen. Ds. 101 ff. ch. R. 12) is ascribed in the Talmud to Hillel. It will be worse for you if others tell it. x. D. D. two are degrading. D. K. 113a). D . Matt. section 4). ch. 29b. 10b and often). and is found in Tobit iv . D. 86] *182. 45a and often. do not to thy fellow-man (Shab. heal thy lameness (Gen." i. [p. 4. 29b. A mediaeval Jewish work declares: "Anger rusts the intellect so that it cannot discern the good to do it and the bad to avoid it. "Wine ends in blood" (Sanh. xxxviii.). 109). section 4. 178. vii. 429). 38a). M. 14 and in Philo. vii. 174. 31a. "Wine brin gs lamentation into the world" (Jom. exit the secret" (Erub. B. is binding on the Jewish inhabitant (Git. Hast gone into the city. Cf. 64a). and "Improve thyself and then improve others" (B . D. "Man should never depart from established custom" (B. 49b)." 181. 500). R. Cf. xix. for the prayer of a drunkard is an abomination" (Erub. 10b). Physician. Cf. Do your best to right the mischief done by you. Be not choleric and thou shalt not sin (Ber. 573). 16b. D. B." 180. "Do not dwell in a town where the chief man in it is a physician" (Pes. 149). 86b). Follow the majority. "One cup of wine is good for a woma n.

unless it has first been mix ed with water. D. and I made it a practice to observe their bones. for it closely resembles another with the meaning "Two hundred. 188] commanded to bring a sin-offering ( Num. "It is a dirty bird that fouls its own nest. 11a). 17a bot. S. K. i. 5). M. A Nazirite was one who had taken a vow to abstain from the produce of th e vine (see Num. the so n of Ahaba. in for a pound. R. said: "It was once my occupation to bury the dead. 69a).ever drink wine" (Taan. Ibn Gabirol likewise says: "Reflection insures safety . that total abstinence was commended. On asking the woman her name. Cf. she replied that it was Methun. ch. 24b)." "As well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. "No blessing is to be pronounced over the cup of wine. also "Keep far from what is foul and from what is like unto it" (Hul . Eliezer. Circumvent the wicked man lest he circumvent thee (Gen. secti on 1. they were full of marrow" (Nid. 20a. Quite the contrary. 521 ). D . D. whi ch is one of God's gifts to man (Taan. 2 ff. The wise men. D. section 8. Cf. 1). Mix fodder for one ox." put the saddle upon thy back (B. Such is the opinion of R. 114). vii. vi. 89] Cf. Abba Shaul]. his bones appeared to be burnt. 87] thus perceived that he who indulged in strong drink. D." the amount paid as a fine. Wine was largely used. Why. which also means "Be deliberate! Be not hasty!" There is a f urther play on the word. It of course figured in the religious ceremonies. The proverb originated under the following circumstances: R. 44b). 92b. 92b. do not approach even the neighbour hood of a vineyard (Shab. Dukes (Zur r. He was mist aken. no. they were without marrow. Ida. I have [p. is the Nazirite [see no. 148). 88] 187. 589). R. Against ingratitude." [p. 24) quotes "Where Satan cannot penetrate. "In for a penny." *186. 441). The same idea is taught in the ancie nt Jewish doctrine "Make a fence round the Law" (Aboth. he sends wine as his ambassador. if to excess. once pulled a kind of head-covering only worn by non-Jewish women fr om the head of a woman. If thy comrade call thee "Ass. Cast no mud into the well from which thou hast drunk (B. but rashness is followed by regrets" (no. [p. K.) The meaning of the proverb is: Avoid even the circum stances which might possibly lead to wrong..). but it was enacted. vi. they say. lxxv. however." Note that the word is repeated. Go away! Go away! 0 Nazirite. 14)? Because he imposed upon himself the oath to abstain from wine. a sk the Rabbis. under the supposition that she was a Jewess. Ber. Be deliberate! Be deliberate! 'Tis worth four hundred Zuz (Ber. do pron ounce the blessing over undiluted wine" (Mish. but if in due measure. quoted as a proverb in Num. 13a and often. but in moder ation." It is not to be inferred fro m these sayings. mix for many oxen (B. *185. ch. and was fined four hundred Zuz. *188. bringing the total to "Four hundred. 189. x. *190.

*191. 113a. no. a nd remove the ladder from under thee (Ber. lxxiv." *192. 10a. 194. 112b. R. However short be the journey see that you are well provided with the req uirement of [p. However cheap they may be in the city. go up to the roof. 91] *200. *197. talk no secrets (Gen. Retribution comes in its own time. 112 above. Pes. Omit no precautions. Should there be a case of hanging in one's family record. Do not try to hasten it. If a hundred pumpkins [cost] a Zuz in the city. 540)." 195. D. Have regard for his feelings. Reliance can be placed on the frank criticism of a friend. So in English. 90] your needs. D. should two t ell thee so. 194). 465). take thy provisions with thee (Pes. se . *196. In a field where there are mounds. take no notice. say not to him. 282). If one person tell thee thou hast ass's ears. 32a. 96). 624). 113). "What everyone says mus t be true. Cf. "Never say die. *199. "Though the sun shines. still have some with you (P es. D. 618) Take all possible precautions. 213). Before wine-drinkers [set] wine.. Leave the drunkard alone. D. Cf. "Hang up this fish " (B. the next proverb. R. M. Man ought to pray for mercy even to the last clod of earth [thrown upon hi s grave] (Ber. Oxen were greatly feared because of their liability to gore. xlv. ch. Even when the ox has his head in the [fodder-] basket. procure a saddle for thyself (Gen. 94a. "Name not a rope in his house that hanged himself. Cf. 595)." *198. 8a. ch. 10a. Cf. Where opinions agree there is more credence." [p. before a ploughman a measure of roots (So t. "Even when a sharp sword is laid on his neck. 59b. D. leave not your cloak at home. D. section 7. D. To the tenth generation speak not contemptuously of a gentile in the prese nce of a proselyte (Sanh. 193. D. take some with you when journeyin g there. 113a. Cf. a man should not withh old himself from [the hope of] mercy" (Ber. Everything in its proper place. If thou goest up to the roof. 433). he will fall by himself (Shab. D. D. 33a.

D. "The curse of a wise man is fulfilled even when undeserved" (Sanh. section 155. 458). Do not lose courage even in the face of overwhelming disappointments. Other sayings ar e: "R. Spend according to thy means on eating. *202." *201. Do not concern yourself too much with the future. cited as a proverb in Jalkut to Samuel. "Accustom not thy mouth to swearing. and more on dwell ing (Gen. M. 9b). 91a. K. "To honour the Sabbath. Diminish from thy food and drink and add to thy dwelling (Pes. On "sixty" see no. x). 204. 569). [p. One should take grave notice of his master's curses even when they are und eserved (Jalkut to Samuel section 142). ch. 9 0b). *205. What is expensive for thy back. even if you have to stint yourself in food. Cf. se ction 2. Spend much on your clothes.ction 2. Do not stint yourself now. D. *207. Similar to the preceding. section 12. R. 574 ). D. 95a. bu t persevere until you finally succeed. and do not let thyself be troubled (Sanh. what is reasonable for thy stomach (B. less on clothing. proverb no. 34). D. [p. 5. Whether innocent or guilty. Orientals attach great importance to their external appearance. 151). 93] Cf. enter into no oath (j. and were sometimes c redited with the power of harming people by cursing them. of what use were sixty to thee? Bestir thyself and beget one who will be str onger than the sixty (B. 155). and the English proverb "Fields have eyes and woods have ears. . 92] Contrast this with the preceding. If [thy wife] hath borne thee sixty in thy lifetime [but they have all die d]. 11 3b). R. ch. "The glory of men is their raiment" (Derech Erets Zuta . Let thy grandson sell wax. xxxii. D. Shebu. Cf. 113a). "A scholar on whose clothes vermin are found is worthy of death" (Shab. 150). neither use thyself to the nami ng of the Holy One" (Ecclus. Shab. Similarly: "The way has ears. ch. Teachers were held in extraordinary esteem by Jews. 32). 52a. the wall has ears" (Lev. because it might affect the second or third generation. vi. D. 9). *206. Johanan called his garment. B. D. That which honoureth me" (B. let not thy Sabbath apparel be the same as thy weekd ay apparel" (Shah. 114a. xxiii. 16. xx. 91b. 114 a). with which is to be compared "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof" (Matt. D. 168). 203. The same idea occur s in the following: "Sufficient is the trouble in its own time" (Ber. 265. vi.

whenever and wherever it may present itself to you. B. From thy debtor accept even bran in payment (B. Truer to Jewish tea ching is the maxim: "Be not like servants who minister to their master upon the condition of receiving a reward" (Aboth.). section 8. Zar. One should not resent the penalty inflicted by lawful judges. xlviii. One is reminded of Virgil's line "Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes. 94). *210. even when assisting them. xviii. 94] On the principle "Half a loaf is better than none. count thy teeth (Hul. D. 454). D. M. If the wheat of the city be rye-grass. D. v. section 20). "To everything there is a season" (Eccles. Seize the opportunity to retaliate on him. *211. su bmit to thine enemy. ch. accompany them on their way (Ge n. When the horn is sounded in [the market of] Rome. in the time of mourning. In the time of rejoicing. The words can also bear the meaning "While on thy way. 174). sow of it (Gen. Having involved yourself in an affair. D. Prefer what is home-grown. The proverb is based upon Abraham's treatment of his guests (cf. R. While on thy way. 216. 3). 289). 127a. to thine enemy make thyself heard (Sanh. ch. D. BB. D. Gen. then form opinions (Shah. 7a. 19a (D. [p. If a man of Naresh has kissed thee. K. section 4. This fine maxim occurs also in Hebrew form in Ber. 12. [p. 63b. 434). 501). mourning (Gen . 220). M. i. Ds. 601). D. Ab. In accordance with the payment so regulate the work. *212. ch. 95] 218. R. especially when he greets you ef fusively. Show respect to the poor. The town of Naresh in Babylonia had a bad reputation." *213. iii." which offers a parallel to Matt. 214. 118a. 3)." 215. D. 63a. 46b. 83b and of ten. how ever unpleasant it may be. Hast given [the poor] to eat and to drink. even if it be inferior to foreign produce. 217. carry it out to a conclusion. 95b. rejoicing. 92 b. Let the reader of the letter be the one to break the news (B. 209. sell . xxvii. First learn. He from whom a mantle has been confiscated by the court should go on his w ay singing (Sanh. R. The general meanin g of the proverb is: Beware of a deceitful man. 535). lix. 1). 25.*208. son of a fig-dealer. According to the Zuzim dance (Midrash to Psalm xiv.

221. section 9. K. While thou art hungry eat. D. 113a. THIS world is like pump-wheels whereby the full become empty that the empty shall become full (Lev. at sacred-texts. 62b. D. . 552). section 12. Another possible rendering is: "The horn is sounded in Rome: "Son of a f ig-dealer." If thy father is away. 658). D. beer (called by the Arabs Nabidh) was brewed from dates. 62b. 216). 466). [p. 222. D. 46b. act in his absence. While thy fire is burning. While the sandal is on thy foot. Parallel to the preceding. xliv. etc. 96] Do not waste time. If thou hast dates in the fold of thy garment. R. Seize the opportunity as it occurs to you. while the cauldron is still hot pour out (Ber. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. D. 113 a.thy father's figs (Ber. 603). 219. by Abraham Cohen. D. Do not procrastinate. He who is in pain should go to the doctor (B. go cut up thy pumpkin and cook (Sanh. D. run at once and have them brewed. in English " Expedition is the soul of business. 11). While yet the sand is on thy feet dispose of thy wares (Pes. 12 ). 223. *224. ch." and generally the meaning is the same as the preceding. 33b. Do not waste time. ch. [1911]. 220. He who has a lawsuit should go to a judge (Sanh. Having gathered the dates in the fold of thy cloak. Cf. but have your wrongs attended to by the properly cons tituted authorities without delay. Same as preceding. 97] CHAPTER VII VAGARIES OF FORTUNE 226. 3b. 550). In the East. while thou art thirsty drink. Do not let the oppor tunity pass. [p. D. tread down the thorns (Gen. run to the brewery (Pes. 246). R. xxxiv. 225.

"One beats the bush and ano ther catches the bird. 228. ye had not found out my riddle" (Judg. section 3. D. One is reminded of Samson's words: "If ye had not plowed with my heifer. 218). 99] Credit is not always given where it is rightly due. Mabgai is the name of a Samaritan town. xliv. Same as preceding. D. D. Tobiah sinned and Sigud is beaten (Mac. R. and infer iors usurp the place of their betters. cf. 17b. t he other reaps the reward." *227. 235. D. section 23." One does the work." [p. D. Shilo sinned and Johanan is punished (Gen. 233. 28a. When the maker of stocks sits in his stocks. Pes. If I had not removed the potsherd for thee. [p. 92b. and the officers claim the victory (Be r. *232. 229. D. 151b. Same as preceding. K. 306)." *230. 190). p. Palestinian proverb. D. 141). D. D. 21b. and is used here generally of the people livin g under the rule of Shechem. D. Nazir 66b. 98] We have the work and they the enjoyment. and "The world is a stairca se. 103a. Jeb. "It's good to pluck flowers in your neighbour's garden. *236. Mac. 288). Cf. Lewin quotes an English prover b. *234. he is paid out of his own wor k (Pes. "Th e wheel has revolved" (Jalkut to Ruth section 601). 630) . 45). Palestinian proverb based on the incident narrated in Gen. 537. 295). 113b.Cf. Sanh. In the place where the master of the house once hung up his weapons. The wine [belongs] to the master. 11a. M. . 18). xxv. The common soldiers do the fighting. 11a. 84b. They eat and we say Grace (Ber. but the credit [goes] to the butler (B. "It is a wheel that revolves in the world" (Shab. 196). 631). 230. 92b. The sow pastures with ten [young ones] and the lamb not even with one (Gen. *231. Shechem married [Dinah] and Mabgai was circumcised (Mac. xiv. D. some are going up and some are coming down. xxxiv. 44a. R. 81). thou wouldst not have discovere d the pearl under it (B. ch. ch. The wheel of fortune revolves constantly. M. 53b. The Babylonian equivalent of no. The thought of the proverb is the same as that of t he preceding. there the shepherd hangs up his scrip (B. Fortune does not always smile on those who deserve it most.

Cf. K. 22a. 30a. "God stays long. "Every dog has his day. 219). 100] is pointed out that rain benefits the wicked as well as the righteous (T aan. let him not imagine that he will escape altogether. The good suffer together with the bad when a calamity overtakes a commun ity. *238. Together with the shrub the cabbage is beaten (B. just as when in pulling up shrubs a cabbage is also sometimes uprooted. To the fox in his time one has to bow (Meg. 578). is lightened by frequent occu rrence. Because punishment does not overtake the culprit in the early stage of h is career of crime. D. *240. 7a). [p. but strikes at last. 62 a. Not the mouse but the hole is the thief (Git 45a.(This is the reading in the MSS. Same as preceding." i. "Familiarity breeds contempt" and proverb no. On the other hand. 660). 425). 92a. *243. D. Are the maid's acts of stubbornness many. D." 242. 101] . Everything. Cf. The thief is not put to death after two or three [offences] (Sanh. Erach." *237. A woman accustomed to miscarriages is no longer troubled by them (Keth." 241. he is pai d out of his own work. D." "An open door may tempt a saint. *244. D. 143). he is paid out of his own work (Pes. 135). Similarly: "The breach [i n the wall] invites the thief" (Suc.. 195). 56b. Same as preceding. 28a. D. Should [opportunity] fail the thief. If the arrow-maker is killed by his arrow. 26a. 405). he conducts himself like an honest man (Sanh. *239. 7a. 13. even troubles and misfortunes. Kid. he often receives blows from the instruments which he himself had fashioned. it [p. D. adopted by Jastrow.) The meaning of the proverb is illustrated by the phra se "Hoist with his own petard. "Opportunity makes the th ief. Cf. Circumstances often determine a man's actions. D. A contrast to the preceding proverb. In the same ladle which the carpenter fashioned will the mustard burn [his mouth] (Pes." 245. D. 28a.e. T he editions read saddana bisedaneh: "When the smith sits at his anvil. 16b. saddaa besaddeh. 297).

57. ch. In the context the proverb is used for a special case. "Lit tle chips light great fires. for it is said (Psalm xxxvii. hor oscope. so they place a horse in its crib (Sanh. It is applied to Israel. e. like all Orientals. 32a. one of his friends. 114b. 102] was displaced from his crib (Palestine) and other nations permitted to t ake possession of it.they will [all be dealt with] by one chastisement (Shab. 156a). 20b. This act ultimately led to the destruction of the Temple. 2 a. and sustenance depend not upon personal merit but upon the Mazzal." *247. "Punishment is lame. freedom forsaken. Cf. to iv.. "Money taken. Thus we read: "Existence." *249. But several of the mediaeval Rabbis. 158). cf. the host wished to drive him out of the house. Moed K. 55b. D. 611) . See no. vii. Seven years lasted the pestilence. 18b). The ancient Jews. It is. and. Cf. unless it has been decreed above. 91b). Unfortunately it was delivered in error to Bar Kamtsa. [p. section 10 . Maimonides. repudiated all such notio ns. e. *248. to revenge the insult. "The fated will happen. If one has undertaken a duty. the house of so-and-so for so-and-so. Similar to preceding. 662). were fatalists and firm believers in Prede stination. B. Thereupon Bar Kamtsa went to the Roman Emperor. Hast hired thyself to him. he must fulfil even the unpleasant parts w hich are involved. Cf. D. who a ccepted it. 623). 28a). his enemy. Sanh. R. On discovering the mistake." *246. The ox ran and fell. said "Forty days before the creation of a child a supern atural voice [Bath Kol] proclaims. but not a man died before his year (Jeb . who. Although in the East horses are highly prized and not used for agricultu ral work. woe to the pot. having stumbled. "The Mazzal makes wise and rich" (Shab. Small causes lead to great consequences." (Moed K. but it comes. in either case. if the pot falls on the ston e. and refused the latter's offer to pay for whatever he ate.e. 103] mainly to the cultivation of astrology. 98b. Wool-combing was usually done by women. D. Everything is predestined and nothing hastens the decree of Providence. woe to the pot. comb his wool (Jom. i. "Even the appointment of the overseers of wells [an insigni ficant office] is ordained from heaven" (B. Git. still in the time of need they too have to be trained to that kind of labour. although some maintained that Israel was not affected by astrological influences (ibid. 29a.). 23) "A man 's goings are established of the Lord" (Hul." On "seven" see no. and therefore despise d by men. Through Kamtsa and Bar Kamtsa was the Temple destroyed (Lam. Cf. If the stone falls on the pot.g. the field of so-and-so for so-and-so" (Sot. woe to the pot (Esth. D. 23.g. R. "No man pricks his finger b elow. the English proverb. denounced the Jews as traitors. 133). Such beliefs were due [p. "The daughter of so-and-so for so-and-so. 7b). D. offspr ing. 2. 250. The story is told that a man of Jerusalem was arranging a banquet and sent an invitation to Kamtsa." "Little strokes fell great oaks.

D. v. Any piece of coal which does not burn at the [required] time will never bur n (j. D. A proverb in the identical terms is current in Spain. By thy life. 3." *255. j. IF thou wilt lift the load I will lift it too. One usually desires another to share the risk of an undertaking rather t . 301 ). MAN AS A SOCIAL UNIT *257. Better one bird tied up than a hundred flying (Eccles. ii. 40). 290). be s atisfied if you can get even the ears as your share of the camel. Hag. R. 565). A young pumpkin [now] is better than a full-grown one [later on] (Suc. 365). Temur. I [hope next time] to reac h thine head! (Jalkut to Psalms section 764.) The weak always suffers. "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. D. Keth.. 11b). 24. Cf. 147). From the camel the ear (Shebu. The disdainful neglect of something deemed at the time insi gnificant may later on have serious consequences. Maas. [p. D. Whereupon [the scorpion] exclaimed. The camel should have killed the scorpion and saved herself from the pos sibility of revenge. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. For all that. and she pushed it aside with her h eel. Based on Isaiah iii. 56b) . 4. A scorpion met a camel [and stung her]. Cf. 9a. 6. *252. 105] CHAPTER VIII SOCIAL LIFE section 1. *253." *256. borrowed in all probability from the Jews. but if thou wilt not lift i t. I will not (B. to iv. at sacred-texts. D. Cf. In the place of beauty disfigurement (Shab. "Better an egg to-day than a hen to-morrow. by Abraham Cohen. 83b. or the melon on the knife. 530. 62b. the following Hindu saying : "Whether the knife fall on the melon. D. K. What does not occur at the moment when it can be of service is useless. the melon suf fers. j. 92b. 254. 3. [1911]." 251. ii. Sh. [p. 104] The camel has small ears in comparison with its bulk. Bets.

"The sage was asked. 31 8). the rest are soon scatter ed. *261. ch. 280). if they fall. section 9. 70). 28b. "The coat makes the man.) Even the greatest of men cannot dispense with the services of the lower classes. two are broken (Lev. the case of Deborah and Barak: "If thou wilt go with me. It is consequently their duty to consider the condition of the poor. its individual members suffer inasm uch as they form an integral part of the whole. out of the city my dress (Shab. [p. Similarly Ib n Gabirol teaches: "Disclose not that to thy friend which thou wouldst conceal f rom thine enemy" (no. section 2. *264. I make my heart its tomb" (no. ch. 258. In the city my name. since it affects them also. If the house has fallen. 106] How keepest thou a secret? He replied. 259. Cf. 529). for instance. c. Co-operation and mutual assistance are es sential factors in social life. D. D. The world is a complex unit. 165). 1 30). but are to a large extent dependent upon them. When one band is broken. When disaster overtakes a community. 8). Thy friend hath a friend and thy friend's friend hath a friend (BB. but if thou wilt not go with me. if communicated to a second pers on. R. secti on 9. Let the grape-clusters offer supplications on behalf of the leaves. R. 260. Similar to the preceding proverb. *262. xiv. R. The ruin of one man. The head follows the body (Erub. For the same reason news spreads quickly. D. 107] part affects another. 41a. D . *265. ch. D. and the priests will be terrified (Ex. 263. Men are so interrelated that no secret. I will not go" (Ju dg. 487). iv.han bear all the responsibility alone. then I will go. 315). usually involve s many others besides himself. D. the grape-clusters could not exist (Hul. an d often. R. The mob relies upon the leaders. xxvi. can be kept for long. D. 182). but for the leaves. D. 92a. ch. 145b. ix." In the place where I dwell my name is sufficie . If the body is taken away. of what use is the head? (Gen.. Smite the gods. The welfare of the upper classes is bound up closely with that of the lo wer. since. 315. section 3. so that one [p. woe to the windows (Ex.

27). 19a). Ibn Gabirol expresses the sam e idea thus: "A friendless man is like a left hand without a right hand" (no. B. ed. On account of the teacher the pupil has eaten (Jom. i. 478). xvi. v. iv. R. The governor took us [by the hand] and the scent came into the hand (Zeb. 27. 47b. "For man looketh on the outward appearance" (1 Sam. Job's friends proved their loyalty by visiting him in the time of his tr ouble. 16). 9 6b. 70a. ch. who fell asleep for sev enty years. It is not as thou sayest. [p. but as we say in the learned circles (Jalkut to Psalms section 755. 23a." 272. 421). 109] There is a Hebrew proverb to the same effect: "Attach thyself to honoura ble people and men will bow to thee" (Gen. D. xviii . The honour merited by one person is reflected on others who associate wi . 75b). Cf. 600). D. R. On waking up he went to his former home. That is the kind of friendship to seek and cultivate. COMRADESHIP. 267. 243). and thence to the house of study where he had once been so famous. But nobody believed him when he disclose d his identity. Either friends like Job's friends or death (B. "Keep good men company and you shall be of the number. Cf. 108] section 2. [p. xvi. "He that maketh many friends doeth it to his own dest ruction: but there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother" (Prov. 7). 561). 25 5)." *270. ch. GOOD AND BAD *269. Cf. A similar maxim is to be found in Hebrew: "It is not as thou sayest but as thy colleagues say" (Sanh. Cf. D. *266. D. but where I am unknown I am judged only by my outward appearance. section 3. not the kind descri bed in proverb no. 15). The individual opinion is worthless as again st the generally accepted opinion of experts. 271. 24).nt to command respect and recognition for me. 16b. D. and the Rabbinic exhortation "Look not at the flask but at what it contains" (Aboth. Approach the perfumer and thou wilt be perfumed (Shebu. 43). section 6. the English proverb. Either friendship or death (Taan. Ds. Friedmann p. 27. The welfare of a community depends upon the fitness and efficiency of th e governors. The saying occurs in connection with the well-known story of the Talmudi c Rip van Winkle--Honi Ha-meaggel ("the circle-drawer"). Unhappy the province whose physician suffers from gout and whose chancellor of the exchequer is one-eyed (Lev. Same as preceding. *268. 273. D. What is in thine heart concerning thy friend is in his heart concerning th ee (Sifre to Deut. "Who finds himself without friends is like a body w ithout a soul. D. and he thereupon prayed for death.

if you would learn to sing. 488). The servant of a king is like a king (Gen. the friend who gets from thee what he need s and would sacrifice [p. the dry logs set th e fresh one on fire (Sanh. 185). 71a. Kid. woe to his neighbour" (Suc. Zar. "There were gathered vain fellow s to Jephthah" (Judg. which did eat of my bread. a rogue knows his companion (Ab. *276. *274. fist) and stood against me (Sanh. "Woe to the wicked. 65a. . 13. him. "We carry mud to mud. 22b. 9 ). *280. R. D. D. The man in whom I trusted lifted up his staff (or. section 3. 7a. and also " Every beast loveth [p. S imilar to the English saying. in whom I trusted. 9). Should there be two dry logs and a fresh one together. xli. 93a. Zar. ch. [A dog] attaches itself to one because of the piece of meat which is throw n to it (B. D. M. D. In the company of wealthy men there is an opportunity of making money. he is faithless. *279. 56b). and the fine to what is fine" (j. A later moralist has: "Wouldst know all about a man? Ask who his companion is. 47b. xxviii. iii. D." The context quotes as Biblical para llels: "Esau went to Ishmael" (Gen. Wicked companions demoralise the good. 664). 545) . 415). *278. Each rogue fears the other because of bitter experience in the past. D. D. xi. mine own familiar friend. Parallel to the preceding proverbs. 263)." *275. 92b. also "The crow associates with the raven only because they belong to the same species" (Hul. Ibn Gabirol declar es: "There are three kinds of friends--the friend who will help thee by personal acts and with money. 15. "Birds of a feather flock together. Cf. 111] thee for the slightest self-interest. 235). and the friend wh o only makes an outward show of loving thee and whose desire from thee is greate r than thy desire from him--trust not in his love" (no. Carry wood behind the owners of property (B. 110] his like and every man loveth his neighbour" (Ecclus." *277. Cf . D. The pencil splits the stone. 484). 22b. xiii. 3). The Talmud quotes the Biblical parallel: "Yea. hath lifted up his heel against m e" (Ps. K. in the same way as the stone fears the pencil which marks the place where the chise l is to cut. xvi. he is faithful. Bad company spreads infection. The degenerate palm goes among the unfruitful reeds (B. 93a. Ab. 180). xxvii. "Live with a singer. 9). 497). D. Friendship merely for self-interest is to be avoided. This saying also occurs in Hebrew fo rm in Shebu.

113] CHAPTER IX COLLOQUIALISMS 284. by Abraham Cohen. 75a and often. D. All the lowest and vilest types of humanity flock to the above-mentioned places in Babylon. The large and small measures roll down and reach Sheol. D. because he will sympathise with you when yo u are in distress. at sacred-texts. B. Share your friend's sorrows. But when he is dead. 24). 339). The figure is also used in the New Test ament: "It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye. Applied to subtle dialecticians. and no harm will come to thee (Gen. They make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle (B. 576)." etc. 495). 38b. (Matt. from Sheol they pr oceed to Tadmor (Palmyra). If thy friend's son die. Used of an act which is followed by unavoidable consequences. from Tadmor to Meshan (Mesene). if thy friend die. B. 562). D. "The large and small measures" indicate instruments of fraud. what is the use of grieving? He can no l onger be of any service to you. M. There is a Hebrew saying to the same effect: "Break the cask but preserv e the wine!" (B." *282. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. 587). ch. 285. [1911].*281. section 5. x xii. D. R. Cut off his head and shall he not die? (Shab. 509). and from Meshan to Ha rpanya (Hipparenum) (Jeb. 112] *283. Man is never shown a golden date-palm [p. xcvi. Do not a favour to a bad man. 287. and thus s ymbolise the dregs of society. It need scarcely be pointed out that the egoisti c spirit of this proverb does not accord with Rabbinic ethics. 16a). Have no dealings at all with the wicked. Used of a man from whom nothing can be expected. 17a. 114] . brea k away [from grief] (Gen. [p. bear [part of his grief]. 286. D. section 8). R. [p. Contrast the sayi ng "Greater is benevolence than monetary charity since it can be performed towar ds the dead as well as the living" (Suc. A man cann ot protest that he did not intend such results as must inevitably follow from hi s acts. How can a barren ass pay me back? (B. ch. D. Cf. "Avoid evil and it will avo id thee. 49b. 91a.

297. Jom. 442). But generally it refers to dignified posts unworthily filled. but ill-arranged and devoid of method. D. 115] 293. 44). Others translate: "Strike on his flask. 28a). 22a. 63a. 215). The origin of the proverb and its primary application are alike obscure. . D. Part I. D. Parallel to the saying: "Putting a thing off to the Greek Kalends. 26a. Maimonides quotes this saying as bei ng "well known among the Arameans. 65b. 15). 292. D. ch. 642). cf. [p. 36a and oft en. D. Kid. p. *296. 295. When you will have eaten a Kor of salt with it (Shab. 566). no. In either case the meaning is the same: Test his intelligence. Like a Zuz above and like a Stater below (Suc. 81a. 108a. There is a mediaeval expression. Erub. 38a." whic h never occur. 653). 290. White pitchers full of ashes (Ber. White geese who strip men of their cloaks (Git. 73a). 92). 246). 294. 28b. 582). On Kor see no. 22b. Applied to an unreliable authority. This is an arrow in Satan's eye (Suc. whic h is applied to an ignorant man who has a library. B. lxxiv. 288. Shab.). Proverbial for things which are impossible. Applied in the first instance to bad pupils. Smell at his flask (Shab. 28b. Spoken of a project which yielded very trifling results. 168. In its context it refers to the sun's rays penetrating through a hole as small as a Zuz and leaving on the background a circle of light as large as a Stater (s ee on no. Of what use is a torch at midday? (Hul. 30a. Perhaps the general meaning is: Small causes have large results ( cf. D. Men in responsible positions--vested with the white mantles of honour--w ho abuse their office for their selfish ends. 55b). Thy guarantee needs a guarantee (Suc. As much as a fox carries off from a ploughed field (Nid. A basket full of books (Meg. Said of a man possessed of much learning. "An ass carrying books" (Ds. B. 60b." for which there is a variant "Arabs" (Guide for the Perplexed. 334)." to hear how it rings. Git. 289. D. Descriptive of a good act or an act which is a preventive against wrongdoing. D.or an elephant passing through the eye of a needle (Ber. 43b. 291. 4a.

R. section 6). but rarely ventures to add anything more substantial to the conversation or discussion. On Kab see no. 307. "Thou art carrying straw to Ephraim" (ibid. Used of a person who is constantly asking questions." 298. . 64b. The prove rb is well illustrated by the following: "A hen and a night-owl were once awaiti ng the dawn. section 6). 9a. 303. 58a. D. This expression is found very frequently in Hebrew and Aramaic.). "Carry coals to Newc astle. the common saying. Jom. He was involved in a lawsuit. 299. the land of wonders." 305. We cannot accept your version." It is also said. 85a. 98b). Similar to the English proverb. Used sarcastically. lxviii. 21. *302. ix. and is s till used by Jews as the equivalent of "Thank you!" 301. lxx. D. The sun sets of itself (Naz. "The light is for me. section 8. "They car ry brine to Apamaea and fish to Acco" (Ex. 5). Proverbial of extraordinary promptness in performing a matter. ch. Cf. R. Like [a fish] from the sea into the frying-pan (Kid. Go and teach it outside (Erub. Proverbial for a quickly accomplished task. 44a. An assertion of independence. Thou hast added water. but he had not the standing of a foot (Jalku t to Gen. He went to Caesarea and he still had [some of] his victuals with him (Gen. The pitchers [go] to the stream. 447)." *306. R. D. 248).Proverbial of something superfluous. 116] Said of things which occur on their own account and need no human assist ance. add flour also (Gen. "Tell it to the ma rines. 90b. ch. D. 29a. of what use is it to you?" (Sanh. 300. D. [p. Am I then fastened to you by a Kab of wax? (Sanh. 117] Exactly like the English saying. section 7. 401). 20). Ds. Young's "Hold a farthing candle to the sun. where [go] the potsherds? (Ber. 29 8). D. ch. [p. Pes. This proverb is put into the mouth of Pharaoh's magicians when Moses threatened to work his w onders in Egypt. Cf. 43b). Carry vegetables to the town of vegetables! (Menah. "He hadn't a leg to stand on. *304. Said the hen to the night-owl. Said of one who aims at something of which he can make no use. 638). May thy strength be firm! (Ds. 29).

315. section 19. He shattered his arguments. 152a. and is thus used proverbially for something diminutive. I see here a Yod [enlarged into] a city (Kid. Ds. 20b. 348). 124b. 8a. 316. Nid. A raven flew by! (Bets. D. 628). Like warm water on a bald head (Keth. 118] 310. but the fire burnt them all. Nid. Dust into the mouth of Job! (B. You have all obtained your opinions from the same source. The proverb is thus used of a man who inju res others with the best of intentions. lxv. R. H. v. With the proverb may be compared "They make a mountain out of a moleh . B. 554) ." 309. 121). D. 16b). 55b. Like taking a hair out of milk (Ber. 312. D. 313. 21a. Descriptive of a miser. 403). B. A mouse lying on denars (Sanh. 311. The Yod is the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet. B. He made him ride upon two horses (B. A colloquialism used when asked a perplexing question which you wish to evade. 29b. 12b. 13a. 98b. Keth. An exclamatory remark. A raven that brings fire to its nest (Gen. [p. 86a. B. 28a. as in the phrase "One jot or tittle" (Mat t. 402). 16a). Based on the fable of the raven that brought fire to its nest to warm it s young. 318. Descriptive of something extremely easy to perform. K. He threw a hatchet at it (R. The "denar" (= denarius) is both a silver and a gold coin. Proverbial of something pleasant. D. Hul. 99b. ch. 127). meaning "Hold your tongue!" 319. D. Used of a man who just hits on the right thing by chance. Proverbial for something that is exactly suitable for the purpose in vie w. Like a log for an image (Keth. 42a. Moed K. 342). 556). 39b). D. 119] 317. You all expectorate with the same spittle (Shab. D. "He made assurance doubly sure.308. D. [p. Like a blind man at a window (B. 18). 314.

He who eats of the palm's heart will be beaten by the stick [of the wither ed palm] (Lev. 31b). The native on the ground and the stranger in the highest heavens! (Erub. 204). This saying is illustrated by the following incident. Cf palm's heart and here the stick. 31b). Of. section 8. ch. Ancient Jewish Proverbs. My claim is prior to thine. All that God does is done for the best (Ber. section 2). 321.ill. theref with the stick" (Jalkut to Esther section 1056). D. If you . by Abraham Cohen. D. 324. 8 . 452). D. [1911]. D. "A prophet [p. "Here is the ore be smitten the palm-tree enjoy the sweets of office you must not shirk its obligations. B. 60b. 9a . 121] is never honoured in his own country" (Matt. The progamia are the festivities prior to the celebration of the wedding . R. inasmuch as I have previously done something to establish it. R. K." 326. He who eats the progamia eats also of the wedding-feast (j. xv. 47a. [p. 42a. Shebiith iv. A similar though t is contained in: "Woe! Woe! The sojourner drives out the master of the house" (Lam. 120] CHAPTER X MISCELLANEOUS *322." 320.) Similar to the English proverb. I ate vegetables before thou didst (Erach. D. section 944. More deference is usually paid to a stranger than to a fellow-townsman. ch. "The grace of God is gear enough. 57). you have eaten the heart. 400. I kindled a fire before thee (Erach. ch. How little does he whom the Lord aideth need to grieve or worry! (Jom. Cf. 22b. 112 above. *323. His requ . R. Jom. I am older than thou. Jalkut to Prov. xvi. "He who prepares the progamia eats of the wedding-feast" (Lev. and met with a series of what appeared to be misfortunes. Akiba was once on a journey. xiii. On the heart of see no. 22). R. 153). xi. at sacred-texts. 205). 325. section 7.

The good are helped by God to remain good. 85a. 197). 123] comes to defile himself has opportunities given him. Grind with the teeth and thou wilt feel it in thy heels (Shab. 108a. 152a. He had with him a cock. (This proverb is not to be found in the editions. and a lamp. for the light of the lamp. D. i. the feast of ingathering) is a curse" (Taan. 333. 104a. Peah. but others are of the opinion that he bel onged to a town called Gimzo. The thief on the point of breaking into[a house] calls on God [for help] ( Ber. 331. and a breach is broken (j. 10b. The steps of the ass [depend upon] barley (Shab. He then perceived that there was a good purpose in all his misfortunes. D. 6." . "In the way in which one wishes to go. j. 6b. Open thy mouth and eat well. It is good for the year that Tebeth should be a widow (Taan. D. D. 191). A rainless Tebeth (January) points to a good harv est. 13 9). i. Good nourishment strengthens the body. 645). 122] "Also this [Gam zu] for good" (Sanh. for nourishment is essential to the well-be ing of the body. Some think that his name is to be attributed to his motto. D.). j. the crowi ng of the cock. The next morning he discovered that the town had been p lundered by robbers and all the inhabitants killed. have it.e. ad loc. i. The Talmud also relates that there lived once a man named Nahum. The 'En Ja'akob and MS S. "th e man of Gamzu. The same idea is taught elsewhere in the Talmud: "The man who [p. Cf. 142) 332. A gust of wind came and extinguished the light. Rabbinowitz. i. This saying is dependent for its explanation upon another: "Rain is the consort of the earth" (ibid. 110). he is led" (Mac. of Lydda (2 Chron. 328. D. 152a. and the man who com es to purify himself is helped [to gain that end]" (Shab. Dikduke Sophrim. cf. 329. 63a. ). 539). D. and he was compelled to sleep in the fields. S. 9. xxviii. Loosen thy sack and put in bread (Shab. 330. D." whose favourite motto was [p. It is also stated that "A rainfall after the expiration of the month of Nis an (April. A fence is fenced in. The physician who accepts no fee is worth no fee (B. Kid. 1 end. 51b. Shebu. and the bad are allowed to co ntinue in their evil ways. 2b). 18). the time when the corn begins to ripen) and during the feast of Tabernacles (October. *327. 489). an ass.est for a night's lodging was refused by the inhabitants of the town. and often. 212 ). and a l ion carried off his ass. K. D. a wolf devoured the cock. "What costs nothing is worth nothing. Good nourishment is necessary for good labour. 523). D.E. or the braying of the ass might have revealed his presence to th e brigands.

*341. *343. This (acacia) wood is excellent as timber. The Shittim wood has no other use than to be cut down (Ex. It is useless [p. 96a. 12. 456). reconciliation is not so difficult." and "The higher up . ch. 336. R. set fire to his beard also. 10. D. According to the garden is the gardener (Gen. 395). it will not enter the ear of the dancer (Lam. D. ch. ed." *340. *338. According to the camel is the load (Keth. but the tree is not fruit-bearing. Hast shaven the gentile and he is pleased. 124] to try to impress anybody who is not in the mood to consider your words seriously. vi. sec tion 5. 201). After the first heat of the quarrel has subsided. 335. the deeper the valley. D. xxv. In strange surroundings one loses self-confidence. 455). 125] Same as preceding proverb. 95a. 176). D. "The higher the mountain. i. 13b. section 11. Sot. Ds. 96b. 60) A reference to Prov. 67a. If the lawsuit has been adjourned overnight. He who submits to indignities will have to suffer worse insults in futur e. the case is at an end (Sanh. "Cut the coat according to the cloth. 13) From the magnificence of his lair you can form an idea of what the occup ant is like. [p. 61a. lxv. 2. According to the ox is the slaughterer (Gen. D. D. If you have not seen the lion you have seen his lair (Targum Sheni to Esth . Whatever song he may sing. 20.*334. R. In proportion to the ingenuity is the error (B. the greater fall. 45 9). 505). Proem. R. Cf. M. A dog away from its accustomed place barks not for seven years (Erub. R. The greater the man the greater his responsibility. D." 342. Ev erything has its use and should be utilised for that purpose. lxxx. 339. *337. Munk p. and thou wilt never be finished laughing at him (Sanh. D. 457). ch. section 1. . Ds.

87a). one dreamt by a friend concerning him. "All sorts of liquids seen in a dream are a good omen. There is a good deal in the Talmud about the omens w hich are to be drawn from dreams: e. with the exce ption of wine" (ibid. 78b). In Shab. for it is said (Eccles. 16b. 345. as may be seen from such statements as: "A man shoul d not despair of mercy. 5). even when the master of dreams tells him that he will di e on the morrow. D. Other sayings on this subject are: "Dreams are a sixtieth part of prophe cy" (ibid. 15). The proverb is quoted in connection with the legend th at the patriarch Abraham wore a precious stone suspended from his neck. no t the dream itself. i." but does not buy it. is fulfilled" (ibid.g. 640). God placed this virtue in the course of the sun. Said of a man who promises much but does not keep his word. 63b and often . Every man carries his worth in his basket (j. v. As the day raises itself so the sick man raises himself (B. and ever ybody suffering from an illness obtained relief by looking at it. Sixty iron weapons they hung on the sting of the gnat (Hul. 348. i. Thy goodness is taken and thrown over the thorny hedge (Shab. 66b we are given a long and elaborate account of remedies for t he cure of fever. "Neither a good dream nor a bad dream is wholly fulfilled" (ibid. than that thou shouldst vow and not pay" (Eccles. 55b). "Three kinds of dreams are fulfilled: one experienced in the mo rning. if bitten by it. but fear thou God!" (Ber. 52a). 55b)." but does not buy it (B. So also it i s stated: "Better is it that thou shouldst not vow. "The righteous promise little and perform much. 346. 1. 364). v. 39) . D.*344. "Pro mise little and do much" (Aboth. . 55b). 7). and a dream interpreted in the mid st of a dream" (ibid. 55a). "Dreams cause neither prosperity nor ill-fortune" (Git. An attempt seems to have been made to break the people f rom their belief in dreams. Peah. M. it is doubled. or "I will buy him a mantle. A dream which has not been interpreted is like a letter unread (Ber. "I will buy that poor man a garment. 10b). When Abraham d ied. 126] during the night. M. One says. *350. 57b). 29a). "Whoever sees a serpent in a dream is ass ured of his sustenance. 127] [fear not]. Acts of kindness or good advice which come too late are valueless.). Fever is more severe in winter than in summer (Jom. An invalid feels easier during the day than [p. D. *347. "The interpretation of the dream. D. B. "In the multitude of dreams and vanities and many words [p. if killed. it is lost" ( ibid. about the middle . 58b. whe reas the wicked promise much and do not perform even a little" (B. Insignificant objects can cause great harm. 57a). 647). *349.

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