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Naval EMC Centre Mumbai

Welcomes you to

Bizarre EMI Incidents


BIZARRE EMI INCIDENTS

Lt Cdr A Saxena
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Patients arm amputated blood circulation monitoring system failed due to plastic welding machine.

Security breached data loaded on a PC by wireless keyboard in another room 150 metres away.

Ships data-log failure automated system resets every night at 2300 hrs.

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Welcome to the wor ld of

Bizarre yet True !!


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EMI

Way - Points

Introduction How Interference Takes Place Sources of EM Energy Coupling Paths Bizarre Incidents
Aviation Medical General Naval

Engineering
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ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE

All electronic equipment emit EM energy. When coupled to other devices, this energy can degrade their performance - called EMI.

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ELEMENTS OF EMI
Source Victim

EMI
Coupling Path Conduction
All three elements must exist together for EMI to occur

Radiation

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SOURCES OF EMI
Natural:

Due to Natural Phenomena. From Sources, Not Intended to From Sources, Intended to

Solar/Cosmic/Thunderstorm/Lightning

Incidental:

Radiate. Radiate.

Functional:

Secondary

Sources: Interaction of EM Energy and other metallic structures like frames, hull etc.
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FUNCTIONAL SOURCES

Designed to radiate energy during normal operation

COMMUNICATION LINKS (SHIPS / AIRCRAFTS / UAV / MISSILES) RADARS


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OWN JAMMERS

MISSILE SEEKER HEADS


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INCIDENTAL SOURCES

Not designed to radiate EM energy


WELDING MACHINES ENGINES & IGNITERS FLUORESCEN T LIGHTING DC MOTORS COMPUTERS POWER LINES
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ELECTRICAL CONTROLLER S

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COUPLING PATHS
Conducted

Power lines Signal lines

Radiated

Directly on system On to cables connected to the system

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POWER LINE CONDUCTED EMI


Source of Transient / EMI Conducted Emission

Common Power Supply

Victim

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SIGNAL LINE CONDUCTED EMI


Power Supply Signal Source 1

Common Utility Signal Source 2 Power Supply


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ANTENNA TO ANTENNA COUPLING

Weather Deck

Rx Tx
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ANTENNA TO CABLE COUPLING


Upperdeck Cable Above Deck
Topside Equipment

Below Deck
Tx
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Victim
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CABLE TO CABLE COUPLING


Equipment connected to Interference Source

Interference Source

Victim

Victim

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Could be intriguing

Might be amusing

Certainly be educative

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Incident # 1 Saturn launch vehicle


Kennedy Space Centre 1990s

NASA reference publication 1374 Erroneous signal detected during on-pad checkout

Potential threat of launch failure

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Analysis
Signal not traced to any known source.

Inter-modulation products formed at nonlinear junction on improperly bonded hinged cable tray covers and chain handrails on gantry frame.

Spurious signals capable of engine cutoff BIZARRE EMI INCIDENTS command and arm &

Chain handrails on gantry frame


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Inter Modulation Interference


F2 F2 F2 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F2 F2 F2 F1 The bad One !
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Inter Modulation Interference


F2 F2 F2 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F2 F2 F2 F1 F2 F1

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Non-linear Junction

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Inter Modulation Interference


F3

F3 = mF1 + nF2

Non-linear Junction
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Incident # 2 Rain rain go away


ITEM 2002, pages 5460. Airplane navigation & communication eqpt malfunction when flying through rain.

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Analysis

Static charge on aircraft skin exceeds 100kV during rain. High voltage caused arcing between poorly bonded surfaces. Resultant broadband noise interferes with on-board systems.
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++ + +++++ + + +
--

---

Poorly bonded surface

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Broadband Noise (BBN)

Gnd

V1

Gnd Arc being formed due to nonconducting gap


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Incident # 3 Lightning can and will strike


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Lightning appeared on Naval aircraft. Pilot suffered from blindness for 10-15 secs. Cockpit power failure. In another flash, all power restored without any indication of equipment malfunction.

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Incident # 4 Trapped in Garages


Hobart, Tasmania Mid 90s New Scientist, 24th April 1999, page 100 Residents trapped in garages Remote controls fail
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Analysis

USS Carl Vinson entered harbour Navigation radar at same frequency as remotes Malfunction due to co-channel interference

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Co-Channel Interference
Co-channel interference due to improper allocation of frequencies. Later on, coding incorporated into radio operated controls to eliminate interference. BIZARRE EMI INCIDENTS

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Incident # 5 Wheel Chair Malfunction


Early 2000

IEEE International EMC Symposium, Aug 2002 A wheel chair suddenly drove off a subwayplatform.

Handicapped injured critically.

person

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Analysis
Chair activated due to digital telephone network field at 1.89 GHz.

Chair tested for radiated susceptibility but only till 1 GHz.

Manufacturer sentenced product to market.

for

putting

unsafe

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Incident # 6 Garage Doors, yet again


Sydney, Australia Early 2000

Graham Eckersall G4HFG / W4HFG, 6th Jul 01 Radio controlled garage doors open and close randomly

Some refuse open/close at all

to
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Analysis

Nova broadcasts - 96.9 MHz

ABC TV sound signal - 69.7 96 .9 MHz MH z

69.75 MHz

27.15 MHz

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Incident # 7 A Close Encounter


HMAS Huon & HMAS Anzac Early 2000 The Courier Mail, Feb 1st 2002 Near collision - HMAS Huon loses control and veers across the bow of HMAS Anzac
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Analysis

Steering gear failure of Huan due to EMI from emitters on board Anzac Systems not tested to appropriate standards Testing philosophy reviewed for all newly inducted equipment
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EMI/EMC Testing

Testing as per Mil Std 461 C/E mandatory for all equipment. COTS equipment prone to malfunction in dense EM environment on board.

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Incident # 8 Ship DataLog Erased


UK, 2002 www.roxtec.co.in Automatic logger on passenger ferry resets while passing certain point on leaving harbour. Always happened in evening, around 2300 hrs. Never occurred while BIZARRE EMI INCIDENTS arriving.

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Incident # 9 Data Lost Yet Again


1990s Electronic systems Protection Handbook, 1996 Networked CAD system prone to unexpected crashing. Hours of work lost or corrupted No circuit failure detected BIZARRE EMI INCIDENTS

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Analysis

Ferry auto-logger Hot plates in galley turned off daily at 2300 hrs. Transient in common power supply caused auto-logger to Auto reset. Data

Supply Breaker

Logger

Hot Plates
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Analysis

Networked CAD

Supply Breaker

Failures coincided with operation of a drawing copying machine.

Switching transients injected onto the ring main.

CAD Node

Copying Machine
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Incident # 10 Forrestal Disaster


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Yankee Station, Pacific Ocean 10:52 AM July 29, 1967 Un-commanded release of missile from own aircraft parked on flight deck. 134 men killed, 27 aircraft lost. Total loss 72 million dollars.

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Analysis
Powerful fields at deck level from the ships radar Incorrectly fitted shielded cable connector. Zuni rocket triggered.

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Incident # 11 Faster, faster


Altincham, UK 1980s Stan Lomax of RTM Group ltd, Mar 99 French make chart recorder ran at double speed on Saturdays

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Analysis

More TVs and radios in use on Saturdays Second harmonic currents injected into the mains Synchronous motors in chart recorders responds to 100 Hz distortion Starts running twice as fast

N = 120f/P
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Harmonics

Harmonics are multiples of the primary frequency. Can cause interference well beyond the expected band of operation.

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Incident # 12 No TV, no talk, only walk


Netherly & Balbeggie, Scotland Mid 1990s 7th International Conference on Harmonics and quality of Power (IEEE), Oct 1996 Payphones too noisy to use. Rolling pictures on TV sets. Ringing on the supply to BIZARRE EMI INCIDENTS fluorescent lighting circuits.

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Analysis

Two new oil pumping stations installed. 33 KV power lines of induction drives passing close to residential areas. Higher order harmonics (beyond 100th) causing interference. BIZARRE EMI INCIDENTS

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Incident # 13 Medical advice causes death?


Europe, 1990s

Compliance Engineering Magazines European edition Sept/Oct 1994. Monitor/defibrillator attached to heart patient shut down every time technicians used radio transmitter for advice.

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Patient dies.

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Analysis
Long range ambulance.

radio

antenna

fitted

on

Ambulance roof changed from metal to fiberglass


Significant reduction in EM shielding.

Reduced shielding coupled with strong radiated power caused malfunction of equipment.

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SHIELDING MODEL
Incident Energy
Shield

Reflected Energy Penetrating Energy

Absorptiv e Region
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Incident # 14 Infant Mortality


New Jersey Early 80s Doug McKean, emcpstc@iee.org High infant deaths in Intensive Care Section Late at night, the alarms on babies monitors go off Annoyed nurses turns off alarm

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Analysis
Nearby TV transmitter allowed to increased output wattage after midnight by FCC. Radiated noise coupled to un-shielded alarm cables.

Nurse Stn Cable

Alarm
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Incident # 15 Stop that Train


Europe Late 90s Jennifer Cortese, Melbourne, Dec 2000 Certain type of locomotive passing by radio station brakes suddenly.

Oh come on not again!!!


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Analysis
Cables of temperature sensor within traction motors not screened. Radio signals being picked up by sensors causing the MCB to open. Modification very expensive as sensors were mounted within windings of motors.

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Incident # 16 Cable TV, No TV


Set top box placed on top of TV disrupts picture after 2-5 minutes.

Interference when no connected.


even cables by

All efforts designers in vain.


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Analysis
Interference due to Magnetic fields from stereo speakers.

SETTOP BOX

Similar with all objects.


problems metallic

Resolved by removing Set-top box from vicinity.


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Incident # 17 Car park security


Portsmouth Easter 2001 Anne Cameron, Alenia Marconi Systems, 6th Jul 01 Cars parked inside shopping mall parking lot not unlocking. Cars getting locked as soon as they are unlocked.

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Incident # 18 Breath Analysis


USA Recent From an Ex-cop False indications from breath analyzer. People charged fine despite being innocent.

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Analysis
EM radiations from video surveillance system interfere with car central locking and security systems. Interference from the radio handsets caused malfunctioning of breath analyzer

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An Insight into the future


Possible article Weekly, 2050

in Tech

Defence Savvy

Review Forces

NATO Exercise Fails


Great chaos as large portion of COTS equipment malfunctioned. Attacking forces takeover, despite being on foot, armed only with vintage equipment & communicating by shouting.

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Want to know more . . .

www.cherryclough.com

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