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chili pepper, malagueta. Aji caco de cabra – fresh red pepper, long, thin and very hot, used to make Chile hot pepper sauce. Aji mirasol, aji Amarillo – common pepper in Peruvian and Bolivian cuisine, bright yellow and hot. Aj verde – milder variety of Aji caco de cabra, with a thicker flesh and a waxy, lime green skin, used to make condiments in Chile. Amaranth, Pronunciation: AM-uh-ranth Tiny ancient seeds cultivated in the Americas for several millennia. One of the staple grains of the Incas and other pre-Columbian Indians. They're rich in protein and calcium, and have a pleasant, peppery flavor. Substitute : millet OR quinoa OR buckwheat groats Aoura, the fruit of savanna trees Arepa Flour – a precooked corn flour used to make arepas and tamales in Colombia and Venezuela. It has a grainy texture, should not to be confused with Mexican masa harina Arepas- the native bread made from primitive ground corn, water and salt. Venezuela Asada (Asado) - [Spanish] roasted or broiled. A roast cooked on an open fire or grill. Often served with Chimicurri sauce. Asador - [Spanish] wire mesh stovetop grill that can be used to roast vegetables over an outdoor fire or on the stovetop. Aarroz Brasileiro or Arroz Simples - Rice, Brazilian style Long grained rice briefly sautéed in garlic and oil before the addition of boiling water. In addition to garlic, some Brazilian cooks add small amounts of onion, diced tomato, or sliced black olive for additional flavor. Properly done, each grain is fluffy and separate from others. Ají de gallina- shredded chicken in a piquant cream sauce Peru. • Anticuchos- strips of beef or fish marinated in vinegar and spices, then barbecued on skewers Peru Alfajores-(wafer-thin spirals of shortbread dusted with icing sugar, served with manjar blanco (a caramel sauce) Peru Azeite de DendÍ - DendÍ Oil A heavy tropical oil extracted from the African palm growing in Northern Brazil. One of the basic ingredients in Bahian or Afro-Brazilian cuisine, it adds a wonderful flavor and
South American Cuisine bright orange color to foods. There is no equivalent substitution, but it is available in markets specializing in Brazilian imports. Babaco – member of the papaya family. Looks like a papaya but is smaller in diameter and has a tougher skin. The fruit has a delicate white flesh and seeds that are alike those of passion fruit. Bacalao – dried, salted codfish. Introduced by Spanish and Portuguese settlers, very popular in Latin America. The whiter the bacalao is the better quality. Batida means “beaten”. The batida is “beaten” in a blender. These tropical fruits cocktails are a mixture of fresh fruit juice and cachaça - the potent sugarcane liquor from Brazil. Sometimes the recipe will also call for "leite condensado" (sweetened condensed milk) and/or other liquor. They are usually prepared in a blender and served in tiny glasses, with crushed ice added. Bedidas Calientes: Hot Beverages Hot drinks are as common as cold one in South America. Bocaditio y Entradas – Hors D’Oeuvres and first courses, Hors d’Oeuvres served with drinks before dinner are not as popular in South America. Entradas or first courses, are an essential component of any South American meal, they are almost essential. Bouillon d’aoura, a dish of smoked fish, crab, prawns, vegetables and chicken, served with aoura, the fruit of Savana trees. French Guiana Breadfruit – looks like a melon with bumpy green scales, weighing two to four pounds. When green, taste likes a raw potato. When partially ripened, resembles eggplant and has the sticky consistency of a ripe plantain. When fully ripe it has the texture of soft Brie. It is never eaten raw and is cooked like potatoes. Café – Coffee Café con leche – coffee with warm milk, the preferred South American style Carbonada – An Argentine stew with meats, vegetables and fruits. Camarao seco- Dried shrimp In various sizes, dried shrimp are utilized in many dishes from the northern regions of the country. Usually obtainable in North America at oriental or Latin food stores. Before use they are covered with cold water and soaked overnight (do not keep refreshing with fresh water). The water is discarded before the shrimp are used. The residual salt is usually enough that more is not added to a recipe. Cassava, Manioc, Yucca, Pronunciation: kuh-SAH-vuh People in Hispanic countries use cassavas much like Americans use potatoes. There's both a sweet and a bitter variety of cassava. The sweet one can be eaten raw, but the bitter one requires cooking to destroy the harmful prussic acid it contains.
South American Cuisine Cassava played a major role in the expansion by the Spaniards and Portuguese, Cassava could be prepared in large quantities, it was cheap, and it kept well. The Portuguese took it to Africa, where it became a staple food. Cassava fed African slaves during the long journey to the New World. The Spaniards introduced cassava to the Philippines and Southeast Asia, and today it continues to be a major ingredient in the diets of people through the tropics. It's often best to buy frozen cassava, since the fresh kind is hard to peel. Look for it in Hispanic markets. It doesn't store well, so use it within a day or two of purchase. Substitutes: malanga OR dasheen OR potato (not as gluey) •Cau cau -tripe cooked with potato, peppers and parsley. Peru Cazuela -a stew made with beef, chicken, or seafood along with various vegetables. Ceviche – Marinated foods, also spelled cebiches or seviche. Chichas – Beer like drink made from many types of seeds, roots, or fruits, such as quinoa, peanuts, grapes, oca, yucca, corn, rice, and the berries of the mulli tree (pink peppercorns) Chimichurri Sauce, vinegar based mixture of herbs, vegetables, and spices, traditionally used as the marinade or main sauce with grilled meats. Chirimoya (chir·i·moy·a)a species of Annona native to the Andean-highland valleys of Perú, Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia The fruit is fleshy and soft, sweet, white in color, with a custard-like texture, which gives it its secondary name, custard apple. Some characterize the flavor as a blend of pineapple, mango and strawberry. Similar in size to a grapefruit, it has large, glossy, dark seeds that are easily removed. The seeds are poisonous if crushed open; one should also avoid eating the skin. When ripe the skin is green and gives slightly to pressure, similar to the avocado. Chocolate - A preparation made from cocoa seeds that have been roasted, husked, and ground. Chocolate today is often sweetened and flavored with vanilla. Aztec king Montezuma drank 50 goblets a day in the belief that it was an aphrodisiac. Chuchoca – corn that is boiled, and sun-dried for two to three days Chupe de camarones- chowder-type soup made with shrimps, milk, eggs, potatoes and peppers. Peru Churrascaria (shoo-HOSS-ka-REE-ah) is a Brazilian or Portuguese steakhouse. Churrasco is the cooking style, which translates roughly from the Portuguese for 'barbecue'. Cochayuyo – seaweed found along the coast of Chile and is very important in the Chilean diet.
South American Cuisine Cocoa - The fruit of the cocoa plant. These beans are fermented, dried, roasted, cracked, and ground. After extracting half the fat, it is again dried into unsweetened cocoa. "Dutch cocoa" is treated with alkali to neutralize acidity. Coconut Water - The opaque white liquid in the unripened coconut that serves as a beverage for those living near the coconut palm. Coconut Cream - Coconut cream is made by combining one part water and four parts shredded fresh or desiccated coconut meat and simmering until foamy. The coconut is then discarded. Used in recipes, particularly those in curried dishes. Coconut Milk - Coconut milk is made by combining equal parts water and shredded fresh or desiccated coconut meat and simmering until foamy. The coconut is then discarded. Used in recipes, particularly those in curried dishes. Comidas – Meals Most urban families eat three meals a day. Breakfast called desayuno in Spanish and o pequeno almoco or café de manhã in Brazilian, breakfast is normally tea, coffee or hot chocolate with rolls, butter and jam, the addition of fresh fruit or juice on occation. IN Brazil and Chile, meat and cheese may be included. Lunch called almuerzo is Spanish and o almoco in Brazilian is traditionally a heavy meal, followed by a siesta to recover from the food and the heat. The siesta is disappearing from the business day, but the big meal has not. Lunch is eaten anytime between noon and 2:00 P.M., depending on the country. It starts most often with soup, but a firs course is sometimes served, such as stuffed avocados, ceviche, empanada, or fritters. The main course is meat, chicken or seafood, accompanied by rice or potatoes and some type of cooked vegetable or salad. A light dessert follows: fresh whole fruits, stewed fruits or custards. Dinner called cena or merienda in Spanish, and jantar in Brazilian, is another heavy meal, taken slowly and oftern lasting several hours. This meal often begins later evening, typically after nine. A few countries, such as Brazil, rice and beans are served every day at lunch. In the Andean countries, rice and beans are the daily diet of the masses. In the southern countries, the diet is more European, with pasta being more predominant. Corvina- sea bass Creole – style of cooking melding Incan and Spanish culinary techniques and ingredients Dendê oil- Palm oil - a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the Oil palm tree. It is the second-most widely produced edible oil, after soybean oil. Dulce de leche - caramel-like candy popular in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and other parts of the Americas. It is also popular in Central America, and Mexico, where it is known as cajeta, and in Colombia and Venezuela, where it is known as arequipe. The name literally means “sweet of milk” in Spanish. Its most basic recipe mixes boiled milk and sugar, or it may also be prepared with sweetened condensed milk cooked for several hours. Empanadas
South American Cuisine In Spain, Portugal, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Philippines, an empanada (Portuguese empada) is basically a stuffed pastry. The name comes from the Spanish verb, empanar, meaning to wrap or coat in bread. Empanadas are also known by a wide variety of regional names. It is likely that the Latin American empanadas were originally from Galicia, Spain, where an empanada is prepared similar to a pie that is cut in pieces making it a portable and hearty meal for working people. The Galician empanada is usually prepared with cod fish or chicken. Empanada is certainly the influence of the Moors who occupied Spain for 800 years. Middle Eastern cuisine to this day has similar foods, like simbusak (a fried, chickpea filled "empanada") from Iraq. Varieties by country Argentina The filling usually consists primarily of ground beef, perhaps spiced with cumin and with onion, green olive, chopped boiled egg and even raisins. While empanadas are usually baked, they can also be fried. They may also contain cheese, ham and cheese, chicken, tuna, humita (sweetcorn with bechamel sauce) or spinach; a fruit filling is used to create a dessert empanada. Empanadas of the interior can be spiced with peppers. In restaurants where several types are served, a repulgue or pattern is added to the pastry fold. These patterns, which can be quite elaborate, distinguish the filling. Bolivia Widely known as salteÃas (after an Argentine province bordering the country to the south) they are made with beef or chicken, usually contain potatoes, peas and carrots. They are customarily seamed along the top of the pastry and are generally sweeter than the Chilean variety. Brazil In Brazil, empanadas are a common ready-to-go lunch item available at fast-food counters. A wide variety of different fillings and combinations are available, with the most common being chicken, beef, shrimp, cheese, olives, and palmito (heart of palm). Chile Chilean empanadas also use wheat flour based dough, but the meat filling is slightly different and often contains more onion. Chileans consider the Argentine filling to be seco, or dry. There are two types of Chilean empanadas: baked and fried. The baked empanadas are much larger than the fried variety. There are three main types of empanadas: pino, cheese, and seafood. Pino chopped (or sometimes minced) meat, onion, chopped boiled egg, an olive and raisins. Fried empanadas containing prawns and cheese are prevalent along the coastal areas. Seafood empanadas are essentially the same as pino , but with seafood instead of meat. Sweet empanadas, sugarcoated and filled with jam are popular during September 18th Independence Day celebrations. Colombia Colombian empanadas can be either baked or fried. The ingredients used in the filling can vary according to the region, however they usually contain ingredients such as salt, rice, beef or ground beef, boiled potatoes, hard-boiled eggs, and peas. However, variations can also be found (cheese empanadas, chicken-only empanadas, and even Trucha - Trout empanadas). The pastry is mostly corn-based, although potato flour is commonly used. Colombian empanadas are usually served with Aji (Picante), a sauce made of cilantro, green onions, vinegar, salt, lemon juice and bottled hot sauces.
South American Cuisine Cuba Cuban empanadas are typically filled with seasoned meats (usually ground beef or chicken) folded into dough and deep-fried. These are not to be confused with Cuban pastelitos, which are very similar but use lighter pastry dough and may or may not be fried. Cubans eat empanadas at any meal, but they usually consume them during lunch or as a snack. Dominican Republic Very similar in preparation and consumption as Cuban empanadas, however modern versions, promoted by some specialty food chains, include stuffing like pepperoni and cheese, conch, Danish cheese and chicken, etc. They also have a variety exists where the dough is made from cassava flour, which are called catibÃas. Mexico Mexican empanadas are most commonly a dessert or breakfast item. Sweetened fillings; include pumpkin, yams, sweet potato, and cream, as well as a wide variety of fruit fillings. Meat, cheese, and vegetable fillings are not as popular. Particular regions, such as Hidalgo are famous for the empanadas. Iraq Iraq has a traditional "ancestor" to the empanada called simbusak or sambusac. Prepared with a basic bread dough and a variety of fillings, baked or fried. The most traditional simbusak is filled with garbanzo beans, onions, and parsley, and shallow fried. Others have meat or cheese ("jibun") as a filling. Peru Peruvian empanadas are similar to the Argentine empanadas, but slightly smaller and eaten with lime juice. Philippines Filipino empanadas usually contains a filling flavored with soy sauce and containing ground beef or chicken meat, chopped onion, and raisins in a wheat flour dough. However, empanadas in the northern Ilocos region are very different. These empanadas are made of a savory filling of green papaya and, upon request, chopped Ilocano sausage (longganisa) and/or an egg. Rather than the soft, sweet dough favored in the Tagalog region, the dough used to enclose the filling is thin and crisp, mostly because Ilocano empanada is deep-fried rather than baked. Portugal In Portugal, empanadas are a common option for a small meal, found universally in patisseries. They are normally smaller in size they others, about the size of a golf ball, size and shape will vary depending on establishment. The most common fillings are chicken, beef, tuna, codfish and, mushrooms and vegetables, they usually served hot. Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic Puerto Rican empanadas, called pastelillos, are made of flour dough and fried. Filings typically are with ground beef, chicken, guava, cheese, or both guava and cheese. Venezuela Venezuelan empanadas use corn flour based dough and are deep-fried. The stuffing varies according to the region, most common are the cheese and ground beef empanadas, other types use fish, "caraotas" or black beans, oyster, clams and other types of seafood popular in the coastal areas, especially in Margarita Island.
South American Cuisine Empanada salteña - a mixture of diced meat, chicken, chives, raisins, diced potatoes, hot sauce and pepper baked in dough, Bolivia national specialty. Ensaladas – Salads The most popular salads are cooked-vegetables salads and those that include fresh beans. A common characteristic of South American salads is the sparse use of dressing. Tossed salad (ensalada mixta), in general is made with lettuce and tomatoes, thinly sliced onions, shredded carrots, radishes or watercress are added…usually tossed with oil and vinegar only. South American cuisine also includes main course salads, seasoned with a vinaigrette or a mayonnaise dressing (popular in the southern countries, especially during hot months). Potato and rice salads, simple or complex can be found throughout South America. Escabeches – Pickled foods, a technique of Arab origin and introduced through the Spaniards, adopted as a way of preserving foods, such as fish, poultry, meat and vegetables. Fanesca- Ecuadorian Easter salt cod and vegetable stew Fritada, called chicharron in the Andes, usually made with different cuts of pork. In Puerto Rico chicharrones are also made with chicken and in Argentina with beef. This dish requires the meat to be cooked in beer or until tender and then browned in its own fat. Gauchos - South American cattle herder — the equivalent to the North American "cowboy" — on the pampas, chacos or Patagonian grasslands found in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Chile and southern Brazil ("gaúcho" in Portuguese). Like the word cowboy Quesos (Cheeses) – Queso blanco or Queso fresco (white cheese) are the primary cheese used in South American. A fresh, moist, lightly salted, unripened cheese made from cow;s milk. Quesillo, is used the same day it is made or within a few days. Quesillo refreshing, reminiscent of ricotta cheese, however it has been molded and can be cut into slices, for crumbling use queso fresco. Queso blanco, called queso de mesa, is firmer because it is pressed and left to mature for weeks. In areas of South American countries, queso blanco comes in various degrees of maturation, from ricotta type to hard cheese. Queso de cabra (goat cheese) Other popular cheeses – Parmesan, Edam, Gouda, and Swiss cheese popular in Venezuela and southern countries. Mozzarella and provolone are popular in the countries settled by Italian immigrants. Guinea Pigs – called cuy or curi in the Andean countries, these vegetarian rodents are raised for food in Indian homes.
South American Cuisine Hallaca -cornmeal combined with beef, pork, ham and green peppers, wrapped in individual pieces of banana leaves and cooked in boiling water, traditionally eaten at Christmas and New Year. Colombian and Venezuela Hearts of Palm – tender, ivory-colored buds of a particular palm tree that is a member of the Arecaceae family. Can be used in salads, soups, as a vegetable or ceviche. Inti Raymi - Festival of the Sun, the Inca solstice celebration, occurring each year on June 24, which is the shortest day of the year in the Southern Hemisphere. Jugos – fruit juice drinks that can be made from any fruit, water and sugar Kaniwa – a nutritious grain that grows at high altitudes, thriving in places where quinoa cannot survive. Primary early grain for the Indians of Bolivian and Peruvian Altiplano. Lingüica – Brazilian garlic pork sausage of Portuguese origin, substitute Polish sausage • Ilajhua -a hot sauce consisting of tomatoes and pepper pods, used to add spice and flavor, Bolivia national specialty Llapingachos -pancakes stuffed with mashed potato and cheese, Ecuador national specialty Lomo montado -fried tender loin steak with two fried eggs on top, rice and fried banana, Bolivia national specialty Malagueta – small green, yellow, or red pepper, from Brazil. This pepper is extremely hot and an essential ingredient in the Bahian kitchen. Malagueta peppers come preserved in jars or as a table sauce, they are pickled in a 2:1 oil to grain alcohol ration and allowed to rest for 1 month before using. . Tabasco sauce can be used as a substitute Manioc, (see Cassava) Manioc flour -widely used in Brazil as a breading for chicken. Manioc is not a grain; it comes from the tropical cassava root. Roasted manioc flour has a texture and flavor when seasoned with spices that is similar to a corn-flake crumb breading. Matambre – rolled stuffed flank steak, Argentine Milanesas – breaded cutlets brought to South America by Italian immigrants, especially popular in Argentine and Uruguay. Morcilla dulce -sweet black sausage made from blood, orange peel and walnuts and morcilla salada ,salty sausage. Uruguayan Pampa – Humid grasslands found in Argentina and Uruguay
South American Cuisine
Parrillada is selection of meat grilled over hot coals, often including delicacies such as intestines, udders and blood sausages. Specialty of Argentina and Chile Pabellón criollo -hash made with shredded meat and served with fried plantains and black beans on rice. Venezuela Pachamanca: typical dish from the desert. It consists of lamb, pork, meat, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and tamale. Food cooked by the heat of hot rocks. The food is placed inside a sac and buried in the hot rocks. The food has to be repeatedly checked to see when it is done because the temperature is unstable. An important part of Peruvian cuisine, which has existed since the time of the Inca Empire, Postres y Dulces – Desserts and Sweets – Before the arrival of the Portuguese in 1502, South America Indians did not have sugar. They did have honey and a few fruit and vegetables sweeteners. Most early sweets or desserts were fresh fruit and still fruit based sweets remain, the South Americans’ favorite desserts. Quinoa - Pronunciation: KEEN-wah This ancient seed was a staple of the Incas. It cooks quickly, has a mild flavor and a delightful, slightly crunchy, texture. High in the amino acid lysine, so it provides a more complete protein than many other cereal grains. It comes in different colors, ranging from a pale yellow to red to black. Rinse quinoa before using to remove its bitter natural coating. Substitutes: couscous, rice, bulgur, millet, buckwheat groats or amaranth Quimbolitos- Sweet tamales of Ecuador, served for dessert or as a snack with coffee. Refrescos – Refreshments – a term used for all cold, nonalcoholic beverges. Refrescos include jugos, sorbets, licuados, and batidos. Sorbetes, licuados, and batidos are generally made with milk and sometimes ice cream. Rocoto – cultivated pepper in the Andes, thick flesh, similar to bell pepper. It is a hotter pepper than other ajies. The Mexican manzano pepper, though much hotter, is a good substitute. Rose Water – a flavoring used in the preparation of desserts, brought over by the Spaniards, it is the extract of roses mixed with distilled water. Shrimp, Dried – tiny shrimp that have been salted and dried, used extensively in Bahian cooking and some Peruvian specialties. They come in tow varieties, head and shell on or peeled. Normally dried shrimp are ground before using. Sopas – Soups, they play an indispensable part of the main meal and frequently appear as a meal in themselves. Most South American soups originated in European kitchens, a few date back to pre-Hispanic times. In the Andean countries, there are the mazamorras or coladoas, cream like soups made with ground-dried corn, and ground dried beans,
South American Cuisine quinoa, amaranth, or squash. Variations of this type of soup, called sangos, are probably the oldest Indian food. Sango was the sacred dish of the Incas. The Spaniards introduced potajes (hearty soups), pucheros (pot-au-feu-type soups), and cocidos (meat and vegetable soups). Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Paraguay have locros, thick soups made with hominy, beans, squash, and sweet potatoes. Chupès are stew-like soups prepared with fish, chicken, or meat along with potatoes, cheese, vegetable, which may include eggs. Chupès are popular in Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. Pucheros and cazuelas are popular in the southern countries of South America. Tamales- an important food that has sustained cultures in Central and South America, as well as the Southwestern region of North America for millennia Tacacá -thick yellow soup with shrimps and garlic, Brazil national specialty Tostones – twice fried slices of plantain that are pounded thin before the second frying Tucupi – a condiment used in the Amazon region of Brazil. Major ingredient in the preparation of tucupi duck. Tucipi is he liquid extracted from bitter cassava when preparing manioc meal. This liquid is then boiled with jambú leaves, chicory, garlic, and malagueta pepper, not available in the United States. Vatapá - a rich purê that can be made with fish, shrimp, dried, cod or chicken. Thought to have been brought from the Iberian Peninsula and modified by African slaves, who added dendê (palm oil) and coconut milk. It can be thickened with bread, the Portuguese way of thickening stews, or with rice flour or manioc meal. Groundnuts, peanuts, almonds, or cashews, as well as dried shrimp are essential to the dish. Dendê, give the Vatapá its characteristic taste and color, a Brazil national specialty, however, there are probably as many recipes are there are cooks. Yuca Root - Although there are many varieties of Yuca Root, there are only 2 main categories: bitter & sweet. Used as a thickener in the making of tapioca. Bitter Yuca Root must be cooked! Yuca Flour – made from the bitter cassava (yucca). Yuca Root once grated & sun-dried is also called Yuca Root meal. Has a texture similar to that of cornstarch. It is used to make breads, cookies, cakes and tapioca.
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