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GPRS/EDGE

GPRS Network Overview Scope of GPRS/EDGE Optimization GPRS/EDGE Testing Monitoring GPRS/EDGE KPI s GPRS/EDGE Parameters GPRS/EDGE Common issues

GPRS Network Overview

Data Network Architecture

GPRS Transmission

GPRS NW Elements

PCU
Packet Control Unit (PCU) functionalities include handling Network Services Signaling, BSSGP Signaling, routing of signaling messages, Radio Link Control (RLC) and Media Access Control (MAC) preload and transferring of user data. It further performs the channel access control functions, radio channel Management functions like power control congestion control, scheduling data transmission and protocol conversion between Gb and Um interfaces.

SGSN
Authentication, ciphering, location updating, GPRS Attach, Paging, Packet routing, transfer and traffic management etc.

GGSN
Activation of GPRS Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts. Routes Mobile originated packets to the right destination. It translates data formats, signaling protocols and address information for communication.

Scope of GPRS/EDGE Optimization

GPRS/EDGE Optimization
Optimizations possible for network operators
Many of optimizations that can be done, especially with the TCP protocol, are optimizations that are out of the scope for network operators. Some of the optimizations are however up to the network operator to deal with: Latency decreasing TBF release time counter, i.e. not released immediately when sending or receiving stops Time-slot usage in GPRS Using the optimal coding scheme

GPRS/EDGE Optimization
Optimizations not possible for network operators
TCP window size Since TCP is a reliable transport, if any data is lost in transmission, TCP must be able to retransmit it. Thus TCP remembers all the sent data in a buffer until the other side acknowledges receiving it. The size of this buffer is the TCP window size. Increased initial window (TCP)

MSS (Maximum segment size) follows window size: If (MSS <= 1095 bytes) then win <= 4 * MSS; If (MSS >1095 bytes & < 2190 bytes) then win <= 4380; If (MSS<=2190 bytes) then win <= 2 * MSS; Draw back: Can cause congestion at TCP layer for large packets TCP segment sizes

The default IP Maximum Datagram Size is 576 The default TCP Maximum Segment Size is 536 The default Header size is 20 Selective Acknowledgments (TCP)

TCP may experience poor performance when multiple packets are lost from one window of data. With the limited information available from cumulative acknowledgments, a TCP sender can only learn about a single lost packet per round trip time. An aggressive sender could choose to retransmit packets early, but such retransmitted segments may have already been successfully received. A Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) mechanism, combined with a selective repeat retransmission policy, can help to overcome these limitations. The receiving TCP sends back SACK packets to the sender informing the sender of data that has been received. The sender can then retransmit only the missing data segments. This memo proposes an implementation of SACK and discusses its performance and related issues.

GPRS/EDGE Testing

GPRS/EDGE Testing
Drive Testing Moving Test
How to analyze the DT Test Case D:\GPRS Activities\Reports\Test Case GPRS- EDGE.ppt Factors affecting data rates for moving users

Static Testing
GPRS attach/detach PDP Context activation/deactivation Ping test (A ping is a test to see if a system on the Internet is working. "Pinging" a server
tests and records the response time of the server. Pinging multiple computers can be helpful in multiple finding Internet bottlenecks, so that data transfer paths can be rerouted a more efficient way.)

HTTP test UL/DL Throughput using FTP server (The amount of data transmitted
through the Internet connectors in response to a given request. The more "throughput" you deliver to your customers, the better (if you're charging enough).

Objective : Performance at BTS,PCU/Gb, SGSN/Gn, GGSN/Gi, IP cloud

GPRS Attach Flow Diagram

GPRS Detach Flow Diagram

PDP Context activation Flow Diagram

Successful GPRS Attach/Detach

Attach Detach Process

GPRS Attach/Detach Failure

Attach Detach Failure

GPRS Attach Success vs. Failure

vs.

PDP Activation Success

Network/User released PDP


User deactivated PDP context

PDP Activation failure

Attach accept missing so no PDP context activation takes place

Ping Test

GPRS/EDGE Testing
End To End Data Network Testing. Trouble shooting
Performance Logs at MS Configuring performance log * K-12 analyzer trace at BSC/PCU Signaling links of BSCs are tapped with a T connector and trace is recorded in protocol analyzer Ethereal Trace at SGSN & GGSN

* Useful for every one using Data services for checking throughput

Performance Log

* Useful for every one using Data services for checking throughput

K12 Trace

* Useful for every one using Data services for checking throughput

Ethereal Trace

* Useful for every one using Data services for checking throughput

Monitoring GPRS/EDGE KPI s

Monitoring GPRS/EDGE KPI s


Key performance indicators, or simply KPI, are indicators which are particularly important for a services performance. First one has to define the KPIs associated to a service, and then one has to determine how to measure the KPIs.

Accessibility (Accessibility has to do with the users being able to set up a call and access radio
resources)

Retainability (Retainability covers the ability to keep up a call) Quality


(Quality deals with how good the connection is)

GPRS KPIs
TBF Throughput Payload

The payload is the bits that get delivered to the end user at the destination without header.

Monitoring GPRS/EDGE KPI s


Total Packet payload UL + DL (GPRS & EDGE) UL + DL RLC throughput (GPRS & EDGE) TBF success rate(%) UL + DL TBF Drop Rate(%) UL + DL TBF Drop due to radio, high CS traffic, ABIS Congestion, Flush Share of rejected allocations due to lack of resources (%) Packet territory upgrade reject (%)UL/DL MCS 1~4 Usage (%)UL/DL MCS 5~9 Usage (%) UL/DL CS1, 2 Usage KB Kb/s % % Counts Count % % % % GPRS/EDGE GPRS/EDGE GPRS/EDGE GPRS/EDGE GPRS/EDGE GPRS/EDGE GPRS/EDGE EDGE EDGE GPRS

The flush procedure is used, for example, when the MS has stopped data sending in a given cell and has moved to another cell. The SGSN sends a FLUSH-LL PDU to the BSC to ensure that LLC PDUs queued for transmission in a cell for an MS are either deleted or transferred to the new cell.

GPRS/EDGE Parameters

GPRS/EDGE Parameters
c31Hysteresis cs3Cs4Enabled preferBCCHfreqGPRS2 throughputFactor_cs1cs4dlcs throughputFactor_cs1cs4ulcs throughputFactor_mcs1mcs4ulcs throughputFactor_mcs1mcs9dlcs throughputFactor_mcs1mcs9ulcs dedicatedGPRScapacity(CDED) defaultGPRScapacity(CDEF) With this parameter you indicate the GPRS cell reselection criterion With this parameter you can define whether CS3&CS4 is used in the BTS. With this parameter you define whether the BCCH TRX or other TRXs are preferred in GPRS channel allocation With this parameter you indicate typical throughput per timeslot in the BTS, depending on the direction and (M)CS. The parameter is used when comparing the TSL capacities between different BTSs. With this parameter you indicate typical throughput per timeslot in the BTS, depending on the direction and (M)CS. The parameter is used when comparing the TSL capacities between different BTSs. With this parameter you indicate typical throughput per timeslot in the BTS, depending on the direction and (M)CS. The parameter is used when comparing the TSL capacities between different BTSs With this parameter you indicate typical throughput per timeslot in the BTS, depending on the direction and (M)CS. The parameter is used when comparing the TSL capacities between different BTSs. With this parameter you indicate typical throughput per timeslot in the BTS, depending on the direction and (M)CS. The parameter is used when comparing the TSL capacities between different BTSs. With this parameter you determine the amount of PSW-only channels in a cell. The value of the dedicated GPRS capacity parameter must be smaller than or equal to the value of the default GPRS capacity parameter With this parameter you determine the amount of PSW-only channels in a cell. The value of the default GPRS capacity parameter must be higher than or equal to the value of the dedicated GPRS capacity parameter With this parameter you define which BTSs in the SEG may be used for GPRS or EGPRS without signal level measurements. This parameter defines the signal level compared to non BCCH layer offset. When the value of this parameter is higher than the value of the parameter non BCCH layer offset the direct GPRS access to non BCCH layer BTS is applied. This is used in initial channel allocation and reallocation. With this parameter you enable or disable the EGPRS capability in the BTS. All TRXs of the BTS have to be EDGE capable With this parameter you define whether the GPRS capability is enabled in the BTS during the normal operation of the cell.

directGPRSAccessBts

egprsEnabled gprsEnabled

CDED = 20 means that (20/100*6) = 1.2 TSs as it will round down Dedicatied TS i.e.1 TSs (here 6 is No of TCH TSs in a TRX 8 minus BCCH TS SDCCH TS = 6) CDEF = 70 means that (70/100*6) = 4.2 TSs as Packet switch territory. It will round down i.e.4 TSs (including the Static TS) (here 6 is No of TCH TSs in a TRX 8 minus BCCH TS SDCCH TS = 6)

GPRS/EDGE Parameters (contd)


gprsRxlevAccessMin egprsInitMcsAckMode egprsInitMcsUnAckMode egprsLinkAdaptEnabled egprsMaxBlerAckMode egprsMaxBlerUnAckMode With this parameter you define the minimum power level an MS has to receive before it is allowed to access the adjacent cell. With this parameter you indicate the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) used at the beginning of a TBF for acknowledged mode. The parameter is used in EGPRS link adaptation With this parameter you indicate the MCS used at the beginning of a TBF for unacknowledged mode. The parameter is used in EGPRS link adaptation. With this parameter you enable or disable EGPRS link adaptation on cell level. If disabled the system uses the MCS value defined by initial MCS for acknowledged mode or initial MCS for unacknowledged mode parameters or a lower MCS. With this parameter you indicate the maximum block error rate of first transmission in acknowledged mode. The parameter is used in EGPRS link adaptation. With this parameter you indicate the maximum block error rate in unacknowledged mode. The unit is parts per thousand. The parameter is used in EGPRS link adaptation. With this parameter you can adjust the MCS and modulation preferences. This is the offset added to reported 8PSK mean BEP values before BEP table lookups. The value applies to both uplink and downlink directions. The parameter is used in EGPRS link adaptation. With this parameter you can adjust the MCS and modulation preferences. This is the offset added to reported GMSK mean BEP values before BEP table lookups. The value applies to both uplink and downlink directions. The parameter is used in EGPRS link adaptation. With this parameter you define additional hysteresis applied in READY state for selecting a cell in the same routing area. With this parameter you indicate the maximum number of retransmissions allowed on the PRACH. With this parameter you define the maximum transmission power level a mobile station can use when accessing a packet control channel in the cell. With this parameter you define the maximum transmission power level a mobile station can use when accessing a packet control channel in the cell for GSM 1800/1900 bands. With this parameter you define the threshold when a reallocation to a better BTS must be made. BTS with the direct GPRS access BTS option on is selected. If there are no BTSs with direct GPRS access BTS set to on. With this parameter you define the minimum power level the MS has to receive to allocate resources from the BTS With this parameter you define the duration for which the GPRS temporary offset (GTEO) applies With this parameter you define the offset of the C32 reselection criterion for a adjacent cell. With this parameter you define the negative offset of the C32 reselection criterion for the duration of the GPRS penalty time (GPET) after the MS has placed the cell on the list of the strongest carriers. It is used by the mobile station as part of its calculation of C32 for the cell reselection process. The parameter can be changed in 10 dB steps. Value 70 dB means infinity

egprsMeanBepOffset8psk

egprsMeanBepOffsetGmsk gprsCellReselHysteresis gprsMaxRetrans gprsMsTxpwrMaxCCH gprsMsTxPwrMaxCCH1x00 gprsNonBCCHRxlevLower gprsNonBCCHRxlevUpper GPRS penalty time GPRS reselect offset GPRS temporary offset (GTEO)

GPRS/EDGE Common issues


RAC Mismatch (BSS & CORE) Wrong Parameter settings & Dedicated time slot HR on all TRXs of a segment NO GPRS capable TRX TXN issues PCU rejections Operational Issue Rare cases Poor radio condition SGSN rejections GGSN rejections IN rejections

Thanks