Aesth Plast Surg DOI 10.

1007/s00266-010-9606-7

LETTER

Attractive Composite Faces of Different Races
Seung Chul Rhee • Soo Hyang Lee

Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2010

Existing evidence suggests that the standards of facial attractiveness are similar across genders and cultures [1]. Researchers have reported that the computer-generated, mathematical average of a series of faces was rated more favorably than the individual faces [2]. On the other hand, although some controversy exists regarding the significance of the average and attractive faces, Perrett et al. [3] have insisted that highly attractive facial configurations are not an average. Many authors have reported that the average faces are different from attractive faces and that attractive faces differ considerably according to race [4–8]. I agree with the opinion that the average face is not an attractive face and that the most attractive face is the average of attractive faces. Recently, although some scholars have attempted to unify facial beauty using the concept of the golden proportion, Holland [9, 10] proved that a phi mask, namely, the divine proportion or golden ratio, did not appear to describe the ‘‘ideal’’ face shape and showed the many limitations of traditional morphometrics in research on the

S. C. Rhee (&) Á S. H. Lee Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University, #2240, Daehwa-Dong, Ilsan Seo-Gu, Goyang City, Kyounggi-Do 411-706, Republic of Korea e-mail: rheesc@paik.ac.kr

attractiveness of faces. Because I absolutely agree with him, I introduced examples of attractive composite faces from different races in the follow-up article that I submitted [11]. The composite faces in Fig. 1 that exemplify attractive faces of different races were generated using the same computerized morphing systems reported in my previous article [11]. Each example of an attractive face has different characteristics with respect to the average face of its own race. The Japanese composite face is a relatively long face with slightly slanted eyes, sharp chin, and chubby cheeks. The Chinese attractive face has a relatively narrow cheek, slim and thin face, and lantern jaw. The Caucasian attractive face has a somewhat masculine appearance. This face has a narrow palpebral height, angulated and squareshaped mandible, protruding cheek, and fuller lips compared with the average Caucasian face. The example of an African face has a narrower nose, smaller and more acute eyes, smaller upper lip, and slender chin compared with the ordinary African face. Although these composite faces are not the standard or most ideal attractive faces, and although many biases occurred during the process of photographic sampling, I regard these as good examples for understanding prior and current configurations, balance, harmony, or the secret of attractive faces of different races. I insist that the concept of facial beauty is not a fixed one and that it is constantly evolving with time [5]. Therefore, the stereotyped concept of facial beauty must change. Our society is eventually conforming to a single standard, but I do value ethnic and cultural diversity. We must understand cultural diversity and try to respect the beauty of other human races. I think the beauty concept of other races shows some differences from ours. I expect these photographs to be used to understand the aesthetic preference of different races.

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Yuqi Zhang. Yifei Liu. Feifei Sun. Huang Sheng Yi. Marquardt SR. Eva Longoria. Jefferson Y (2004) Facial beauty: establishing a universal standard. Romm S (1989) The changing face of beauty. Marquardt Beauty Analysis California. Elisabetha Canalis. Hayden Panetierre. Miho Yoshioka. May KA. Brooklyn Decker. Aesthetic Plast Surg 13:91–98 6. Lerato Moloi. Michiels G. Erika Sawajiri.beautyanalysis. Kyoko Fukada. Roggman LA. Norika Fujiwara. Jacqueline Li.com/ 9. Waris Dirie. J Esthet Dent 4:128–130 5. Nanako Matsusima. Loh E (1992) Ranking of facial profile among Asians. Cecilia Cheung. Zilin Zhang. Juri Ueno. Yoshikawa S (1994) Facial shape and judgments of female attractiveness. Sather AH (1994) Determinants of facial attractiveness in a sample of white women. Yamin Warsame. Lew KK. Jessica Alba. Marissa Miller. Moore. The attractive Caucasian composite face (middle left) was generated using the following 16 famous Caucasian female stars: Aishwarya Rai. Holland E (2008) Marquardt’s phi mask: pitfalls of relying on fashion models and the golden ratio to describe a beautiful face. Maggie Cheung. Xun Zhou. Pearl Amoah. and Ziyi Zhang. The Chinese composite face (middle right) is the average of the following 20 attractive Chinese entertainers’ faces: Li Gong. Int J Adult Orthognath Surg 9:95–103 7. Namie Amuro. Chiling Lin. Riyo Mori. Holland E (2009) Limitations of traditional morphometrics in research on the attractiveness of faces. Ciara Harris. The example of an attractive African composite face (left) was generated using the 13 following African female models available on the Internet: Agbani Darego. Soraya Khalil. Yvette Nsiah. Wei Tang. Rihanna. 1 Attractive composite faces of different races. Ashley Olsen. Bingbing Fan. Jingles Xu. and Zoe Saldana. Dee Hsu. Ryoko Hirosue. Bingbing Li. The Japanese attractive face (right) is the average of the following 14 attractive Japanese entertainers’ faces: Masami Nagasawa. Soh G. Aesthetic Plast Surg 32:200–208 11. An Watanabe. Hillary Duff. Annu Rev Psychol 57:199–226 2. Mandy Conflict of Interest None. Aesthetic Plast Surg 30:729–730 123 . Kate Tachie-Menson. Gillian Chung. Rhee SC (2006) The average Korean attractive face. Int J Orthod Milwaukee 15:9–22 8. Musselman L (1994) What is average and what is not average about attractive faces? Psychol Sci 5:214–220 3. Rhodes G (2006) The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Nature 368:239–242 4. Yuu Aoi. Megan Fox. Faustina Agolley. Beveryl Peele. Perrett DI. Alexis Bledel. Qinqin Jiang. Nozomi Sasaki. Attractive famous female entertainers’ faces were morphed by sequentially mixing photographs at the mean values to generate the composite faces. Pshchon Bull Rev 16:613–615 10. and Mina Hayashi References 1. and Scarlet Johansson. Vivian Hsu. Blake Lively. Brandi Quinones.Aesth Plast Surg Fig. Retrieved May 2005 at http://www. Angelina Jolie. Langlois JH.

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